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Sample records for 2011-10-01 false flammable

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  2. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  3. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  4. 46 CFR 153.465 - Flammable vapor detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable vapor detector. 153.465 Section 153.465... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.465 Flammable vapor detector. (a) A tankship that carries a flammable cargo must have two vapor detectors that meet § 35.30-15(b) of this chapter. (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID label. 172.420 Section 172.420... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID... the FLAMMABLE SOLID label must be white with vertical red stripes equally spaced on each side of a...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A. Any... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  12. 46 CFR 125.110 - Carriage of flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS GENERAL § 125.110 Carriage of flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this section, no OSV may carry flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in...

  13. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  14. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  15. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fires and flammable material. 423.31... of Conduct § 423.31 Fires and flammable material. (a) You must not leave a fire unattended, and it... designed for that purpose. (e) You must comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local fire...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  17. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  18. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182.480 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  20. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authorized for Class 3 (flammable) liquids or combustible liquids under 49 CFR 173.201, 173.202, or 173.203, as referenced for the specific liquid in column 8B of the Hazardous Materials Table of 49 CFR 172.101... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section...

  1. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  3. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-55 - Tanks for flammable and combustible oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tanks for flammable and combustible oil. 58.01-55 Section 58.01-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN... combustible oil. (a) For the purposes of this section, a machinery space of category A is a space...

  5. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk....

  6. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk....

  7. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false...

  8. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  9. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  10. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

  11. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  12. 16 CFR 1611.4 - Flammability test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability test. 1611.4 Section 1611.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.4 Flammability test. (a) Apparatus and materials....

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  14. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  15. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  17. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 121.255 Section 121.255..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.255 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located...

  18. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 121.255 Section 121.255..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.255 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located...

  19. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  20. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  2. 16 CFR 1611.4 - Flammability test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability test. 1611.4 Section 1611.4... FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.4 Flammability test. (a) Apparatus and materials. The... protect the igniter flame and specimen from air currents during tests, yet contain a suitable door...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 29.1185 Section 29.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1185 Flammable fluids. (a) No tank or reservoir that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 27.1185 Section 27.1185... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., other than a fuel tank, that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases must be...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 29.1185 Section 29.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1185 Flammable fluids. (a) No tank or reservoir that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 27.1185 Section 27.1185... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., other than a fuel tank, that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases must be...

  7. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 121.255 Section 121.255..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.255 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located...

  8. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  9. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  12. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  13. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 121.255 Section 121.255..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.255 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located...

  14. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID label. 172.420 Section 172.420... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID... the FLAMMABLE SOLID label must be white with vertical red stripes equally spaced on each side of a...

  15. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  16. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  17. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  18. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  19. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  20. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1727 - Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1727 Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. EWIS associated with each flammable fluid... zone will not affect operation of the flammable fluid shutoff means, in accordance with...

  2. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID label. 172.420 Section 172.420... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID... the FLAMMABLE SOLID label must be white with vertical red stripes equally spaced on each side of a...

  3. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID label. 172.420 Section 172.420... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID... the FLAMMABLE SOLID label must be white with vertical red stripes equally spaced on each side of a...

  4. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID label. 172.420 Section 172.420... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID... the FLAMMABLE SOLID label must be white with vertical red stripes equally spaced on each side of a...

  5. 46 CFR 153.465 - Flammable vapor detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable vapor detector. 153.465 Section 153.465... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.465 Flammable vapor detector. (a) A tankship that carries a flammable cargo must have two vapor detectors that meet § 35.30-15(b) of this chapter. (b)...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1727 - Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1727 Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. EWIS associated with each flammable fluid... zone will not affect operation of the flammable fluid shutoff means, in accordance with...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1727 - Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1727 Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. EWIS associated with each flammable fluid... zone will not affect operation of the flammable fluid shutoff means, in accordance with...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1727 - Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1727 Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. EWIS associated with each flammable fluid... zone will not affect operation of the flammable fluid shutoff means, in accordance with...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Flammability Apparatus ER25MR08.000...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Flammability Apparatus ER25MR08.000...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  6. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general requirement... with the SPI flammability tester in accordance with the method described in § 1611.4....

  7. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general requirement... with the SPI flammability tester in accordance with the method described in § 1611.4....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1727 - Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1727 Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS. EWIS associated with each flammable fluid shutoff means and control must be fireproof or must be located and protected so that any fire in a...

  9. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulation (sec. 16 CFR part 1302), paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this section are revoked as to the... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable...

  10. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulation (sec. 16 CFR part 1302), paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this section are revoked as to the... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable...

  11. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulation (sec. 16 CFR part 1302), paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this section are revoked as to the... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable...

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid...

  13. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  14. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. 172.546 Section 172.546... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.051 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  17. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general requirement... with the SPI flammability tester in accordance with the method described in § 1611.4....

  18. 49 CFR 176.142 - Hazardous materials of extreme flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials of extreme flammability. 176... of extreme flammability. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, certain hazardous materials of extreme flammability may not be transported in a vessel carrying Class 1 (explosive)...

  19. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by flashpoint from an open cup tester, as used for test of burning oils) at or below a temperature of 80...

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  2. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  4. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  5. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. 172.546 Section 172.546... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.051 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  6. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. 172.546 Section 172.546... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.051 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  7. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. 172.546 Section 172.546... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE SOLID placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.051 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section...

  11. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  15. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  16. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  20. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  1. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  2. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  3. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  4. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A. Any... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  13. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  15. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  16. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  17. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  19. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  20. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  1. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  2. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  3. Is Your Furniture Flammable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Eva

    1982-01-01

    A flammability standard for upholstered furniture is intended to prevent furniture from becoming a major contributing factor to a fire or from generating toxic fumes. Advice is offered on how to set a flammability standard and how to apply it. (Author/MLF)

  4. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  5. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  6. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  7. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  8. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  9. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packagings for certain flammable solids. 173.223 Section 173.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.223 Packagings for certain flammable solids. (a) Packagings for “Musk...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  11. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  12. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  14. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  15. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182.480 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  17. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authorized for Class 3 (flammable) liquids or combustible liquids under 49 CFR 173.201, 173.202, or 173.203, as referenced for the specific liquid in column 8B of the Hazardous Materials Table of 49 CFR 172.101... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... authorized for Class 3 (flammable) liquids or combustible liquids under 49 CFR 173.201, 173.202, or 173.203, as referenced for the specific liquid in column 8B of the Hazardous Materials Table of 49 CFR 172.101... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section...

  19. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorized for Class 3 (flammable) liquids or combustible liquids under 49 CFR 173.201, 173.202, or 173.203, as referenced for the specific liquid in column 8B of the Hazardous Materials Table of 49 CFR 172.101... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  3. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized for Class 3 (flammable) liquids or combustible liquids under 49 CFR 173.201, 173.202, or 173.203, as referenced for the specific liquid in column 8B of the Hazardous Materials Table of 49 CFR 172.101... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  5. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  9. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  10. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. 176.230 Section 176.230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  11. 46 CFR 125.110 - Carriage of flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS GENERAL § 125.110 Carriage of flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this section, no OSV may carry flammable or combustible liquid cargoes in...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610—Sketch...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  18. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  19. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  20. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  1. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  2. 46 CFR 38.05-25 - Refrigerated systems-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigerated systems-TB/ALL. 38.05-25 Section 38.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-25 Refrigerated systems—TB/ALL. (a) When a liquefied flammable gas is carried...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  4. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of hand flashlights. 176.320 Section 176.320... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable)...

  5. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  6. 16 CFR 1145.3 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk of burns from explosive vapor ignition and flashback...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.3 Extremely flammable contact adhesives... associated with certain extremely flammable contact adhesives under the Consumer Product Safety Act...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.3 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk of burns from explosive vapor ignition and flashback...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.3 Extremely flammable contact adhesives... associated with certain extremely flammable contact adhesives under the Consumer Product Safety Act...

  8. 16 CFR 1145.3 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk of burns from explosive vapor ignition and flashback...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.3 Extremely flammable contact adhesives... associated with certain extremely flammable contact adhesives under the Consumer Product Safety Act...

  9. 16 CFR 1145.3 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk of burns from explosive vapor ignition and flashback...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; risk... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.3 Extremely flammable contact adhesives... associated with certain extremely flammable contact adhesives under the Consumer Product Safety Act...

  10. 46 CFR 35.30-40 - Flammable liquid and gas fuels as ship's stores-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid and gas fuels as ship's stores-TB/ALL... OPERATIONS General Safety Rules § 35.30-40 Flammable liquid and gas fuels as ship's stores—TB/ALL. Flammable liquids and gases other than diesel fuel, to be used as fuel for approved equipment must satisfy...

  11. Control of Materials Flammability Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Dennis E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on selecting, using, and configuring spacecraft materials in such a way as to minimize the ability of fire to spread onboard a spacecraft. The presentation gives an overview of the flammability requirements of NASA-STD-6001, listing specific tests and evaluation criteria it requires. The presentation then gives flammability reduction methods for specific spacecraft items and materials.

  12. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  13. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability: This... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  17. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage...

  4. 46 CFR 111.106-9 - Classification of flammable or combustible cargo storage and handling locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification of flammable or combustible cargo storage and handling locations. 111.106-9 Section 111.106-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations on OSVs § 111.106-9 Classification of flammable...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100 feet of any person's work...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100 feet of any person's work...

  7. Flammable Gas Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-07-30

    This document qualitatively evaluates the frequency and consequences of DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions without controls. Based on the evaluation, it was determined that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRs were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Controls were selected and the accidents re-evaluated taking credit for the controls. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from ORP.

  8. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  9. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  10. 46 CFR 147.50 - Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. 147.50 Section..., heating, and lighting. (a) Flammable and combustible liquids and gases not listed in this section are prohibited for cooking, heating, or lighting on any vessel, with the exception of combustible liquids...

  11. 49 CFR 176.93 - Vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment... Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.93 Vehicles having refrigerating or heating equipment. (a) A transport vehicle fitted with refrigerating or heating equipment using a flammable liquid or Division...

  12. 46 CFR 129.520 - Hazardous areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 129.520 Section 129.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.520 Hazardous areas. (a) No OSV that carries flammable or...

  13. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...

  14. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be...

  15. 46 CFR 38.20-5 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-5 Section 38.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-5 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Safety relief valves on cargo tanks in barges may be connected...

  16. 46 CFR 151.03-27 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free. 151.03-27 Section 151.03-27 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-27 Gas free. Free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  17. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  18. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  20. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  1. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must...

  2. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  3. 46 CFR 176.710 - Inspection and testing prior to hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and testing prior to hot work. 176.710... testing prior to hot work. (a) An inspection for flammable or combustible gases must be conducted by a... of NFPA 306 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) before alterations, repairs, or...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C to... - Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Benzene is classified as a flammable liquid for the purpose of conforming to the requirements of 49 CFR... locations for the purposes of conforming to the requirements of 46 CFR parts 30 through 40, 151, and 153... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene B Appendix B...

  6. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying...

  7. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. 192.735 Section 192.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible...

  8. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas vessel and each liquefied toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§...

  10. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  11. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  13. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... background: “FOR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS ONLY” and “49 CFR 176.340”. This latter marking constitutes... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials §...

  14. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. 1500.133 Section 1500.133 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... statement set forth in paragraph (b) of this section should be printed on the main (front) panel or...

  15. Antimisting kerosene atomization and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Petersen, R. A.; Toaz, R. D.; Jakub, A.; Sarohia, V.

    1982-01-01

    Various parameters found to affect the flammability of antimisting kerosene (Jet A + polymer additive) are investigated. Digital image processing was integrated into a technique for measurement of fuel spray characteristics. This technique was developed to avoid many of the error sources inherent to other spray assessment techniques and was applied to the study of engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel. Aircraft accident fuel spill and ignition dynamics were modeled in a steady state simulator allowing flammability to be measured as a function of airspeed, fuel flow rate, fuel jet Reynolds number and polymer concentration. The digital imaging technique was employed to measure spray characteristics in this simulation and these results were related to flammability test results. Scaling relationships were investigated through correlation of experimental results with characteristic dimensions spanning more than two orders of magnitude.

  16. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  17. Flammability: A Review and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. Bruce; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With its founding in 1975, Committee G-4 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) embarked on the process of defining the flammability of metallic materials in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. In this process, they are joined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the Compressed Gas Association (CGA). Although none of these organizations has explicitly defined flammability, the following definitions and statements provide a composite understanding of the concept: 1. "This Standard Guide (ASTM G94-92) is concerned primarily with the properties of a material associated with its relative susceptibility to ignition and propagation of combustion." 2. "A material is considered flammable at the maximum use pressure if at least one sample burns more than 6 in. (15.2 cm). At least, five samples must be tested." NASA 3. "Flammable: Capable, when ignited of maintaining combustion under the specified environmental conditions." NFPA 53. 4. "Combustion: A complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the evolution of heat, and usually, the emission of light." NFPA 53. and 5. "A safe oxygen-piping transmission or distribution system is one that is designed and installed in accordance with all applicable codes and regulations for the service conditions and locations involved and further meets the special requirements for oxygen services." CGA-G4 Flammability thus equates, after ignition, to propagation of combustion, synonymous with steady state burning, under specified environmental conditions. Properties for which quantitative values are given in ASTM G94-92 and which are used to describe metals flammability consistent with the concept of steady state burning are either system independent properties, such as, enthalpies of reaction, burn ratios, flame temperatures, thermal conductivity, and heat release; or system dependent properties, such as, oxygen

  18. Compression testing of flammable liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briles, O. M.; Hollenbaugh, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    Small cylindrical test chamber determines catalytic effect of given container material on fuel that might contribute to accidental deflagration or detonation below expected temperature under adiabatic compression. Device is useful to producers and users of flammable liquids and to safety specialists.

  19. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5... § 177.838 Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division...

  20. Specimen Holder For Flammability Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Fixture holds sheet specimens for flammability tests. Frame and clamps designed to minimize local overstress on specimen. Heat capacity of fixture low, interfering less with interpretation of results of test by drawing less heat away from specimen. Accepts films, fabrics, foams, and other sheets, rigid or flexible. Specimens thin or thick, or of variable thickness. Bent to accommodate curved rigid specimens. Also used for such other tests as particle-impact tests.

  1. Flammable gas program topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-10-30

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  2. Application of the flammability diagram for evaluation of fire and explosion hazards of flammable vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Mashuga, C.V.; Crowl, D.A.

    1998-12-01

    The safest method to prevent fires and explosions of flammable vapors is to prevent the existence of flammable mixtures in the first place. This method requires detailed knowledge of the flammability region as a function of the fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations. A triangular flammability diagram is the most useful tool to display the flammability region, and to determine if a flammable mixture is present during plant operations. This paper describes how to draw and use a flammability diagram. A procedure to estimate the flammability region using the available and sometimes limited data is discussed. The paper also shows how to use the flammability diagram with plant operations involving inerting and purging, and from bringing vessels into and out of service. A compilation of flammability diagrams for 30 materials, based on previously published data is provided. An automated apparatus for acquiring data for a flammability diagram is described. The apparatus consists of a 20-L sphere with an automated gas mixing system, a fuse-wire ignition system, and a high speed pressure measurement and data acquisition system. Data derived from the apparatus includes flammability limits, maximum pressure during combustion, and the maximum pressure rate. The effect of fuse-wire ignitor dynamics on the results is studied. A flammability diagram for methane drawn from data obtained from the apparatus, is presented.

  3. Antimisting fuel breakup and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Fleeter, R.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    The breakup behavior and flammability of antimisting turbine fuels subjected to aerodynamic shear are investigated. Fuels tested were Jet A containing 0.3% FM-9 polymer at various levels of degradation ranging from virgin AMK to neat Jet A. The misting behavior of the fuels was quantified by droplet size distribution measurements. A technique based on high resolution laser photography and digital image processing of photographic records for rapid determination of droplet size distribution was developed. The flammability of flowing droplet-air mixtures was quantified by direct measurements of temperature rise in a flame established in the wake of a continuous ignition source. The temperature rise measurements were correlated with droplet size measurements. The flame anchoring phenomenon associated with the breakup of a liquid fuel in the wake of bluff body was shown to be important in the context of a survivable crash scenario. A pass/fail criterion for flammability testing of antimisting fuels, based on this flame-anchoring phenomenon, was proposed. The role of various ignition sources and their intensity in ignition and post-ignition behavior of antimisting fuels was also investigated.

  4. 16 CFR 1500.44 - Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and flammable solids. 1500.44 Section 1500.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.44 Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids. (a... with inner dimensions 6 inches long × 1 inch wide × one-fourth inch deep. (2) Rigid and pliable...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.44 - Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and flammable solids. 1500.44 Section 1500.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.44 Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids. (a... with inner dimensions 6 inches long × 1 inch wide × one-fourth inch deep. (2) Rigid and pliable...

  6. 16 CFR 1500.44 - Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and flammable solids. 1500.44 Section 1500.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.44 Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids. (a... with inner dimensions 6 inches long × 1 inch wide × one-fourth inch deep. (2) Rigid and pliable...

  7. 16 CFR 1500.44 - Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and flammable solids. 1500.44 Section 1500.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.44 Method for determining extremely flammable and flammable solids. (a... with inner dimensions 6 inches long × 1 inch wide × one-fourth inch deep. (2) Rigid and pliable...

  8. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  9. Selected Parametric Effects on Materials Flammability Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Juarez, Alfredo; Peyton, Gary J.; Harper, Susana A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1 is currently used to evaluate the flammability of materials intended for use in habitable environments of U.S. spacecraft. The method is a pass/fail upward flame propagation test conducted in the worst case configuration, which is defined as a combination of a material s thickness, test pressure, oxygen concentration, and temperature that make the material most flammable. Although simple parametric effects may be intuitive (such as increasing oxygen concentrations resulting in increased flammability), combinations of multi-parameter effects could be more complex. In addition, there are a variety of material configurations used in spacecraft. Such configurations could include, for example, exposed free edges where fire propagation may be different when compared to configurations commonly employed in standard testing. Studies involving combined oxygen concentration, pressure, and temperature on flammability limits have been conducted and are summarized in this paper. Additional effects on flammability limits of a material s thickness, mode of ignition, burn-length criteria, and exposed edges are presented. The information obtained will allow proper selection of ground flammability test conditions, support further studies comparing flammability in 1-g with microgravity and reduced gravity environments, and contribute to persuasive scientific cases for rigorous space system fire risk assessments.

  10. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity fire behaviour remains poorly understood and a significant risk for spaceflight An experiment is under development that will provide the first real opportunity to examine this issue focussing on two objectives: a) Flame Spread. b) Material Flammability. This experiment has been shown to be feasible on both ESA's ATV and Orbital Science's Cygnus vehicles with the Cygnus as the current base-line carrier. An international topical team has been formed to develop concepts for that experiment and support its implementation: a) Pressure Rise prediction. b) Sample Material Selection. This experiment would be a landmark for spacecraft fire safety with the data and subsequent analysis providing much needed verification of spacecraft fire safety protocols for the crews of future exploration vehicles and habitats.

  11. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  12. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only.

  13. Flammable Gas Diffusion from Waste Transfer Associated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-06-24

    This report assesses potential accumulation of flammable gases in interim isolated concrete waste transfer structures. A hypothetical scenario was analyzed in which flammable gas was generated by spilled waste on the transfer structure floor. Results showed that the flammable gas would safely diffuse out of the concrete structures and equilibrium concentrations were well below the lower flammability limit.

  14. Flammable Gas Diffusion from Waste Transfer Associated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.; ESTEY, S.D.

    2002-11-20

    This report assesses potential accumulation of flammable gases in interim isolated concrete waste transfer structures. A hypothetical scenario was analyzed in which flammable gas was generated by spilled waste on the transfer structure floor. Results showed that the flammable gas would safely diffuse out of the concrete structures and equilibrium concentrations were orders of magnitude below the lower flammability limit.

  15. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  16. 49 CFR 176.400 - Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids... Solids), Class 5 (Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides), and Division 1.5 Materials § 176.400 Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides) materials. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 176.400 - Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids... Solids), Class 5 (Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides), and Division 1.5 Materials § 176.400 Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides) materials. (a)...

  18. 75 FR 49379 - Correction to Internal Citation of “Extremely Flammable Solid” and “Flammable Solid”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... flammable,'' ``flammable,'' and ``combustible'' hazardous substances contained in 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(6), 51 FR... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Correction to Internal Citation of ``Extremely Flammable Solid'' and ``Flammable Solid'' AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: The Consumer...

  19. Review on flammability of biofibres and biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mngomezulu, Mfiso E; John, Maya J; Jacobs, Valencia; Luyt, Adriaan S

    2014-10-13

    The subject on flammability properties of natural fibre-reinforced biopolymer composites has not been broadly researched. This is not only evidenced by the minimal use of biopolymer composites and/or blends in different engineering areas where fire risk and hazard to both human and structures is of critical concern, but also the limited amount of published scientific work on the subject. Therefore, it is necessary to expand knowledge on the flammability properties of biopolymers and add value in widening the range of their application. This paper reviews the literature on the recent developments on flammability studies of bio-fibres, biopolymers and natural fibre-reinforced biocomposites. It also covers the different types of flame retardants (FRs) used and their mechanisms, and discusses the principles and methodology of various flammability testing techniques.

  20. Organizing Questions for Reduced-Gravity Flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    A team consisting of of the Microgravity Flight Project Scientists for solid flammability experiments has been reviewing and prioritizing a set of organizing questions for fire prevention (material flammability).In particular the team has been charged with determining:What experiments must be conducted to best answer these questions, and can some of the quest ions be answered using existing/planned hardware or experimental concepts?Is the NASA STD 6001, Test 1 configuration conservative or non-conservative in assessing material flammability in reduced gravity?NASA ST D 6001, Test 1 is an upward flammability test, considered the most stringent test in normal gravity. A material that passes this test would most likely not burn in a quiescent microgravity environment.A forced ignition and spread test is described.

  1. Review on flammability of biofibres and biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mngomezulu, Mfiso E; John, Maya J; Jacobs, Valencia; Luyt, Adriaan S

    2014-10-13

    The subject on flammability properties of natural fibre-reinforced biopolymer composites has not been broadly researched. This is not only evidenced by the minimal use of biopolymer composites and/or blends in different engineering areas where fire risk and hazard to both human and structures is of critical concern, but also the limited amount of published scientific work on the subject. Therefore, it is necessary to expand knowledge on the flammability properties of biopolymers and add value in widening the range of their application. This paper reviews the literature on the recent developments on flammability studies of bio-fibres, biopolymers and natural fibre-reinforced biocomposites. It also covers the different types of flame retardants (FRs) used and their mechanisms, and discusses the principles and methodology of various flammability testing techniques. PMID:25037340

  2. 14 CFR 27.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., other than a fuel tank, that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases must be isolated... isolating that tank, unless equivalent means are used to prevent heat transfer from each engine...

  3. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in... least one-half inch of clear airspace must be provided between any tank or reservoir and a firewall...

  4. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2004-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  5. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  6. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  7. 46 CFR 147A.41 - Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants. 147A.41 Section 147A.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... refuse, oily waste, and other combustible material is removed; (2) Before fumigation, all fire...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-55 - Tanks for flammable and combustible oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this subchapter; and (ii) Be placed in an oil-tight spill tray with a drain pipe leading to a spill-oil... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tanks for flammable and combustible oil. 58.01-55... combustible oil. (a) For the purposes of this section, a machinery space of category A is a space...

  9. 14 CFR 26.33 - Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... installation of fuel tank IMM that comply with 14 CFR 25.981(c) in effect on December 26, 2008. (e... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank flammability. 26.33 Section 26.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-55 - Tanks for flammable and combustible oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tanks for flammable and combustible oil. 58.01-55 Section 58.01-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN... combustible oil. (a) For the purposes of this section, a machinery space of category A is a space...

  11. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic...

  12. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic...

  13. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic...

  14. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic...

  15. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) that meet the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008. (1) The fuel tank is... an Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of 7 percent must have an IMM that meets 14 CFR 25.981(d) in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel...

  16. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) that meet the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008. (1) The fuel tank is... an Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of 7 percent must have an IMM that meets 14 CFR 25.981(d) in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel...

  17. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) that meet the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008. (1) The fuel tank is... an Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of 7 percent must have an IMM that meets 14 CFR 25.981(d) in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel...

  18. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk....

  19. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk....

  20. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk....

  1. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk....

  2. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk....

  3. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk....

  4. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk....

  5. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Requirements for double hull construction for vessels carrying oil, as defined in 33 CFR 157.03, in bulk as cargo are found in 33 CFR 157.10d. Vessels inspected and certificated under this subchapter may carry... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk....

  6. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  7. Secondary compounds enhance flammability in a Mediterranean plant.

    PubMed

    Pausas, J G; Alessio, G A; Moreira, B; Segarra-Moragues, J G

    2016-01-01

    Some plant secondary compounds, such as terpenes, are very flammable; however, their role in enhancing plant flammability is poorly understood and often neglected in reviews on plant chemical ecology. This is relevant as there is growing evidence that flammability-enhancing traits are adaptive in fire-prone ecosystems. We analyzed the content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, performed flammability tests and genotyped microsatellite markers, all in the same individuals of Rosmarinus officinalis, to evaluate the link between the content of terpenes, flammability and the genetic similarity among individuals. The results suggest that terpenes enhance flammability in R. officinalis, and that variability in flammability among individuals is likely to have a genetic basis. Overall our results suggest that the capacity to produce and store terpenes can be considered a flammability-enhancing trait and could have an adaptive value in fire-prone ecosystems. PMID:26416250

  8. OTP for belhaven flammable gas monitor at 241-T-104

    SciTech Connect

    Zuroff, W.F.

    1996-03-08

    This Operational Test Procedure tests the operability of the Safety Class 3 flammable gas monitoring system with equipment shutdown capability. This test includes the flammable gas monitor, heat trace system, pneumatic system, and the interface with existing equipment.

  9. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  10. Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

  11. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  12. 77 FR 62224 - Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... SAFETY BOARD Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety... Farms flammable gas safety strategy. ] DATES: Comments, data, views, or arguments concerning the... 2012-2 TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy Pursuant to 42...

  13. An Approach to the Flammability Testing of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation reviews: (1) Current approach to evaluation of spacecraft materials flammability (2) The need for and the approach to alternative routes (3) Examples of applications of the approach recommended a) Crew Module splash down b) Crew Module depressurization c) Applicability of NASA's flammability test data to other sample configurations d) Applicability of NASA's ground flammability test data to spacecraft environments

  14. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  15. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2004-01-01

    Flight hardware configuration flammability assessment will: a) evaluate the overall hardware configuration; b) evaluate the way in which the hardware will be used; c) identify the major materials to be assessed; d) determine fire propagation paths; and e) evaluate ability of containers to contain fire.

  16. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) No tank or reservoir that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid contained, the design of the system, the materials used in the tank and... zone, unless equivalent means are used to prevent heat transfer from the fire zone to the...

  17. ACCUMULATION OF FLAMMABLE GAS IN SEALED WASTE TRANSFER ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-06-24

    This report assesses potential accumulation of flammable gases in sealed waste transfer structures. A hypothetical scenario was analyzed in which flammable gas was generated by spilled waste on the transfer structure floor. Results showed that the flammable gas concentration builds slowly and it would take decades to reach the lower flammability limit (LFL) in these hypothetical scenarios. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are used to provide a conservative assessment of the flammable gas hazard. This assessment includes steel transfer structures, transfer structures with external coatings (e.g., coatings applied during interim isolation), and internal coatings (e.g., polyurea that is being applied to active transfer structures as part of Project W-314).

  18. THE FLAMMABILITY ANALYSIS AND TIME TO REACH LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT CALCULATIONS ON THE WASTE EVAPORATION AT 242-A EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2007-10-31

    This document describes the analysis of the waste evaporation process on the flammability behavior. The evaluation calculates the gas generation rate, time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), and minimum ventilation rates for the 242-A Evaporator facility during the normal evaporation process and when vacuum is lost. This analysis performs flammability calculations on the waste currently within all 28 double-shell tanks (DST) under various evaporation process conditions to provide a wide spectrum of possible flammable gas behavior. The results of this analysis are used to support flammable gas control decisions and support and upgrade to Documented Safety Analysis for the 242-A Evaporator.

  19. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  20. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  1. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  2. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    SciTech Connect

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  3. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  4. Flammability limits of fuel/fluorocarbon azeotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Hammond, P.R.; Foote, K.; Ford, H.W. Jr.

    1981-02-10

    Both Dehn and Thorne have intimated that flash point (FP) measurements could be used to define the gas-phase flammability limits of fire and retardant vapor mixtures above the surface of heated retardant containing flammable liquids. However, it was found that ignitable mixtures exist above the liquid surface, where the concentration of the agent in the fluid is well beyond the limiting concentrating for inerting of alcohol fires. Clearly this anomaly results from diffusion competition of air and liquid vapor mixture at the position of the ignitor, as influenced by the design of the experimental apparatus. The authors are skeptical about the need or worth of attempting to define flammability limits using FP data, especially since unknown variables control the response. More important is to define the concentration of liquid phase retardant that will affect gas phase inerting. Thus, it is necessary to continue practical testing of retardant-containing liquids for their effectiveness in mitigating possible accidents, e.g., the next phase of this work will assess the effectiveness of halocarbons to inert high-pressure alcohol/agent leaks impinging on both electrical and flame ignition sources.

  5. Flammability test for sunglasses: developing a system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Renan; Ventura, Liliane

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations show the need for certificating sunglasses to ensure the safety and health to population. The Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 15111 regulates features to sunglasses, however, there is not a sunglasses certification office in Brazil, therefore, our lab has been developing several equipment for sunglasses testing. This work refers to one of them: the flammability test system for sunglasses in compliance with the NBR 15111. The standard provides requirements for the flammability test procedure which requires that the equipment must operate at a temperature of 650 °C +/- 20 °C the end of a steel rod of 300 mm length and 6 mm diameter should be heated and pressed over the surface of the lenses for five seconds; the flammability is checked by visual inspection. The furnace is made of ceramic. We used a power electronic circuit to control the power in the furnace using ON/OFF mode and for measuring the temperature, we used a K-type thermocouple. A stepper motor with pulley lifts the steel rod. The system reaches the working temperature in 15 minutes for a step input of 61 V in open loop system. The electronics control are under development in order to shorten the time necessary to reach the working temperature and maintain the temperature variation in the furnace within the limits imposed by the standard as next steps.

  6. 16 CFR 1500.46 - Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers. 1500.46 Section 1500.46 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND...

  7. 16 CFR 1500.46 - Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers. 1500.46 Section 1500.46 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND...

  8. 16 CFR 1500.46 - Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method for determining flashpoint of extremely flammable contents of self-pressurized containers. 1500.46 Section 1500.46 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND...

  9. 46 CFR 111.106-13 - Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling flammable or combustible cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling... OSVs § 111.106-13 Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling flammable or combustible cargoes... classification of such areas. (c) Cargo pump rooms must be isolated from all sources of vapor ignition...

  10. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  11. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2001-02-23

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model. Ammonia liquid/vapor equilibrium model is incorporated into the methodology for ammonia analysis.

  12. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  13. Melter Off-Gas Flammability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, FG III

    2003-12-12

    The objective of this work was to develop predictive models to assess offgas flammability for a low activity radioactive waste melter. The models had to be comprehensive enough to explicitly describe the effects of key melter operating variables such as total organic carbon in the feed, melter air purge and vapor space temperature. Once validated against pilot melter data, these models were used to simulate a series of safety scenarios involving over-batching of sugar, used as a reducing agent, and off-gas surges. The overall scope of the work was broken down into two parts, each focusing on a physically distinct region in the melter.

  14. Thermal and flammability characterization of graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal, mechanical, and flammability properties of graphite composites fabricated with XU71775/H795, a bismaleimide/vinyl-polystyrylpyridine formulation; H795, a bismaleimide; Cycom 6162, a phenolic; and PSP 6022M, a polystyrylpyridine and two types of graphite reinforcement were evaluated and compared with a composite made with an epoxy resin as a matrix. The measured properties included limiting-oxygen index, smoke evolution, thermal degradation products, total-heat release, heat-release rates, mass loss, flame spread, ignition resistance, thermogravimetric analysis, and selected mechanical properties. It was found that the combination of XU71775/H795 with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  15. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R.; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K.

    1999-05-01

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  16. The Evaluation of Flammability Properties Regarding Testing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvaldová, Linda Makovická; Gašpercová, Stanislava

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we address the historical comparison methods with current methods for the assessment of flammability characteristics for materials an especially for wood, wood components and wooden buildings. Nowadays in European Union brings harmonization in evaluated of standards into each European country and try to make one concept of evaluated the flammability properties. In each European country to the one standard level which will be used by evaluation of materials regarding flammability. In our article we focused mainly on improving the evaluation methods in terms of flammability characteristics of using materials at building industry. In the article we present examples of different assessment methods at their own test methods in terms of fire prevention. On the base of old compared of materials by STN, BS and DIN methods for testing materials on fire and new methods of evaluating the flammability properties regarding EU standards before and after starting the flash over.

  17. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  18. Genetic component of flammability variation in a Mediterranean shrub.

    PubMed

    Moreira, B; Castellanos, M C; Pausas, J G

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent fires impose a strong selection pressure in many ecosystems worldwide. In such ecosystems, plant flammability is of paramount importance because it enhances population persistence, particularly in non-resprouting species. Indeed, there is evidence of phenotypic divergence of flammability under different fire regimes. Our general hypothesis is that flammability-enhancing traits are adaptive; here, we test whether they have a genetic component. To test this hypothesis, we used the postfire obligate seeder Ulex parviflorus from sites historically exposed to different fire recurrence. We associated molecular variation in potentially adaptive loci detected with a genomic scan (using AFLP markers) with individual phenotypic variability in flammability across fire regimes. We found that at least 42% of the phenotypic variation in flammability was explained by the genetic divergence in a subset of AFLP loci. In spite of generalized gene flow, the genetic variability was structured by differences in fire recurrence. Our results provide the first field evidence supporting that traits enhancing plant flammability have a genetic component and thus can be responding to natural selection driven by fire. These results highlight the importance of flammability as an adaptive trait in fire-prone ecosystems. PMID:24433213

  19. Genetic component of flammability variation in a Mediterranean shrub.

    PubMed

    Moreira, B; Castellanos, M C; Pausas, J G

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent fires impose a strong selection pressure in many ecosystems worldwide. In such ecosystems, plant flammability is of paramount importance because it enhances population persistence, particularly in non-resprouting species. Indeed, there is evidence of phenotypic divergence of flammability under different fire regimes. Our general hypothesis is that flammability-enhancing traits are adaptive; here, we test whether they have a genetic component. To test this hypothesis, we used the postfire obligate seeder Ulex parviflorus from sites historically exposed to different fire recurrence. We associated molecular variation in potentially adaptive loci detected with a genomic scan (using AFLP markers) with individual phenotypic variability in flammability across fire regimes. We found that at least 42% of the phenotypic variation in flammability was explained by the genetic divergence in a subset of AFLP loci. In spite of generalized gene flow, the genetic variability was structured by differences in fire recurrence. Our results provide the first field evidence supporting that traits enhancing plant flammability have a genetic component and thus can be responding to natural selection driven by fire. These results highlight the importance of flammability as an adaptive trait in fire-prone ecosystems.

  20. Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

    1997-09-01

    The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

  1. Spacecraft material flammability testing and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, Paul W.

    1987-01-01

    Material and configuration testing for the Space Shuttle is mainly at 30 percent oxygen concentration at 70 kPa (10.2 psia). This is the worst case atmosphere during a mission and occurs 10 hours prior to extravehicular activity. The pressure is reduced from the nominal 101 kPa (14.7 paia) and the oxygen concentration is increased to 30 percent for medical reasons to prevent the bends during the extravehicular activity. NASA has tested many materials at 23.8, 25.9 and 30 percent oxygen levels for the Shuttle program. Data is given to show how flammability of material is affected by percentage of oxygen for those materials that would be considered for spacecraft applications.

  2. Upward Flammability Testing: A Probabilistic Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Samuel E.; Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin R.

    2003-01-01

    Examination of NASA-STD-6001 Test 1 data suggests burn length outcome for a given environment has a large statistical variation from run to run. Large data sets show that burn length data form cumulative probability distribution curves, which describe a material's characteristic to burn in a specific environment, suggesting that the current practice of testing three samples at specific conditions is inadequate. Sufficient testing can establish material characteristics probability curves to provide the probability that a material will sustain a burn length of at least 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) or will sustain burning until all material is consumed. A simple pasdfail criterion may not be possible or practical. Future application of flammability data for some material classes may require the engineer to assess risk based on the probability of an occurrence and the probable outcome with different materials as characterized with cumulative burn length distributions for specific use conditions.

  3. Pressure Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the highest pressure in oxygen where materials used in the planned NASA Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM) would not propagate a flame if an ignition source was present. The test methodology used was similar to that previously used to determine the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which self-extinguishment occurs under constant total pressure conditions. An upward limiting pressure index (ULPI) was determined, where approximately 50 percent of the materials self-extinguish in a given environment. Following this, the maximum total pressure (MTP) was identified; where all samples tested (at least five) self-extinguished following the NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1 burn length criteria. The results obtained on seven materials indicate that the non-metallic materials become flammable in oxygen between 0.4 and 0.9 psia.

  4. Flammability measurements of difluoromethane in air at 100 C

    SciTech Connect

    Grosshandler, W.L.; Donnelly, M.K.; Womeldorf, C.

    1999-07-01

    Difluoromethane (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, or R-32) is a candidate to replace currently used ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Because CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} is flammable, it is necessary to assess the hazard posed by a leak in a refrigeration machine. The currently accepted method for determining flammability, ASTM E 681, has difficulty discerning the flammability boundary for weak fuels such as CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}. This paper describes an alternative approach to identify the limits of flammability, using a twin, premixed counter-flow flame. By using the extinction of an already established flame, the point dividing flammable from non-flammable becomes unambiguous. The limiting extinction mixture changes with stretch rate, so it is convenient to report the flammability limit as the value extrapolated to a zero stretch condition. In the burner, contoured nozzles with outlet diameters of 12 mm are aligned counter to each other and spaced 12 mm apart. The lean flammability limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} in dry air at room temperature was previously reported by the authors to be a mole fraction of 0.14, using the twin counter-flow flame method. In the current study, relative humidity was not found to affect the lean limit. Increasing the temperature of the premixed fuel and air to 100 C is shown to extend the flammability limit in the lean direction to 0.13. The rich limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} found using the counter-flow method is around 0.27. The uncertainties of the measurements are presented and the results compared to data in the literature.

  5. Spacecraft and Navy Materials Flammability: Review of Some Concepts and Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2004-01-01

    The agenda covered by this viewgraph presentation includes: 1) Concepts of Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Spacecraft materials flammability test methods; 3) Evaluation of flight hardware flammability; 4) Review of flammability data in conditions of interest to the Navy; 5) Overview of some flammability test methods recommended for the Navy.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance with Appendix N of this part, may not exceed 3 percent of the Flammability Exposure Evaluation Time (FEET),...

  7. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  8. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  9. 28. VIEW OF FLAMMABLE TEST ROOM, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF FLAMMABLE TEST ROOM, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SHIPPING AND STORAGE ROOM, 1923 ADDITION, FIRST FLOOR - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES LOCKER AND ADDITION ON RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Moore Haven Lock, Garage, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  11. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  12. Pressure Flammability Thresholds in Oxygen of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Harper, Susana; Beeson, Harold; Ruff, Gary; Pedley, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The experimental approach consisted of concentrating the testing in the flammability transition zone following the Bruceton Up-and-Down Method. For attribute data, the method has been shown to be very repeatable and most efficient. Other methods for characterization of critical levels (Karberand Probit) were also considered. The data yielded the upward limiting pressure index (ULPI), the pressure level where approx.50% of materials self-extinguish in a given environment.Parametric flammability thresholds other than oxygen concentration can be determined with the methodology proposed for evaluating the MOC when extinguishment occurs. In this case, a pressure threshold in 99.8% oxygen was determined with the methodology and found to be 0.4 to 0.9 psia for typical spacecraft materials. Correlation of flammability thresholds obtained with chemical, hot wire, and other ignition sources will be conducted to provide recommendations for using alternate ignition sources to evaluate flammability of aerospace materials.

  13. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation & Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2002-06-20

    Assess the steady state level at normal & off-normal ventilation conditions. Hydrogen generation rate calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model. Flammability calc. based on hydrogen, ammonia, & methane proformed for tanks at various scenarios.

  14. Effect of a zero g environment on flammability limits as determined using a standard flammability tube apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Reuss, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Flammability limits in a zero gravity environment were defined. Key aspects of a possible spacelab experiment were investigated analytically, experimentally on the bench, and in drop tower facilities. A conceptual design for a spacelab experiment was developed.

  15. Experimental Verification of Material Flammability in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Balashov, Y. V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Melikhov, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The flammability in microgravity of three US-furnished materials, Delrin, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and high-density polyethylene, was determined using a Russian-developed combustion tunnel on Mir. Four 4.5-mm-diameter cylindrical samples of each plastic were ignited under concurrent airflow (in the direction of flame spread) with velocities from no flow to 8.5 cm/s. The test results identify a limiting air-flow velocity V(sub lim) for each material, below which combustion ceases. Nominal values are V(sub lim) < 0.3 cm/s for Delrin, 0.5 cm/s for PMMA, and 0.3 to 0.5 cm/s for polyethylene. These values are lower than those obtained in prior ground testing. Nevertheless, they demonstrate that flow shutoff is effective for extinguishment in the microgravity environment of spacecraft. Microgravity test results also show that the plastic materials maintain a stable melt ball within the spreading flame zone. In general, as the concurrent flow velocity V decreases, the flame-spread rate V(sub F) decreases, from an average (for all three materials) of V(sub F)= 0.5-0.75 mm/s at V = 8.5 cm/s to V(sub F)= 0.05-0.01 mm/s at V = 0.3-0.5 cm/s. Also, as V decreases, the flames become less visible but expand, increasing the probability of igniting an adjacent surface.

  16. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  17. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  18. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate.

  19. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate. PMID:20855156

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  1. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  2. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  3. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  4. The Increased Flammability of Metallic Materials in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, David; Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Marin; Paulos, Todd; Steinberg, Ted

    2010-09-01

    Flammability data generated in a normal gravity environment is often used in design and risk assessment for reduced gravity applications. It has been clearly demonstrated that this is a conservative approach for non-metallic materials which have been repeatedly shown to be less flammable in a reduced gravity environment. However, recent work has demonstrated this is not true for metallic materials. This work, conducted in a newly completed drop tower observed a significant decrease in lowest burn pressure and increase in regression rate in reduced gravity. Hence the normal gravity qualification of a metallic materials’ lowest burn pressure or regression rate for reduced-gravity or space-based systems is clearly not conservative. This paper presents a summary of this work and the results obtained for several metallic materials showing an increased flammability and regression rate for a range of oxygen pressures, and discusses the implications of this work on the fire-safety of space-based systems.

  5. Some electrostatic considerations in the transportation of flammable liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.H.; Atharton, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The transportation of flammable liquids in bulk quantities is a common operation in the chemical industry. Therefore a rather comprehensive set of regulations, standards, and recommended practices exists which govern how these operations should be performed in strict accordance with the directions given, occurrence of inadvertent ignitions have been rare, if nonexistent. On the other hand, there have been occasions when seemingly slight and innocuous deviations from the guidelines have been incorporated into an operation, resulting in catastrophic incidents. This paper discusses some of the guidelines concerning electrostatic ignitions of flammable liquids and illustrates specific case histories where such deviations have led to accidents. Two marine incidents, one rail car incident, and two tank truck incidents are presented in detail to amplify why strict adherence to the regulations, standards and recommended practices is vital in operations where flammable liquids are transported. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen when looking south (186°) from South Liquid Loop Road. Note the catch basin for retaining accidentally spilled substances. Wastes are stored in drums and other safety containers until disposal by burning at the Incinerator (4249/E-50) or by other means. Note the nearby sign warning of corrosive, flammable materials, and calling attention to a fire extinguisher; a telephone is provided to call for assistance in the event of an emergency. This structure is isolated to prevent the spread of fire, and it is lightly built so damage from a fire will be inexpensive to repair - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Waste Flammable Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  8. RPP-WTP LAW Melter Offgas Flammability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, AS

    2004-03-08

    The objective of this work was to develop predictive models for the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter offgas flammability assessment and to conduct case studies in support of the on-going safety analysis efforts for the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPPWTP). This required that Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) personnel develop process models that are comprehensive enough to explicitly describe the effects of key melter operating variables such as total organic carbon (TOC) in the feed, melter air purge, and vapor space temperature on the offgas flammability.

  9. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  10. ISO 14624 Series - Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials Flammability Assessment of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the flammability of spacecraft materials is shown. The topics include: 1) Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Materials Flammability Test; 3) Impetus for enhanced materials flammability characterization; 4) Exploration Atmosphere Working Group Recommendations; 5) Approach; and 6) Status of implementation

  11. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... was made on or after June 6, 2001, the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008... tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  12. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... was made on or after June 6, 2001, the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008... tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  13. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... was made on or after June 6, 2001, the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008... tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  14. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... was made on or after June 6, 2001, the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008... tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  15. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... was made on or after June 6, 2001, the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008... tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  16. Evaluation of Flammable Gas Monitoring and Ventilation System Alternatives for Double Contained Receiver Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    1999-10-19

    This study identifies possible flammable gas monitoring and ventilation system alternatives to ensure adequate removal of flammable gases from the Double-Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) primary tanks during temporary storage of small amounts of waste. The study evaluates and compares these alternatives to support closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ TF-96-04330).

  17. Wire insulation degradation and flammability in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This view-graph presentation covers the following topics: an introduction to spacecraft fire safety, concerns in fire prevention in low gravity, shuttle wire insulation flammability experiment, drop tower risk-based fire safety experiment, and experimental results, conclusions, and proposed studies.

  18. Flammability zone prediction using calculated adiabatic flame temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mashuga, C.V.; Crowl, D.A.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes work to predict the flammability zone for any mixture of fuel, oxygen and nitrogen. The method utilizes a commercially available equilibrium program to determine the calculated adiabatic flame temperature (CAFT). The model is compared with extensive experimental data obtained in a 20 L sphere at an initial pressure of 1 atm and 298 K. The data and model compare well over the entire flammability zone for two pure species, methane and ethylene, and not as well for a 50/50 mixture of methane/ethylene. Results show that a good prediction of the flammability zone is obtained using a CAFT criterion of 1200 K. Furthermore, the intermediate species and solid carbon must be included in the equilibrium calculation to fit the fuel rich part of the zone. The intermediate species were selected by the equilibrium program using a built-in species selection criteria. For a gas mixture of methane and ethylene, the authors were unable to identify mixing rules for estimating K{sub G} and P{sub max} from pure component data. This method provides a direct approach to full flammability zone prediction.

  19. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-02-24

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented.

  20. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  1. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or be approved by an independent laboratory. (b) Procedures for... the entire time the engine is running. (d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual... water level in the following locations: (1) The lowest part of a machinery space; (2) The lowest part...

  2. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or be approved by an independent laboratory. (b) Procedures for... the entire time the engine is running. (d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual... water level in the following locations: (1) The lowest part of a machinery space; (2) The lowest part...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.106 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment, or by persons involuntarily detained. (17) Liquid shall mean, for the purpose of this section... with flammable or combustible liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage, or... submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, weighting with concrete or other approved...

  4. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BOUNDING FLAMMABLE GAS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.106 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....s.i.g. (3) Automotive service station shall mean that portion of property where flammable or..., and accessories, and for minor automotive maintenance work. Major automotive repairs, painting, body... recognized as good engineering design for the material used. (d) Unlined concrete tanks may be used...

  6. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 109.557 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master... stowed in accordance with subparts 98.30 and 98.33 of this chapter and the provisions of 49 CFR parts...

  7. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 109.557 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master... stowed in accordance with subparts 98.30 and 98.33 of this chapter and the provisions of 49 CFR parts...

  8. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 109.557 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master... stowed in accordance with subparts 98.30 and 98.33 of this chapter and the provisions of 49 CFR parts...

  9. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 109.557 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master... stowed in accordance with subparts 98.30 and 98.33 of this chapter and the provisions of 49 CFR parts...

  10. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 109.557 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master... stowed in accordance with subparts 98.30 and 98.33 of this chapter and the provisions of 49 CFR parts...

  11. The Safety of Small Containers for Flammable Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Edward S.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights aspects of safety that are unfamiliar to most laypersons and to many chemists as well. Presents findings that may lend themselves to presentation in chemistry classes. Details flammability tests, vapor space hazards, and the special case of gasoline containers. Provides experimental data relating vent area and internal pressure. (CW)

  12. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Threshold Tests for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James H.

    2007-01-01

    CEV atmosphere will likely change because craft will be used as LEO spacecraft, lunar spacecraft, orbital spacecraft. Possible O2 % increase and overall pressure decrease pressure vessel certs on spacecraft. Want 34% minimum threshold. Higher, better when atmosphere changes. WSTF suggests testing all materials/components to find flammability threshold, pressure and atmosphere.

  13. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  14. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability... be considered: (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2... flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  15. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability... be considered: (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2... flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  16. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability... be considered: (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2... flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  17. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  18. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  19. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the...) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability... vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined. (Secs. 313(a), 601,...

  20. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined. (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604,...

  1. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the...) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability... vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined. (Secs. 313(a), 601,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability... be considered: (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2... flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  3. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined. (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604,...

  4. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  5. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined. (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604,...

  6. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and... sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability characteristics of... escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  7. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the...) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2) Flammability... vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined. (Secs. 313(a), 601,...

  8. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability... be considered: (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage. (2... flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined....

  9. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or.... (l) Each flammable gas detection system must have a filter that removes particulate matter in each gas sampling line. (m) Each filter under paragraph (l) of this section must be located where it can...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....4460 Section 57.4460 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....4460 Section 57.4460 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....4460 Section 57.4460 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4460 Section 57.4460 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....4460 Section 57.4460 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of...

  15. SIMPLE TRANSIENT CALCULATIONS OF CELL FLAMMABLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    , J; David Allison , D; John Mccord, J

    2009-05-06

    The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) mixes low-level radiological liquid waste with grout for permanent disposal as cement in vault cells. The grout mixture is poured into each cell in approximately 17 batches (8 to 10 hours duration). The grout mixture contains ten flammable gases of concern that are released from the mixture into the cell. Prior to operations, simple parametric transient calculations were performed to develop batch parameters (including schedule of batch pours) to support operational efficiency while ensuring that a flammable gas mixture does not develop in the cell vapor space. The analysis demonstrated that a nonflammable vapor space environment can be achieved, with workable operational constraints, without crediting the ventilation flow as a safety system control. Isopar L was identified as the primary flammable gas of concern. The transient calculations balanced inflows of the flammable gases into the vapor space with credited outflows of diurnal breathing through vent holes and displacement from new grout pours and gases generated. Other important features of the analyses included identifying conditions that inhibited a well-mixed vapor space, the expected frequency and duration of such conditions, and the estimated level of stratification that could develop.

  16. Developing a flammability test system for sunglasses: results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Renan; Ventura, Liliane

    2015-03-01

    Sunglasses popularity has increased tremendously. This fact has further led to the need of certificating sunglasses accordingly to the standard NBR 15111 to protect consumers from damages and secondary hazards caused by sunglasses use. The ongoing need comes at the expense that none certification institution in Brazil performs all tests procedures required by the NBR 15111. This manuscript presents the development of a flammability test system for sunglasses and the assessments results. The equipment for testing flammability developed is made of an electrical furnace with a thermocouple and electronic system that maintains the temperature in 650 ºC. This furnace heats a steel rod used for testing flammability. A steel cable connected to a linear actuator drives the rod. The main control system is based on an ARM Cortex M0 microcontroller and we developed a PC interface in LabView to acquire data and store it. The equipment built also has a control panel with a push button, status LEDs and temperature indicator. We performed flammability tests in 45 sunglasses: 45 lenses and 45 frames using the equipment described. None of the samples ignited or continued to glow when the test has finished, however, all polycarbonate samples were melted in the contact region with the steel rod. All samples complied with the NBR 15111. The proof argues that the polycarbonate is extremely resistant to ignition.

  17. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Gerald D.

    2000-07-19

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or non-flammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, and volume of the release and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  18. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.

  19. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  20. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  1. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail

  2. Evaluation of 241 AN tank farm flammable gas behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105 are Flammable Gas Watch List tanks. Characteristics exhibited by these tanks (i.e., surface level drops, pressure increases, and temperature profiles) are similar to those exhibited by tank 241-SY-101, which is also a Watch List tank. Although the characteristics exhibited by tank 241-SY-101 are also present in tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105, they are exhibited to a lesser degree in the AN Tank Farm tanks. The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks have only small surface level drops, and the pressure changes that occur are not sufficient to release an amount of gas that would cause the dome space to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) for hydrogen. Therefore, additional restrictions are probably unnecessary for working within the 241 AN Tank Farm, either within the dome space of the tanks or in the waste.

  3. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  4. A flammability study of thin plastic film materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center presently conducts flammability tests on thin plastic film materials by using a small needle rake method. Flammability data from twenty-two thin plastic film materials were obtained and cross-checked by using three different testing methods: (1) the presently used small needle rake; (2) the newly developed large needle rake; and (3) the previously used frame. In order to better discern the melting-burning phenomenon of thin plastic film material, five additional specific experiments were performed. These experiments determined the following: (1) the heat sink effect of each testing method; (2) the effect of the burn angle on the burn length or melting/shrinkage length; (3) the temperature profile above the ignition source; (4) the melting point and the fire point of each material; and (5) the melting/burning profile of each material via infrared (IR) imaging. The results of these experimentations are presented.

  5. Characterization strategy for the flammable gas safety issue

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Roberts, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    The characterization strategy for resolving the flammable gas safety issue for Hanford waste tanks is based on a structured logic diagram (SLD) that displays the outcomes necessary to reach the desired goal of making flammable gas risk acceptable. The diagram provides a structured path that can identify all information inputs, data as well as models, needed to achieve the goal. Tracing the path from need to outcome provides an immediate and clear justification and defense of a specific need. The diagram itself is a {open_quote}picture of a risk calculation{close_quote} and forms the basis for a quantitative model of risk. The SLID, with the risk calculation, identifies options for characterization, mitigation, and controls that have the maximum effect in reducing risk. It provides quantitative input to risk-based decision making so that options are chosen for maximum impact at least cost.

  6. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system. PMID:25601873

  7. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  8. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  9. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bond, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system. PMID:25601873

  10. FLAMMABILITY AND CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR MCU WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, J; Mukesh Gupta, M

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site of Department of Energy will use the new Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) to process the waste stream by removing/reducing Cs-137 using Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) technology. The CSSX technology utilizes multicomponent organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract Cs-137 from waste salt solution. Due to the radiolysis of the aqueous nuclear wastes, hydrogen generation is expected in the MCU holding tanks. The hydrogen from radiolysis and the vapor from the organic component of the solvent, Isopar-L, may form a composite flammable gas mixture, resulting in a shorter time to flammability than that of a pure hydrogen environment. It has been found that the time-to-Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and stoichiometric concentration (SC) vary greatly from tank to tank, and could be decreased significantly by the presence of the Isopar-L. However, neither the deflagration nor the detonation event would challenge the Evaluation Guideline for any of the tanks at any liquid level.

  11. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-09-28

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures.

  12. Tank 24-C-103 headspace flammability. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented and interpreted to help resolve the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. Concern that the headspace of tank 241-C-103 may contain a flammable mixture of organic vapors and an aerosol of combustible organic liquid droplets arises from the presence of a layer of organic liquid in the tank. This organic liquid is believed to have originated in the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process, having been stored initially in tank 241-C-102 and apparently transferred to tank 241-C-103 in 1975 (Carothers 1988). Analyses of samples of the organic liquid collected in 1991 and 1993 indicate that the primary constituents are tributyl phosphate (TBP) and several semivolatile hydrocarbons (Prentice 1991, Pool and Bean 1994). This is consistent with the premise that the organic waste came from the PUREX process, because the PUREX process used a solution of TBP in a diluent composed of the n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32} normal paraffinic hydrocarbons (NPH).

  13. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  14. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  15. Oxygen Partial Pressure and Oxygen Concentration Flammability: Can They Be Correlated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana A.; Juarez, Alfredo; Perez, Horacio, III; Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA possesses a large quantity of flammability data performed in ISS airlock (30% Oxygen 526mmHg) and ISS cabin (24.1% Oxygen 760 mmHg) conditions. As new programs develop, other oxygen and pressure conditions emerge. In an effort to apply existing data, the question arises: Do equivalent oxygen partial pressures perform similarly with respect to flammability? This paper evaluates how material flammability performance is impacted from both the Maximum Oxygen Concentration (MOC) and Maximum Total Pressures (MTP) perspectives. From these studies, oxygen partial pressures can be compared for both the MOC and MTP methods to determine the role of partial pressure in material flammability. This evaluation also assesses the influence of other variables on flammability performance. The findings presented in this paper suggest flammability is more dependent on oxygen concentration than equivalent partial pressure.

  16. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  17. Bark flammability as a fire-response trait for subalpine trees

    PubMed Central

    Frejaville, Thibaut; Curt, Thomas; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between the flammability properties of a given plant and its chances of survival after a fire still remain unknown. We hypothesize that the bark flammability of a tree reduces the potential for tree survival following surface fires, and that if tree resistance to fire is provided by a thick insulating bark, the latter must be few flammable. We test, on subalpine tree species, the relationship between the flammability of bark and its insulating ability, identifies the biological traits that determine bark flammability, and assesses their relative susceptibility to surface fires from their bark properties. The experimental set of burning properties was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis to assess the bark flammability. Bark insulating ability was expressed by the critical time to cambium kill computed from bark thickness. Log-linear regressions indicated that bark flammability varies with the bark thickness and the density of wood under bark and that the most flammable barks have poor insulating ability. Susceptibility to surface fires increases from gymnosperm to angiosperm subalpine trees. The co-dominant subalpine species Larix decidua (Mill.) and Pinus cembra (L.) exhibit large differences in both flammability and insulating ability of the bark that should partly explain their contrasted responses to fires in the past. PMID:24324473

  18. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  19. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    PubMed

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  20. Low-Flammability PTFE for High-Oxygen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walle, E.; Fallon, B.; Sheppard, A.

    1986-01-01

    Modified forming process removes volatile combustible materials. Flammability of cable-wrapping tape reduced by altering tape-manufacturing process. In new manufacturing process, tape formed by proprietary process of screw extrusion, followed by washing in solvent and drying. Tape then wrapped as before. Spectrogram taken after extrusion, washing, and drying shows lower hydrocarbon content. PTFE formed by new process suited to oxygen-rich environments. Safe in liquid oxygen of Space Shuttle tank and in medical uses; thin-wall shrinkable tubing in hospital test equipment, surgical instruments, and implants.

  1. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R A

    1989-09-18

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.

  2. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  3. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  4. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  5. 77 FR 76004 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Children's Sleepwear

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... October 4, 2012, and October, 17, 2012, (77 FR 60684, 77 FR 63799) the Consumer Product Safety Commission... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Flammability Standards for Children's Sleepwear AGENCY... a collection of information associated with the flammability standards for children's sleepwear...

  6. 49 CFR 173.150 - Exceptions for Class 3 (flammable and combustible liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquids). 173.150 Section 173.150 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Class 3 (flammable and combustible liquids). (a) General. Exceptions for hazardous materials shipments... flammable liquids (Class 3) and combustible liquids are excepted from labeling requirements, unless...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose of this appendix, the tank is considered inert when the bulk average oxygen concentration within... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... within the fuel tank not occupied by liquid fuel. N25.3Fuel tank flammability exposure analysis. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purpose of this appendix, the tank is considered inert when the bulk average oxygen concentration within... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... within the fuel tank not occupied by liquid fuel. N25.3Fuel tank flammability exposure analysis. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purpose of this appendix, the tank is considered inert when the bulk average oxygen concentration within... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... within the fuel tank not occupied by liquid fuel. N25.3Fuel tank flammability exposure analysis. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purpose of this appendix, the tank is considered inert when the bulk average oxygen concentration within... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... within the fuel tank not occupied by liquid fuel. N25.3Fuel tank flammability exposure analysis. (a)...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purpose of this appendix, the tank is considered inert when the bulk average oxygen concentration within... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... within the fuel tank not occupied by liquid fuel. N25.3Fuel tank flammability exposure analysis. (a)...

  12. 77 FR 48505 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In the Federal Register of June 8, 2012 (74 FR... flammability standards for carpets and rugs. No comments were received in response to that notice....

  13. Safe Handling and Use of Flammable and Combustible Materials. Module SH-30. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safe handling and use of flammable and combustible materials is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module introduces the student to the hazards of flammable and combustible materials and the measures necessary to control those hazards. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page…

  14. Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brad R.; Hardstaff, Lyndle K.; Phillips, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area–but not thicker–than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest. PMID:24260169

  15. Evaluation of flammability for cable-like polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikado, Tuneo; Akita, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A new test method is developed for the flammability of insulated electric cables as well as polymers formed in the cables. The rate of downward flame spread along the polymer surface is measured by a technique in which the flame is stopped at a particular position by winding up the cable at the same speed as the flame spreading rate, with external preheating by an electric furnace having oxidative gas flow. The polymer burns continuously without change of flame condition and the rate is obtained from the winding speed of the cable. A flame spread equation relates the flame spreading rate (V) of the cable-like polymer to O concentration (Yo) and the atmosphere, the preheating temperature, and the pyrolysis temperature for polymer burning. Plotting log V vs. log Yo for experimental results allows evaluation of the flammability of polymers, with discrimination between the effects of O concentration, heating temperature, and specimen shape. Results with various types of PVC electrical cable indicated the validity of the method. Application of the method to the cables in groups showed a flame retardation behavior different from the case of a single cable, in a atmosphere of high O concentration.

  16. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding flammable gas accident

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-03-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. As will be shown, the consequences of a detonation in either an SST or a double-shell tank (DST) are approximately equal. A detonation in an SST was selected as the bounding condition because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are generally greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  17. The dynamics of flash fires involving flammable hydrocarbon liquids.

    PubMed

    DeHaan, J D

    1996-03-01

    Victims of fires are sometimes discovered to have less-than-lethal levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood and no significant antemortem fire damage. Such occurrences are often linked to flash fires involving volatile hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, the dynamics of hydrocarbon fuel fires are examined, and the results of fullscale room tests ignited with small (< 2 L) quantities of flammable liquid are found to confirm the theoretical predictions. These tests showed that flame plumes with temperatures of 500-975 degrees C were produced above flammable liquids. Ignition of their vapors in a carpeted room produced a very short-lived flash of fire throughout the room, followed by intense flames in a layer above the floor approximately 1 m deep, which quickly degenerated to isolated pools of low flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon vapors in a room caused oxygen levels to drop below 8.5% in < 100 s, while causing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels to increase to 12-16% whether the door to the room was open or closed. Production of CO trailed maximum CO2 production by 15-30 s. A victim exposed to such a fire may collapse from extreme heat (aided by the water vapor created by the combustion of hydrocarbons), weakened by oxygen deprivation, before CO inhalation becomes a significant factor.

  18. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Interim report, task 2 - test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    Regulations on alternative refrigerants and concerns for the environment are forcing the refrigeration industry to consider the use of potentially flammable fluids to replace CFC fluids currently in use. The objectives of this program are to establish the conditions under which refrigerants and refrigerant blends exhibit flammability and to develop appropriate methods to measure flammability.

  19. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  20. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  1. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  2. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  3. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  4. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-S-111

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-S-111. The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank S-111 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable-limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank S-111 transfers. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank S-111 initially received waste from REDOX in 1952, and after April 1974, primarily received processed waste slurry from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernatant waste to Tank S-102. From the FDNW review and comparisons of the Welty Report versus other daily records for Tank S-111, FDNW determined that the majority of the time, the Welty Report is consistent with daily records. Surface level decreases that occurred following saltwell pumping were identified as unaccounted for decreases in the Welty Report, however they were probably a continued settlement caused by saltwell pumping of the interstitial liquids. Because the flammable/trapped gas

  5. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  6. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  7. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  9. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  10. Seasonal and local differences in leaf litter flammability of six Mediterranean tree species.

    PubMed

    Kauf, Zorica; Fangmeier, Andreas; Rosavec, Roman; Španjol, Željko

    2015-03-01

    One of the suggested management options for reducing fire danger is the selection of less flammable plant species. Nevertheless, vegetation flammability is both complex and dynamic, making identification of such species challenging. While large efforts have been made to connect plant traits to fire behavior, seasonal changes and within species variability of traits are often neglected. Currently, even the most sophisticated fire danger systems presume that intrinsic characteristics of leaf litter stay unchanged, and plant species flammability lists are often transferred from one area to another. In order to assess if these practices can be improved, we performed a study examining the relationship between morphological characteristics and flammability parameters of leaf litter, thereby taking into account seasonal and local variability. Litter from six Mediterranean tree species was sampled throughout the fire season from three different locations along a climate gradient. Samples were subjected to flammability testing involving an epiradiator operated at 400 °C surface temperature with 3 g sample weight. Specific leaf area, fuel moisture content, average area, and average mass of a single particle had significant influences on flammability parameters. Effects of sampling time and location were significant as well. Due to the standardized testing conditions, these effects could be attributed to changes in intrinsic characteristics of the material. As the aforementioned effects were inconsistent and species specific, these results may potentially limit the generalization of species flammability rankings. Further research is necessary in order to evaluate the importance of our findings for fire danger modeling. PMID:25537154

  11. Flammability across the gymnosperm phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, William K; Elvira, Alba; van Kempen, Lute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aptroot, André; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-04-01

    Fire is important to climate, element cycles and plant communities, with many fires spreading via surface litter. The influence of species on the spread of surface fire is mediated by their traits which, after senescence and abscission, have 'afterlife' effects on litter flammability. We hypothesized that differences in litter flammability among gymnosperms are determined by litter particle size effects on litterbed packing. We performed a mesocosm fire experiment comparing 39 phylogenetically wide-ranging gymnosperms, followed by litter size and shape manipulations on two chemically contrasting species, to isolate the underlying mechanism. The first-order control on litter flammability was, indeed, litter particle size in both experiments. Most gymnosperms were highly flammable, but a prominent exception was the non-Pinus Pinaceae, in which small leaves abscised singly produced dense, non-flammable litterbeds. There are two important implications: first, ecosystems dominated by gymnosperms that drop small leaves separately will develop dense litter layers, which will be less prone to and inhibit the spread of surface litter fire. Second, some of the needle-leaved species previously considered to be flammable in single-leaf experiments were among the least flammable in litter fuel beds, highlighting the role of the litter traits of species in affecting surface fire regimes. PMID:25675853

  12. Approximation of flammability region for natural gas-air-diluent mixture.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Y; Jiang, D M; Huang, Z H; Cheng, Q; Gao, J; Hu, Y

    2005-10-17

    The growing implementation of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in reducing NO(x) emissions of engine is of paramount motivation to perform a fundamental research on the flammability characteristics of fuel-air-diluent mixtures. In this work, the influences of EGR on the flammability region of natural gas-air-diluent flames were experimentally studied in a constant volume bomb. An assumption of critical burning velocity at flammability limit is proposed to approximately determine the flammability region of these mixtures. Based on this assumption, an estimation of the flammability map for natural gas-air-diluent mixtures was obtained by using the empirical formula of burning velocity data. The flammability regions of natural gas-air mixtures with EGR are plotted versus the EGR rate. From the comparison of estimated results and experimental measurements, it is suggested that the accuracy of prediction is largely dependent upon the formula of burning velocity used. Meanwhile, the influence of pressure on the critical burning velocity at flammability limit is also investigated. On the basis of the pressure dependence criterion, the estimation was performed for the circumstance of high temperature and pressure, and the prediction results still agree well with those of experiments.

  13. Flammability across the gymnosperm phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, William K; Elvira, Alba; van Kempen, Lute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aptroot, André; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-04-01

    Fire is important to climate, element cycles and plant communities, with many fires spreading via surface litter. The influence of species on the spread of surface fire is mediated by their traits which, after senescence and abscission, have 'afterlife' effects on litter flammability. We hypothesized that differences in litter flammability among gymnosperms are determined by litter particle size effects on litterbed packing. We performed a mesocosm fire experiment comparing 39 phylogenetically wide-ranging gymnosperms, followed by litter size and shape manipulations on two chemically contrasting species, to isolate the underlying mechanism. The first-order control on litter flammability was, indeed, litter particle size in both experiments. Most gymnosperms were highly flammable, but a prominent exception was the non-Pinus Pinaceae, in which small leaves abscised singly produced dense, non-flammable litterbeds. There are two important implications: first, ecosystems dominated by gymnosperms that drop small leaves separately will develop dense litter layers, which will be less prone to and inhibit the spread of surface litter fire. Second, some of the needle-leaved species previously considered to be flammable in single-leaf experiments were among the least flammable in litter fuel beds, highlighting the role of the litter traits of species in affecting surface fire regimes.

  14. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  15. Lean flammability limit of downward propagating hydrogen-air flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed multidimensional numerical simulations that include the effects of wall heat losses have been performed to study the dynamics of downward flame propagation and extinguishment in lean hydrogen-air mixtures. The computational results show that a downward propagating flame in an isothermal channel has a flammability limit of around 9.75 percent. This is in excellent agreement with experimental results. Also in excellent agreement are the detailed observations of the flame behavior at the point of extinguishment. The primary conclusion of this work is that detailed numerical simulations that include wall heat losses and the effect of gravity can adequately simulate the dynamics of the extinguishment process in downward-propagating hydrogen-air flames. These simulations can be examined in detail to gain understanding of the actual extinction process.

  16. Non-flammable polyimide materials for aircraft and spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Supkis, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in polyimide chemistry show promise for producing materials with very low flammability and a wide range of mechanical properties. Polyimide foams can be synthesized to provide fire safety without detectable formation of smoke or toxic byproducts below 204 C (400 F), thus avoiding an environment which is lethal to human habitation. This work has been and is currently being performed under development programs, the objective of which is to provide cost effective processes for producing thermally stable, polyimide flexible resilient foams, thermal-acoustical insulating materials, rigid low density foam panels, and high strength foam structures. The chemical and physical properties demonstrated by these materials represent a technological advancement in the art of thermally stable polyimide polymers which are expected to insure fire protection of structures and components used in air transportation and space exploration. Data compiled to date on thermal, physical and functional properties of these materials are presented.

  17. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

  18. Flammability and Photo-Stability of Selected Polymer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Jeelin

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to the improvement of the flammability of epoxy resins, bisphenol-A polycarbonate poly(butylene terephthalate), and Nylon 6.6 by introducing halogens and loop functionality into the flame retardants is described. The phthalides (the loop functionality containing molecules) include 3,3-bis(4-bromophenyl)-phthalide, 3,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)phthalide, and phenolphthalein. The phthalide containing epoxy resins are synthesized and characterized in comparison with the bisphenol-A epoxy resins in terms of flammability in the copolymer systems. The resins include diglycidyl ethers of phenolphthalein, bisphenol-A. tetrabromobisphenol-A, and tetraoromophenolphthalein. The vaporization of the phthalide additive in the polymers is observed in Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The flame retardancy is primarily due to the presence of halogens. In the poly(butylene terephthalate) system, the cleavage of the C(sub aromatic) -B bond of the flame retardant additive enhances the crosslinking react ions between the aromatic rings resulting in an increase of char formation. In the epoxy resin systems, loop functionality contributes to char formation to a larger extent. The interaction between the epoxy resin and poly-(butylene terephthalate) follows the mechanism of insertion of the oxirane ring into the ester bond. This mechanism is studied by FT-IR. The investigation of the thermal properties of the char-forming phenol-formaldehyde resins is conducted to provide information for the systematic design of high temperature flame-resistant phenolics. NMR and FT-IR are used to characterize the oligomeric resins and the cured resins. The curing agents used in the study include formaldehyde, s-trioxane and terephthaloyl chloride. The brominated phenolic resins are found to have higher oxygen indices with lower char yields.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of low flammability polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin

    There has been significant interest in the applications of polymer nanocomposites in a variety of areas. Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites have been of interest because of relatively low raw material cost and improved materials properties such as higher Young's modulus, higher thermal deformation temperature, lower small molecule permeability, lower density (compared to metals and traditional glass fiber reinforced composites) as well as low flammability. The relationships between the flammability and the dispersion of the layered silicate platelets inside the polymer matrix is just being established. The complete set of factors that affect the flammability of polymer/layered nanocomposites are not fully identified. In this thesis polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites with different degrees of platelet dispersion were synthesized. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The flammability of these nanocomposites was characterized by TGA, cone calorimetry and gasification. By coupling the structural and flammability data it has been concluded that forming a nanometer scale dispersed structure significantly improves the flammability but the details of the degree of dispersion are not critical. The improvement in the flammability arises from the formation of a residue or char layer at the surface of the nanocomposite. This residue layer acts as a radiation shield and as a physical barrier preventing the polymer degradation products from escaping and acting as fuel. It is observed that the stability of the residue layer formed during combustion has major impact on the flammability. This thesis also describes work to improve the flammability of the polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites by enhancing char/residue formation in order to improve the residue layer stability.

  20. The possibility of a reversal of material flammability ranking from normal gravity to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T'Ien, James S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the discussion is to show, by a theoretical model, that one of the material flammability indices, the flammability limit, can be reversed in proper circumstances. A stagnation-point diffusion flame adjacent to a spherical solid-fuel surface is considered. It is shown that a reversal of the limiting oxygen indices from normal gravity and microgravity is possible. Although the example is based on a particular theoretical model with a particular flame configuration and specifically for an oxygen limit, the flammability-limit reversal phenomenon is believed to be more general.

  1. Final design review report for the RMCS Flammable Gas Detection Interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    This report document the completion of the formal design review for the RMCS (Rotary Mode Core Sampling) flammable gas detector interlock. This hydrogen/flammable gas interlock, a proposed addition to the RMCS system portable exhauster, in intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve new drawings at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

  2. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  3. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  4. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  5. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be ventilated with a sufficient volume of air to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors. (b) In addition, the buildings or rooms shall be— (1) Constructed to meet a fire resistance rating of...

  6. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials Considered for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susan A.; Beeson, Harold; Pedley, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest expected oxygen concentration environment. The test conditions and its pass/fail test logic do not provide sufficient quantitative materials flammability information for an advanced space exploration program. A modified approach has been suggested determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. The flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats. This paper provides data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program.

  7. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  8. Calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling of fuel mixture lower flammability limits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuman; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-02-15

    Heat loss can affect experimental flammability limits, and it becomes indispensable to quantify flammability limits when apparatus quenching effect becomes significant. In this research, the lower flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures are predicted using calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling, which is based on the principle of energy conservation. Specifically, the hydrocarbon mixture lower flammability limit is quantitatively correlated to its final flame temperature at non-adiabatic conditions. The modeling predictions are compared with experimental observations to verify the validity of CFT modeling, and the minor deviations between them indicated that CFT modeling can represent experimental measurements very well. Moreover, the CFT modeling results and Le Chatelier's Law predictions are also compared, and the agreement between them indicates that CFT modeling provides a theoretical justification for the Le Chatelier's Law. PMID:19819067

  9. Flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility with aerospace fluids of wire insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Johnson, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center requested NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility to conduct flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility tests with aerospace fluids of several wire insulations.

  10. 65 FR 56991 - Improved Flammability Standards for Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Materials Used in Transport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-09-20

    ... Standards for Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Materials Used in Transport Category Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... proposes upgraded flammability standards for thermal/acoustic insulation materials typically installed... current standards do not realistically address situations in which thermal/acoustic insulation...

  11. Characterization of flammability properties of some thermoplastic and thermoset resins. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability properties of some thermally stable polymers considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied include: (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature; (2) dynamic thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic environment; (3) flammability properties such as oxygen index, flame spread, and smoke evolution; and (4) selected physical properties. The thermoplastic polymers evaluated included polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polyether sulfone. The thermoset polymers evaluated included epoxy, bismaleimide, a modified phenolic and polyaromatic melamine resin. These resins were primarily used in the fabrication of glass reinforced prepregs for the construction of experimental panels. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability parameters are presented and the relationship of the molecular structure, char yield, and flammability properties of these polymers are discussed.

  12. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  13. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  14. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  15. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.; Crawford, F.R.

    1994-12-01

    Because of concerns for the effect that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids currently in use as refrigerants have on the environment, the refrigeration industry is considering the use of natural refrigerants, many of which are potentially flammable. In some cases, these flammable fluids may result in the least environmental damage when considering ozone depletion, global warming, efficiency, and photochemical reactivity. Many potentially flammable fluids have been proven to be effective when used either by themselves or as a part of a binary or ternary mixture. However, despite favorable initial test results, these fluids may not be acceptable to the general public if questions of safety cannot be adequately addressed. Significant research is being conducted to investigate the flammability of these materials. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the impact and variability of eleven different parameters which may affect flammability and/or combustibility of refrigerants and refrigerant blends, as a function of composition and test conditions, and to develop a better understanding of methods and conditions to measure the flammability of refrigerants. The refrigerants used in this study are being considered as new refrigerants and reviewed published data on these materials is scarce. The data contained herein should not be considered complete and should be used only to make relative comparisons of the impacts of the test parameters, not to represent the flammability characteristics of the materials. This report documents Task 3 of the test program. During Task 1, technical literature was thoroughly reviewed and a database of available documents was constructed. During Task 2, the test plan for this task was written. The goals of Task 3 are to investigate the flammability characteristics of selected blends of refrigerants R32, R134a, and R125 using an existing explosion sphere and a newly-constructed ASTM E681 apparatus.

  16. Microgravity Flammability of PMMA Rods in Concurrent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity experiments burning cast PMMA cylindrical rods in axial flow have been conducted aboard the International Space Station in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility using the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) flow duct, as part of the BASS-II experiment. Twenty-four concurrent-flow tests were performed, focusing on finding flammability limits as a function of oxygen and flow speed. The oxygen was varied by using gaseous nitrogen to vitiate the working volume of the MSG. The speed of the flow parallel to the rod was varied using a fan at the entrance to the duct. Both blowoff and quenching limits were obtained at several oxygen concentrations. Each experiment ignited the rod at the initially hemispherical stagnation tip of the rod, and allowed the flame to develop and heat the rod at a sufficient flow to sustain burning. For blowoff limit tests, the astronaut quickly turned up the flow to obtain extinction. Complementary 5.18-second Zero Gravity Facility drop tests were conducted to compare blowoff limits in short and long duration microgravity. For quenching tests, the flow was incrementally turned down and the flame allowed to stabilize at the new flow condition for at least the solid-phase response time before changing it again. Quenching was observed when the flow became sufficiently weak that the flame could no longer provide adequate heat flux to compensate for the heat losses (conduction into the rod and radiation). A surface energy balance is presented that shows the surface radiative loss exceeds the conductive loss into the rod near the limit. The flammability boundary is shown to represent a critical Damkohler number, expressed in terms of the reaction rate divided by the stretch rate. For the blowoff branch, the boundary exhibits a linear dependence on oxygen concentration and stretch rate, indicating that the temperature at blowoff must be fairly constant. For the quenching branch, the dominance of the exponential nature of

  17. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk. PMID:25501786

  18. [Calculation of flammability limits of gas phases with ethylene oxide in sterilisers].

    PubMed

    Askar, Enis; Schröder, Volkmar; Acikalin, Aydan; Steinbach, Jörg

    2008-12-01

    A calculation method for flammability limits of gas phases with ethylene oxide in sterilisers was developed. Using the Software GasEq and the newly developed Makro "SterEx" for MS-Excel, flammability limits of mixtures with ethylene oxide, air and inert gases at temperatures between 20 degrees C and 100 degrees C and pressures between 0.4 bar and 1.0 bar can be calculated. This method can be used to easily determine safe operating conditions. The used semi-empirical model is based upon the assumption of constant flame temperature profiles at the flammability limits subject to the EO-concentration for different mixtures. To collect model parameters and to validate the model, several experiments with mixtures of ethylene oxide, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapour and air were carried out to determine flammability limits. To simulate the structural conditions of sterilisers, the experiments were conducted in accordance to DIN EN 1839-B in a closed autoclave with temperatures and pressures relevant for sterilisation processes. The calculation of flammability limits of process gas mixtures with "SterEx" provides good agreement with flammability limits that were determined in experiments. PMID:19037868

  19. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  20. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  1. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  2. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  3. The USML-1 wire insulation flammability glovebox experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Flame spreading tests have been conducted using thin fuels in microgravity where buoyant convection is suppressed. In spacecraft experiments flames were ignited in quiescent atmospheres with an elevated oxygen content, demonstrating that diffusional mechanisms can be sufficient alone to sustain flame spreading. In ground-based facilities (i.e. drop towers and parabolic aircraft) low-speed convection sustains flames at much lower concentrations of atmospheric oxygen than in quiescent microgravity. Ground-based experiments are limited to very thin fuels (e.g., tissue paper); practical fuels, which are thicker, require more test time than is available. The Glovebox Facility provided for the USML 1 mission provided an opportunity to obtain flame spreading data for thicker fuel Herein we report the results from the Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) Experiment performed in the Glovebox Facility. This experiment explored the heating, ignition and burning of 0.65 mm thick polyethylene wire insulation in low-speed flows in a reduced gravity environment. Four tests were conducted, two each in concurrent flow (WIF A and C) and opposed flow (WIF B and D), providing the first demonstration of flame spreading in controlled forced convection conducted in space.

  4. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  5. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  6. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  7. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  8. Summary of flammable gas hazard and potential consequences in tank waste remediation system facility at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document provides a summary of the flammable gas program since 1992. It provides the best understanding of generation, retention, release of flammable gases. It gives a composition for each of the flammable gas tanks, calculates postulated concentrations in the event of a release, calculates the pressure obtained during a burn, and provides radiological and toxicological consequences. Controls from the analysis are found in WHC-SD-WM-SAR-067.

  9. Premixed hydrogen-oxygen flames. Part II: Quasi-isobaric ignition near the flammability limits

    SciTech Connect

    He, Longting; Clavin, P. Univ. d'Aix-Marseille )

    1993-06-01

    A numerical study of one-dimensional and time-dependent problems in quasi-isobaric combustion of H2-02 mixtures is carried out with a complex chemical network and detailed molecular transport mechanisms. A first numerical result shows that a diffusive-thermal instability corresponding to a Hopf bifurcation appears in the propagation of planar flames in the neighborhood of the H2-rich flammability limit. The corresponding critical mole fraction of H2 is 0.947 at ordinary conditions with a flame velocity of about 45 cm/s, compared with 0.96 for the flammability limit. The quasi-isobaric ignition by a hot pocket of combustion products is also investigated numerically. The critical size of the hot pockets is determined as a function of the equivalence ratio. It is found that when the H2-rich flammability limit is approached, the critical radius becomes much larger than the flame thickness and moreover, it diverges before reaching the planar flammability limit, at a critical H2 mole fraction about 0.945 at ordinary conditions (compared with 0.96). Thus, planar flames cannot be ignited in this way in the range of H2 mole fractions between 0.945 and 0.96 where the burning velocity varies from about 50 cm/s to few millimeters per second. Near the H2 lean flammability limit the situation is quite different. The critical size is smaller than the planar flame thickness, and spherical flames with a very small initial radius may grow in lean mixtures even beyond the flammability limit of planar flames. These phenomena are explained by an elementary analytical study of a minimal model coupling preferential diffusion mechanisms with the kinetic effects controlling the planar flammability limits.

  10. Materials Safety - Not just Flammability and Toxic Offgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, the safety community has focused on a limited subset of materials and processes requirements as key to safety: Materials flammability, Toxic offgassing, Propellant compatibility, Oxygen compatibility, and Stress-corrosion cracking. All these items are important, but the exclusive focus on these items neglects many other items that are equally important to materials safety. Examples include (but are not limited to): 1. Materials process control -- proper qualification and execution of manufacturing processes such as structural adhesive bonding, welding, and forging are crucial to materials safety. Limitation of discussions on materials process control to an arbitrary subset of processes, known as "critical processes" is a mistake, because any process where the quality of the product cannot be verified by inspection can potentially result in unsafe hardware 2 Materials structural design allowables -- development of valid design allowables when none exist in the literature requires extensive testing of multiple lots of materials and is extremely expensive. But, without valid allowables, structural analysis cannot verify structural safety 3. Corrosion control -- All forms of corrosion, not just stress corrosion, can affect structural integrity of hardware 4. Contamination control during ground processing -- contamination control is critical to manufacturing processes such as adhesive bonding and also to elimination foreign objects and debris (FOD) that are hazardous to the crew of manned spacecraft in microgravity environments. 5. Fasteners -- Fastener design, the use of verifiable secondary locking features, and proper verification of fastener torque are essential for proper structural performance This presentation discusses some of these key factors and the importance of considering them in ensuring the safety of space hardware.

  11. Fire safety in space - beyond flammability testing of small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian; Niehaus, Justin; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Legros, Guillaume; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; T`ien, James S.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2015-04-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever to be tested for material flammability in microgravity, which will be based on the characteristics of flame spread over the surface of the combustible material. Furthermore, the experiments will have a duration that is unmatched in scale compared to earth based microgravity research facilities such as drop towers (about 5 s) and parabolic flights (about 20 s). In contrast to sounding rockets, the experiments offer a much larger volume, and the reduction in the oxygen concentration during the Saffire experiments will be minimal. The selection of the experimental settings for the first three Saffire experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated.

  12. Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials - Method to Determine the Flammability Thresholds of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety emphasizes fire prevention, which is achieved primarily through the use of fire-resistant materials. Materials selection for spacecraft is based on conventional flammability acceptance tests, along with prescribed quantity limitations and configuration control for items that are non-pass or questionable. ISO 14624-1 and -2 are the major methods used to evaluate flammability of polymeric materials intended for use in the habitable environments of spacecraft. The methods are upward flame-propagation tests initiated in static environments and using a well-defined igniter flame at the bottom of the sample. The tests are conducted in the most severe flaming combustion environment expected in the spacecraft. The pass/fail test logic of ISO 14624-1 and -2 does not allow a quantitative comparison with reduced gravity or microgravity test results; therefore their use is limited, and possibilities for in-depth theoretical analyses and realistic estimates of spacecraft fire extinguishment requirements are practically eliminated. To better understand the applicability of laboratory test data to actual spacecraft environments, a modified ISO 14624 protocol has been proposed that, as an alternative to qualifying materials as pass/fail in the worst-expected environments, measures the actual upward flammability limit for the material. A working group established by NASA to provide recommendations for exploration spacecraft internal atmospheres realized the importance of correlating laboratory data with real-life environments and recommended NASA to develop a flammability threshold test method. The working group indicated that for the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extravehicular landers and habitats

  13. Modelling leaf, plant and stand flammability for ecological and operational decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Numerous factors have been found to affect the flammability of individual leaves and plant parts; however the way in which these factors relate to whole plant flammability, fire behaviour and the overall risk imposed by fire is not straightforward. Similarly, although the structure of plant communities is known to affect the flammability of the stand, a quantified, broadly applicable link has proven difficult to establish and validate. These knowledge gaps have presented major obstacles to the integration into fire behaviour science of research into factors affecting plant flammability, physiology, species succession and structural change, so that the management of ecosystems for fire risk is largely uninformed by these fields. The Forest Flammability Model (Zylstra, 2011) is a process-driven, complex systems model developed specifically to address this disconnect. Flame dimensions and position are calculated as properties emerging from the capacity for convective heat to propagate flame between horizontally and vertically separated leaves, branches, plants and plant strata, and this capacity is determined dynamically from the ignitability, combustibility and sustainability of those objects, their spatial arrangement and a vector-based model of the plume temperature from each burning fuel. All flammability properties as well as the physics of flame dimensions, angle and temperature distributions and the vertical structure of wind within the plant array use published sub-models which can be replaced as further work is developed. This modular structure provides a platform for the immediate application of new work on any aspect of leaf flammability or fire physics. Initial validation of the model examined its qualitative predictions for trends in forest flammability as a function of time since fire. The positive feedback predicted for the subalpine forest examined constituted a 'risky prediction' by running counter to the expectations of the existing approach, however

  14. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David

    2010-01-01

    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  15. Pressure Effects on Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

  16. Numerical Investigation of the Hydrogen Jet Flammable Envelope Extent with Account for Unsteady Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyavsky, Boris; Benard, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    An important aspect of safety analysis in hydrogen applications is determination of the extent of flammable gas envelope in case of hydrogen jet release. Experimental investigations had shown significant disagreements between the extent of average flammable envelope predicted by steady-state numerical methods, and the region observed to support ignition, with proposed cause being non-steady jet phenomena resulting in significant variations of instantaneous gas concentration and velocity fields in the jet. In order to investigate the influence of these transient phenomena, a numerical investigation of hydrogen jet at low Mach number had been performed using unsteady Large Eddy Simulation. Instantaneous hydrogen concentration and velocity fields were monitored to determine instantaneous flammable envelope. The evolution of the instantaneous fields, including the development of the turbulence structures carrying hydrogen, their extent and frequency, and their relation with averaged fields had been characterized. Simulation had shown significant variability of the flammable envelope, with jet flapping causing shedding of large scale rich and lean gas pockets from the main jet core, which persist for significant times and substantially alter the extent of flammability envelope.

  17. Evaluation of high-level nuclear waste tanks having a potential flammable gas hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Barton, W.B.; Hill, R.C.; et al, Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy declared an unreviewed safety question as a result of the behavior of tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gases that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-101 and the other tanks associated with a potential flammable gas hazard. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release and covers the results of direct sampling of the tanks to determine the gas composition and the amount of stored gas.

  18. Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlman, E.H.

    1995-01-25

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser.

  19. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  20. Processing and Characterization of Flame Retardant Cotton Blend Nonwovens for Soft Furnishings to Meet Federal Flammability Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective July 1, 2007, it is mandatory that all mattress sets meet the federal flammability standard CFR 1633. It is necessary to impart flame resistance that would provide at least 30 minutes for occupants to escape fire. Changes in the flammability laws are expected on soft furnishings of sleep ...