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Sample records for 2011-10-01 false flammable

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  3. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  4. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  5. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  8. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  9. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  10. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  11. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable vapor detection systems. 182.480 Section 182... detection systems. (a) A flammable vapor detection system required by § 182.410(c) must meet UL 1110... checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary...

  12. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  13. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  14. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable solids and oxidizing materials used as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15...

  15. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  17. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  18. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fires and flammable material. 423.31... of Conduct § 423.31 Fires and flammable material. (a) You must not leave a fire unattended, and it... designed for that purpose. (e) You must comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local fire...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  20. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section...

  1. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  2. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  3. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  4. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  5. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fires and flammable material. 423.31 Section 423.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... smoking materials, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, matches, or other burning material. (c) You...

  6. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false...

  7. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  8. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  9. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

  10. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  11. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  12. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  14. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 238 - Test Methods and Performance Criteria for the Flammability and Smoke Emission Characteristics of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... demonstrated to be permanent after dynamic testing according to ASTM D 3574-95, Test I 2 (Dynamic Fatigue Test by the Roller Shear at Constant Force) or Test I 3 (Dynamic Fatigue Test by Constant Force Pounding... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test Methods and Performance Criteria for...

  16. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures...

  17. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY GENERAL RULES § 1570.13 False statements... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements regarding security...

  18. 16 CFR 1611.4 - Flammability test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability test. 1611.4 Section 1611.4... FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.4 Flammability test. (a) Apparatus and materials. The... protect the igniter flame and specimen from air currents during tests, yet contain a suitable door...

  19. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  20. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  1. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  2. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  3. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.532 Section 172.532... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must...

  4. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.417 Section 172.417... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS... on the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be red....

  5. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable liquids; storage. 77.1103 Section 77... Fire Protection § 77.1103 Flammable liquids; storage. (a) Flammable liquids shall be stored in accordance with standards of the National Fire Protection Association. Small quantities of flammable...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-22 - Flammable liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-22 Section 30.10-22...-22 Flammable liquid—TB/ALL. The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable... below a temperature of 80 °F. Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (a) Grade A....

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Flammability Apparatus ER25MR08.000...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Flammability Apparatus ER25MR08.000...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  8. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable...

  9. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable...

  10. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable...

  11. 49 CFR 176.142 - Hazardous materials of extreme flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials of extreme flammability. 176... of extreme flammability. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, certain hazardous materials of extreme flammability may not be transported in a vessel carrying Class 1 (explosive)...

  12. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  13. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  14. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  15. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  16. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  17. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  18. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  19. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  20. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  1. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  2. 46 CFR 147.45 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids. 147.45 Section 147.45... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.45 Flammable and combustible liquids. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids...

  3. 46 CFR 109.557 - Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. 109.557... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.557 Flammable and combustible liquids: Carriage. The master or person in charge shall ensure that— (a) Flammable and combustible liquids in bulk are not...

  4. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  5. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  6. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  7. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  8. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability-general requirement. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general...

  9. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  10. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  11. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  12. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  13. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extremely flammable contact adhesives... REGULATIONS § 1500.133 Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when distributed in containers intended or suitable...

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  15. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-37 - Flammable anesthetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable anesthetics. 111.105-37 Section 111.105-37...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-37 Flammable anesthetics. Each electric installation where a flammable anesthetic is used or stored must meet NFPA 99 (incorporated by reference, see 46...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  2. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  3. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  4. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  5. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  7. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  8. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  9. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  10. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  11. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  12. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  13. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. 172.415 Section 172.415... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.020 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. 172.528 Section 172.528... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.045 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519,...

  15. Is Your Furniture Flammable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Eva

    1982-01-01

    A flammability standard for upholstered furniture is intended to prevent furniture from becoming a major contributing factor to a fire or from generating toxic fumes. Advice is offered on how to set a flammability standard and how to apply it. (Author/MLF)

  16. Flammability Indices for Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Osami

    This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.

  17. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  18. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  19. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  3. 46 CFR 188.10-27 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 188.10-27 Section 188.10-27 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-27 Flammable liquid. This term includes any liquid whose flashpoint, as determined by an open cup tester, is 80 °F. or below....

  4. 46 CFR 148.420 - Flammable gas analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas analyzers. 148.420 Section 148.420... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.420 Flammable gas analyzers..., each vessel transporting the material, other than an unmanned barge, must have on board a gas...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a fixed... gas-safe; (5) Each hold space, interbarrier space, and other enclosed spaces, except fuel oil or... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  8. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  9. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  10. 49 CFR 176.230 - Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.230 Stowage of Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials. Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials transported in...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage... flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Surface storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100...

  12. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  13. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  14. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  15. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  16. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  17. 46 CFR 90.05-35 - Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. 90.05-35... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-35 Flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of flammable and combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610—Sketch...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1610 - Sketch of Flammability Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sketch of Flammability Apparatus 1 Figure 1 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  2. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  3. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the...

  4. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of hand flashlights. 176.320 Section 176.320... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable)...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  6. 46 CFR 38.05-25 - Refrigerated systems-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigerated systems-TB/ALL. 38.05-25 Section 38.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-25 Refrigerated systems—TB/ALL. (a) When a liquefied flammable gas is carried...

  7. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  8. Control of Materials Flammability Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Dennis E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on selecting, using, and configuring spacecraft materials in such a way as to minimize the ability of fire to spread onboard a spacecraft. The presentation gives an overview of the flammability requirements of NASA-STD-6001, listing specific tests and evaluation criteria it requires. The presentation then gives flammability reduction methods for specific spacecraft items and materials.

  9. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  10. 46 CFR 153.515 - Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.515 Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes... inerting system that meets the requirements in § 153.500 applying to the inert gas system of a...

  11. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  12. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable or combustible liquid storage... combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a) Storage buildings or storage rooms in which flammable or combustible liquids, including grease, are stored and that are within 100 feet of any person's work...

  14. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes to type certificates affecting fuel..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.35 Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability....

  15. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  16. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  17. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  18. 46 CFR 70.05-30 - Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. 70.05-30... GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-30 Combustible and flammable liquid cargo in bulk. Note... limited quantities of combustible liquid cargo in bulk in the grades indicated, provided the...

  19. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  1. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  2. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  3. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  4. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  5. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  6. 46 CFR 153.462 - Static discharges from inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Static discharges from inert gas systems. 153.462... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.462 Static discharges from inert... create static arcing as the inert gas is injected into the tank....

  7. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must...

  8. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17 Shipping... Compressed gases. (a) Nonflammable compressed gases (excluding oxygen) may be securely stowed in the... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49...

  9. 46 CFR 153.461 - Electrical bonding of independent tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical bonding of independent tanks. 153.461 Section 153.461 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.461 Electrical bonding...

  10. 46 CFR 38.05-1 - Design and construction of vessels-general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and construction of vessels-general-TB/ALL. 38.05... FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-1 Design and construction of vessels—general—TB/ALL. (a) Vessels designed for the carriage of liquefied gases shall comply with the applicable requirements of...

  11. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves... excessive external pressure. (f) Void spaces between the primary and secondary barriers of...

  12. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying...

  13. 46 CFR 147.50 - Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. 147.50 Section..., heating, and lighting. (a) Flammable and combustible liquids and gases not listed in this section are prohibited for cooking, heating, or lighting on any vessel, with the exception of combustible liquids...

  14. 49 CFR 176.340 - Combustible liquids in portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquids in portable tanks. 176.340... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.340 Combustible liquids in portable tanks. Combustible liquids, having a flash point of 38 °C (100 °F) or...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...

  16. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...

  17. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  20. 46 CFR 153.463 - Vent system discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vent system discharges. 153.463 Section 153.463 Shipping... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.463 Vent system discharges. The discharge of a venting system must be at least 10 m (approx. 32.8 ft) from an ignition source if: (a) The cargo tank is...

  1. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests... which must meet section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1986); (2) Each location on...

  2. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  3. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  4. 46 CFR 38.05-5 - Markings-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings-TB/ALL. 38.05-5 Section 38.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-5 Markings—TB/ALL. (a)(1) Upon satisfactory completion of tests and inspection, pressure...

  5. 46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves...

  6. 49 CFR 192.735 - Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.735 Compressor stations: Storage of combustible materials. (a) Flammable or combustible materials... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressor stations: Storage of...

  7. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  8. 46 CFR 25.40-1 - Tanks and engine spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tanks and engine spaces. 25.40-1 Section 25.40-1...-1 Tanks and engine spaces. (a) All motorboats or motor vessels, except open boats and as provided in..., and other spaces to which explosive or flammable gases and vapors from these compartments may...

  9. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fires and flammable material. 423.31 Section 423.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PUBLIC CONDUCT ON BUREAU OF RECLAMATION FACILITIES, LANDS, AND WATERBODIES...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154.1350 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  11. Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study 52827

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, George

    2016-03-17

    This course, Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study (COURSE 52827), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with commonly used, compressed flammable gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. Antimisting kerosene atomization and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Petersen, R. A.; Toaz, R. D.; Jakub, A.; Sarohia, V.

    1982-01-01

    Various parameters found to affect the flammability of antimisting kerosene (Jet A + polymer additive) are investigated. Digital image processing was integrated into a technique for measurement of fuel spray characteristics. This technique was developed to avoid many of the error sources inherent to other spray assessment techniques and was applied to the study of engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel. Aircraft accident fuel spill and ignition dynamics were modeled in a steady state simulator allowing flammability to be measured as a function of airspeed, fuel flow rate, fuel jet Reynolds number and polymer concentration. The digital imaging technique was employed to measure spray characteristics in this simulation and these results were related to flammability test results. Scaling relationships were investigated through correlation of experimental results with characteristic dimensions spanning more than two orders of magnitude.

  13. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  14. Flammability: A Review and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. Bruce; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With its founding in 1975, Committee G-4 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) embarked on the process of defining the flammability of metallic materials in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. In this process, they are joined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the Compressed Gas Association (CGA). Although none of these organizations has explicitly defined flammability, the following definitions and statements provide a composite understanding of the concept: 1. "This Standard Guide (ASTM G94-92) is concerned primarily with the properties of a material associated with its relative susceptibility to ignition and propagation of combustion." 2. "A material is considered flammable at the maximum use pressure if at least one sample burns more than 6 in. (15.2 cm). At least, five samples must be tested." NASA 3. "Flammable: Capable, when ignited of maintaining combustion under the specified environmental conditions." NFPA 53. 4. "Combustion: A complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the evolution of heat, and usually, the emission of light." NFPA 53. and 5. "A safe oxygen-piping transmission or distribution system is one that is designed and installed in accordance with all applicable codes and regulations for the service conditions and locations involved and further meets the special requirements for oxygen services." CGA-G4 Flammability thus equates, after ignition, to propagation of combustion, synonymous with steady state burning, under specified environmental conditions. Properties for which quantitative values are given in ASTM G94-92 and which are used to describe metals flammability consistent with the concept of steady state burning are either system independent properties, such as, enthalpies of reaction, burn ratios, flame temperatures, thermal conductivity, and heat release; or system dependent properties, such as, oxygen

  15. Flammability as an ecological and evolutionary driver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schwilk, Dylan W.

    2017-01-01

    We live on a flammable planet yet there is little consensus on the origin and evolution of flammability in our flora.We argue that part of the problem lies in the concept of flammability, which should not be viewed as a single quantitative trait or metric. Rather, we propose that flammability has three major dimensions that are not necessarily correlated: ignitability, heat release and fire spread rate. These major axes of variation are controlled by different plant traits and have differing ecological impacts during fire.At the individual plant scale, these traits define three flammability strategies observed in fire-prone ecosystems: the non-flammable, the fast-flammable and the hot-flammable strategy (with low ignitability, high flame spread rate and high heat release, respectively). These strategies increase the survival or reproduction under recurrent fires, and thus, plants in fire-prone ecosystems benefit from acquiring one of them; they represent different (alternative) ways to live under recurrent fires.Synthesis. This novel framework based on different flammability strategies helps us to understand variability in flammability across scales, and provides a basis for further research.

  16. Flammable gas program topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-10-30

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  17. Antimisting fuel breakup and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Fleeter, R.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    The breakup behavior and flammability of antimisting turbine fuels subjected to aerodynamic shear are investigated. Fuels tested were Jet A containing 0.3% FM-9 polymer at various levels of degradation ranging from virgin AMK to neat Jet A. The misting behavior of the fuels was quantified by droplet size distribution measurements. A technique based on high resolution laser photography and digital image processing of photographic records for rapid determination of droplet size distribution was developed. The flammability of flowing droplet-air mixtures was quantified by direct measurements of temperature rise in a flame established in the wake of a continuous ignition source. The temperature rise measurements were correlated with droplet size measurements. The flame anchoring phenomenon associated with the breakup of a liquid fuel in the wake of bluff body was shown to be important in the context of a survivable crash scenario. A pass/fail criterion for flammability testing of antimisting fuels, based on this flame-anchoring phenomenon, was proposed. The role of various ignition sources and their intensity in ignition and post-ignition behavior of antimisting fuels was also investigated.

  18. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  19. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  20. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  1. 49 CFR 172.542 - FLAMMABLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.542 FLAMMABLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.049 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background color...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.152 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice. (E) (F) Special engineering... the tanks are designed to contain flammable iquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F. (ii.... (D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.152 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice. (E) (F) Special engineering... the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F. (ii.... (D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at...

  4. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  5. Selected Parametric Effects on Materials Flammability Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Juarez, Alfredo; Peyton, Gary J.; Harper, Susana A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1 is currently used to evaluate the flammability of materials intended for use in habitable environments of U.S. spacecraft. The method is a pass/fail upward flame propagation test conducted in the worst case configuration, which is defined as a combination of a material s thickness, test pressure, oxygen concentration, and temperature that make the material most flammable. Although simple parametric effects may be intuitive (such as increasing oxygen concentrations resulting in increased flammability), combinations of multi-parameter effects could be more complex. In addition, there are a variety of material configurations used in spacecraft. Such configurations could include, for example, exposed free edges where fire propagation may be different when compared to configurations commonly employed in standard testing. Studies involving combined oxygen concentration, pressure, and temperature on flammability limits have been conducted and are summarized in this paper. Additional effects on flammability limits of a material s thickness, mode of ignition, burn-length criteria, and exposed edges are presented. The information obtained will allow proper selection of ground flammability test conditions, support further studies comparing flammability in 1-g with microgravity and reduced gravity environments, and contribute to persuasive scientific cases for rigorous space system fire risk assessments.

  6. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  7. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity fire behaviour remains poorly understood and a significant risk for spaceflight An experiment is under development that will provide the first real opportunity to examine this issue focussing on two objectives: a) Flame Spread. b) Material Flammability. This experiment has been shown to be feasible on both ESA's ATV and Orbital Science's Cygnus vehicles with the Cygnus as the current base-line carrier. An international topical team has been formed to develop concepts for that experiment and support its implementation: a) Pressure Rise prediction. b) Sample Material Selection. This experiment would be a landmark for spacecraft fire safety with the data and subsequent analysis providing much needed verification of spacecraft fire safety protocols for the crews of future exploration vehicles and habitats.

  8. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only.

  9. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  10. Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kimberley J; Ripley, Brad S; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Belcher, Claire M; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Thomas, Gavin H; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-01-01

    Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this variation, remains unknown.By burning leaves and plant parts, we experimentally determined how five plant traits (biomass quantity, biomass density, biomass moisture content, leaf surface-area-to-volume ratio and leaf effective heat of combustion) combined to determine the three components of flammability (ignitability, sustainability and combustibility) at the leaf and plant scales in 25 grass species of fire-prone South African grasslands at a time of peak fire occurrence. The influence of evolutionary history on flammability was assessed based on a phylogeny built here for the study species.Grass species differed significantly in all components of flammability. Accounting for evolutionary history helped to explain patterns in leaf-scale combustibility and sustainability. The five measured plant traits predicted components of flammability, particularly leaf ignitability and plant combustibility in which 70% and 58% of variation, respectively, could be explained by a combination of the traits. Total above-ground biomass was a key driver of combustibility and sustainability with high biomass species burning more intensely and for longer, and producing the highest predicted fire spread rates. Moisture content was the main influence on ignitability, where species with higher moisture contents took longer to ignite and once alight burnt at a slower rate. Biomass density, leaf surface-area-to-volume ratio and leaf effective heat of combustion

  11. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flammable atmosphere under the conditions of use, the following precautions shall be taken: (1) Smoking... atmospheres, or approved as permissible by the Mine Safety and Health Administration or the U.S. Coast...

  12. Organizing Questions for Reduced-Gravity Flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    A team consisting of of the Microgravity Flight Project Scientists for solid flammability experiments has been reviewing and prioritizing a set of organizing questions for fire prevention (material flammability).In particular the team has been charged with determining:What experiments must be conducted to best answer these questions, and can some of the quest ions be answered using existing/planned hardware or experimental concepts?Is the NASA STD 6001, Test 1 configuration conservative or non-conservative in assessing material flammability in reduced gravity?NASA ST D 6001, Test 1 is an upward flammability test, considered the most stringent test in normal gravity. A material that passes this test would most likely not burn in a quiescent microgravity environment.A forced ignition and spread test is described.

  13. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flammable atmosphere under the conditions of use, the following precautions shall be taken: (1) Smoking... sufficient slack to prevent undue stress or chafing. (6) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall...

  14. 14 CFR 121.255 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in... least one-half inch of clear airspace must be provided between any tank or reservoir and a firewall...

  15. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  16. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  17. 46 CFR 132.390 - Added requirements for carriage of flammable or combustible cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Added requirements for carriage of flammable or combustible cargo. 132.390 Section 132.390 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.390 Added requirements for...

  18. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS Test Requirements § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-55 - Tanks for flammable and combustible oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tanks for flammable and combustible oil. 58.01-55 Section 58.01-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN... combustible oil. (a) For the purposes of this section, a machinery space of category A is a space...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M Appendix M to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to...

  1. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... solids and oxidizing materials used as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  2. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  3. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  4. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  5. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  6. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  7. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1345 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas detection. 154.1345 Section 154.1345 Shipping COAST... § 154.1345 Gas detection. (a) Each vessel carrying a cargo that is designated with an “I” or “I and T” in Table 4 must have: (1) A fixed flammable gas detection system that meets § 154.1350; and (2)...

  9. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  10. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  11. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  12. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  13. 49 CFR 172.420 - FLAMMABLE SOLID label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.420 FLAMMABLE SOLID label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE...

  14. Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

  15. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  16. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  17. 49 CFR 172.415 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.415 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the NON-FLAMMABLE... color on the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS label must be green....

  18. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  19. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a..., the design of the system, the materials used in the tank, the shut-off means, and all connections... or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone. (c) Absorbent...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1185 Flammable fluids... equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were outside such a zone. (b) Each fuel...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) No tank or reservoir that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a... equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were outside such a zone. (b) Each fuel tank... clear airspace between each tank or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated...

  5. THE FLAMMABILITY ANALYSIS AND TIME TO REACH LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT CALCULATIONS ON THE WASTE EVAPORATION AT 242-A EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2007-10-31

    This document describes the analysis of the waste evaporation process on the flammability behavior. The evaluation calculates the gas generation rate, time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), and minimum ventilation rates for the 242-A Evaporator facility during the normal evaporation process and when vacuum is lost. This analysis performs flammability calculations on the waste currently within all 28 double-shell tanks (DST) under various evaporation process conditions to provide a wide spectrum of possible flammable gas behavior. The results of this analysis are used to support flammable gas control decisions and support and upgrade to Documented Safety Analysis for the 242-A Evaporator.

  6. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  7. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  8. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  9. Flammable gas data evaluation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.D.; Meyer, P.A.; Miller, N.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Numerous safety and environmental concerns surround these tanks and their contents. One such concern is the propensity for the waste in these tanks to generate, retain, and periodically release flammable gases. This report documents some of the activities of the Flammable Gas Project Data Evaluation Task conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal year 1996. Described in this report are: (1) the results of examining the in-tank temperature measurements for insights into gas release behavior; (2) the preliminary results of examining the tank waste level measurements for insights into gas release behavior; and (3) an explanation for the observed hysteresis in the level/pressure measurements, a phenomenon observed earlier this year when high-frequency tank waste level measurements came on-line.

  10. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  11. Flammabilities Of Graphite-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes tests and comparisons of flammabilities, thermal properties, and selected mechanical properties of composite materials made of epoxy and other matrices reinforced by graphite fibers. Composites also compared with baseline epoxy/fiberglass composite. Considers such properties as limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, products of thermal degradation, total heat release, heat-release rate, loss of mass, spread of flames, resistance to ignition, and thermal stability.

  12. The Chemistry of Flammable Gas Generation

    SciTech Connect

    ZACH, J.J.

    2000-10-30

    The document collects information from field instrumentation, laboratory tests, and analytical models to provide a single source of information on the chemistry of flammable gas generation at the Hanford Site. It considers the 3 mechanisms of formation: radiolysis, chemical reactions, and thermal generation. An assessment of the current models for gas generation is then performed. The results are that the various phenomena are reasonably understood and modeled compared to field data.

  13. Flammability limits of fuel/fluorocarbon azeotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Hammond, P.R.; Foote, K.; Ford, H.W. Jr.

    1981-02-10

    Both Dehn and Thorne have intimated that flash point (FP) measurements could be used to define the gas-phase flammability limits of fire and retardant vapor mixtures above the surface of heated retardant containing flammable liquids. However, it was found that ignitable mixtures exist above the liquid surface, where the concentration of the agent in the fluid is well beyond the limiting concentrating for inerting of alcohol fires. Clearly this anomaly results from diffusion competition of air and liquid vapor mixture at the position of the ignitor, as influenced by the design of the experimental apparatus. The authors are skeptical about the need or worth of attempting to define flammability limits using FP data, especially since unknown variables control the response. More important is to define the concentration of liquid phase retardant that will affect gas phase inerting. Thus, it is necessary to continue practical testing of retardant-containing liquids for their effectiveness in mitigating possible accidents, e.g., the next phase of this work will assess the effectiveness of halocarbons to inert high-pressure alcohol/agent leaks impinging on both electrical and flame ignition sources.

  14. 46 CFR 111.106-13 - Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling flammable or combustible cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling... OSVs § 111.106-13 Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling flammable or combustible cargoes... classification of such areas. (c) Cargo pump rooms must be isolated from all sources of vapor ignition...

  15. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  16. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.546 - FLAMMABLE SOLID placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.546 FLAMMABLE SOLID placard. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  19. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  20. Strategy for resolution of the flammable gas safety issue

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-05-23

    This document provides a strategy for resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. It defines the key elements required for the following: Closing the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ); Providing the administrative basis for resolving the safety issue; Defining the data needed to support these activities; and Providing the technical and administrative path for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  1. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine... safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25-quart...) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to— (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are...

  5. 49 CFR 172.528 - NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.528 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the NON... background color on the NON-FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be green. The letters in both words must be at...

  6. 49 CFR 172.417 - FLAMMABLE GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.417 FLAMMABLE GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS label must be as follows: EC02MR91.022 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background...

  7. 49 CFR 172.532 - FLAMMABLE GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.532 FLAMMABLE GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the FLAMMABLE GAS placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.047 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background...

  8. Measurement and numerical analysis of flammability limits of halogenated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2004-06-18

    Flammability limits measurement was made for a number of halogenated compounds by the ASHRAE method. Most of compounds measured are the ones for which discrepancy was noted between the literature values and predicted values of flammability limits. As a result, it has been found that most of the newly obtained values of flammability limits are not in accordance with the literature values. Numerical analysis was carried out for a set of flammability limits data including the newly obtained ones using a modified analytical method based on F-number scheme. In this method, fitting procedure was done directly to flammability limits themselves instead of fitting to F-number. After the fitting process, the average relative deviation between the observed and calculated values is 9.3% for the lower limits and 14.6% for the upper limits.

  9. Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

    1997-09-01

    The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

  10. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  11. Spacecraft and Navy Materials Flammability: Review of Some Concepts and Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2004-01-01

    The agenda covered by this viewgraph presentation includes: 1) Concepts of Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Spacecraft materials flammability test methods; 3) Evaluation of flight hardware flammability; 4) Review of flammability data in conditions of interest to the Navy; 5) Overview of some flammability test methods recommended for the Navy.

  12. Flammability measurements of difluoromethane in air at 100 C

    SciTech Connect

    Grosshandler, W.L.; Donnelly, M.K.; Womeldorf, C.

    1999-07-01

    Difluoromethane (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, or R-32) is a candidate to replace currently used ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Because CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} is flammable, it is necessary to assess the hazard posed by a leak in a refrigeration machine. The currently accepted method for determining flammability, ASTM E 681, has difficulty discerning the flammability boundary for weak fuels such as CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}. This paper describes an alternative approach to identify the limits of flammability, using a twin, premixed counter-flow flame. By using the extinction of an already established flame, the point dividing flammable from non-flammable becomes unambiguous. The limiting extinction mixture changes with stretch rate, so it is convenient to report the flammability limit as the value extrapolated to a zero stretch condition. In the burner, contoured nozzles with outlet diameters of 12 mm are aligned counter to each other and spaced 12 mm apart. The lean flammability limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} in dry air at room temperature was previously reported by the authors to be a mole fraction of 0.14, using the twin counter-flow flame method. In the current study, relative humidity was not found to affect the lean limit. Increasing the temperature of the premixed fuel and air to 100 C is shown to extend the flammability limit in the lean direction to 0.13. The rich limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} found using the counter-flow method is around 0.27. The uncertainties of the measurements are presented and the results compared to data in the literature.

  13. Pressure Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the highest pressure in oxygen where materials used in the planned NASA Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM) would not propagate a flame if an ignition source was present. The test methodology used was similar to that previously used to determine the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which self-extinguishment occurs under constant total pressure conditions. An upward limiting pressure index (ULPI) was determined, where approximately 50 percent of the materials self-extinguish in a given environment. Following this, the maximum total pressure (MTP) was identified; where all samples tested (at least five) self-extinguished following the NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1 burn length criteria. The results obtained on seven materials indicate that the non-metallic materials become flammable in oxygen between 0.4 and 0.9 psia.

  14. Upward Flammability Testing: A Probabilistic Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Samuel E.; Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin R.

    2003-01-01

    Examination of NASA-STD-6001 Test 1 data suggests burn length outcome for a given environment has a large statistical variation from run to run. Large data sets show that burn length data form cumulative probability distribution curves, which describe a material's characteristic to burn in a specific environment, suggesting that the current practice of testing three samples at specific conditions is inadequate. Sufficient testing can establish material characteristics probability curves to provide the probability that a material will sustain a burn length of at least 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) or will sustain burning until all material is consumed. A simple pasdfail criterion may not be possible or practical. Future application of flammability data for some material classes may require the engineer to assess risk based on the probability of an occurrence and the probable outcome with different materials as characterized with cumulative burn length distributions for specific use conditions.

  15. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  16. DOE/DOE Tight Oil Flammability & Transportation Spill Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes crude oils, their phase behavior, the SPR vapor pressure program, and presents data comparisons from various analytical techniques. The overall objective is to describe physical properties of crude oil relevant to flammability and transport safety

  17. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flammable gas detection system that has sampling points in: (1) Each cargo pump room; (2) Each cargo compressor room; (3) Each motor room for cargo handling machinery; (4) Each cargo control station that is...

  18. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  19. Pressure Flammability Thresholds in Oxygen of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Harper, Susana; Beeson, Harold; Ruff, Gary; Pedley, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The experimental approach consisted of concentrating the testing in the flammability transition zone following the Bruceton Up-and-Down Method. For attribute data, the method has been shown to be very repeatable and most efficient. Other methods for characterization of critical levels (Karberand Probit) were also considered. The data yielded the upward limiting pressure index (ULPI), the pressure level where approx.50% of materials self-extinguish in a given environment.Parametric flammability thresholds other than oxygen concentration can be determined with the methodology proposed for evaluating the MOC when extinguishment occurs. In this case, a pressure threshold in 99.8% oxygen was determined with the methodology and found to be 0.4 to 0.9 psia for typical spacecraft materials. Correlation of flammability thresholds obtained with chemical, hot wire, and other ignition sources will be conducted to provide recommendations for using alternate ignition sources to evaluate flammability of aerospace materials.

  20. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  1. Flammability limits of isobutane and its mixtures with various gases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Sekiya, Akira

    2007-09-30

    Flammability limits of isobutane and five kinds of binary mixtures of isobutane were measured by the ASHRAE method. Propane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, chloroform, and HFC-125 (1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane) were used as the counter part gases in the mixtures. The observed data were analyzed using the equations based on Le Chatelier's formula. The flammability limits of mixtures with propane were well explained by the original Le Chatelier's formula. The flammability limits of mixtures with nitrogen and the ones with carbon dioxide were adequately analyzed by the extended Le Chatelier's formula. It was found that the extended Le Chatelier's formula is also applicable to the flammability limits of mixtures with chloroform and HFC-125.

  2. Effect of a zero g environment on flammability limits as determined using a standard flammability tube apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Reuss, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Flammability limits in a zero gravity environment were defined. Key aspects of a possible spacelab experiment were investigated analytically, experimentally on the bench, and in drop tower facilities. A conceptual design for a spacelab experiment was developed.

  3. Experimental Verification of Material Flammability in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Balashov, Y. V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Melikhov, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The flammability in microgravity of three US-furnished materials, Delrin, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and high-density polyethylene, was determined using a Russian-developed combustion tunnel on Mir. Four 4.5-mm-diameter cylindrical samples of each plastic were ignited under concurrent airflow (in the direction of flame spread) with velocities from no flow to 8.5 cm/s. The test results identify a limiting air-flow velocity V(sub lim) for each material, below which combustion ceases. Nominal values are V(sub lim) < 0.3 cm/s for Delrin, 0.5 cm/s for PMMA, and 0.3 to 0.5 cm/s for polyethylene. These values are lower than those obtained in prior ground testing. Nevertheless, they demonstrate that flow shutoff is effective for extinguishment in the microgravity environment of spacecraft. Microgravity test results also show that the plastic materials maintain a stable melt ball within the spreading flame zone. In general, as the concurrent flow velocity V decreases, the flame-spread rate V(sub F) decreases, from an average (for all three materials) of V(sub F)= 0.5-0.75 mm/s at V = 8.5 cm/s to V(sub F)= 0.05-0.01 mm/s at V = 0.3-0.5 cm/s. Also, as V decreases, the flames become less visible but expand, increasing the probability of igniting an adjacent surface.

  4. 49 CFR 176.400 - Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides) materials. 176.400 Section 176.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  5. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  6. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  7. On the temperature dependence of flammability limits of gases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2011-03-15

    Flammability limits of several combustible gases were measured at temperatures from 5 to 100 °C in a 12-l spherical flask basically following ASHRAE method. The measurements were done for methane, propane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, dimethyl ether, methyl formate, 1,1-difluoroethane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. As the temperature rises, the lower flammability limits are gradually shifted down and the upper limits are shifted up. Both the limits shift almost linearly to temperature within the range examined. The linear temperature dependence of the lower flammability limits is explained well using a limiting flame temperature concept at the lower concentration limit (LFL)--'White's rule'. The geometric mean of the flammability limits has been found to be relatively constant for many compounds over the temperature range studied (5-100 °C). Based on this fact, the temperature dependence of the upper flammability limit (UFL) can be predicted reasonably using the temperature coefficient calculated for the LFL. However, some compounds such as ethylene and dimethyl ether, in particular, have a more complex temperature dependence.

  8. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate.

  9. Some electrostatic considerations in the transportation of flammable liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.H.; Atharton, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The transportation of flammable liquids in bulk quantities is a common operation in the chemical industry. Therefore a rather comprehensive set of regulations, standards, and recommended practices exists which govern how these operations should be performed in strict accordance with the directions given, occurrence of inadvertent ignitions have been rare, if nonexistent. On the other hand, there have been occasions when seemingly slight and innocuous deviations from the guidelines have been incorporated into an operation, resulting in catastrophic incidents. This paper discusses some of the guidelines concerning electrostatic ignitions of flammable liquids and illustrates specific case histories where such deviations have led to accidents. Two marine incidents, one rail car incident, and two tank truck incidents are presented in detail to amplify why strict adherence to the regulations, standards and recommended practices is vital in operations where flammable liquids are transported. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen when looking south (186°) from South Liquid Loop Road. Note the catch basin for retaining accidentally spilled substances. Wastes are stored in drums and other safety containers until disposal by burning at the Incinerator (4249/E-50) or by other means. Note the nearby sign warning of corrosive, flammable materials, and calling attention to a fire extinguisher; a telephone is provided to call for assistance in the event of an emergency. This structure is isolated to prevent the spread of fire, and it is lightly built so damage from a fire will be inexpensive to repair - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Waste Flammable Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  12. A summary description of the flammable gas tank safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    Radioactive liquid waste may produce hydrogen as result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. If the waste contains organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia may be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site in Washington State, are on a Flammable Gas Watch List. Some contain waste that produces and retains gases until large quantities of gas are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks nearly-filled to capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture could result. The most notable example of a Hanford waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Upon occasion waste stored in this tank has released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several, other Hanford waste tanks exhibit similar behavior although to a lesser magnitude. Because this behavior was hot adequately-addressed in safety analysis reports for the Hanford Tank Farms, an unreviewed safety question was declared, and in 1990 the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program was established to address this problem. The purposes of the program are a follows: (1) Provide safety documents to fill gaps in the safety analysis reports, and (2) Resolve the safety issue by acquiring knowledge about gas retention and release from radioactive liquid waste and developing mitigation technology. This document provides the general logic and work activities required to resolve the unreviewed safety question and the safety issue of flammable gas mixtures in radioactive liquid waste storage tanks.

  13. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  14. Progress toward mitigation of flammable gas Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Hanson, C.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-01-01

    The mixing pump installed in Hanford Site tank 241-SY-101 has been shown to be effective in releasing flammable gases in a controlled manner. This controlled release of gas prevents the accumulation and episodic release above flammable limits. More work needs to be done to optimize the pumping operation, and to evaluate the long-term effects of mixing so as to assure that no undesirable changes have occurred to the waste. Other alternative mitigation concepts are still being evaluated as a backup to mixing.

  15. Development of flammable liquid storage wooden cabinets for chemical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Staggs, K.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.; Doughty, S.M.; Barr, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A fire hardened wooden cabinet was developed for the storage of flammable liquids for LLNL Bldg. 151 nuclear chemistry laboratories. The new cabinet requirements were to fit into existing cabinet spaces, match existing cabinets in appearance, and meet the National Fire Protection Association Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. A standard test apparatus was developed to produce the required fire exposure necessary to evaluate existing cabinets and new designs. The final design was a cabinet insert that could be prefabricated and installed into the appropriate storage area of the existing cabinets.

  16. 77 FR 48505 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs AGENCY... flammability standards for carpets and rugs. No comments were received in response to that notice. Therefore... surface flammability of carpets and rugs and small carpets and rugs. These firms have elected to issue...

  17. ISO 14624 Series - Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials Flammability Assessment of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the flammability of spacecraft materials is shown. The topics include: 1) Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Materials Flammability Test; 3) Impetus for enhanced materials flammability characterization; 4) Exploration Atmosphere Working Group Recommendations; 5) Approach; and 6) Status of implementation

  18. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapor detection system must be operational for 30 seconds prior to engine startup and continue sensing the entire time the engine is running. (d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual... water level in the following locations: (1) The lowest part of a machinery space; (2) The lowest part...

  19. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  20. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  1. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  2. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  3. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Threshold Tests for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James H.

    2007-01-01

    CEV atmosphere will likely change because craft will be used as LEO spacecraft, lunar spacecraft, orbital spacecraft. Possible O2 % increase and overall pressure decrease pressure vessel certs on spacecraft. Want 34% minimum threshold. Higher, better when atmosphere changes. WSTF suggests testing all materials/components to find flammability threshold, pressure and atmosphere.

  4. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  5. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-02-24

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented.

  6. Wire insulation degradation and flammability in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This view-graph presentation covers the following topics: an introduction to spacecraft fire safety, concerns in fire prevention in low gravity, shuttle wire insulation flammability experiment, drop tower risk-based fire safety experiment, and experimental results, conclusions, and proposed studies.

  7. The Safety of Small Containers for Flammable Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Edward S.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights aspects of safety that are unfamiliar to most laypersons and to many chemists as well. Presents findings that may lend themselves to presentation in chemistry classes. Details flammability tests, vapor space hazards, and the special case of gasoline containers. Provides experimental data relating vent area and internal pressure. (CW)

  8. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  9. Flammability and Thermophysical Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    montmorillonite organoclays, POSS®, carbon nanofibers to develop a flame resistant material Thermophysical and flammability properties of these...elastomer manufactured by Dow Chemical. Its typical applications include seals, gaskets, belting, and others. Montmorillonite Nanoclays – Cloisite...30B is a surface treated montmorillonite [Tallow bishydroxyethyl methyl, T(EOH)2M] manufactured by Southern Clay Products Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs

  10. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vapor detection system must be operational for 30 seconds prior to engine startup and continue sensing the entire time the engine is running. (d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual... water level in the following locations: (1) The lowest part of a machinery space; (2) The lowest part...

  11. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  12. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  13. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  14. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  16. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.

  17. Nitrogen dilution effect on the flammability limits for hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chan-Cheng; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Liaw, Horng-Jang; Chen, Hui-Chu

    2009-07-30

    Theoretical models to predict the upper/lower flammability limits of hydrocarbons diluted with inert nitrogen gas are proposed in this study. It is found that there are linear relations between the reciprocal of the upper/lower flammability limits and the reciprocal of the molar fraction of hydrocarbon in the hydrocarbon/inert nitrogen mixture. Such linearity is examined by experimental data reported in the literature, which include the cases of methane, propane, ethylene and propylene. The R-squared values (R(2)) of the regression lines of the cases explored are all greater than 0.989 for upper flammability limit (UFL). The theoretical slope of the predictive line for lower flammability limit (LFL) is found to be very close to zero for all explored cases; and this result successfully explains the experimental fact that adding inert nitrogen to a flammable material has very limited effect on LFL. Because limit oxygen concentration (LOC) could be taken as the intersectional point of the UFL curve and LFL curve, a LOC-based method is proposed to predict the slope of the UFL curve when experimental data of UFL are not available. This LOC-based method predicts the UFL with average error ranging from 2.17% to 5.84% and maximum error ranging from 8.58% to 12.18% for the cases explored. The predictive models for inert gas of nitrogen are also extended to the case of inert gas other than nitrogen. Through the extended models, it was found that the inert ability of an inert gas depends on its mean molar heat capacity at the adiabatic flame temperature. Theoretical calculation shows that the inert abilities of carbon dioxide, steam, nitrogen and helium are in the following order: carbon dioxide>steam>nitrogen>helium; and this sequence conforms to the existing experimental data reported in the literature.

  18. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. North Polar False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  1. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail

  2. Evaluation of 241 AN tank farm flammable gas behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105 are Flammable Gas Watch List tanks. Characteristics exhibited by these tanks (i.e., surface level drops, pressure increases, and temperature profiles) are similar to those exhibited by tank 241-SY-101, which is also a Watch List tank. Although the characteristics exhibited by tank 241-SY-101 are also present in tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105, they are exhibited to a lesser degree in the AN Tank Farm tanks. The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks have only small surface level drops, and the pressure changes that occur are not sufficient to release an amount of gas that would cause the dome space to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) for hydrogen. Therefore, additional restrictions are probably unnecessary for working within the 241 AN Tank Farm, either within the dome space of the tanks or in the waste.

  3. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  4. A flammability study of thin plastic film materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center presently conducts flammability tests on thin plastic film materials by using a small needle rake method. Flammability data from twenty-two thin plastic film materials were obtained and cross-checked by using three different testing methods: (1) the presently used small needle rake; (2) the newly developed large needle rake; and (3) the previously used frame. In order to better discern the melting-burning phenomenon of thin plastic film material, five additional specific experiments were performed. These experiments determined the following: (1) the heat sink effect of each testing method; (2) the effect of the burn angle on the burn length or melting/shrinkage length; (3) the temperature profile above the ignition source; (4) the melting point and the fire point of each material; and (5) the melting/burning profile of each material via infrared (IR) imaging. The results of these experimentations are presented.

  5. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  6. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  7. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bond, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system. PMID:25601873

  8. Flammability Limits of Gases Under Low Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this combustion science investigation is to determine the effect of zero, fractional, and super gravity on the flammability limits of a premixed methane air flame in a standard 51 mm diameter flammability tube and to determine, if possible, the fluid flow associated with flame passage under zero-g conditions and the density (and hence, temperature) profiles associated with the flame under conditions of incipient extinction. This is accomplished by constructing an appropriate apparatus for placement in NASA's Lewis Research Center Lear Jet facility and flying the prescribed g-trajectories while the experiment is being performed. Data is recorded photographically using the visible light of the flame. The data acquired is: (1) the shape and propagation velocity of the flame under various g-conditions for methane compositions that are inside the flammable limits, and (2) the effect of gravity on the limits. Real time accelerometer readings for the three orthogonal directions are displayed in full view of the cameras and the framing rate of the cameras is used to measure velocities.

  9. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-09-28

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures.

  10. Off-site ignition probability of flammable gases.

    PubMed

    Rew, P J; Spencer, H; Daycock, J

    2000-01-07

    A key step in the assessment of risk for installations where flammable liquids or gases are stored is the estimation of ignition probability. A review of current modelling and data confirmed that ignition probability values used in risk analyses tend to be based on extrapolation of limited incident data or, in many cases, on the judgement of those conducting the safety assessment. Existing models tend to assume that ignition probability is a function of release rate (or flammable gas cloud size) alone and they do not consider location, density or type of ignition source. An alternative mathematical framework for calculating ignition probability is outlined in which the approach used is to model the distribution of likely ignition sources and to calculate ignition probability by considering whether the flammable gas cloud will reach these sources. Data are collated on the properties of ignition sources within three generic land-use types: industrial, urban and rural. These data are then incorporated into a working model for ignition probability in a form capable of being implemented within risk analysis models. The sensitivity of the model results to assumptions made in deriving the ignition source properties is discussed and the model is compared with other available ignition probability methods.

  11. Tank 24-C-103 headspace flammability. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented and interpreted to help resolve the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. Concern that the headspace of tank 241-C-103 may contain a flammable mixture of organic vapors and an aerosol of combustible organic liquid droplets arises from the presence of a layer of organic liquid in the tank. This organic liquid is believed to have originated in the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process, having been stored initially in tank 241-C-102 and apparently transferred to tank 241-C-103 in 1975 (Carothers 1988). Analyses of samples of the organic liquid collected in 1991 and 1993 indicate that the primary constituents are tributyl phosphate (TBP) and several semivolatile hydrocarbons (Prentice 1991, Pool and Bean 1994). This is consistent with the premise that the organic waste came from the PUREX process, because the PUREX process used a solution of TBP in a diluent composed of the n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32} normal paraffinic hydrocarbons (NPH).

  12. Oxygen Partial Pressure and Oxygen Concentration Flammability: Can They Be Correlated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana A.; Juarez, Alfredo; Perez, Horacio, III; Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA possesses a large quantity of flammability data performed in ISS airlock (30% Oxygen 526mmHg) and ISS cabin (24.1% Oxygen 760 mmHg) conditions. As new programs develop, other oxygen and pressure conditions emerge. In an effort to apply existing data, the question arises: Do equivalent oxygen partial pressures perform similarly with respect to flammability? This paper evaluates how material flammability performance is impacted from both the Maximum Oxygen Concentration (MOC) and Maximum Total Pressures (MTP) perspectives. From these studies, oxygen partial pressures can be compared for both the MOC and MTP methods to determine the role of partial pressure in material flammability. This evaluation also assesses the influence of other variables on flammability performance. The findings presented in this paper suggest flammability is more dependent on oxygen concentration than equivalent partial pressure.

  13. Flammability Testing of Fabrics Treated with Oil-Based Shear Thickening Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    thickening fluid (STF) are evaluated under flammability testing. The tested fabrics include a woven cotton-nylon blend, a woven Kevlar textile, and a...hybrid ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) – Kevlar felt. The oil-based STF is a colloid of silica nanoparticles in a paraffin oil. Test...enhanced flammability resistance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS shear thickening fluid, Kevlar , flammability 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  14. 46 CFR 147A.41 - Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A... equipment, including sprinklers and fire pumps, is in operating condition; and (3) Before and...

  15. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  16. Bark flammability as a fire-response trait for subalpine trees

    PubMed Central

    Frejaville, Thibaut; Curt, Thomas; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between the flammability properties of a given plant and its chances of survival after a fire still remain unknown. We hypothesize that the bark flammability of a tree reduces the potential for tree survival following surface fires, and that if tree resistance to fire is provided by a thick insulating bark, the latter must be few flammable. We test, on subalpine tree species, the relationship between the flammability of bark and its insulating ability, identifies the biological traits that determine bark flammability, and assesses their relative susceptibility to surface fires from their bark properties. The experimental set of burning properties was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis to assess the bark flammability. Bark insulating ability was expressed by the critical time to cambium kill computed from bark thickness. Log-linear regressions indicated that bark flammability varies with the bark thickness and the density of wood under bark and that the most flammable barks have poor insulating ability. Susceptibility to surface fires increases from gymnosperm to angiosperm subalpine trees. The co-dominant subalpine species Larix decidua (Mill.) and Pinus cembra (L.) exhibit large differences in both flammability and insulating ability of the bark that should partly explain their contrasted responses to fires in the past. PMID:24324473

  17. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  18. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  19. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    PubMed

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  20. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  1. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  2. Safe Handling and Use of Flammable and Combustible Materials. Module SH-30. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safe handling and use of flammable and combustible materials is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module introduces the student to the hazards of flammable and combustible materials and the measures necessary to control those hazards. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page…

  3. 49 CFR 173.150 - Exceptions for Class 3 (flammable and combustible liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquids). 173.150 Section 173.150 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Class 3 (flammable and combustible liquids). (a) General. Exceptions for hazardous materials shipments... flammable liquids (Class 3) and combustible liquids are excepted from labeling requirements, unless...

  4. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  5. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Interim report, task 2 - test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    Regulations on alternative refrigerants and concerns for the environment are forcing the refrigeration industry to consider the use of potentially flammable fluids to replace CFC fluids currently in use. The objectives of this program are to establish the conditions under which refrigerants and refrigerant blends exhibit flammability and to develop appropriate methods to measure flammability.

  6. Evaluation of flammability for cable-like polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikado, Tuneo; Akita, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A new test method is developed for the flammability of insulated electric cables as well as polymers formed in the cables. The rate of downward flame spread along the polymer surface is measured by a technique in which the flame is stopped at a particular position by winding up the cable at the same speed as the flame spreading rate, with external preheating by an electric furnace having oxidative gas flow. The polymer burns continuously without change of flame condition and the rate is obtained from the winding speed of the cable. A flame spread equation relates the flame spreading rate (V) of the cable-like polymer to O concentration (Yo) and the atmosphere, the preheating temperature, and the pyrolysis temperature for polymer burning. Plotting log V vs. log Yo for experimental results allows evaluation of the flammability of polymers, with discrimination between the effects of O concentration, heating temperature, and specimen shape. Results with various types of PVC electrical cable indicated the validity of the method. Application of the method to the cables in groups showed a flame retardation behavior different from the case of a single cable, in a atmosphere of high O concentration.

  7. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.; Meirans, L.; Watterberg, P.; Drotning, W.

    1997-04-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments that have phased out the use of ozone depleting solvents (ODS) have given the precision cleaning industry a challenge that they must respond to if they are to continuously and economically improve quality of service. The phase out of the ozone depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as their ODS counterparts in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. The prototype workcell under development uses a robot that sprays Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and terpene at pressures ranging to 600 psi in a glovebox environment. Key to the projects success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned. Also key to the success of this prototype development is FM approval of the process and associated hardware which translates directly into operator and facilities safety.

  8. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  9. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

  10. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  11. Flammability across the gymnosperm phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, William K; Elvira, Alba; van Kempen, Lute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aptroot, André; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-04-01

    Fire is important to climate, element cycles and plant communities, with many fires spreading via surface litter. The influence of species on the spread of surface fire is mediated by their traits which, after senescence and abscission, have 'afterlife' effects on litter flammability. We hypothesized that differences in litter flammability among gymnosperms are determined by litter particle size effects on litterbed packing. We performed a mesocosm fire experiment comparing 39 phylogenetically wide-ranging gymnosperms, followed by litter size and shape manipulations on two chemically contrasting species, to isolate the underlying mechanism. The first-order control on litter flammability was, indeed, litter particle size in both experiments. Most gymnosperms were highly flammable, but a prominent exception was the non-Pinus Pinaceae, in which small leaves abscised singly produced dense, non-flammable litterbeds. There are two important implications: first, ecosystems dominated by gymnosperms that drop small leaves separately will develop dense litter layers, which will be less prone to and inhibit the spread of surface litter fire. Second, some of the needle-leaved species previously considered to be flammable in single-leaf experiments were among the least flammable in litter fuel beds, highlighting the role of the litter traits of species in affecting surface fire regimes.

  12. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-09-08

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  13. Thermophysical and flammability characterization of phosphorylated epoxy adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Giants, T. W.; Bilow, N.; Hsu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the thermophysical and flammability properties of a phosphorylated epoxy adhesive, which has potential applications in aircraft interior panels, are described. The adhesive consists of stoichiometric ratios of bis(3-glycidyloxphenyl)methylphosphine oxide and bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide containing approximately 7.5% phosphorus. Preliminary data are presented from adhesive bonding studies conducted utilizing this adhesive with polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) film and phenolic-glass laminates. Limiting oxygen index and smoke density data are presented and compared with those of the tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline epoxy resin-adhesive system currently used in aircraft interiors. Initial results indicate that the phosphorylated epoxy compound has excellent adhesive properties when used with PVF film and that desirable fire-resistant properties are maintained.

  14. Rheological characterization of polyolefin composites with reduced flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habrova, Veronika; Kalendova, Alena; Paravanova, Gordana

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the low-flammability halogen-free polyolefin composites were characterized with three rheological methods. In the extrusion process of the studied materials the end-products with a dissimilar surface quality were produced. Therefore, the diverse melt flow behaviours evaluated with common rheological techniques were also expected. Nevertheless, the conventional rotational and capillary rheometries were not able to describe the differences between investigated flame retarded composites in optimal way. Thus, the non-conventional rheological die Shark skin, originally designed to detect flow instabilities, was tested as a third possibility in order to better understand rheology of the filled polymer melts. It was found that the Shark skin technique is able to characterize the studied two kind flame retardants composites and can also be helpful to qualify the production bathes with identical additives/polymer formulation.

  15. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  16. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  17. Flammability and Photo-Stability of Selected Polymer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Jeelin

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to the improvement of the flammability of epoxy resins, bisphenol-A polycarbonate poly(butylene terephthalate), and Nylon 6.6 by introducing halogens and loop functionality into the flame retardants is described. The phthalides (the loop functionality containing molecules) include 3,3-bis(4-bromophenyl)-phthalide, 3,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)phthalide, and phenolphthalein. The phthalide containing epoxy resins are synthesized and characterized in comparison with the bisphenol-A epoxy resins in terms of flammability in the copolymer systems. The resins include diglycidyl ethers of phenolphthalein, bisphenol-A. tetrabromobisphenol-A, and tetraoromophenolphthalein. The vaporization of the phthalide additive in the polymers is observed in Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The flame retardancy is primarily due to the presence of halogens. In the poly(butylene terephthalate) system, the cleavage of the C(sub aromatic) -B bond of the flame retardant additive enhances the crosslinking react ions between the aromatic rings resulting in an increase of char formation. In the epoxy resin systems, loop functionality contributes to char formation to a larger extent. The interaction between the epoxy resin and poly-(butylene terephthalate) follows the mechanism of insertion of the oxirane ring into the ester bond. This mechanism is studied by FT-IR. The investigation of the thermal properties of the char-forming phenol-formaldehyde resins is conducted to provide information for the systematic design of high temperature flame-resistant phenolics. NMR and FT-IR are used to characterize the oligomeric resins and the cured resins. The curing agents used in the study include formaldehyde, s-trioxane and terephthaloyl chloride. The brominated phenolic resins are found to have higher oxygen indices with lower char yields.

  18. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

  19. Novel industrial application: flammable and toxic gas monitoring in the printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Esther; Spector, Yechiel

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Open Path Electro-Optical Gas Monitoring System specifically designed for in-situ on-line monitoring of flammable and toxic atmospheres in the Printing Industry in general, and for air-duct applications in particular. The printing industry posies unique fire hazards due to the variety of toxic and flammable chemical employed in the various printing process. Flammable material such as paper, ink, solvents, thinners, metal powders, cornstarch powders, cloth, synthetic materials are frequently used in the printing industry in several processes such as letter-pressing, lithography, screen printing etc.

  20. Evaluation of Less-Flammable Insulation Fluids and Fire-Prevention Guidance for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Akira; Sugawa, Osami

    This paper concerns the definition and evaluation of less-flammable of insulation fluids for transformers. In particular it focuses on the ISO5660 cone calorimeter method, which is widely used as an evaluation method for the less-flammable of solids, and proposes that such method is also valid for quantitative evaluation of the less-flammable of insulating fluids. Quantifying the combustion characteristics of insulation fluids and analyzing the causes of fires can be said to be the first step toward implementing appropriate safety measures that will render electric utility equipment more fire retardant or fireproof in the future.

  1. Flammability and Explosion Limits of H2 and H2/CO: A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    I, SMC-TR-93-19 AD-A2 4 896AEROSPACE REPORT NOAD-A264 896 TR-92(2534)- ° Flammability and Explosion Limits of H2 and H2/CO: A Literature Review ...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Semrmly Ctassltjcation) Flammability and Explosion Limits of H2 and H2 /CO: A Literature Review 12...The literature related to the flammability and explosion limits of H2/O2 H2/0 2 /diluent. CO/O 2 . CO/H,/O 2 , and CO/H2/air mixtures is reviewed

  2. The possibility of a reversal of material flammability ranking from normal gravity to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T'Ien, James S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the discussion is to show, by a theoretical model, that one of the material flammability indices, the flammability limit, can be reversed in proper circumstances. A stagnation-point diffusion flame adjacent to a spherical solid-fuel surface is considered. It is shown that a reversal of the limiting oxygen indices from normal gravity and microgravity is possible. Although the example is based on a particular theoretical model with a particular flame configuration and specifically for an oxygen limit, the flammability-limit reversal phenomenon is believed to be more general.

  3. Self-Flammability of Gases Generated by Hanford Tank Waste and the Potential of Nitrogen Inerting to Eliminate Flammability Safety Concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2015-10-12

    Through radiolytic and thermolytic reactions, Hanford tank wastes generate and retain a variety of gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, methane (and other hydrocarbons), ammonia, and nitrogen. This gas generation can be expected to continue during processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The generation rates in the WTP will change from those for the in-situ tank waste because of different process temperatures, different dose rates produced by in-process changes in the proportions of solid and liquid, and dilution of the waste liquid. The flammability of the generated gas that is continuously released, and of any retained gas that might be released into a vessel headspace in quantity due to a spontaneous release, depends on the concentrations not only of the fuel gases—primarily hydrogen (H2), methane, other hydrocarbons, and ammonia—but of the oxidizer nitrous oxide (N2O). As a result of high concentrations of N2O, some gas mixtures are “self-flammable” (i.e., ignition can occur when no air is present because N2O provides the only oxidizer needed). Self-flammability could potentially reduce the effectiveness of using a nitrogen (N2) purge in the headspace as a flammability control, if its effects are not accounted for. A given amount of inertant gas (N2) can accommodate only a certain amount of a generated self-flammable gas before the mixture with inertant gas becomes flammable.

  4. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  5. Flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility with aerospace fluids of wire insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Johnson, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center requested NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility to conduct flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility tests with aerospace fluids of several wire insulations.

  6. A highly safe battery with a non-flammable triethyl-phosphate-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Utsugi, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Applied in a battery with a silicon-oxide (SiO) anode, a non-flammable triethyl-phosphate (TEP)-based electrolyte with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) improved the safety and energy density of the battery. This TEP:FEC-based battery demonstrated almost the same performance, namely, capacity retention of 78% after 250 cycles, as that of a flammable electrolyte such as an ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyle carbonate (DEC)-mixed electrolyte (79%). Moreover, this non-flammable electrolyte significantly enhanced the safety of the battery. This improved performance and safety is attributed to the disappearance of the exothermic peak around 120-160 °C derived from the reaction between the electrolyte and charged anode. Accordingly, this non-flammable (TEP)-based electrolyte can enhance the safety of lithium-ion batteries.

  7. 30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be ventilated with a sufficient volume of air to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors. (b) In addition, the buildings or rooms shall be— (1) Constructed to meet a fire resistance rating of...

  8. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials Considered for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susan A.; Beeson, Harold; Pedley, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest expected oxygen concentration environment. The test conditions and its pass/fail test logic do not provide sufficient quantitative materials flammability information for an advanced space exploration program. A modified approach has been suggested determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. The flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats. This paper provides data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program.

  9. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  10. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  11. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  12. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of...

  13. Characterization of flammability properties of some thermoplastic and thermoset resins. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability properties of some thermally stable polymers considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied include: (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature; (2) dynamic thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic environment; (3) flammability properties such as oxygen index, flame spread, and smoke evolution; and (4) selected physical properties. The thermoplastic polymers evaluated included polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polyether sulfone. The thermoset polymers evaluated included epoxy, bismaleimide, a modified phenolic and polyaromatic melamine resin. These resins were primarily used in the fabrication of glass reinforced prepregs for the construction of experimental panels. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability parameters are presented and the relationship of the molecular structure, char yield, and flammability properties of these polymers are discussed.

  14. Calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling of fuel mixture lower flammability limits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuman; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-02-15

    Heat loss can affect experimental flammability limits, and it becomes indispensable to quantify flammability limits when apparatus quenching effect becomes significant. In this research, the lower flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures are predicted using calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling, which is based on the principle of energy conservation. Specifically, the hydrocarbon mixture lower flammability limit is quantitatively correlated to its final flame temperature at non-adiabatic conditions. The modeling predictions are compared with experimental observations to verify the validity of CFT modeling, and the minor deviations between them indicated that CFT modeling can represent experimental measurements very well. Moreover, the CFT modeling results and Le Chatelier's Law predictions are also compared, and the agreement between them indicates that CFT modeling provides a theoretical justification for the Le Chatelier's Law.

  15. Possible use of non-flammable phosphonate ethers as pure electrolyte solvent for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J. K.; Ai, X. P.; Cao, Y. L.; Yang, H. X.

    Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) was selected and tested as a non-flammable solvent for primary and secondary lithium batteries, because of its non-flammability, good solvency of lithium salts and appropriate liquidus properties. Experimental results demonstrated that DMMP can solvate considerable amount of commonly used lithium salts to form non-flammable and Li +-conducting electrolyte, which has very wide electrochemical window (>5 V vs. Li) and excellent electrochemical compatibility with metallic lithium anode and oxide cathodes. Primary Li-MnO 2 cells using DMMP-based electrolyte showed almost the same discharge performances as those using organic carbonate electrolytes, and also, Li-LiMn 2O 4 cells using DMMP electrolyte exhibited greatly improved cycleability and dischargeability, suggesting a feasible application of this new electrolyte for constructing high performance and non-flammable lithium batteries.

  16. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  17. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  18. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  19. The Danger of False Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBoskey, Vicky Kubler

    1998-01-01

    Responds to an article that examined 10 dichotomies in teacher education (SP 527 128), suggesting that too much time and energy are spent debating false dichotomies and addressing two specific dichotomies (preservice versus inservice and campus versus school site). Recommends that professional educators pool their energy and collaborate (rather…

  20. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  1. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  2. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  3. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E.; Crawford, F.R.

    1994-12-01

    Because of concerns for the effect that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids currently in use as refrigerants have on the environment, the refrigeration industry is considering the use of natural refrigerants, many of which are potentially flammable. In some cases, these flammable fluids may result in the least environmental damage when considering ozone depletion, global warming, efficiency, and photochemical reactivity. Many potentially flammable fluids have been proven to be effective when used either by themselves or as a part of a binary or ternary mixture. However, despite favorable initial test results, these fluids may not be acceptable to the general public if questions of safety cannot be adequately addressed. Significant research is being conducted to investigate the flammability of these materials. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the impact and variability of eleven different parameters which may affect flammability and/or combustibility of refrigerants and refrigerant blends, as a function of composition and test conditions, and to develop a better understanding of methods and conditions to measure the flammability of refrigerants. The refrigerants used in this study are being considered as new refrigerants and reviewed published data on these materials is scarce. The data contained herein should not be considered complete and should be used only to make relative comparisons of the impacts of the test parameters, not to represent the flammability characteristics of the materials. This report documents Task 3 of the test program. During Task 1, technical literature was thoroughly reviewed and a database of available documents was constructed. During Task 2, the test plan for this task was written. The goals of Task 3 are to investigate the flammability characteristics of selected blends of refrigerants R32, R134a, and R125 using an existing explosion sphere and a newly-constructed ASTM E681 apparatus.

  4. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  5. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a reference document describing the current knowledge of flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases. The report incorporates these analyses into two models for calculating headspace flammability, one based on instantaneous equilibrium between dissolved gases and the headspace and one incorporating limited release rates based on mass-transfer considerations. Finally, it demonstrates the use of both models to estimate headspace flammable gas concentrations and minimum ventilation rates required to maintain concentrations below 25% of the LFL.

  6. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  7. Microgravity Flammability of PMMA Rods in Concurrent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity experiments burning cast PMMA cylindrical rods in axial flow have been conducted aboard the International Space Station in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility using the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) flow duct, as part of the BASS-II experiment. Twenty-four concurrent-flow tests were performed, focusing on finding flammability limits as a function of oxygen and flow speed. The oxygen was varied by using gaseous nitrogen to vitiate the working volume of the MSG. The speed of the flow parallel to the rod was varied using a fan at the entrance to the duct. Both blowoff and quenching limits were obtained at several oxygen concentrations. Each experiment ignited the rod at the initially hemispherical stagnation tip of the rod, and allowed the flame to develop and heat the rod at a sufficient flow to sustain burning. For blowoff limit tests, the astronaut quickly turned up the flow to obtain extinction. Complementary 5.18-second Zero Gravity Facility drop tests were conducted to compare blowoff limits in short and long duration microgravity. For quenching tests, the flow was incrementally turned down and the flame allowed to stabilize at the new flow condition for at least the solid-phase response time before changing it again. Quenching was observed when the flow became sufficiently weak that the flame could no longer provide adequate heat flux to compensate for the heat losses (conduction into the rod and radiation). A surface energy balance is presented that shows the surface radiative loss exceeds the conductive loss into the rod near the limit. The flammability boundary is shown to represent a critical Damkohler number, expressed in terms of the reaction rate divided by the stretch rate. For the blowoff branch, the boundary exhibits a linear dependence on oxygen concentration and stretch rate, indicating that the temperature at blowoff must be fairly constant. For the quenching branch, the dominance of the exponential nature of

  8. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  9. Does sleep promote false memories?

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  10. Summary of information on flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Brager, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles and summarizes available, relevant information pertaining to Hanford Site waste tanks designated as Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) tanks. There are four primary objectives of this document. First, it provides summary data, including surface level readings, chemical composition, and temperature readings for each FGWL tank. This document also is intended to be used as a source of information on FGWL tanks references. More than 400 documents were used to compile the information presented in this report, and the Endnotes at the conclusion of each section; Section 5.0, {open_quotes}References;{close_quotes} and Section 6.0, {open_quotes}Sources of Information{close_quotes} are all included to direct the reader to further, more detailed sources of information that pertain to specific FGWL tanks or information. The third objective of this document is to present the specific fill history of each FGWL double-shell tank (DST), including data obtained from detailed Evaporator 242-A documents. Finally, this document includes an assessment of the total organic carbon (TOC) content of each DST.

  11. Explosion characteristics of flammable organic vapors in nitrous oxide atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Yusuke; Takigawa, Tomihisa; Matsuoka, Yusaku; Ohtani, Hideo

    2010-11-15

    Despite unexpected explosion accidents caused by nitrous oxide have occurred, few systematic studies have been reported on explosion characteristics of flammable gases in nitrous oxide atmosphere compared to those in air or oxygen. The objective of this paper is to characterize explosion properties of mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with nitrous oxide and nitrogen using three parameters: explosion limit, peak explosion pressure, and time to the peak explosion pressure. Then, similar mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with oxygen and nitrogen were prepared to compare their explosion characteristics with the mixtures containing nitrous oxide. The explosion experiments were performed in a cylindrical vessel at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The measurements showed that explosion ranges of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were narrow compared to those of the mixtures containing oxygen. On the other hand, the maximum explosion pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were higher than those of the mixtures containing oxygen. Moreover, our experiments revealed that these mixtures differed in equivalence ratios at which the maximum explosion pressures were observed: the pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were observed at stoichiometry; in contrast, those of the mixtures containing oxygen were found at fuel-rich area. Chemical equilibrium calculations confirmed these behaviors.

  12. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  13. The USML-1 wire insulation flammability glovebox experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Flame spreading tests have been conducted using thin fuels in microgravity where buoyant convection is suppressed. In spacecraft experiments flames were ignited in quiescent atmospheres with an elevated oxygen content, demonstrating that diffusional mechanisms can be sufficient alone to sustain flame spreading. In ground-based facilities (i.e. drop towers and parabolic aircraft) low-speed convection sustains flames at much lower concentrations of atmospheric oxygen than in quiescent microgravity. Ground-based experiments are limited to very thin fuels (e.g., tissue paper); practical fuels, which are thicker, require more test time than is available. The Glovebox Facility provided for the USML 1 mission provided an opportunity to obtain flame spreading data for thicker fuel Herein we report the results from the Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) Experiment performed in the Glovebox Facility. This experiment explored the heating, ignition and burning of 0.65 mm thick polyethylene wire insulation in low-speed flows in a reduced gravity environment. Four tests were conducted, two each in concurrent flow (WIF A and C) and opposed flow (WIF B and D), providing the first demonstration of flame spreading in controlled forced convection conducted in space.

  14. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  15. Summary of flammable gas hazard and potential consequences in tank waste remediation system facility at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document provides a summary of the flammable gas program since 1992. It provides the best understanding of generation, retention, release of flammable gases. It gives a composition for each of the flammable gas tanks, calculates postulated concentrations in the event of a release, calculates the pressure obtained during a burn, and provides radiological and toxicological consequences. Controls from the analysis are found in WHC-SD-WM-SAR-067.

  16. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  17. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  18. Dusty Crater In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This false color image of a crater rim illustrates just how complete the dust cover can be. The small white/blue regions on the rim are of areas where the dust cover has been removed - due to heating on sun facing slopes or by gravitational effects.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 352.8 East (7.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Modelling leaf, plant and stand flammability for ecological and operational decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Numerous factors have been found to affect the flammability of individual leaves and plant parts; however the way in which these factors relate to whole plant flammability, fire behaviour and the overall risk imposed by fire is not straightforward. Similarly, although the structure of plant communities is known to affect the flammability of the stand, a quantified, broadly applicable link has proven difficult to establish and validate. These knowledge gaps have presented major obstacles to the integration into fire behaviour science of research into factors affecting plant flammability, physiology, species succession and structural change, so that the management of ecosystems for fire risk is largely uninformed by these fields. The Forest Flammability Model (Zylstra, 2011) is a process-driven, complex systems model developed specifically to address this disconnect. Flame dimensions and position are calculated as properties emerging from the capacity for convective heat to propagate flame between horizontally and vertically separated leaves, branches, plants and plant strata, and this capacity is determined dynamically from the ignitability, combustibility and sustainability of those objects, their spatial arrangement and a vector-based model of the plume temperature from each burning fuel. All flammability properties as well as the physics of flame dimensions, angle and temperature distributions and the vertical structure of wind within the plant array use published sub-models which can be replaced as further work is developed. This modular structure provides a platform for the immediate application of new work on any aspect of leaf flammability or fire physics. Initial validation of the model examined its qualitative predictions for trends in forest flammability as a function of time since fire. The positive feedback predicted for the subalpine forest examined constituted a 'risky prediction' by running counter to the expectations of the existing approach, however

  20. Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials - Method to Determine the Flammability Thresholds of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety emphasizes fire prevention, which is achieved primarily through the use of fire-resistant materials. Materials selection for spacecraft is based on conventional flammability acceptance tests, along with prescribed quantity limitations and configuration control for items that are non-pass or questionable. ISO 14624-1 and -2 are the major methods used to evaluate flammability of polymeric materials intended for use in the habitable environments of spacecraft. The methods are upward flame-propagation tests initiated in static environments and using a well-defined igniter flame at the bottom of the sample. The tests are conducted in the most severe flaming combustion environment expected in the spacecraft. The pass/fail test logic of ISO 14624-1 and -2 does not allow a quantitative comparison with reduced gravity or microgravity test results; therefore their use is limited, and possibilities for in-depth theoretical analyses and realistic estimates of spacecraft fire extinguishment requirements are practically eliminated. To better understand the applicability of laboratory test data to actual spacecraft environments, a modified ISO 14624 protocol has been proposed that, as an alternative to qualifying materials as pass/fail in the worst-expected environments, measures the actual upward flammability limit for the material. A working group established by NASA to provide recommendations for exploration spacecraft internal atmospheres realized the importance of correlating laboratory data with real-life environments and recommended NASA to develop a flammability threshold test method. The working group indicated that for the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extravehicular landers and habitats

  1. Species mixture effects on flammability across plant phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size and the special role for non-Pinus Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Cornwell, William K; van Pomeren, Marinda; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-11-01

    Fire affects and is affected by plants. Vegetation varies in flammability, that is, its general ability to burn, at different levels of ecological organization. To scale from individual plant traits to community flammability states, understanding trait effects on species flammability variation and their interaction is important. Plant traits are the cumulative result of evolution and they show, to differing extents, phylogenetic conservatism. We asked whether phylogenetic distance between species predicts species mixture effects on litterbed flammability. We conducted controlled laboratory burns for 34 phylogenetically wide-ranging species and 34 random two-species mixtures from them. Generally, phylogenetic distance did not predict species mixture effects on flammability. Across the plant phylogeny, most species were flammable except those in the non-Pinus Pinaceae, which shed small needles producing dense, poorly ventilated litterbeds above the packing threshold and therefore nonflammable. Consistently, either positive or negative dominance effects on flammability of certain flammable or those non-flammable species were found in mixtures involving the non-Pinus Pinaceae. We demonstrate litter particle size is key to explaining species nonadditivity in fuelbed flammability. The potential of certain species to influence fire disproportionately to their abundance might increase the positive feedback effects of plant flammability on community flammability state if flammable species are favored by fire.

  2. Pressure Effects on Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

  3. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David

    2010-01-01

    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  4. Fire safety in space - beyond flammability testing of small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian; Niehaus, Justin; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Legros, Guillaume; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; T`ien, James S.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2015-04-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and -3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever to be tested for material flammability in microgravity, which will be based on the characteristics of flame spread over the surface of the combustible material. Furthermore, the experiments will have a duration that is unmatched in scale compared to earth based microgravity research facilities such as drop towers (about 5 s) and parabolic flights (about 20 s). In contrast to sounding rockets, the experiments offer a much larger volume, and the reduction in the oxygen concentration during the Saffire experiments will be minimal. The selection of the experimental settings for the first three Saffire experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated.

  5. Ice Surfaces In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image shows a marked difference in the 'blueness' of the ice surfaces. The lower (presumably older) surface is oranger and the top (presumably younger) surface is blue. This may represent the fresher ice of the upper surface which has not yet covered with as much dust as the lower surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.8, Longitude 302.1 East (57.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Polar Layers in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image again illustrates the oranger/bluer nature of the polar layers.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6, Longitude 70.2 East (289.8 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Evaluation of high-level nuclear waste tanks having a potential flammable gas hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Barton, W.B.; Hill, R.C.; et al, Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy declared an unreviewed safety question as a result of the behavior of tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gases that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-101 and the other tanks associated with a potential flammable gas hazard. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release and covers the results of direct sampling of the tanks to determine the gas composition and the amount of stored gas.

  9. A preliminary study on the thermal conductivity and flammability of WPC based on some tropical woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, L. H. L.; Chua, P. H.; Lee, E. E. N.

    Selected local woods and their wood-polymer combinations or composites (WPC) were tested for their thermal conductivity and their fire resistance. WPC were prepared by polymerizing monomers " in situ" in oven dried woods by gamma radiation. The monomers included acrylonitrile (AN), 60% styrene-40% acrylonitrile (STAN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 95% methyl methacrylate —5% dioxane (MD), and vinylidene chloride (VDC). A reduction in thermal conductivity was exhibited by all the composites prepared. W-PAN showed the greatest reduction in thermal conductivity and W-PSTAN in general showed the least. An explanation is suggested for this behaviour. The polymers PMMA and PMD were found to enhance flammability of the woods while PVDC, PAN, and PSTAN imparted fire resistance to the woods. Of the six local woods studied, Ramin-and-Keruing-polymer composites showed the highest flammable tendencies obtained. The correlation of thermal conductivity to flammability is discussed.

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Flammable Gases in Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the field measurements for a screening of flammable gases in the vapor space of the inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) currently assigned to the River Protection Project (RPP). If a measurement exceeds 25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. This SAP also specifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for grab sampling. Technical bases for the sampling objectives are provided in the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (Dukelow et al 1995). The screening data will be used to determine if additional data are needed to support closure of a flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities.

  11. Experimental exploration of discrepancies in F-number correlation of flammability limits.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2003-06-27

    Flammability limits measurement has been made by ASHRAE method for some 20 kinds of combustible gases and vapors. These compounds have been selected mainly because the literature values of flammability limits are not consistent with the F-number calculated ones [J. Hazard. Mater. A 82 (2001) 113]. As a result, it has been found that the newly obtained values of flammable range are classified into three groups. For the first group of compounds, the present values agree well to the literature values. For the second group, the present values do not agree to the literature values but agree with the calculated ones. For the third group ones, the present values neither agree to the literature values nor to the calculated ones. There are 4, 13, and 6 compounds in the respective groups.

  12. Processing and Characterization of Flame Retardant Cotton Blend Nonwovens for Soft Furnishings to Meet Federal Flammability Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective July 1, 2007, it is mandatory that all mattress sets meet the federal flammability standard CFR 1633. It is necessary to impart flame resistance that would provide at least 30 minutes for occupants to escape fire. Changes in the flammability laws are expected on soft furnishings of sleep ...

  13. 75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES: Written comments on this request for extension of approval... Flammability of Clothing Textiles (16 CFR Part 1610) and the Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl...

  14. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  15. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  16. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  17. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  18. Will elevated CO2 alter fuel characteristics and flammability of eucalypt woodlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Luke; Resco, Victor; Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross; Sawyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may enhance forest productivity via CO2 fertilisation and increased soil moisture associated with water savings, potentially resulting in increased woody plant abundance i.e. woody thickening. Changes to vegetation structure via woody thickening, as well as changes to vegetation properties (e.g. leaf characteristics and moisture content), may have important implications for ecosystem flammability and fire regimes. Understanding how elevated CO2 alters flammability and fire regimes will have implications for ecosystem dynamics, particularly carbon sequestration and emissions. We present data from Free Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) and whole tree growth chamber (WTC) experiments to assess the effect of elevated CO2 on fuel properties and flammability of eucalypt woodlands. Experiments involved ambient (˜400 ppm) and elevated CO2treatments, with elevated treatments being +150 ppm and +240 ppm at EucFACE and the WTCs respectively. We examined the response of vegetation parameters known to influence ecosystem flammability, namely (i) understorey vegetation characteristics (ii) understorey fuel moisture and (iii) leaf flammability. Understorey growth experiments at EucFACE using seedlings of two common woody species (Hakea sericia, Eucalyptus tereticornis) indicate that elevated CO2 did not influence stem and leaf biomass, height or crown dimensions of seedlings after 12 months exposure to experimental treatments. Temporal changes to understorey live fuel moisture were assessed at EucFACE over an 18 month period using time lapse cameras. Understorey vegetation greenness was measured daily from digital photos using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC), an index that is highly correlated with live fuel moisture (R2 = 0.90). GCC and rates of greening and browning were not affected by elevated CO2, though they were highly responsive to soil moisture availability and temperature. This suggests that there is limited potential for elevated CO2 to alter

  19. Lean flammability limit as a fundamental refrigerant property. Phase 1, Interim technical report, 1 October 1994--31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Womeldorf, C.; King, M.; Grosshandler, W.

    1995-03-31

    Due to the ozone-depleting effects of commonly used chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, safe environmentally-friendly replacements must be found. HFC-32 (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}) and other hydrochlorofluorocarbons are potential candidates; however, in contrast with the CFCs, many of these compounds are flammable. Testing the flammability limits of these hydrochlorofluorocarbons using traditional ASTM E-681 methods has produced a range of limits depending upon the vessel and ignition source used. This project demonstrates the feasibility of defining a fundamental flammability limit of HFC-32, that occurs at the limit of a zero strain rate and is independent of ignition source. Using a counterflow twin-flame burner to define extinction points for different strain rates, an extrapolation to zero strain rate is performed. Using this technique, preliminary results on the lean flammability limit of HFC-32 and the critical flammability ratio of HFC-125 (C{sub 2}HF{sub 5}) in ETC-32 are reported.

  20. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  1. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a technical basis or reference document for flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases.

  2. MESERAN Test Results for Elimination of Flammable Solvents in Wipe Applications at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. Benkovich

    2005-03-30

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents for wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and longterm materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues and accelerated aging studies are among the tests that are being conducted and that are used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. The results are compared to the traditionally used isopropyl alcohol, which serves as the baseline cleaner. This report details the results of MESERAN (Measurement and Evaluation of Surfaces by Evaporative Rate ANalysis) testing performed at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) to quantify the cleaning efficacy on samples contaminated with the various contaminants and cleaned by wiping with the various solvents being evaluated.

  3. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  4. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposed end shall describe an arc with a radius of 4 inches ±1/8 inch. The cycling device shall be... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic...

  5. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY).

  6. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  11. Flammability, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures. Interim NASA Technical Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This Interim Standard establishes requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials that are intended for use in space vehicles, associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE), and facilities used during assembly, test, and flight operations. Included are requirements, criteria, and test methods for evaluating the flammability, offgassing, and compatibility of materials.

  12. Fire in Your Life: A Catalog of Flammable Products & Ignition Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    To reduce the number of deaths and injuries caused by fires, this catalog (which is part of the Hap and Hazard Series) gives information about typical accident patterns and about the safest way to purchase, use, store, maintain, and dispose of flammable products. As a reference source, it is intended for use in formal teaching situations as well…

  13. Effect of vessel size and shape on experimental flammability limits of gases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akifumi; Urano, Youkichi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Kondo, Shigeo

    2003-12-12

    The flammability limits of methane and propane have been measured using cylindrical vessels of various sizes and one spherical vessel. An ac discharge ignition method has been employed. For a cylindrical vessel of small diameter with a large height, the flammability limits are primarily determined by the quenching effect of the wall. For cylindrical vessels of smaller heights, the experimental flammability limits are affected by hot gas accumulation at the vessel ceiling, unburned gas heating, self heating of the incipient flame by the reflection both from walls and ceiling, and the quenching effect of the walls. If the vessel size is large enough so that all these effects become negligible, the experimental values of flammability limits may approach to the values that would be obtained in free space. In order to approach this condition for a cylindrical vessel, it is desirable to use a container at least 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. For comparison purpose, the measurement has also been done using ASHRAE type 12l spherical flask.

  14. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to Part... paragraph may be shown using only those flights for which the airplane is dispatched with the flammability... FRM meets the requirements of paragraph M25.1 of this appendix with any airplane or...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to Part... paragraph may be shown using only those flights for which the airplane is dispatched with the flammability... FRM meets the requirements of paragraph M25.1 of this appendix with any airplane or...

  17. Flammability tests on D0 Run II muon PDT Gas and P-10 Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Herman F. Haggerty; James L. Priest and Tom Marshall

    2001-07-12

    The authors have done a series of measurements with mixtures of Argon, CF4 and CH4 to demonstrate that the mixture chosen for RunII (84% Argon, 8% CH4, 8% CF4) is not flammable. The tests were conducted in the Meson Detector Building in a test cell similar in construction to a cell of a Muon PDT. In order to establish the viability of the test set-up, they first repeated the demonstration that P-10 gas (90% Argon, 10% CH4) is in fact flammable, contrary to the classification by the US DOT. US DOT regulation 173.115 defines flammable gas as: (1) is ignitable (at 14.7 psi) when in a mixture of 13% or less with air; or (2) has a flammability range (at 14.7 psi) with air of at least 12% regardless of the lower explosive limit (LEL). P-10 has a LEL of about 40% and a flammability range of about 10%, so P-10 is not flammable according to the US DOT definition. The point here is that the DOT classifications are to serve the DOT's function to ensure transportation safety, and are not necessarily appropriate for other situations. The first configuration of their test cell, however, apparently failed to ignite P-10. With the guidance of Bill Nuttall of CERN, they modified their test cell to make it more like the standard flammability testing setups, with a large viewing window and a spark gap in the middle of the cell. In this second configuration P-10 was easily and reliably ignitable. After becoming more familiar with the visible indicators of combustion of P-10 (water vapor cloud formation, pressure changes and gas venting) they retested with the initial configuration, and found that the mixture actually had been burning, and that they had just missed all the indications. The data from CERN showed that P-10 burns rather slowly, with about a one second rise time for the pressure to reach the maximum of four atmospheres overpressure. In the tests they saw no signs of any flame, but only a water vapor cloud. Some preliminary tests with the same cell using Argon-Ethane and

  18. 49 CFR 520.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 520.2 Section 520.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... affect the quality of the human environment....

  19. 48 CFR 232.503 - Postaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postaward matters. 232.503 Section 232.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Postaward matters....

  20. 48 CFR 232.502 - Preaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preaward matters. 232.502 Section 232.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....502 Preaward matters....

  1. 48 CFR 970.0470 - Department of Energy Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Energy Directives. 970.0470 Section 970.0470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... Energy Directives....

  2. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  3. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  4. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  5. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs....

  6. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs....

  7. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs....

  8. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30 Patent costs....

  9. 48 CFR 970.3102-05 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 970.3102... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05 Selected costs....

  10. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs....

  11. 48 CFR 628.309 - Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance. 628.309 Section 628.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... workers' compensation insurance....

  12. 48 CFR 53.301-1423 - Inventory Verification Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory Verification Survey. 53.301-1423 Section 53.301-1423 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Survey. ER05AP04.000...

  13. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls...

  14. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  15. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  16. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  17. 47 CFR 22.703 - Separate rural subscriber station authorization not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or base station from which they receive service. ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate rural subscriber station authorization... subscriber station authorization not required. A separate authorization is not required for rural...

  18. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. Prepare a separate performance evaluation after... familiar with the architect-engineer contractor's performance....

  19. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  20. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  1. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  2. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Editorial Note:...

  3. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  4. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  5. 48 CFR 236.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 236.606 Section 236.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT...-Engineer Services 236.606 Negotiations....

  6. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  7. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation....

  8. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Contract negotiation....

  9. 48 CFR 836.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 836.606 Section 836.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Negotiations....

  10. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act....

  11. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  12. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  13. 47 CFR 76.227 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 76.227 Section 76.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.227...

  14. 49 CFR 369.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records. 369.5 Section 369.5 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.5 Records. Books, records... Records....

  15. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  16. 48 CFR 970.3770 - Facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities management. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting 970.3770 Facilities management....

  17. 48 CFR 970.2201-2 - Overtime management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overtime management. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-2 Overtime management....

  18. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  19. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  20. 47 CFR 22.169 - International coordination of channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International coordination of channel assignments. 22.169 Section 22.169 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications...

  1. 47 CFR 22.107 - General application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22.107 General application requirements. In general, applications for authorizations, assignments of... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General application requirements....

  2. 48 CFR 225.7009 - Restriction on ball and roller bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on ball and roller bearings. 225.7009 Section 225.7009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... roller bearings....

  3. 48 CFR 519.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation factor or subfactor. 519.1202 Section 519.1202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Evaluation factor or subfactor....

  4. 48 CFR 19.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation factor or subfactor. 19.1202 Section 19.1202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Evaluation factor or subfactor....

  5. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501...

  6. 43 CFR 3.8 - Applications referred for recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications referred for recommendation... AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.8 Applications referred for recommendation. Applications for permits shall be referred to the Smithsonian Institution for recommendation....

  7. 49 CFR 37.39 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 37.39 Section 37.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.39...

  8. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7004 - Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses. 225.7004 Section 225.7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on acquisition of foreign buses....

  10. 46 CFR 308.305 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.305 Section 308.305 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.305...

  11. 46 CFR 308.301 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.301 Section 308.301 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.301...

  12. 48 CFR 245.201 - Solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation. 245.201... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Solicitation and Evaluation Procedures 245.201 Solicitation....

  13. 48 CFR 239.7201 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation requirements... Standards 239.7201 Solicitation requirements. Contracting officers shall ensure that all applicable Federal Information Processing Standards are incorporated into solicitations....

  14. 48 CFR 1524.104 - Solicitation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provisions....104 Solicitation provisions. The Contracting Officer shall insert the provision at 1552.224-70, Social... solicitations....

  15. 48 CFR 514.201-6 - Solicitation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provisions... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.201-6 Solicitation provisions... solicitation....

  16. 48 CFR 2116.105 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provision... TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Selecting Contract Types 2116.105 Solicitation provision. FAR 16.105 has no... solicitations....

  17. 48 CFR 606.570 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provision... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 606.570 Solicitation provision. The... solicitations exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold....

  18. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine... marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution... the merchant marine....

  19. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... marine....

  20. 43 CFR 11.16 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.16 Section 11.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.16...