Science.gov

Sample records for 2011-10-01 false mechanical

  1. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face. ...

  2. 48 CFR 832.1106 - EFT mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFT mechanisms. 832.1106... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 832.1106 EFT mechanisms. (a) The Assistant Secretary... making payment, authorize the use of EFT mechanisms other than those authorized under FAR 32.1106(a). (b...

  3. 48 CFR 32.1106 - EFT mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFT mechanisms. 32.1106... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1106 EFT mechanisms. (a) Domestic EFT mechanisms. The EFT clauses at 52.232-33 and 52.232-34 are designed for use with the domestic United...

  4. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be tested...

  5. 49 CFR 238.407 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.407 Section 238.407... Equipment § 238.407 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its... before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages. (b) Interior train coupling points between...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts for...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b) The...

  8. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer....

  9. 46 CFR 111.59-3 - No mechanical cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No mechanical cooling. 111.59-3 Section 111.59-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-3 No mechanical cooling. A busway must not need mechanical cooling...

  10. 47 CFR 1.357 - Mechanical reproductions as evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical reproductions as evidence. 1.357... Proceedings Evidence § 1.357 Mechanical reproductions as evidence. Unless offered for the sole purpose of attempting to prove or demonstrate sound effect, mechanical or physical reproductions of sound waves...

  11. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at least once each month. (b) Gate arm movement shall...

  12. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic device...

  13. 49 CFR 238.205 - Anti-climbing mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-climbing mechanism. 238.205 Section 238.205... Equipment § 238.205 Anti-climbing mechanism. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all..., 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting...

  14. 49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by § 192.1009, must be submitted on a Mechanical Fitting Failure...

  15. 46 CFR 56.30-35 - Gasketed mechanical couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasketed mechanical couplings. 56.30-35 Section 56.30-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-35 Gasketed mechanical couplings. (a) This...

  16. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order telegraph...

  17. 46 CFR 154.506 - Mechanical expansion joint: Limits in a piping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical expansion joint: Limits in a piping system..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.506 Mechanical expansion joint: Limits in a piping system. Mechanical expansion joints in a piping system outside of a cargo tank: (a) May be...

  18. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  19. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. Contact element of automatic train stop device of the mechanical trip type shall be maintained at a height...

  20. 49 CFR 236.304 - Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking or same protection effected by..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.304 Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits. Mechanical locking, or the same protection effected by means of circuits, shall be provided. ...

  1. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine...

  2. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed to prevent signals from...

  3. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of all...

  4. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing dogs...

  5. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates a...

  6. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-9 Section 113.35-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order...

  7. 46 CFR 160.033-3 - Construction of mechanical disengaging apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of mechanical disengaging apparatus. 160.033-3 Section 160.033-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Mechanical Disengaging...

  8. 49 CFR 238.207 - Link between coupling mechanism and car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Link between coupling mechanism and car body. 238.207 Section 238.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.207 Link between coupling mechanism and car body....

  9. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE...

  10. 49 CFR 192.1009 - What must an operator report when a mechanical fitting fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must an operator report when a mechanical fitting fails? 192.1009 Section 192.1009 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...

  11. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements...

  12. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901 False...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and...

  14. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  15. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

  16. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  17. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  18. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures...

  19. Radiative corrections to false vacuum decay in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, M. A.; Onishchenko, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    We consider radiative corrections to false vacuum decay within the framework of quantum mechanics for the general potential of the form 1/2 M ϕ2(ϕ -A )(ϕ -B ), where M , A and B are arbitrary parameters. For this type of potential we provide analytical results for Green function in the background of a corresponding bounce solution together with a one loop expression for false vacuum decay rate. Next, we discuss the computations of higher order corrections for false vacuum decay rates and provide numerical expressions for two and three loop contributions.

  20. Mechanisms for Generating False Positives for Extrasolar Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria; Schwieterman, Edward; Luger, Rodrigo; Wordsworth, Robin; Barnes, Rory; Segura, Antigona; Claire, Mark; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    Future mission concepts designed to look for life generally plan to search for oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and/or methane (CH4). However, mechanisms exist for generating each of these species abiotically. In this presentation, we will review these processes, and discuss the atmospheres that result from them. In general, false positives can form in atmospheres with severe redox imbalance. This redox imbalance can also be thought of as extreme elemental composition, skewed towards very high or very low O/H ratios. Specific examples of this include: 1) loss of H through the top of a planetary atmosphere that leads to high O/H and an atmosphere rich in O2 and O3 2) atmospheres whose volcanism is O-rich and H-poor (i.e., highly oxidized), which leads to an atmosphere that with high O/H that can accumulate O3 and potentially O2 3) atmospheres in which H escape is slow, leading to low O/H and accumulation of CH4 and 4) atmospheres in which volcanic outgassing is H-rich (highly reduced), leading to low O/H and potential accumulation of CH4. Each of these cases would constitute a 'false positive' for life if O2, O3, or CH4 were detected without obtaining the chemical atmospheric context that could indicate a severe redox imbalance exists.Methods exist for discriminating between these 'false positives' where the gases arise from abiotic sources, and 'true positives' where the gases arise by biological sources. The best means of doing this is to obtain measurements of both O-rich (O2/O3) and H-rich (CH4) species, allowing identification of non-extreme O/H ratios in the atmosphere, and eliminating this abiotic source of O2, O3, and CH4. Because this is the most likely cause of abiotic production of these species, the elimination of this explanation would indicate that these gases were instead likely produced by biology.More specific methods to identify each of these false positives mechanisms also exist, but will not be discussed in detail in this presentation.

  1. Similar phenomena, different mechanisms: semantic and phonological false memories are produced by independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ballou, McKenzie R; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2008-12-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm can produce high levels of false remembering for lists of both semantic and phonological associates. The present study investigated whether similar mechanisms mediate false memories with these two types of lists. Experiment 1 measured the relationship between levels of false memory obtained with lists of semantic and phonological associates. The results indicated little correlation between false memories generated with the two types of associates. Experiment 2 used a between-subjects design to determine whether the absence of a significant correlation in Experiment 1 was a consequence of the relatively low levels of false memory observed in that experiment. The results indicated similar proportions of false memories in Experiments 1 and 2, suggesting that the within-subjects design in Experiment 1 did not reduce the overall levels of false recall or recognition. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the independence of the mechanisms mediating different types of false memories.

  2. Understanding the mechanisms creating false positive lumpectomy margins.

    PubMed

    Dooley, William C; Parker, Jeanene

    2005-10-01

    All breast surgeons deal with the frustration of initial pathologic close or positive margins that have no residual cancer upon re-excision. To understand the mechanisms that create false positive margins, specimen handling was standardized in a single surgeon's practice and margin issues were tracked. Prospectively over a 3.5-year period, needle-localized lumpectomies for the management of early-stage breast cancer were standardized in all aspects of specimen handling, including surgeon inking and specimen compression for specimen radiography for quality assurance. The current study reviews 220 such cases where the original lumpectomy included a small piece of overlying skin from over the target lesion. All specimen radiography was performed with compression at the skin to deep level to bias the "pancaking" effect of pushing tumor to specimen surface to the deep margin. Of the 220 therapeutic lumpectomies performed for clinical stage 0-2 breast cancer in this fashion, 175 (79.5%) had negative margins by a distance of 10 mm or more. Margins less than 10 mm were classified as close and were present in 20 (9.1%) of cases. These were heavily biased toward margins closer than 2 mm. Positive initial margins accounted for 25 (11.4%) of cases. Of the 45 close or positive margin cases, 12 involved the deep margin only, and on re-excision none was found to have residual tumor. When other single margins were involved, re-excision found tumor in 5 of 14 cases (35.7%). When multiple margins were close or positive, 9 of 19 cases (47.3%) were found to have residual tumor at re-excision. Specimen compression increases the incidence of false margin positivity. The best predictors of true margin positivity are multiple close or positive margins or margin positivity in a direction not associated with specimen ex vivo compression.

  3. Early Bilingualism Enhances Mechanisms of False-Belief Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Agnes Melinda

    2009-01-01

    In their first years, children's understanding of mental states seems to improve dramatically, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Such "theory of mind" (ToM) abilities may arise during development, or have an innate basis, developmental changes reflecting limitations of other abilities involved in ToM tasks (e.g.…

  4. Early Bilingualism Enhances Mechanisms of False-Belief Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Agnes Melinda

    2009-01-01

    In their first years, children's understanding of mental states seems to improve dramatically, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Such "theory of mind" (ToM) abilities may arise during development, or have an innate basis, developmental changes reflecting limitations of other abilities involved in ToM tasks (e.g.…

  5. Early bilingualism enhances mechanisms of false-belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda

    2009-01-01

    In their first years, children's understanding of mental states seems to improve dramatically, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Such 'theory of mind' (ToM) abilities may arise during development, or have an innate basis, developmental changes reflecting limitations of other abilities involved in ToM tasks (e.g. inhibition). Special circumstances such as early bilingualism may enhance ToM development or other capacities required by ToM tasks. Here we compare 3-year-old bilinguals and monolinguals on a standard ToM task, a modified ToM task and a control task involving physical reasoning. The modified ToM task mimicked a language-switch situation that bilinguals often encounter and that could influence their ToM abilities. If such experience contributes to an early consolidation of ToM in bilinguals, they should be selectively enhanced in the modified task. In contrast, if bilinguals have an advantage due to better executive inhibitory abilities involved in ToM tasks, they should outperform monolinguals on both ToM tasks, inhibitory demands being similar. Bilingual children showed an advantage on the two ToM tasks but not on the control task. The precocious success of bilinguals may be associated with their well-developed control functions formed during monitoring and selecting languages.

  6. Mechanisms underlying the production of false memories for famous people's names in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plancher, Gaën; Guyard, Anne; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that the occurrence of false memories increases with aging, but the results remain inconsistent concerning Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the production of false memories are still unclear. Using an experimental episodic memory test with material based on the names of famous people in a procedure derived from the DRM paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 803-814], we examined correct and false recall and recognition in 30 young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 30 patients with AD. Moreover, we evaluated the relationships between false memory performance, correct episodic memory performance, and a set of neuropsychological assessments evaluating the semantic memory and executive functions. The results clearly indicated that correct recall and recognition performance decreased with the subjects' age, but it decreased even more with AD. In addition, semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with age but not with dementia. On the contrary, non-semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with AD. Finally, the regression analyses showed that executive functions mediated related false memories and episodic memory mediated related and unrelated false memories in aging. Moreover, executive functions predicted related and unrelated false memories in AD, and episodic and semantic memory predicted semantically related and unrelated false memories in AD. In conclusion, the results obtained are consistent with the current constructive models of memory suggesting that false memory creation depends on different cognitive functions and, consequently, that the impairments of these functions influence the production of false memories.

  7. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Alexandra S.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermot (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5 seconds earlier. Semantic interference is also evident in short-term memory, such that correct rejection of related lures is slowed relative to correct rejection of unrelated lures. The present research constitutes the first fMRI investigation of false recognition and semantic interference in short-term memory using a short-term DRM paradigm in which participants retained 4 semantic associates over a short 4 second filled retention interval. Results showed increased activation in the left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45) associated with semantic interference, and significant correlations between these increases and behavioral measures of interference across subjects. Furthermore, increases in dorsolateral PFC occurred when related lures were correctly rejected versus falsely remembered. Compared with false recognition, true recognition was associated with increases in left fusiform gyrus, a finding consistent with the notion that increased perceptual processing may distinguish true from false recognition over both short and long retention intervals. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of interference resolution in short-term memory, and suggest that false short-term recognition occurs as a consequence of the failure of frontally-mediated cognitive control processes which adjudicate semantic familiarity in support of accurate mnemonic retrieval. PMID:21349335

  8. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Alexandra S; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2011-06-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5s earlier. Semantic interference is also evident in short-term memory, such that correct rejection of related lures is slowed relative to correct rejection of unrelated lures. The present research constitutes the first fMRI investigation of false recognition and semantic interference in short-term memory using a short-term DRM paradigm in which participants retained 4 semantic associates over a short 4-s filled retention interval. Results showed increased activation in the left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45) associated with semantic interference, and significant correlations between these increases and behavioral measures of interference across subjects. Furthermore, increases in dorsolateral PFC occurred when related lures were correctly rejected versus falsely remembered. Compared with false recognition, true recognition was associated with increases in left fusiform gyrus, a finding consistent with the notion that increased perceptual processing may distinguish true from false recognition over both short and long retention intervals. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of interference resolution in short-term memory, and suggest that false short-term recognition occurs as a consequence of the failure of frontally mediated cognitive control processes which adjudicate semantic familiarity in support of accurate mnemonic retrieval.

  9. Hermetic Narratives and False Analysis: A Unique Variant of the Mechanism of Identification With the Aggressor.

    PubMed

    Amir, Dana

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on a unique variant of the mechanism of identification with the aggressor. The term "hermetic narrative" refers to a condition in which the trauma victim creates a hermetically sealed narrative of witnessing, which becomes an addictive and subjugating object in itself, while obstructing natural processes of thinking. This paper examines the ways in which the hermetic narrative reconstructs victim-aggressor relations both within the individual and in the analytic relationship. It further discusses the risk of creating a "false analysis" that is based on a malignant cooperation of the analyst and patient with the internalized traumatic object.

  10. The effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the cognitive mechanisms underlying false facial recognition.

    PubMed

    Colloff, Melissa F; Flowe, Heather D

    2016-06-01

    False face recognition rates are sometimes higher when faces are learned while under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol myopia theory (AMT) proposes that acute alcohol intoxication during face learning causes people to attend to only the most salient features of a face, impairing the encoding of less salient facial features. Yet, there is currently no direct evidence to support this claim. Our objective was to test whether acute alcohol intoxication impairs face learning by causing subjects to attend to a salient (i.e., distinctive) facial feature over other facial features, as per AMT. We employed a balanced placebo design (N = 100). Subjects in the alcohol group were dosed to achieve a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.06 %, whereas the no alcohol group consumed tonic water. Alcohol expectancy was controlled. Subjects studied faces with or without a distinctive feature (e.g., scar, piercing). An old-new recognition test followed. Some of the test faces were "old" (i.e., previously studied), and some were "new" (i.e., not previously studied). We varied whether the new test faces had a previously studied distinctive feature versus other familiar characteristics. Intoxicated and sober recognition accuracy was comparable, but subjects in the alcohol group made more positive identifications overall compared to the no alcohol group. The results are not in keeping with AMT. Rather, a more general cognitive mechanism appears to underlie false face recognition in intoxicated subjects. Specifically, acute alcohol intoxication during face learning results in more liberal choosing, perhaps because of an increased reliance on familiarity.

  11. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  12. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  13. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  14. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  15. The distinctiveness heuristic in false recognition and false recall.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

    2006-07-01

    The effects of generative processing on false recognition and recall were examined in four experiments using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In each experiment, a Generate condition in which subjects generated studied words from audio anagrams was compared to a Control condition in which subjects simply listened to studied words presented normally. Rates of false recognition and false recall were lower for critical lures associated with generated lists, than for critical lures associated with control lists, but only in between-subjects designs. False recall and recognition did not differ when generate and control conditions were manipulated within-subjects. This pattern of results is consistent with the distinctiveness heuristic (Schacter, Israel, & Racine, 1999), a metamemorial decision-based strategy whereby global changes in decision criteria lead to reductions of false memories. This retrieval-based monitoring mechanism appears to operate in a similar fashion in reducing false recognition and false recall.

  16. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a resilient...

  17. 46 CFR 54.30-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 54.30-1 Section 54.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-1 Scope. (a) Certain pressure vessels may be mechanically stress relieved in accordance with...

  18. False memories and confabulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

    1998-04-01

    Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories.

  19. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Eos Chasma.

  20. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-31

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Ares Vallis.

  1. 49 CFR 229.101 - Engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engines. 229.101 Section 229.101 Transportation... Engines. (a) The temperature and pressure alarms, controls and related switches of internal combustion engines shall function properly. (b) Whenever an engine has been shut down due to mechanical or...

  2. 46 CFR 58.25-75 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials. 58.25-75 Section 58.25-75 Shipping COAST... RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-75 Materials. (a) Materials used for the mechanical or hydraulic... part. (b) No materials with low melting-points, including such materials as aluminum and...

  3. 46 CFR 110.30-5 - Inspection for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection for certification. 110.30-5 Section 110.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS... mechanical and electrical condition and performance. Particular note must be made of circuits added or...

  4. 46 CFR 64.37 - Valve and fitting guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valve and fitting guard. 64.37 Section 64.37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND... be protected from mechanical damage by— (a) The tank; (b) A tank saddle; (c) The framework; or (d) A...

  5. 46 CFR 56.75-25 - Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detail requirements. 56.75-25 Section 56.75-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... dirt of any kind. Any suitable chemical or mechanical cleaning method may be used to provide a clean...

  6. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... joint tightness, mechanical strength and the nature of the fluid handled. ...

  7. 46 CFR 111.60-17 - Connections and terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Connections and terminations. 111.60-17 Section 111.60-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC... general, connections and terminations to all conductors must retain the original electrical, mechanical...

  8. 46 CFR 54.03-5 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 54.03-5 Section 54.03-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Low Temperature Operation..., mechanical properties, or heat treatments from those specified may be specially approved by the Commandant...

  9. 46 CFR 50.25-3 - Manufacturer or mill certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturer or mill certification. 50.25-3 Section 50.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL... mechanical properties required by the ASTM specification. (b) This certificate shall be made available to the...

  10. 46 CFR 111.01-3 - Placement of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Placement of equipment. 111.01-3 Section 111.01-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS..., as far as practicable, to prevent mechanical damage to the equipment from the accumulation of dust...

  11. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically...

  12. 46 CFR 98.01-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing” 98.25-97(c)(2) American Society of Mechanical... Code, section V, Nondestructive Examination (1986) 98.25-97(a)(1) ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 98.01-3 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  14. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by...

  15. 46 CFR 167.40-45 - Magnetic compass and gyrocompass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. 167.40-45 Section 167... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-45 Magnetic compass and gyrocompass. (a) All mechanically propelled vessels in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a magnetic compass. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 113.35-17 - Vessels with navigating bridge control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels with navigating bridge control. 113.35-17... bridge control. Each vessel with navigating bridge throttle control must have a positive mechanical stop on each telegraph transmitter that prevents movement to the “Navigating Bridge Control” position...

  17. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  18. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  19. 49 CFR 236.794 - Rod, up-and-down.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rod, up-and-down. 236.794 Section 236.794 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., up-and-down. A rod used for connecting the semaphore arm to the operating mechanism of a signal....

  20. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  1. 46 CFR 15.825 - Engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineers. 15.825 Section 15.825 Shipping COAST GUARD....825 Engineers. (a) An individual in charge of an engineering watch on a mechanically propelled... hold an appropriately endorsed license or MMC authorizing service as an assistant engineer. (b) The...

  2. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  3. 46 CFR 92.15-15 - Ventilation for crew quarters and, where provided, passenger spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and, where provided...) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 92.15-15 Ventilation for crew...., and doors to passageways can be kept open, all crew spaces shall be ventilated by a mechanical system...

  4. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a) Have sufficient, adequately trained staff in relation to the scope of the project. (b) Maintain a mechanism for...

  5. 46 CFR 78.17-3 - Watertight doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors. 78.17-3 Section 78.17-3 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 78.17-3 Watertight doors. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all watertight doors in subdivision bulkheads that may be opened at sea, and all mechanisms, remote controls, and...

  6. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined...

  7. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  8. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  9. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FFP for State ADP expenditures. 457.230 Section 457...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.230 FFP for State ADP expenditures. FFP is available for State ADP expenditures for the design, development, or installation of mechanized claims processing and...

  10. 46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 30.01... PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-6 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided... vessel on an international voyage apply to a vessel that: (1) Is mechanically propelled and of at least...

  11. 46 CFR 114.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 114.120 Section 114... PROVISIONS § 114.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with the applicable requirements of SOLAS as...

  12. 47 CFR 54.607 - Determining the rural rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining the rural rate. 54.607 Section 54...) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.607 Determining the rural rate... support mechanisms. The “rural rate” shall be used as described in this subpart to determine the credit or...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  14. 45 CFR 1222.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PARTICIPATION OF PROJECT BENEFICIARIES § 1222.1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to prescribe requirements for the establishment of a continuing mechanism for the meaningful participation of project... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1222.1 Section 1222.1 Public Welfare...

  15. 42 CFR 84.144 - Hand-operated blower test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.144 Hand-operated blower test; minimum requirements. (a) Hand-operated blowers shall be tested by attaching them to a mechanical drive and operating them 6 to 8 hours daily for... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated blower test; minimum requirements. 84...

  16. 46 CFR 32.15-10 - Sounding machines-T/OCL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sounding machines-T/OCL. 32.15-10 Section 32.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Navigation Equipment § 32.15-10 Sounding machines—T/OCL. All mechanically propelled vessels...

  17. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-01

    Context image The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Eos Chasma. Orbit Number: 18300 Latitude: -14.9443 Longitude: 312.7 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-01-29 02:31. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20227

  18. Gale Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Gale Crater. Basaltic sands are dark blue in this type of false color combination. The Curiosity Rover is located in another portion of Gale Crater, far southwest of this image. Orbit Number: 51803 Latitude: -4.39948 Longitude: 138.116 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2013-08-18 09:04 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21312

  19. Arabia Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-09

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Arabia Terra. A dark blue tone in this false color image is often associated with basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 12307 Latitude: 3.44332 Longitude: 5.97644 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2004-09-22 18:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19794

  20. Chryse Planitia - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the margin of Chryse Planitia. Dark blue in this false color combination is mostly likely basaltic material/dunes. Orbit Number: 44280 Latitude: 33.0423 Longitude: 309.853 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-12-08 07:16 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21162

  1. Olympus Mons - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-05

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of the caldera at the summit of Olympus Mons.

  2. Daga Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-19

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Daga Vallis on Eos Mensa.

  3. Baetis Mensa - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-29

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the northern tip of Baetis Mensa. The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows the northern tip of Baetis Mensa. In false color images dark blue is often basaltic sands. In this image it is possible to trace the sands from the erosion of Beatis Mensa moving down the canyon gullies to the floor of Ophir Chasma. Orbit Number: 42247 Latitude: -4.17728 Longitude: 287.975 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-06-23 21:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20792

  4. Noachis Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-30

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows an unnamed crater in Noachis Terra. The "dark blue" material is probably basaltic sands. Orbit Number: 17811 Latitude: -77.9919 Longitude: 0.491743 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-12-19 20:35. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20225

  5. Gale Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-14

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the interior mound of material within Gale Crater. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Gale Crater is the home of Curiosity Rover. Orbit Number: 44524 Latitude: -4.64054 Longitude: 137.663 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-12-28 07:29 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21164

  6. Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-07

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows an unnamed crater in Acidalia Planitia. The "dark blue" material is likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 19321 Latitude: 42.1856 Longitude: 359.705 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-04-23 05:40 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20231

  7. Nili Fossae - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-28

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Nili Fossae. Dark "blue" is interpreted to be basaltic rock/sand. Orbit Number: 17546 Latitude: 24.4543 Longitude: 79.8833 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-11-28 02:22. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20223

  8. Lobo Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-18

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Lobo Vallis, which is part of the larger Kasei Valles. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43756 Latitude: 27.9304 Longitude: 299.541 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-10-26 04:14 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21015

  9. Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-25

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows an unnamed crater located on the floor of the much larger Schiaparelli Crater. The dark blue material located in the topographic lows is basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 19495 Latitude: -0.402445 Longitude: 14.3131 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-05-07 13:43 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20244

  10. Firsoff Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-21

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the interior deposit of Firsoff Crater. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43854 Latitude: 2.72924 Longitude: 350.449 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-11-03 05:57 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21018

  11. Firsoff Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-13

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the interior deposit in Firsoff Crater. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43467 Latitude: 2.73971 Longitude: 350.606 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-10-02 09:29 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21011

  12. Galle Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-22

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the floor of Galle Crater. Dark dunes are visible in the center of the image. The dark blue color typically indicates basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 58800 Latitude: -51.5789 Longitude: 328.788 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-03-17 07:20 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20243

  13. Margaritifer Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-27

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Margaritifer Terra. Dark blue in this band configuration often equates with sand or basaltic materials. Orbit Number: 37552 Latitude: 6.87548 Longitude: 345.994 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2010-06-02 09:07 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20767

  14. Iani Chaos - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-04

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Iani Chaos. The "dark blue" material is likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 18037 Latitude: -1.05225 Longitude: 341.26 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-01-07 10:45. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20228

  15. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-04

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows some of the floor of Newton Crater. The small dark bluish features are sand dunes. Orbit Number: 50864 Latitude: -41.5788 Longitude: 201.592 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2013-06-02 02:53 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21280

  16. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-24

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. THe data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Newton Crater in Terra Sirenum. Orbit Number: 59753 Latitude: -38.4654 Longitude: 199.631 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-06-03 18:38 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21793

  17. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-11

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple way to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Newton Crater in Terra Siremun. Orbit Number: 59678 Latitude: -41.9838 Longitude: 202.593 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-05-28 14:26 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21703

  18. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-30

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows part of the large ridge on the floor of Newton Crater in Terra Sirenum. Orbit Number: 59416 Latitude: -41.0768 Longitude: 200.911 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-05-07 00:38 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21672

  19. Homestake Vein, False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-07

    This false-color view of a mineral vein called Homestake comes from the panoramic camera Pancam on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The vein is about the width of a thumb and about 18 inches 45 centimeters long.

  20. Ius Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-28

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows the northern tip of Baetis Mensa. In false color images dark blue is often basaltic sands. In this image it is possible to trace the sands from the erosion of Beatis Mensa moving down the canyon gullies to the floor of Ophir Chasma. Orbit Number: 42247 Latitude: -4.17728 Longitude: 287.975 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-06-23 21:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20792

  1. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-25

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Ares Vallis. Orbit Number: 4482 Latitude: 6.97956 Longitude: 339.713 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2002-12-18 13:46 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19215

  2. Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-24

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows an unnamed crater located on the floor of Newton Crater. Orbit Number: 57962 Latitude: -42.1218 Longitude: 201.814 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-01-07 07:47 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21539

  3. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  4. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters NASA's Galileo solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00132

  5. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00129

  6. Neptune in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    In this false color image of Neptune, objects that are deep in the atmosphere are blue, while those at higher altitudes are white. The image was taken by Voyager 2 wide-angle camera through an orange filter and two different methane filters. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00051

  7. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-18

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the beginning of Ares Vallis at the edge of Iani Chaos.

  8. Occator in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    This representation of Ceres' Occator Crater in false colors shows differences in the surface composition. Red corresponds to a wavelength range around 0.97 micrometers (near infrared), green to a wavelength range around 0.75 micrometers (red, visible light) and blue to a wavelength range of around 0.44 micrometers (blue, visible light). Occator measures about 60 miles (90 kilometers) wide. Scientists use false color to examine differences in surface materials. The color blue on Ceres is generally associated with bright material, found in more than 130 locations, and seems to be consistent with salts, such as sulfates. It is likely that silicate materials are also present. The images were obtained by the framing camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft from a distance of about 2,700 miles (4,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20180

  9. Ganges Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-29

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of the northern cliff face of Ganges Chasma. Orbit Number: 7380 Latitude: -6.68954 Longitude: 312.135 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2003-08-14 01:07 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19473

  10. Dunes - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-01

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. Data from different filters can be combined in many ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows sand dunes and sand materials in depressions near the south pole. The dark blue tone shows the location of sand transport from one depression to another. Orbit Number: 16870 Latitude: -75.1264 Longitude: 348.882 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-10-03 09:18 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20105

  11. False pop out.

    PubMed

    Orsten-Hooge, Kimberley D; Portillo, Mary C; Pomerantz, James R

    2015-12-01

    A single, unique target often pops out quickly and efficiently from a field of homogenous distractors in visual search. Pop out has helped shape theories of visual attention and feature integration as well as to identify basic features in human vision. Here we report a new phenomenon, false pop out, wherein one of the homogenous distractors competes with the singleton target to pop out, perhaps by breaking an overall grouping or pattern emerging from the display. We show the effect occurs with more than 1 type of stimulus, and we discuss the implications of such a counterintuitive finding for theories of visual search. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  13. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  14. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  15. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  16. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief.

    PubMed

    Ghrear, Siba E; Birch, Susan A J; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or 'theory of mind (ToM).' Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  17. 'Wopmay' in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a boulder called 'Wopmay' before heading further east inside 'Endurance Crater.' The frames combined into this false-color view were taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera during the rover's 251st martian day (Oct. 7, 2004). The coloring accentuates iron-rich spherical concretions as bluish dots embedded in the rock and on the ground around it. The rock is about one meter (3 feet) across. The slope of the ground and loose surface material around the rock prevented Opportunity from getting firm enough footing to use its rock abrasion tool on Wopmay. Evidence from the rover's spectrometers and microscopic imager is consistent with a possibility that rocks near the bottom of the crater were affected by water both before and after the crater formed. The evidence is still not conclusive.

  18. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  19. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  20. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  1. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. The mosaic images were processed to exaggerate the colors of the lunar surface for analytical purposes. Titanium-rich soils, typical of the Apollo 11 landing site, appear blue, as seen in Mare Tranquillitatis, left side; soils lower in titanium appear orange, as seen in Mare Serenitatis, center right. Most of the lunar highlands appear red, indicating their low titanium and iron composition. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  4. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. Cloudy Waves (False Color)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-14

    Clouds on Saturn take on the appearance of strokes from a cosmic brush thanks to the wavy way that fluids interact in Saturn's atmosphere. Neighboring bands of clouds move at different speeds and directions depending on their latitudes. This generates turbulence where bands meet and leads to the wavy structure along the interfaces. Saturn's upper atmosphere generates the faint haze seen along the limb of the planet in this image. This false color view is centered on 46 degrees north latitude on Saturn. The images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 18, 2017 using a combination of spectral filters which preferentially admit wavelengths of near-infrared light. The image filter centered at 727 nanometers was used for red in this image; the filter centered at 750 nanometers was used for blue. (The green color channel was simulated using an average of the two filters.) The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 750,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is about 4 miles (7 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21341

  6. False Color Aurora

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-23

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images. The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the "closed" field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the "open" field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense. The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00603

  7. North Polar False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  9. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  10. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  11. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  12. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  13. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  14. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  15. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  16. Dunes near Argyre - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-07

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. Data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows several areas of dunes and sand sheets with dune forms between the numerous hills in this region west of Argyre Planitia. Basaltic sand appears dark blue in this false color image. Orbit Number: 51285 Latitude: -47.6247 Longitude: 303.752 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2013-07-06 18:21 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21306

  17. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

  18. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  19. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  20. Ares Vallis Tributary - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-17

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of a tributary channel that empties into Ares Vallis.

  1. Kepler Certified False Positive Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Batalha, Natalie Marie; Colon, Knicole Dawn; Coughlin, Jeffrey Langer; Haas, Michael R.; Henze, Chris; Huber, Daniel; Morton, Tim; Rowe, Jason Frank; Mullally, Susan Elizabeth; hide

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the Kepler Certied False Positive table hosted at the Exoplanet Archive1, herein referred to as the CFP table. This table is the result of detailed examination by the Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) of declared false positives in the Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) tables (see, for example, Batalha et al. (2012); Burke et al.(2014); Rowe et al. (2015); Mullally et al. (2015); Coughlin et al. (2015b)) at the Exoplanet Archive. A KOI is considered a false positive if it is not due to a planet orbiting the KOI's target star. The CFP table contains all KOIs in the Exoplanet Archive cumulative KOI table. The purpose of the CFP table is to provide a list of certified false positive KOIs. A KOI is certified as a false positive when, in the judgement of the FPWG, there is no plausible planetary interpretation of the observational evidence, which we summarize by saying that the evidence for a false positive is compelling. This certification process involves detailed examination using all available data for each KOI, establishing a high-reliability ground truth set. The CFP table can be used to estimate the reliability of, for example, the KOI tables which are created using only Kepler photometric data, so the disposition of individual KOIs may differ in the KOI and CFP tables. Follow-up observers may find the CFP table useful to avoid observing false positives.

  2. Vernal Crater Floor - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-28

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the floor of Vernal Crater. Dark blue in this band configuration often indicates sand or basaltic materials. Orbit Number: 39099 Latitude: 5.48217 Longitude: 355.532 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2010-10-07 18:17 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20768

  3. Terra Cimmeria Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-28

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows a unique, resistant material on the floor of an unnamed crater in Terra Cimmeria. Orbit Number: 8547 Latitude: -23.784 Longitude: 135.545 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2003-11-18 02:35 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19736

  4. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  5. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  6. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  7. A false sense of security.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Mike

    2008-11-17

    Some journals are using ineffective software to screen images for manipulation. In doing so, they are creating a false sense of security in the research community about the integrity of the image data they publish.

  8. False positives in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    A recent attempt to estimate the false-positive rate for cancer epidemiology studies is based on agents in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) category 3 (agent not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) in the IARC Monographs Program. The estimation method is critiqued regarding biases caused by its reliance on the IARC classification criteria for assessing carcinogenic potential. The privileged position given to epidemiologic studies by the IARC criteria ensures that the percentage of positive epidemiologic studies for an agent will depend strongly on the IARC category to which the agent is assigned. Because IARC category 3 is composed of agents with the lowest-assessed carcinogenic potential to which the estimation approach in question could be applied, a spuriously low estimated false-positive rate was necessarily the outcome of this approach. Tendentious estimation approaches like that employed will by necessity produce spuriously low and misleading false positive rates. The recently reported estimates of the false-positive rate in cancer epidemiology are seriously biased and contribute nothing substantive to the literature on the very real problems related to false-positive findings in epidemiology.

  9. Danielson Crater Dunes - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-02

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the floor of Danielson Crater. This crater has deposits of material on the floor that have the appearance of wind erosion. The ridges and elongate hills are indications of wind direction. The dark blue material in this image is sand, most likely basaltic. The sand has formed dunes, but also can be seen filling small valleys to the upper right of the main dune. Orbit Number: 13206 Latitude: 7.82772 Longitude: 353.071 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2004-12-05 18:35 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20082

  10. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  11. Uranus Rings in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color view of the rings of Uranus was made from images taken by NASA Voyager 2 on Jan. 21, 1986. All nine known rings are visible here; the somewhat fainter, pastel lines seen between them are contributed by the computer enhancement. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00033

  12. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  13. The Danger of False Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBoskey, Vicky Kubler

    1998-01-01

    Responds to an article that examined 10 dichotomies in teacher education (SP 527 128), suggesting that too much time and energy are spent debating false dichotomies and addressing two specific dichotomies (preservice versus inservice and campus versus school site). Recommends that professional educators pool their energy and collaborate (rather…

  14. The Danger of False Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBoskey, Vicky Kubler

    1998-01-01

    Responds to an article that examined 10 dichotomies in teacher education (SP 527 128), suggesting that too much time and energy are spent debating false dichotomies and addressing two specific dichotomies (preservice versus inservice and campus versus school site). Recommends that professional educators pool their energy and collaborate (rather…

  15. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  16. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  17. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  18. Does sleep promote false memories?

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  19. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  20. Memory distrust syndrome, confabulation and false confession.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, Gisli

    2017-02-01

    There are three types of false confessions: 'voluntary', 'pressured-compliant' and 'pressured-internalized'. On the basis of case studies, in the early 1980s Gudjonsson and MacKeith coined the term 'memory distrust syndrome (MDS)' to describe a condition where people develop profound distrust of their memory and become susceptible to relying on external cues and suggestions from others. Memory distrust can, under certain circumstances, lead to a false confession, particularly of the pressured-internalized type, described as 'confabulation'. This article reviews the evidence for the condition and the psychological mechanism and processes involved. A heuristic model is then presented of a 32 year old man who falsely confessed to murder whilst in police custody. The key elements of the model involve the impact of 'contextual risk factors' (i.e., isolation, long and persistent guilt presumptive interrogation, and high emotional intensity) on 'enduring' vulnerability and 'acute state' factors. The detainee had kept a detailed diary whilst in solitary confinement that provided a unique insight into the gradual development of a MDS, his mental state, and thinking process. This type of false confession is apparently quite rare, but it can occur in intellectually able and educated individuals and involves 'delayed' rather than 'immediate' suggestibility.

  1. Introducing False EUR and False EUR exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, M.; Ivanova, K.

    2000-10-01

    The Euro ( EUR) is a new currency introduced by the European Community. Its exchange rate is very puzzling. We have invented a false Euro ( FEUR) dating back to 1993 and have derived the exchange rates of the FEUR with respect to currencies not belonging to the EUR, i.e., DKK, CHF, JPY and USD. This allows us to search for correlations between the fluctuations preexisting to the introduction of EUR and present ones in such financial data. The detrended fluctuation analysis ( DFA) statistical method is used. This leads to assume a power-law behavior, i.e., a scaling hypothesis, through an exponent α. The latter has demonstrated its usefulness for the investigations of long-range power-law correlations in several types of financial sequences. Our findings show that the α exponent interestingly characterizes fractional Brownian motion of the currency exchange rates between EUR and DKK over a 25 day interval, and usual Brownian motion otherwise and for the three other investigated exchange rates. We can devise an investment strategy based on the localα technique and obtain appreciable gains for the time being.

  2. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  3. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  4. Dusty Crater In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This false color image of a crater rim illustrates just how complete the dust cover can be. The small white/blue regions on the rim are of areas where the dust cover has been removed - due to heating on sun facing slopes or by gravitational effects.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 352.8 East (7.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Detail on Dione False color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-27

    The leading hemisphere of Dione displays subtle variations in color across its surface in this false color view. To create this view, ultraviolet, green and infrared images were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This "color map" was then superposed over a clear-filter image. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood, but may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil. Terrain visible here is on the moon's leading hemisphere. North on Dione (1,126 kilometers, or 700 miles across) is up and rotated 17 degrees to the right. All images were acquired with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Dec. 24, 2005 at a distance of approximately 597,000 kilometers (371,000 miles) from Dione and at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 21 degrees. Image scale is 4 kilometers (2 miles) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07688

  6. Ice Surfaces In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image shows a marked difference in the 'blueness' of the ice surfaces. The lower (presumably older) surface is oranger and the top (presumably younger) surface is blue. This may represent the fresher ice of the upper surface which has not yet covered with as much dust as the lower surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.8, Longitude 302.1 East (57.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Polar Layers in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image again illustrates the oranger/bluer nature of the polar layers.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6, Longitude 70.2 East (289.8 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  10. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  11. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  12. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  13. Decay of false vacuum via fuzzy monopole in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Aya; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    We investigate dielectric branes in false vacua in type IIB string theory. The dielectric branes are supported against collapsing by lower energy vacua inside spherical or tubelike branes. We claim that such branes can be seeds for semiclassical (or quantum mechanical) decay of the false vacua, which makes the lifetime of the false vacua shorter. Also, we discuss a topology change of a bubble corresponding to the fuzzy monopole triggered by dissolving fundamental strings.

  14. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  15. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before the...

  16. 49 CFR 178.33b - Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles. 178.33b Section 178.33b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable plastic receptacles. ...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7012 - Restriction on supercomputers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on supercomputers. 225.7012 Section 225.7012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... supercomputers. ...

  18. 49 CFR 369.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records. 369.5 Section 369.5 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.5 Records. Books, records... Records. ...

  19. 48 CFR 2129.401 - Domestic contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Domestic contracts. 2129.401 Section 2129.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... Contract Clauses 2129.401 Domestic contracts....

  20. 48 CFR 19.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation factor or subfactor. 19.1202 Section 19.1202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Evaluation factor or subfactor. ...

  1. 48 CFR 519.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation factor or subfactor. 519.1202 Section 519.1202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Evaluation factor or subfactor. ...

  2. 48 CFR 26.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 26.100 Section 26.100 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... Indian-owned economic enterprises as subcontractors. ...

  3. 48 CFR 232.503 - Postaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postaward matters. 232.503 Section 232.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Postaward matters....

  4. 48 CFR 232.502 - Preaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preaward matters. 232.502 Section 232.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....502 Preaward matters....

  5. 48 CFR 215.404 - Proposal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal analysis. 215.404 Section 215.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Proposal analysis. ...

  6. 48 CFR 215.407-5 - Estimating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Estimating systems. 215.407-5 Section 215.407-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....407-5 Estimating systems. ...

  7. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... railroads for freight transportation. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 200.3 Section 200.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 224 - Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Report B Appendix B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote. ...

  11. 48 CFR 970.0470 - Department of Energy Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Energy Directives. 970.0470 Section 970.0470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... Energy Directives....

  12. 47 CFR 2.1055 - Measurements required: Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurements required: Frequency stability. 2.1055 Section 2.1055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization...

  13. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  14. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219...

  15. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  16. 47 CFR 32.15 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 32.15 Section 32.15 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.15...

  17. 48 CFR 1219.1005 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 1219.1005 Section 1219.1005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program...

  18. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest. ...

  19. 48 CFR 1804.470 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology (IT) resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security requirements for unclassified information technology (IT) resources. 1804.470 Section 1804.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations... (IT) resources. ...

  20. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  1. 50 CFR 217.201 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective dates. 217.201 Section 217.201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., through July 14, 2014. ...

  2. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  3. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts. ...

  4. 48 CFR 1.602 - Contracting officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting officers. 1... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602 Contracting officers. ...

  5. 46 CFR 308.305 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.305 Section 308.305 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.305...

  6. 46 CFR 308.301 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.301 Section 308.301 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.301...

  7. 47 CFR 32.6362 - Other terminal equipment expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other terminal equipment expense. 32.6362... Other terminal equipment expense. This account shall include expenses associated with other terminal equipment. ...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6351 - Public telephone terminal equipment expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public telephone terminal equipment expense. 32....6351 Public telephone terminal equipment expense. This account shall include expenses associated with public telephone terminal equipment. ...

  9. 43 CFR 5511.2 - Act of 1898 (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Act of 1898 (Alaska). 5511.2 Section 5511.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... 1898 (Alaska). ...

  10. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine... marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution... the merchant marine....

  11. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... marine....

  12. 49 CFR 236.780 - Plunger, facing point lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plunger, facing point lock. 236.780 Section 236.780 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... plunger stand when the switch is locked....

  13. 43 CFR 3191.5 - Delegation for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation for Indian lands. 3191.5 Section 3191.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... lands. ...

  14. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  15. 49 CFR 178.33a - Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles. 178.33a Section 178.33a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable metal receptacles. ...

  16. 49 CFR 178.33 - Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles. 178.33 Section 178.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable metal receptacles. ...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7003 - Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals. 225.7003 Section 225.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals. ...

  18. 48 CFR 243.204-70 - Definitization of change orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204-70 Definitization of change orders. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitization of...

  19. 43 CFR 11.16 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.16 Section 11.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.16...

  20. 43 CFR 11.19 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.19 Section 11.19 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.19...

  1. 48 CFR 570.117 - Sustainable requirements for lease acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sustainable requirements for lease acquisition. Contracting officers must include sustainable design... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sustainable requirements...'s sustainable requirements identified in this part. ...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7004 - Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses. 225.7004 Section 225.7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on acquisition of foreign buses....

  3. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  4. 48 CFR 236.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 236.606 Section 236.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT...-Engineer Services 236.606 Negotiations. ...

  5. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  6. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Contract negotiation. ...

  7. 48 CFR 836.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 836.606 Section 836.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Negotiations. ...

  8. 50 CFR 217.71 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective dates. 217.71 Section 217.71 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., 2011 through March 22, 2016. ...

  9. 48 CFR 239.7408 - Special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special construction. 239.7408 Section 239.7408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Telecommunications Services 239.7408 Special construction. ...

  10. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  11. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  12. 48 CFR 53.236 - Construction and architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction and architect-engineer contracts. 53.236 Section 53.236 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...-engineer contracts. ...

  13. 49 CFR 536.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 536.2 Section 536.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... cars, and light trucks. ...

  14. 48 CFR 1501.603 - Selection, appointment, and termination of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection, appointment, and termination of appointment. 1501.603 Section 1501.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System..., appointment, and termination of appointment. ...

  15. 48 CFR 645.610 - Sale of surplus contractor inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sale of surplus contractor inventory. 645.610 Section 645.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT... of surplus contractor inventory. ...

  16. 48 CFR 1303.804 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 1303.804 Section 1303.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS... Administration, Ethics Law and Program Division. ...

  17. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls and...

  18. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  19. 48 CFR 1511.011-79 - Information resources management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information resources... AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-79 Information resources management. The... Resource Management, in all solicitations and contracts....

  20. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  1. 48 CFR 415.305 - Proposal evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal evaluation. 415... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 415.305 Proposal evaluation. HCAs... of the technical evaluation team. ...

  2. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway. ...

  3. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator. ...

  4. 48 CFR 2804.470 - Contractor Personnel Security Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contractor Personnel Security Program. 2804.470 Section 2804.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Personnel Security Program. ...

  5. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800 Section...

  6. 48 CFR 415.209 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 415.209 Section 415.209 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... the submittal of lengthy, complex technical proposals. ...

  7. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  8. 48 CFR 239.7400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications... definition of information technology. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 239.7400 Section...

  9. 48 CFR 970.0801 - Excess personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess personal property. 970.0801 Section 970.0801 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....0801 Excess personal property. ...

  10. 48 CFR 245.201-73 - Security classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security classification... Procedures 245.201-73 Security classification. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.201-73 for security classification. ...

  11. 48 CFR 970.2201-2 - Overtime management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overtime management. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-2 Overtime management. ...

  12. 48 CFR 970.3770 - Facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities management. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting 970.3770 Facilities management. ...

  13. 48 CFR 3009.570 - Limitations on contractors acting as lead system integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on contractors acting as lead system integrators. 3009.570 Section 3009.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractors acting as lead system integrators. ...

  14. 48 CFR 225.7009 - Restriction on ball and roller bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on ball and roller bearings. 225.7009 Section 225.7009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... roller bearings....

  15. 46 CFR 308.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.106 Section 308.106 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance §...

  16. 47 CFR 24.832 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.832 Section 24.832 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Interim Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for Broadband PCS §...

  17. 47 CFR 73.766 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.766 Section 73.766 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations §...

  18. 46 CFR 308.201 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.201 Section 308.201 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance §...

  19. 47 CFR 73.659-73.663 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.659-73.663 Section 73.659-73.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations §§...

  20. 46 CFR 298.34 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 298.34 Section 298.34 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation §...

  1. 47 CFR 22.215 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22.215 Section 22.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive Bidding Procedures §...

  2. 47 CFR 24.710 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.710 Section 24.710 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for Broadband PCS §...

  3. 47 CFR 24.101 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.101 Section 24.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS §...

  4. 47 CFR 73.3534 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.3534 Section 73.3534 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations §...

  5. 47 CFR 73.672 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.672 Section 73.672 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations §...

  6. 47 CFR 24.713 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.713 Section 24.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for Broadband PCS §...

  7. 46 CFR 308.101 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.101 Section 308.101 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance §...

  8. 47 CFR 24.130 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.130 Section 24.130 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS §...

  9. 47 CFR 24.320 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.320 Section 24.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for Narrowband PCS §...

  10. 45 CFR 1233.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1233.4 Section 1233.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTION PROGRAMS §...

  11. 46 CFR 308.206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.206 Section 308.206 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance §...

  12. 47 CFR 22.961-22.967 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22.961-22.967 Section 22.961-22.967 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service §§...

  13. 48 CFR 53.301-1423 - Inventory Verification Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory Verification Survey. 53.301-1423 Section 53.301-1423 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Survey. ER05AP04.000...

  14. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran. ...

  15. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 222.101...

  16. 48 CFR 22.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal and State labor...

  17. 48 CFR 25.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.602 Policy. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 25.602 Section...

  18. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs....

  19. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs....

  20. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs....

  1. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30 Patent costs....

  2. 48 CFR 970.3102-05 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 970.3102... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05 Selected costs....

  3. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs....

  4. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  5. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501...

  6. 48 CFR Appendix E to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false E Appendix E to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendix E to Chapter 7 ...

  7. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 ...

  8. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  9. 47 CFR 22.169 - International coordination of channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International coordination of channel assignments. 22.169 Section 22.169 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications...

  10. 47 CFR 22.107 - General application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22.107 General application requirements. In general, applications for authorizations, assignments of... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General application requirements....

  11. 43 CFR 3410.1 - Exploration licenses: Generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exploration licenses: Generally. 3410.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) EXPLORATION LICENSES Exploration Licenses § 3410.1 Exploration licenses: Generally. ...

  12. 43 CFR 3410.3 - Exploration licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exploration licenses. 3410.3 Section 3410..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) EXPLORATION LICENSES Exploration Licenses § 3410.3 Exploration licenses. ...

  13. 48 CFR 37.116 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. 37.116 Section 37.116 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... and Dispensing of $1 Coin. ...

  14. 45 CFR 81.71 - Statement of position and trial briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statement of position and trial briefs. 81.71... trial briefs. The presiding officer may require parties and amici curiae to file written statements of... trial briefs. ...

  15. 49 CFR 520.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 520.2 Section 520.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... affect the quality of the human environment....

  16. 47 CFR 22.703 - Separate rural subscriber station authorization not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or base station from which they receive service. ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate rural subscriber station authorization... subscriber station authorization not required. A separate authorization is not required for rural...

  17. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  18. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  19. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  20. 49 CFR 37.39 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 37.39 Section 37.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.39...

  1. 49 CFR 236.755 - Link, rocker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Link, rocker. 236.755 Section 236.755... Link, rocker. That portion of an interlocking machine which transmits motion between the latch and the universal link. ...

  2. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  3. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  4. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  5. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  6. 43 CFR 3.8 - Applications referred for recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications referred for recommendation... AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.8 Applications referred for recommendation. Applications for permits shall be referred to the Smithsonian Institution for recommendation....

  7. 48 CFR 628.309 - Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance. 628.309 Section 628.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... workers' compensation insurance....

  8. 48 CFR 219.401 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 219.401 Section 219.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... point for interface with the SBA....

  9. 46 CFR 54.05-25 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 54.05-25 Section 54.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-25 ...

  10. 48 CFR 252.239-7016 - Telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telecommunications... Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS... telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, or services to contractor telecommunications systems....

  11. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  12. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  13. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  14. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402...

  15. 48 CFR 970.35 - Research and development contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research and development contracting. 970.35 Section 970.35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... development contracting. ...

  16. 48 CFR 1616.7002 - Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clause-contracts based on... FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated). ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  17. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... finding of fraud....

  18. 47 CFR 76.227 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 76.227 Section 76.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.227 ...

  19. 50 CFR 38.5 - Emergency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Executive Authority; Authorized... Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency authority. 38.5 Section...

  20. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors. ...

  1. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  2. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay... to relay; location. The battery or power supply for each signal control relay circuit, where an open... from the relay....

  3. 43 CFR 3110.3 - Lease terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lease terms. 3110.3 Section 3110.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... terms. ...

  4. Recollection rejection: false-memory editing in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Wright, Ron; Mojardin, A H

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms for editing false events out of memory reports have fundamental implications for theories of false memory and for best practice in applied domains in which false reports must be minimized (e.g., forensic psychological interviews, sworn testimony). A mechanism posited in fuzzy-trace theory, recollection rejection, is considered. A process analysis of false-memory editing is presented, which assumes that false-but-gist-consistent events (e.g., the word SOFA, when the word COUCH was experienced) sometimes cue the retrieval of verbatim traces of the corresponding true events (COUCH), generating mismatches that counteract the high familiarity of false-but-gist-consistent events. Empirical support comes from 2 qualitative phenomena: recollective suppression of semantic false memory and inverted-U relations between retrieval time and semantic false memory. Further support comes from 2 quantitative methodologies: conjoint recognition and receiver operating characteristics. The analysis also predicts a novel false-memory phenomenon (erroneous recollection rejection), in which true events are inappropriately edited out of memory reports.

  5. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  6. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  7. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  8. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False...

  9. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False...

  10. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False...

  11. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False...

  12. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False...

  13. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  14. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  15. When true recognition suppresses false recognition: evidence from amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Schacter, D L; Verfaellie, M; Anes, M D; Racine, C

    1998-11-01

    False recognition occurs when people mistakenly claim that a novel item is familiar. After studying lists of semantically related words, healthy controls show extraordinarily high levels of false recognition to nonstudied lures that are semantic associates of study list words. In previous experiments, we found that both Korsakoff and non-Korsakoff amnesic patients show reduced levels of false recognition to semantic associates, implying that the medial temporal/diencephalic structures that are damaged in amnesic patients are involved in the encoding and/or retrieval of information that underlies false recognition. These data contrast with earlier results indicating greater false recognition in Korsakoff amnesics than in control subjects. The present experiment tests the hypothesis that greater or lesser false recognition of semantic associates in amnesic patients, relative to normal controls, can be demonstrated by creating conditions that are more or less conducive to allowing true recognition to suppress false recognition. With repeated presentation and testing of lists of semantic associates, control subjects and both Korsakoff and non-Korsakoff amnesics showed increasing levels of true recognition across trials. However, control subjects exhibited decreasing levels of false recognition across trials, whereas Korsakoff amnesic patients showed increases across trials and non-Korsakoff amnesics showed a fluctuating pattern. Consideration of signal detection analyses and differences between the two types of amnesic patients provides insight into how mechanisms of veridical episodic memory can be used to suppress false recognition.

  16. Effects of aging and education on false memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the recall and recognition of the studied word and nonstudied lures. A low education level had a negative effect on memory performance for both young and middle-aged adults. Older adults with a high level of education had a higher level of false memory than those with a lower education level. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of education on false memory and mechanisms that create false memory of words in older adults.

  17. An association account of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A

    2012-05-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding.

  18. False discoveries and models for gene discovery.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2003-10-01

    In the search for genes underlying complex traits, there is a tendency to impose increasingly stringent criteria to avoid false discoveries. These stringent criteria make it hard to find true effects, and we argue that it might be better to optimize our procedures for eliminating and controlling false discoveries. Focusing on achieving an acceptable ratio of true- and false-positives, we show that false discoveries could be eliminated much more efficiently using a stepwise approach. To avoid a relatively high false discovery rate, corrections for 'multiple testing' might also be needed in candidate gene studies. If the appropriate methods are used, detecting the proportion of true effects appears to be a more important determinant of the genotyping burden than the desired false discovery rate. This raises the question of whether current models for gene discovery are shaped excessively by a fear of false discoveries.

  19. The relationship between DRM and misinformation false memories.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; Dong, Qi

    2013-08-01

    This research investigated the relationship between false memories induced by two different paradigms (misinformation and Deese-Roediger-McDermott [DRM]). The misinformation effect refers to the phenomenon that a person's recollection of a witnessed event can be altered after exposure to misleading information about the event. DRM false memory represents the intrusion of words that are semantically related but not actually presented in the study session. Subjects (N = 432) completed both misinformation and DRM false memory tests. Results showed a small but significant correlation (r = .12, p = .02) between the misinformation and DRM false memories. Furthermore, using signal detection theory, we found that the discrimination ability index (d') was related to both the misinformation and DRM false memories (r = -.12 and -.13, p = .01), while the response bias was related only to DRM false memory (r = -.46, p < .001). These results suggest that misinformation and DRM false memories generally involve different mechanisms and that their shared mechanism may involve the global discrimination ability.

  20. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.

    PubMed

    Leo, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial.

  1. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  2. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  3. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  4. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  5. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  6. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  7. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-03-09

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts.

  8. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  9. Understanding False Belief as Generalized Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The current work reports 2 experiments that investigate the development of false belief from the perspective of Relational Frame Theory. The true and false belief test protocol used across both experiments contained a range of tasks that involved responding in accordance with the 3 perspective-taking frames of I-YOU, HERE-THERE, NOW-THEN, and in…

  10. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  11. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  12. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  13. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  14. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  15. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General §...

  16. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  17. False-belief understanding in infants

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Renée; Scott, Rose M.; He, Zijing

    2010-01-01

    At what age can children attribute false beliefs to others? Traditionally, investigations into this question have used elicited-response tasks in which children are asked a direct question about an agent's' false belief. Results from these tasks indicate that the ability to attribute false beliefs does not emerge until about age 4. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that this ability is present much earlier. Here we review results from various spontaneous-response tasks which suggest that infants in the second year of life can already attribute false beliefs about location and identity as well as false perceptions. We also consider alternative interpretations that have been offered for these results, and discuss why elicited-response tasks are particularly difficult for young children. PMID:20106714

  18. An individual difference analysis of false recognition

    PubMed Central

    SALTHOUSE, TIMOTHY A.; SIEDLECKI, KAREN L.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies with moderately large samples of participants were conducted to examine correlates of false recognition. In Experiment 1 false recognition of words was found to be a robust and reliable phenomenon at the level of individuals, and the tendency to classify critical lures as old was more closely related to the correct classification of old items as old than to the incorrect classification of unrelated new items as old. False recognition was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities that were assessed, including episodic memory, or to other factors such as personality and chronic mood. In Experiment 2 these findings were extended to include dot pattern and face stimuli. Although measures of veridical memory were significantly correlated across the different types of stimulus material, false recognition rates only had modest and generally not significant correlations, which suggests that the tendency to produce false recognitions may be a task-specific characteristic of individuals. PMID:17892087

  19. Emotional content of true and false memories.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants' pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood events were planted using a suggestive manipulation and then compared, along several subjective dimensions, with other participants' true memories. On most emotional dimensions (e.g., how emotional was this event for you?), true and false memories were indistinguishable. On a few measures (e.g., intensity of feelings at the time of the event), true memories were more emotional than false memories in the aggregate, yet true and false memories were equally likely to be rated as uniformly emotional. These results suggest that even substantial emotional content may not reliably indicate memory accuracy.

  20. Item method directed forgetting diminishes false memory.

    PubMed

    Marche, Tammy A; Brainerd, Charles J; Lane, David G; Loehr, Janeen D

    2005-10-01

    Directed forgetting may reduce DRM false memory illusion by interfering with meaning processing. Participants were presented with a list composed of six 10-word semantically associated sub-lists, and they were either (a) asked to remember all list items of (b) asked to remember all associates from sub-lists and to forget all associates from other sub-lists. All participants were requested to recall and recognise list items. Although directed forgetting effects have been previously reported only for true responses in the DRM paradigm with the list method, we also found directed forgetting for false responses with the item method. Such forgetting instructions reduced both verbatim and meaning processing, decreasing both the intrusion and the false alarm rate. These results are consistent with two-process explanations of DRM false memories, such as fuzzy-trace theory, and add to our understanding of false memory editing.

  1. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  2. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  3. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  4. Neural correlates underlying true and false associative memories.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Nancy A; Johnson, Christina E; Peterson, Kristina M

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that associative memory studies produce a large number of false memories, neuroimaging analyses utilizing this paradigm typically focus only on neural activity mediating successful retrieval. The current study sought to expand on this prior research by examining the neural basis of both true and false associative memories. Though associative false memories are substantially different than those found in semantic or perceptual false memory paradigms, results suggest that associative false memories are mediated by similar neural mechanisms. Specifically, we found increased frontal activity that likely represents enhanced monitoring and evaluation compared to that needed for true memories and correct rejections. Results also indicated that true, and not false associative memories, are mediated by neural activity in the MTL, specifically the hippocampus. Finally, while activity in early visual cortex distinguished true from false memories, a lack of neural differences between hits and correct rejections failed to support previous findings suggesting that activity in early visual cortex represents sensory reactivation of encoding-related processing.

  5. Neural correlates of true and false belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Sodian, Beate; Meinhardt, Jörg; Thoermer, Claudia; Hajak, Göran

    2007-04-15

    Belief reasoning plays a central role in making inferences about other people's mental states. The ability to reason about false beliefs is considered as a critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). There is some controversy as to whether it is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) or the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) that is centrally involved in belief reasoning. According to developmental studies of belief reasoning we conducted an fMRI experiment with a carefully controlled paradigm (Sally Anne scenario). We compared false belief reasoning with true belief reasoning in parallel tasks, using a series of cartoon stories depicting transfer of an object unbeknownst to the protagonist (false belief) or with the protagonist witnessing (true belief). The false belief versus true belief contrast revealed activation of the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the right lateral rostral prefrontal cortex and the right TPJ associated with false belief. We suggest that the activation of the dACC and the lateral PFC might be associated with action monitoring and stimulus-independent cognitive processing whereas the activation of the TPJ might be related to the computation of mental representations that create perspective differences, such as a person's false belief that contrasts with reality and therefore might be centrally involved in the decoupling mechanism. Additionally we found common patterns of activation for true and false belief reasoning, including inferior parietal and precuneus activation, but we found no activation of the MPFC or the TPJ in general belief reasoning.

  6. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    PubMed Central

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  7. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  8. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  9. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  11. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition.

  12. Justifying all the fuss about false belief.

    PubMed

    Russell, James

    2005-07-01

    The classic study by Wimmer and Perner showed that children below the age of about 4 years of age fail to appreciate others' false beliefs. This opened the floodgates to the theory-of-mind research programme. Recently, a study by Riggs and Simpson has called the central challenge of false belief into question, reporting similar difficulties with true belief. I would argue, however, that not only should the acquisition of false belief remain a central concern but that we should think harder about it and its earlier manifestations.

  13. Consequences of false-positive screening mammograms.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, Anna N A; Fryback, Dennis G; Hammond, Cristina S; Hanna, Lucy G; Grove, Margaret R; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D

    2014-06-01

    False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the US Preventive Services Task Force. To measure the effect of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility, and attitudes toward future screening. The Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life substudy telephone survey was performed shortly after screening and 1 year later at 22 DMIST sites and included randomly selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. The 6-question short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state scale (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument with US scoring. Attitudes toward future screening as measured by women's self-report of future intention to undergo mammographic screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to undergo a hypothetical new type of mammography that would identify as many cancers with half the false-positive results. Among 1450 eligible women invited to participate, 1226 (84.6%) were enrolled, with follow-up interviews obtained in 1028 (83.8%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6, 35.2 vs 32.7), but health utility scores did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at 1 year. Future screening intentions differed by group (25.7% vs 14.2% more likely in false-positive vs negative groups); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (9.9% vs 10.5% in false-positive vs negative groups). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.54-2.93), younger age (2.78; 1.5-5.0), and poorer health (1.63; 1.09-2.43). Women's anticipated high-level anxiety regarding future false-positive mammograms was associated with willingness

  14. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  15. Japanese children's development of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2007-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the Japanese children's false belief understanding. Study 1, a small-scale meta-analysis that included 21 Japanese false belief studies yielding 60 data points, revealed that the Japanese children's false belief understanding develops with age (effect size = 2.48 in odds ratio for 1 year), the Japanese children's performance exceeds the chance level at the age of 64 months, and question type (think vs look-for) produced no statistically significant difference. An experiment (Study 2) employing a change-of-locations task was conducted to confirm these findings, manipulating question type as a within-participant factor. Participants were 43 Japanese kindergartners (24 boys and 19 girls; 3 yr. 4 mo. to 6 yr. 1 mo.). The results showed that Japanese children's false belief performance developed with age. Their performance level exceeded the chance level at the age of 5 years, and question type did not affect their performance.

  16. Vast Ligeia Mare in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-22

    Ligeia Mare, shown here in a false color image from NASA Cassini mission, is the second largest known body of liquid on Saturn moon Titan. It is filled with liquid hydrocarbons, such as ethane and methane.

  17. Tithonium and Ius Chasmata False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-28

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a false color image of the region including both Tithonium and Ius Chasmata, which includes a bluish region in both canyons. This may indicate an atmospheric haze.

  18. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  19. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    False color representation of Jupiter Great Red Spot GRS taken by NASA Galileo imaging system. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation.

  20. Venus - False Color of Eistla Regio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-14

    This false color Magellan image shows a portion of Eistla Regio region in the northern hemisphere of Venus, centered at 1 degrees south latitude, 37 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00258

  1. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory.

  2. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events.

  3. Reducing false-negative and false-positive diagnoses in anatomic pathology consultation material.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Gould, Edwin W

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are disagreements in interlaboratory consultation, including false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. To date, methods to reduce false-negative and false-positive diagnoses have been poorly documented. To identify features associated with false-negative and false-positive diagnoses in anatomic pathology. We reviewed the results of interlaboratory consultation in our institution during a 9-year period. For false-negative and false-positive diagnoses, methods that might have prevented the error were identified. Disagreements were identified in 810 of 8082 consults (10%). Fifty-four false-negative cases (0.7% of all consults) and 27 false-positive cases (0.3%) were identified. False-negative cases were more common in breast (20 of 1131; 1.8%), genitourinary (16 of 970; 1.7%), hematologic (3 of 242; 1.3%), and cytology (3 of 404; 0.8%) than in all other sites combined (P < .001); no significant difference in sites were identified for false-positive cases. Overall, there was no difference in the percentage of cases that were reviewed by more than one pathologist in either false-negative cases (109 of 810; 13.5%) or false-positive cases (135 of 810; 16.7%), compared with all other consults (858 of 7272; 11.8%) (P = .74 and .59, respectively). However, on review, 12 of all 27 false-positive cases (44%) might have been prevented by the use of immunohistochemistry alone, and 36 of all 54 false-negative cases (67%) might have been prevented by the use of a second review; special stains, including immunohistochemistry; additional levels; changes in processing; and hedges. Approximately one-half of false-negative and false-positive cases (48 of 81; 59%) might be preventable by the use of a combination of pathologic methods.

  4. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence?

    PubMed

    Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

    2013-10-01

    Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory.

  5. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  6. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  7. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other extralist and prior-list intrusions. The authors developed the theory by simulating recall of such lists, using factorial combinations of semantic mechanisms operating at encoding, retrieval, or both stages. During encoding, unstudied words' associations to list context were strengthened in proportion to their strength of semantic association either to each studied word or to all co-rehearsed words. During retrieval, words received preference in proportion to their strength of semantic association to the most recently recalled single word or multiple words. The authors simulated all intrusion types and veridical recall for lists varying in semantic association strength among studied and critical words from the same and different lists. Multiplicative semantic encoding and retrieval mechanisms performed well in combination. Using such combined mechanisms, the authors also simulated several core findings from the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm literature, including developmental patterns, specific list effects, association strength effects, and true–false correlations. These results challenge existing false-memory theories. PMID:17907869

  8. False Positive Mammograms and Detection Controlled Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kleit, Andrew N; Ruiz, James F

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of false positive in mammograms. Data Sources Secondary data collected from extracts from computerized medical records from 1999 from five thousand patients at a single hospital in a medium-sized Southern city. Study Design Retrospective analysis of electronic medical data on screening and diagnostic mammograms. Detection-controlled estimation (DCE) was used to compare the efficacy of alternative readers of mammogram films. Analysis was also conducted on follow-up exams of women who tested positive in the first stage of investigation. Key variables included whether the patient had had a prior mammogram, age of the patient, and identifiers for the individual physicians. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Hospital maintains electronic medical records (EMR) on all patients. Extracts were performed on this EMR system under the guidance of clinical expertise. Data were collected for all women who had mammograms in 1999. Random samples were employed for screening mammograms, and all data was used for diagnostic mammograms. Principal Findings Study results imply that access to a previous mammogram greatly reduces the incidence of false positives readings. This has important consequences for benefit-cost, and cost-effectiveness analysis of mammography. Were previous mammograms always available, the results imply the number of false positives would decrease by at least half. The results here also indicate that there is no reason to believe this decrease in false positive would be accompanied by an increase in the number of false negatives. Other attributes also affected the number of false positives. Mondays and Wednesdays appear to be more prone to false positives than the other days in the week. There is also some disparity in false positive outcomes among the five physicians studied. With respect to detection-controlled estimation, the results are mixed. With follow-up data, the DCE estimator appears to generate reasonable, robust

  9. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising.

  10. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p < 0.05) when remembering episodes with positive or negative outcomes. The effect of valence was apparent in the patient group. For example, it did not affect the production causal false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  11. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A.; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p < 0.05) when remembering episodes with positive or negative outcomes. The effect of valence was apparent in the patient group. For example, it did not affect the production causal false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved. PMID:27965600

  12. Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Hammond, Cristina S.; Hanna, Lucy G.; Grove, Margaret R.; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Objective To measure the impact of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility and future screening attitudes. Design Longitudinal Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life sub-study telephone survey shortly after screening and one year later. Setting Twenty-two DMIST sites Participants Randomly-selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Exposure(s) for observational studies Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index short-form (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D with United States scoring. Attitudes toward future screening measured by women’s self-report of future intention to undergo mammography screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to receive a hypothetical new mammogram that would detect as many cancers with half the false-positives. Results Among 1,450 eligible women invited to participate, 1,226 women (85%) were enrolled with follow-up interviews obtained for 1,028 (84%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6:35.2 vs. 32.7), but health utility did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at one year. Future screening intentions differed by group (26% vs. 14% more likely in false-positive vs. negative); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (11% vs. 10% in false-positive vs. negative). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (OR: 2.12; 95%CI:1.54, 2.93), younger age (OR:2.78; 95%CI:1.5,5.0) and poorer health (OR: 1.63; 95%CI:1.09, 2.43). Women’s anticipated high-level anxiety regarding

  13. Learning words from speakers with false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2017-07-01

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative contexts relates to their ability to track someone's belief in non-communicative contexts. Here, we study young children's ability to successfully acquire a word from a speaker with a false belief; we also assess the same children's success on a traditional false belief attribution task. We show that the ability to consult the epistemic state of a speaker during word learning develops between the ages of three and five. We also show that false belief understanding in word-learning contexts proceeds similarly to standard belief-attribution contexts when the tasks are equated. Our data offer evidence for the development of mind-reading abilities during language acquisition.

  14. Counting the cost of false alarms.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    While fire and rescue service personnel, the Government, those responsible for fire safety in the healthcare sector, the Health and Safety Executive, fire and rescue services, and indeed fire alarm and detection equipment manufacturers, must be pleased that the number of false fire alarms continues to fall, fire services still attended just under 585,000 fires or false alarm incidents across Great Britain in 2011/12. Of this total, 272,000 were actual fires, of which around 24,000 were in premises classified by the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) as 'other buildings', i.e. not 'dwellings', a category that includes healthcare facilities (representing a 4% fall on 2010-2011). HEJ looks behind the statistics, and at the possibility that some fire services could, in future, charge healthcare providers that persistently report incidents that turn out to be false alarms.

  15. FALSE MEMORY AND OBSESSIVE–COMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Heide; Amir, Nader; Garfinkel, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The memory deficit hypothesis has been used to explain the maintenance of repetitive behavior in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder, yet the majority of studies focusing on verbal memory show mixed results. These studies primarily evaluated memory accuracy via the inclusion or omission of previously encountered material, as opposed to false recognition (i.e., the inclusion of erroneous material). We evaluated false memories and memory processes in individuals with obsessive–compulsive washing symptoms (OC), individuals matched on depression and anxiety without OC symptoms (D/A), and in nonanxious individuals (NAC). Methods Twenty-eight OC, 28 D/A, and 29 NAC individuals read OC-threat relevant, positive, and neutral scenarios and then performed a recognition test. Erroneous recognition of words associated to encoded, but not previously viewed, scenarios were classified as false memories. To evaluate processes underlying memory, participants completed a modified remember/know task to examine whether the OC individuals differed from the other individuals in recollective clarity for false memories of OC-relevant (e.g., germs), positive (e.g., lottery), and neutral (e.g., bread) material. Results The OC individuals used “know” more than the D/A and NAC individuals for false memories of threat. For veridical memories, the OC individuals used “know” more than the NAC, but not, D/A individuals. Conclusions The greater reliance on “know” (i.e., feelings of familiarity) in general and false threat memories in particular in individuals with OC symptoms may add to feelings of uncertainty for threat-relevant material, which may contribute to compulsive behavior. PMID:18839404

  16. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research.

  17. False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people's thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in "false belief" and "false photograph" (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true ("reality" questions) or false beliefs ("representation" questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants' working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and "false photo" control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

  18. False memories, but not false beliefs, affect implicit attitudes for food preferences.

    PubMed

    Howe, David; Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trade-off between false positives and false negatives in the linkage analysis of complex traits.

    PubMed

    Todorov, A A; Rao, D C

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the issue of false positives in genomic scans for detecting complex trait loci using subpair linkage methods and investigates the trade-off between the rate of false positives and the rate of false negatives. It highlights the tremendous cost in terms of power brought about by an excessive control of type I error and, at the same time, confirms that a larger number of false positives can occur otherwise in the course of a genomic scan. Finally, it compares the power and rate of false positives obtained in preplanned replicated studies conducted using a liberal significance level to those for single-step studies that use the same total sample size but stricter levels of significance. For the models considered here, replicate studies were found more attractive as long as one is willing to accept a trade-off, exchanging a much lower rate of false negatives for a slight increase in the rate of false positives.

  20. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  1. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  2. False Accusations of Nosocomial Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…

  3. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  4. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  5. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  6. False Accusations of Nosocomial Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…

  7. Mars-Flyby Comet in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-07

    This frame from a movie sequence of images from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MRO shows comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring before and after its close pass by Mars in October 2014. False color enhances subtle variations in brightness in the comet coma.

  8. Spirit Scans Winter Haven False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-24

    This false-color image shows paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges atop and drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles typical of hardened lava scattered across the sand

  9. THE ’TRUTH’ ABOUT FALSE CONFESSIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    showed that subjects come to believe that their false statements are true when emitted in the presence of a discriminative truth stimulus. In an...attempted replication, the present study sought evidence to support an alternative explanation of this finding, based upon decreased vigilance induced by the truth stimulus.

  10. Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

  11. Streaked Craters in False-Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-29

    A false-color view of Saturn moon Mimas from NASA Cassini spacecraft accentuates terrain-dependent color differences and shows dark streaks running down the sides of some of the craters on the region of the moon that leads in its orbit around Saturn.

  12. Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstein, I.

    1983-08-29

    A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

  13. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  14. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  15. Airway obstruction by an aortic false aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, S; Guillon, A; Favelle, O; Garot, D; Perrotin, D

    2011-12-01

    Aortic false aneurysms are rare complications of aortic valve replacement and cardiac surgical procedures in general. Aortic false aneurysms can also presents as a mediastinal mass. A false aneurysm etiology should always be considered in mediastinal mass exploration of patients with a cardiac surgery history. Although, a computed tomography (CT) scan can detect a mediastinal mass, it can equally misdiagnose an aneurysm in the absence of tumour contrast enhancement. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was hospitalized for a laryngeal dyspnea. She had undergone aortic valve replacement 3 years earlier and had no other relevant medical history. In the last 3 months, she presented a progressively worsening dyspnea and cough. A chest radiograph showed a large mass in the superior mediastinum. A contrast-enhanced CT-scan showed an anterior mediastinal mass (9 cm × 8 cm × 9 cm) not enhanced by contrast product, suggestive of a tissue density tumour. The mass was in fact an aortic false aneurysm where the communication with the aorta was too narrow to be filled by the contrast product in arterial phase imaging. The aneurysm was excised and successfully replaced with a prosthetic graft during deep hypothermic and circulatory arrest. In this case report, we discuss the unusual clinical presentation of this pseudoaneurysm and the absence of contrast enhancement during CT-scan, which could have lead to a catastrophic error. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition.

  17. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  18. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  19. Editorial: False Alarm Reduction in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this Challenge, the design of the Challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  20. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    PubMed Central

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  1. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring.

  2. A closer look at self-reported suicide attempts: false positives and false negatives.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-02-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing false positives decreased the rate of suicide attempters from 4.3% to 2.7%. Probing questions also revealed 0.8% false negatives. We recommend using probing questions with both those who report a suicide attempt and those who do not report a suicide attempt to increase the validity of self-reported suicide-related information.

  3. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  4. [False memory syndrome: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Nemets, Boris; Witztum, Eliezer; Kotler, Moshe

    2002-08-01

    The review describes the heated dispute on the present state of recovered traumatic memories. There are two main schools concerning the status of recovered memories of child abuse. One school believes in their authenticity unconditionally. Those who oppose the authenticity claim False Memory Syndrome's existence. They describe it as "a serious form of psychopathology characterized by strongly believed pseudomemories of childhood sexual abuse" and "condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes". This review presents the allegations of both sides involved in the dispute, with updates of scientific and judicial references and relevant recommendations to care takers.

  5. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  6. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    PubMed

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life.

  7. False Discovery Rate Control With Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hu, James X.; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini–Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method. PMID:21931466

  8. Expert system constant false alarm rate processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldygo, William J., Jr.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1993-10-01

    The requirements for high detection probability and low false alarm probability in modern wide area surveillance radars are rarely met due to spatial variations in clutter characteristics. Many filtering and CFAR detection algorithms have been developed to effectively deal with these variations; however, any single algorithm is likely to exhibit excessive false alarms and intolerably low detection probabilities in a dynamically changing environment. A great deal of research has led to advances in the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and numerous areas have been identified for application to radar signal processing. The approach suggested here, discussed in a patent application submitted by the authors, is to intelligently select the filtering and CFAR detection algorithms being executed at any given time, based upon the observed characteristics of the interference environment. This approach requires sensing the environment, employing the most suitable algorithms, and applying an appropriate multiple algorithm fusion scheme or consensus algorithm to produce a global detection decision.

  9. Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-07-26

    Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means.

  10. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  11. Memory distortion and false memory creation.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s have brought to public attention thousands of cases that began when a grown-up daughter or son walked into a therapist's office seeking help for depression, low self-esteem, or any of a number of life's problems. Many of these cases grew to involve memories of childhood sexual abuse recovered while in therapy--memories that did not exist, or at least were not remembered, before therapy began. Many of these cases also involved families torn violently apart. What should we make of these new-found memories? Are they true memories that were successfully revived in therapy? Are they false memories that were unwittingly planted? Are they symbolic expressions--historically false but representing some deep underlying truth? Insights from cognitive psychology may shed some light. Much of the litigation that has resulted from the emergence of "repressed memories" has been hazardous to the patients, and their families, as well as to the therapists who treat them.

  12. False beats in coupled piano string unisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as ``false beating'' in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how ``mistunings'' between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. ``False beats'' in a single string partial can be ``inherited'' by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance.

  13. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  14. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  15. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  16. Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2011-02-01

    A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented.

  17. Investigating Mars: Russell Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-11

    This image shows the western part of the dune field on the floor of Russell Crater. This is a false color image of Russell crater and it's surroundings. Sand Dunes usually appear "blue" in false color images. Russell Crater is located in Noachis Terra. A spectacular dune ridge and other dune forms on the crater floor have caused extensive imaging. The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. The Odyssey spacecraft has spent over 15 years in orbit around Mars, circling the planet more than 69000 times. It holds the record for longest working spacecraft at Mars. THEMIS, the IR/VIS camera system, has collected data for the entire mission and provides images covering all seasons and lighting conditions. Over the years many features of interest have received repeated imaging, building up a suite of images covering the entire feature. From the deepest chasma to the tallest volcano, individual dunes inside craters and dune fields that encircle the north pole, channels carved by water and lava, and a variety of other feature, THEMIS has imaged them all. For the next several months the image of the day will focus on the Tharsis volcanoes, the various chasmata of Valles Marineris, and the major dunes fields. We hope you enjoy these images! Orbit Number: 59591 Latitude: -54.471 Longitude: 13.1288 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-05-21 10:57 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21808

  18. Quantum nucleation of false-vacuum bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Willy; Morgan, Daniel; Polchinski, Joseph

    1990-04-01

    We show that a small bubble of false vacuum can tunnel to the critical size for inflation, and calculate the amplitude in leading WKB approximation. An initially nonsingular space becomes an exterior space plus a baby universe (which contains the bubble), joined by a black-hole singularity. We work in a Hamiltonian formalism; the corresponding Euclidean bounce is shown to have a degenerate vierbein.

  19. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  20. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading.

  1. False Beliefs in Unreliable Knowledge Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Evangelos; Varsakelis, Nikos; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this work are: (1) to extend knowledge dynamics analysis in order to assess the influence of false beliefs and unreliable communication channels, (2) to investigate the impact of selection rule-policy for knowledge acquisition, (3) to investigate the impact of targeted link attacks ("breaks" or "infections") of certain "healthy" communication channels. We examine the knowledge dynamics analytically, as well as by simulations on both artificial and real organizational knowledge networks. The main findings are: (1) False beliefs have no significant influence on knowledge dynamics, while unreliable communication channels result in non-monotonic knowledge updates ("wild" knowledge fluctuations may appear) and in significant elongation of knowledge attainment. Moreover, false beliefs may emerge during knowledge evolution, due to the presence of unreliable communication channels, even if they were not present initially, (2) Changing the selection rule-policy, by raising the awareness of agents to avoid the selection of unreliable communication channels, results in monotonic knowledge upgrade and in faster knowledge attainment, (3) "Infecting" links is more harmful than "breaking" links, due to "wild" knowledge fluctuations and due to the elongation of knowledge attainment. Moreover, attacking even a "small" percentage of links (≤5%) with high knowledge transfer, may result in dramatic elongation of knowledge attainment (over 100%), as well as in delays of the onset of knowledge attainment. Hence, links of high knowledge transfer should be protected, because in Information Warfare and Disinformation, these links are the "best targets".

  2. Infants’ Reasoning About Others’ False Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object’s misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an agent faced a stuffed skunk and a doll with blue pigtails; the agent consistently reached for the doll, suggesting that she preferred it over the skunk. Next, while the agent was absent, the doll was hidden in a plain box, and the skunk was hidden in a box with a tuft of blue hair protruding from under its lid. Infants expected the agent to be misled by the tuft’s resemblance to the doll’s hair and to falsely perceive it as belonging to the doll. These and other results indicate that 14.5-month-old infants can already reason about agents’ false perceptions. PMID:18999340

  3. False memories in Lewy-body disease.

    PubMed

    Algarabel, Salvador; Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Escudero, Joaquín

    2015-12-01

    Recently, de Boysson, Belleville, Phillips et al. (2011) found that patients with Lewy-body disease (LBD) showed significantly lower rates of false memories than healthy controls, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) experimental procedure. Given that this result could be explained by the practically null rate of true recognition in the LBD group (0.09), we decided to replicate the study by de Boysson et al. (2011), but including a new condition that would maximize the true recognition rate (and analyze its effect on the rate of false memories). Specifically, in a DRM experiment, we manipulated (within subjects) two study and recognition conditions: in the "immediate" condition, both the LBD patients and the control group of healthy older people received a different recognition test after each study list (containing twelve words associated with a non-presented critical word), while in the "delayed" condition (similar to the one in de Boysson et al., 2011), the participants received the entire series of study lists and then took only one recognition test. The results showed that, in both samples, the "immediate" condition produced higher corrected rates of both true and false recognition than the "delayed" condition, although they were both lower in the LBD patients, which shows that these patients are capable of encoding and recognizing the general similitude underlying information (gist memory) in the right conditions.

  4. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  5. False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?

    PubMed Central

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people’s thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in “false belief” and “false photograph” (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true (“reality” questions) or false beliefs (“representation” questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants’ working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal–parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and “false photo” control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes. PMID:22069395

  6. On False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions with a Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    Wilcox (1977) examines two methods of estimating the probability of a false-positive on false-negative decision with a mastery test. Both procedures make assumptions about the form of the true score distribution which might not give good results in all situations. In this paper, upper and lower bounds on the two possible error types are described…

  7. Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Muris, Peter

    2017-01-17

    We examined the creation of spontaneous and suggestion-induced false memories in maltreated and non-maltreated children. Maltreated and non-maltreated children were involved in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm where they studied and remembered negative and neutral word lists. Suggestion-induced false memories were created using a misinformation procedure during which both maltreated and non-maltreated children viewed a negative video (i.e., bank robbery) and later received suggestive misinformation concerning the event. Our results showed that maltreated children had higher levels of spontaneous negative false memories but lower levels of suggestion-induced false memories as compared to non-maltreated children. Collectively, our study demonstrates that maltreatment both increases and decreases susceptibility to memory illusions depending on the type of false memory being induced. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Trauma affects memory. It is unclear how trauma affects false memory. What does this study add? This study focuses on two types of false memories.

  8. A picture is worth a thousand lies: using false photographs to create false childhood memories.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Read, J Don; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2002-09-01

    Because image-enhancing technology is readily available, people are frequently exposed to doctored images. However, in prior research on how adults can be led to report false childhood memories, subjects have typically been exposed to personalized and detailed narratives describing false events. Instead, we exposed 20 subjects to a false childhood event via a fake photograph and imagery instructions. Over three interviews, subjects thought about a photograph showing them on a hot air balloon ride and tried to recall the event byusing guided-imagery exercises. Fifty percent of the subjects created complete or partial false memories. The results bear on ways in which false memories can be created and also have practical implications for those involved in clinical and legal settings.

  9. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-08-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00032

  11. False negative clinical diagnoses of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Osborne, J E; Bourke, J F; Graham-Brown, R A; Hutchinson, P E

    1999-05-01

    The false negative rate for the clinical diagnosis (FNR) for malignant melanoma is reported to be of the order of 20-50%. The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictor variables for FNR, with particular reference to the features and score of the seven-point check-list within the total population (778) of histologically proved malignant melanomas presenting in Leicestershire between 1982 and 1996. The FNR was 18.5%. The check-list would have failed as a referral indication in only 0.8-1. 1% of the lesions. The major check-list features occurred more commonly than the minor features, excepting size >/= 7 mm, confirming the diagnostic importance of the major criteria. The FNR was unaffected by age or sex. More rarely involved sites had higher rates (31-42%), and the face was a particularly difficult diagnostic site. Clinical features of lesions associated with a higher FNR were lack of irregular pigmentation and shape, altered sensation, the presence of inflammation and size < 7 mm. The FNR was inversely related to the total score and major feature score, but directly related to the minor score. The minor features, in addition to the major features, are potentially valuable in avoiding false negative diagnoses and we suggest their retention as part of the check-list. There was only one patient, in whom the diagnosis of melanoma was initially missed and who was not biopsied on presentation to hospital, who re-presented after 1 year. However, the study illustrates the importance of avoiding a false negative diagnosis as there was marked delay in the excision of such lesions.

  12. False discovery rates in spectral identification.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyowon; Kim, Sangtae; Bandeira, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Automated database search engines are one of the fundamental engines of high-throughput proteomics enabling daily identifications of hundreds of thousands of peptides and proteins from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. Nevertheless, this automation also makes it humanly impossible to manually validate the vast lists of resulting identifications from such high-throughput searches. This challenge is usually addressed by using a Target-Decoy Approach (TDA) to impose an empirical False Discovery Rate (FDR) at a pre-determined threshold x% with the expectation that at most x% of the returned identifications would be false positives. But despite the fundamental importance of FDR estimates in ensuring the utility of large lists of identifications, there is surprisingly little consensus on exactly how TDA should be applied to minimize the chances of biased FDR estimates. In fact, since less rigorous TDA/FDR estimates tend to result in more identifications (at higher 'true' FDR), there is often little incentive to enforce strict TDA/FDR procedures in studies where the major metric of success is the size of the list of identifications and there are no follow up studies imposing hard cost constraints on the number of reported false positives. Here we address the problem of the accuracy of TDA estimates of empirical FDR. Using MS/MS spectra from samples where we were able to define a factual FDR estimator of 'true' FDR we evaluate several popular variants of the TDA procedure in a variety of database search contexts. We show that the fraction of false identifications can sometimes be over 10× higher than reported and may be unavoidably high for certain types of searches. In addition, we further report that the two-pass search strategy seems the most promising database search strategy. While unavoidably constrained by the particulars of any specific evaluation dataset, our observations support a series of recommendations towards maximizing the number of resulting

  13. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    number and 2) the duration of false arrhythmia alarms per 24-hour period, using nonparametric statistics to minimize the influence of outliers. Among the significant associations were the following: age ≥60 years (P=0.013; P=0.034), confused mental status (P<0.001 for both comparisons), cardiovascular diagnoses (P<0.001 for both comparisons), electrocardiographic (ECG) features, such as wide ECG waveforms that correspond to ventricular depolarization known as QRS complex due to bundle branch block (BBB) (P=0.003; P=0.004) or ventricular paced rhythm (P=0.002 for both comparisons), respiratory diagnoses (P=0.004 for both comparisons), and support with mechanical ventilation, including those with primary diagnoses other than respiratory ones (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients likely to trigger a higher number of false arrhythmia alarms may be those with older age, confusion, cardiovascular diagnoses, and ECG features that indicate BBB or ventricular pacing, respiratory diagnoses, and mechanical ventilatory support. Algorithm improvements could focus on better noise reduction (eg, motion artifact with confused state) and distinguishing BBB and paced rhythms from ventricular arrhythmias. Increasing awareness of patient conditions that apparently trigger a higher rate of false arrhythmia alarms may be useful for reducing unnecessary noise and improving alarm management.

  14. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    characteristics were compared in relation to 1) the number and 2) the duration of false arrhythmia alarms per 24-hour period, using nonparametric statistics to minimize the influence of outliers. Among the significant associations were the following: age ≥60 years (P=0.013; P=0.034), confused mental status (P<0.001 for both comparisons), cardiovascular diagnoses (P<0.001 for both comparisons), electrocardiographic (ECG) features, such as wide ECG waveforms that correspond to ventricular depolarization known as QRS complex due to bundle branch block (BBB) (P=0.003; P=0.004) or ventricular paced rhythm (P=0.002 for both comparisons), respiratory diagnoses (P=0.004 for both comparisons), and support with mechanical ventilation, including those with primary diagnoses other than respiratory ones (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusion Patients likely to trigger a higher number of false arrhythmia alarms may be those with older age, confusion, cardiovascular diagnoses, and ECG features that indicate BBB or ventricular pacing, respiratory diagnoses, and mechanical ventilatory support. Algorithm improvements could focus on better noise reduction (eg, motion artifact with confused state) and distinguishing BBB and paced rhythms from ventricular arrhythmias. Increasing awareness of patient conditions that apparently trigger a higher rate of false arrhythmia alarms may be useful for reducing unnecessary noise and improving alarm management. PMID:28458554

  15. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bower, Gordon H

    2004-11-01

    The current research investigated one possible mechanism underlying false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, participants who study lists of related words (e.g., "table, sitting, bench ...") frequently report detailed memories for the centrally related but non-presented critical lure (e.g., "chair"). One possibility is that participants covertly call to mind the critical non-presented lure during the study phase, and later misattribute memory for this internally generated event to its external presentation. To investigate this, the DRM paradigm was modified to allow collection of on-line thoughts during the study phase. False recognition increased following generation during study. False recognition also increased following study of longer lists; this effect was partially explained by the fact that longer lists were more likely to elicit generations of the critical lure during study. Generation of the lure during study contributes to later false recognition, although it does not explain the entire effect.

  17. False alarm reduction during landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

    2007-04-01

    Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

  18. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P < 0.050). These findings reiterate the importance of adequate sleep in optimal cognitive functioning, reveal the vulnerability of adolescents' memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Jupiter Polar Haze in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-01

    This false color view of Jupiter's polar haze was created by citizen scientist Gerald Eichstädt using data from the JunoCam instrument on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The image was taken on Dec. 11, 2016 at 2:30 p.m. PST (5:30 p.m. EST), when the spacecraft was 285,000 miles (459,000 kilometers) from Jupiter on the outbound leg of its third close flyby. This image is composited from four images taken through different filters: red, green, blue and methane. When the near-infrared methane image is processed with the others, the result is a false color product that highlights high clouds and high altitude hazes. The Great Red Spot and Oval BA (just below the Great Red Spot) are high in Jupiter's atmosphere, thus bright in this picture. The high-altitude haze layer over the south pole partially obscures our view of the storms below. By combining the methane data with the visible light images, we can learn about the vertical structure of Jupiter's atmosphere. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21379

  20. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion. Methods Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. Results As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs’ effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Conclusions Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories. PMID:21647577

  1. Examining theories of cognitive ageing using the false memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Askey, Charlotte; Playfoot, David

    2017-03-15

    Changes in memory performance with advancing age have been well-documented, even in the absence of brain injury or dementia. The mechanisms underlying cognitive ageing are still a matter of debate. The current paper describes a comparison between young (18-25 year old) and older (60+ years) adults using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm and manipulating the number of words included in the memory lists. Two key theories of cognitive ageing (the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis and the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis) predict opposing patterns on this task. Results showed that longer lists increase the likelihood that a lure is retrieved and that older adults are more susceptible to false memories than are younger adults. We argue that these findings are supportive of the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis and cannot easily be reconciled with the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis account.

  2. View from Spirit's Overwintering Position (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has this view northward from the position at the north edge of the 'Home Plate' plateau where the rover will spend its third Martian winter.

    Husband Hill is on the horizon. The dark area in the middle distance is 'El Dorado' sand dune field.

    Spirit used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image during the rover's 1,448th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 29, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  3. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  4. Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

    Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  5. Opportunity View of 'Lyell' Layer (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedrock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Lyell,' which is the lowermost of three layers the rover has examined at a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater.

    Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:21 p.m. during the rover's 1,433rd Martian day, of sol (Feb. 4, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  6. Caffeine's effects on true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Capek, Sarah; Guenther, R Kim

    2009-06-01

    Caffeine's effects on recall of word lists were investigated using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. College students were administered either 200 mg of caffeine or a 250-mg lactose placebo; after 30 min., they were tested on recall using six word lists. Words of each list were semantically related to a single word (a "critical lure") that was not presented in the list. Participants administered caffeine recalled more list words and more critical lures than participants administered lactose. Recall of list words was negatively correlated with recall of critical lures. Caffeine appears to intensify the strength of connections among list words and critical lures, thereby enhancing both true and false memory.

  7. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings.

  8. Two Holes in 'Wooly Patch' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit ground two holes in a relatively soft rock called 'Wooly Patch' near the base of the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater on Mars. This false-color image from the panoramic camera was taken on sol 200 (July 25, 2004) and generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. It highlights the material ground up by the rock abrasion tool, grayish-blue in appearance in this image. The color of the material excavated suggests the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than the dust or possibly weathered coating on the exterior of the rock. Scientists speculate that this relatively soft rock (compared to others analyzed by Spirit) may have been modified by water. Small cracks in the surface outside the drill holes may be the result of interactions with water-rich fluids.

  9. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  10. Controlling the false discoveries in LASSO.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hanwen

    2017-02-09

    The LASSO method estimates coefficients by minimizing the residual sum of squares plus a penalty term. The regularization parameter λ in LASSO controls the trade-off between data fitting and sparsity. We derive relationship between λ and the false discovery proportion (FDP) of LASSO estimator and show how to select λ so as to achieve a desired FDP. Our estimation is based on the asymptotic distribution of LASSO estimator in the limit of both sample size and dimension going to infinity with fixed ratio. We use a factor analysis model to describe the dependence structure of the design matrix. An efficient majorization-minimization based algorithm is developed to estimate the FDP at fixed value of λ. The analytic results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. An application to the high-throughput genomic riboavin data set also demonstrates the usefulness of our method.

  11. False context fear memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sarah E.; Holmes, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control rats in A. In Experiment 2, rats were pre-exposed to A or C, subjected to an immediate shock in B and tested in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in B and control rats did not freeze in either A or B. The false fear memory to the pre-exposed A was contingent on its similarity with the shocked B. In Experiment 3, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in C and rats pre-exposed to C did not freeze when tested either in A or C. In Experiment 4, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze more when tested in A than rats whose pre-exposure to A began with an immediate shock. The results were discussed in terms of a dual systems explanation of context fear conditioning: a hippocampal-dependent process that forms a unitary representation of context and an amygdala-based process which associates this representation with shock. PMID:26373831

  12. Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging.

  13. Adaptive false memory: Imagining future scenarios increases false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J; Grace, Lydia; van Esch, Lotte

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that rating words for their relevance to a future scenario enhances memory for those words. The current study investigated the effect of future thinking on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. In Experiment 1, participants rated words from 6 DRM lists for relevance to a past or future event (with or without planning) or in terms of pleasantness. In a surprise recall test, levels of correct recall did not vary between the rating tasks, but the future rating conditions led to significantly higher levels of false recall than the past and pleasantness conditions did. Experiment 2 found that future rating led to higher levels of false recognition than did past and pleasantness ratings but did not affect correct recognition. The effect in false recognition was, however, eliminated when DRM items were presented in random order. Participants in Experiment 3 were presented with both DRM lists and lists of unrelated words. Future rating increased levels of false recognition for DRM lures but did not affect correct recognition for DRM or unrelated lists. The findings are discussed in terms of the view that false memories can be associated with adaptive memory functions.

  14. Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

  15. Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large

  16. False discovery rates: a new deal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary We introduce a new Empirical Bayes approach for large-scale hypothesis testing, including estimating false discovery rates (FDRs), and effect sizes. This approach has two key differences from existing approaches to FDR analysis. First, it assumes that the distribution of the actual (unobserved) effects is unimodal, with a mode at 0. This “unimodal assumption” (UA), although natural in many contexts, is not usually incorporated into standard FDR analysis, and we demonstrate how incorporating it brings many benefits. Specifically, the UA facilitates efficient and robust computation—estimating the unimodal distribution involves solving a simple convex optimization problem—and enables more accurate inferences provided that it holds. Second, the method takes as its input two numbers for each test (an effect size estimate and corresponding standard error), rather than the one number usually used (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$p$\\end{document} value or \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$z$\\end{document} score). When available, using two numbers instead of one helps account for variation in measurement precision across tests. It also facilitates estimation of effects, and unlike standard FDR methods, our approach provides interval estimates (credible regions) for each effect in addition to measures of significance. To provide a bridge between interval estimates and significance measures, we introduce the term “local false sign rate” to refer to the probability of getting the sign of an effect wrong and argue that it is a superior

  17. Triton - False Color of Cantaloupe Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    Voyager violet, green, and ultraviolet images of Triton were map projected into cylindrical coordinates and combined to produce this false color terrain map. Several compositionally distinct terrain and geologic features are portrayed. At center is a gray blue unit referred to as 'cantaloupe' terrain because of its unusual topographic texture. The unit appears to predate other units to the left. Immediately adjacent to the cantaloupe terrain, is a smoother unit, represented by a reddish color, that has been dissected by a prominent fault system. This unit apparently overlies a much higher albedo material, seen farther left. A prominent angular albedo boundary separates relatively undisturbed smooth terrain from irregular patches which have been derived from breakup of the same material. Also visible at the far left are diffuse, elongated streaks, which seem to emanate from circular, often bright centered features. The parallel streaks may represent vented particulate materials blown in the same direction by winds in Triton's thin atmosphere. The Voyager Mission was conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00060

  18. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-07-31

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

  19. Possible and False Biomarkers from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.

    2004-01-01

    The Search for life in the Solar System is one of NASA's main goals for the coming decade. We may never observe alien life directly; we or our robotic craft may always be removed from it by many years, or meters of crust. If we do find evidence of Life elsewhere in the Solar System it will probably be in form of chemical biomarkers, quintessentially biological molecules that indicate the presence of micro-organisms. What molecules would be truly indicative of alien life? Chlorophyll fragments, which are often used by geochemists are probably far too specific. Simpler molecules, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleo-bases might seem to be biomarkers, but they can form non-biotically in space. Alkyl substituted aromatics in ALH 84001 have been invoked as biomarkers, but they are not strong evidence in and of themselves. Understanding the range of nonbiological organic molecules which could act as false biomarkers in space is a prerequisite for any reasonable search for true biomarkers on other worlds. When simple organics arrive at the surface of a body like Europa, either from below or from space, how long do they survive and what do they make? How can we distinguish these from real biomarkers? In this talk I will present some ideas about what might be useful qualities to consider in a potential biomarker, and will ask for advice from the attendant geochemists.

  20. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.