Science.gov

Sample records for 2011-10-01 false separate

  1. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LP100 and LP10 stations, as defined in §§ 73... these separations are met. Minimum distances for co-channel and first-adjacent channel are...

  2. 49 CFR 1242.06 - Instructions for separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for separation. 1242.06 Section 1242... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS SEPARATION OF COMMON... Instructions for separation. (a) Certain instructions for separating common expense accounts...

  3. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-21 - Separator: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separator: Design specification. 162.050-21 Section 162... Separator: Design specification. (a) A separator must be designed to operate in each plane that forms an.... (c) Each separator component that is a moving part must be designed so that its movement...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.00 - Separation of common operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of common operating expenses. 1242.00... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS SEPARATION OF COMMON....00 Separation of common operating expenses. (a) Commencing with annual reports for the year 1978...

  6. 47 CFR 24.134 - Co-channel separation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Co-channel separation criteria. 24.134 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.134 Co-channel separation criteria. The minimum co-channel separation distance between base stations in different service areas is 113 kilometers (70...

  7. 47 CFR 73.207 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.207 Minimum distance separation between... reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The...

  8. 47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards... frequency separation standards. All cable television systems which operate in the frequency bands 108-137 and 225-400 MHz shall comply with the following frequency separation standards: (a) In...

  9. 47 CFR 73.610 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.610 Minimum distance separations between stations. (a) The provisions of this section relate to allotment separations and...

  10. 46 CFR 502.224 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 502.224 Section 502.224 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Briefs; Requests for Findings; Decisions; Exceptions § 502.224 Separation of functions. The separation...

  11. 46 CFR 201.134 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 201.134 Section 201.134 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Procedures (Rule 13) § 201.134 Separation of functions. The separation...

  12. 45 CFR 302.12 - Single and separate organizational unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single and separate organizational unit. 302.12... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.12 Single and separate organizational unit. (a) The State plan shall provide for the establishment or designation of a single and separate organizational unit...

  13. 43 CFR 3135.1-3 - Separate filing for transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate filing for transfers. 3135.1-3 Section 3135.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-3 Separate filing...

  14. 43 CFR 35.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 35.14 Section 35.14 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official,...

  15. 49 CFR 1503.603 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 1503.603 Section 1503.603 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.603 Separation of functions. (a) Civil...

  16. 46 CFR 153.292 - Separation of piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of piping systems. 153.292 Section 153.292 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.292 Separation of piping systems. Cargo piping systems must...

  17. 49 CFR 1503.613 - Consolidation and separation of cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consolidation and separation of cases. 1503.613 Section 1503.613 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION... separation of cases. (a) Consolidation. If two or more actions involve common questions of law or fact,...

  18. 49 CFR 604.35 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 604.35 Section 604.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION...) § 604.35 Separation of functions. (a) Proceedings under this part shall be handled by an FTA...

  19. 49 CFR 31.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 31.14 Section 31.14 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and any employee or agent of...

  20. 45 CFR 79.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 79.14 Section 79.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  1. 49 CFR 386.3 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions. 386.3 Section 386.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Scope of Rules; Definitions and General Provisions § 386.3 Separation of functions. (a) Civil...

  2. 46 CFR 162.050-23 - Separator: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separator: Approval tests. 162.050-23 Section 162.050-23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-23 Separator: Approval tests. (a) Test Conditions....

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 580 - Separate Disclosure Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate Disclosure Form C Appendix C to Part 580... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS Pt. 580, App. C Appendix C to Part 580—Separate Disclosure Form Odometer Disclosure Statement Federal law (and State...

  4. 48 CFR 241.205 - Separate contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate contracts. 241.205 Section 241.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Acquiring...

  5. 42 CFR 457.340 - Application for and enrollment in a separate child health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a method for determining the effective date of eligibility for its separate child health program... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for and enrollment in a separate child... § 457.340 Application for and enrollment in a separate child health program. (a) Application...

  6. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  7. 43 CFR 3216.16 - Must I file separate transfer requests for each lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I file separate transfer requests for each lease? 3216.16 Section 3216.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.16 Must I file separate transfer requests for each lease? File two...

  8. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of cash handling and accounting functions. 302.20 Section 302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.20 Separation of cash handling...

  9. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation...

  10. 42 CFR 137.271 - Why is there a separate subpart in these regulations for construction project agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Why is there a separate subpart in these regulations for construction project agreements? 137.271 Section 137.271 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.271 Why is there a separate subpart in...

  11. 42 CFR 61.14 - Separate consideration of information concerning moral character or loyalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate consideration of information concerning moral character or loyalty. 61.14 Section 61.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships §...

  12. 50 CFR 452.07 - Separation of functions and ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions and ex parte communications. 452.07 Section 452.07 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24 Section 654.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab...

  14. 42 CFR 137.71 - May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.71 May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for...

  15. 46 CFR 162.050-20 - Separator and bilge alarm test fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. 162.050-20... § 162.050-20 Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. (a) Tests required in §§ 162.050-23 and 162.050-35 must be performed using the following three types of test fluids: (1) Test Fluid A, which is a...

  16. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  18. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  19. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  20. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  1. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted, the following steps shall be taken to cancel the...

  2. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  3. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  4. 45 CFR 1182.18 - Penalties for obtaining an Institute record under false pretenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalties for obtaining an Institute record under false pretenses. 1182.18 Section 1182.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  5. Lifelong opioidergic vulnerability through early life separation: a recent extension of the false suffocation alarm theory of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F

    2014-10-01

    The present paper is the edited version of our presentations at the "First World Symposium On Translational Models Of Panic Disorder", in Vitoria, E.S., Brazil, on November 16-18, 2012. We also review relevant work that appeared after the conference. Suffocation-False Alarm Theory (Klein, 1993) postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. The expanded Suffocation-False Alarm Theory (Preter and Klein, 2008) hypothesizes that endogenous opioidergic dysregulation may underlie the respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in panic disorder. Opioidergic dysregulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. That sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of "spontaneous" panic requires an integrative explanation. Our work unveiling the lifelong endogenous opioid system impairing effects of childhood parental loss (CPL) and parental separation in non-ill, normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. PMID:24726574

  6. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  7. 43 CFR 35.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Separation of functions. 35.14 Section 35.14 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official,...

  8. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weibo; Dong, Xuejiao; Xu, Dan; Meng, Jiajia; Fu, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. PMID:26771638

  9. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weibo; Dong, Xuejiao; Xu, Dan; Meng, Jiajia; Fu, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. PMID:26771638

  10. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  11. 47 CFR 36.601 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 36.601 Section 36.601 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR...

  12. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  13. 47 CFR 53.211 - Audit planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit planning. 53.211 Section 53.211... PROVISIONS CONCERNING BELL OPERATING COMPANIES Separate Affiliate; Safeguards § 53.211 Audit planning. (a) Before selecting an independent auditor, the Bell operating company shall submit preliminary...

  14. 45 CFR 503.11 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports. 503.11 Section 503.11 Public Welfare... Regulations § 503.11 Reports. (a) The Administrative Officer or designee will provide adequate advance notice... separately listed and reported to the Office of Management and Budget....

  15. 45 CFR 618.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory amendments. 618.235 Section 618.235 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial...

  16. 44 CFR 19.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job classification and... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for males or for females; (b) Maintain or establish separate lines...

  17. 45 CFR 86.17 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transition plans. 86.17 Section 86.17 Public... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 86.16 applies and which is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  18. 45 CFR 618.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transition plans. 618.230 Section 618.230 Public... Coverage § 618.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 618.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  19. 49 CFR 92.25 - Source of deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Source of deductions. 92.25 Section 92.25... § 92.25 Source of deductions. Except as provided in § 92.31 and § 92.33 of this part (with respect to separated employees), the paying DOT operating element will make deductions only from disposable pay...

  20. 47 CFR 36.182 - Cash working capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cash working capital. 36.182 Section 36.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS... Cash Working Capital § 36.182 Cash working capital. (a) The amount for cash working capital, if...

  1. 48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business practices. 203..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 203.170 Business practices. To ensure the separation of functions for oversight, source...

  2. 45 CFR 502.2 - Material to be published in the Federal Register pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material to be published in the Federal Register... in the Federal Register pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act. The Commission will separately state and concurrently publish the following materials in the Federal Register for the guidance of...

  3. 42 CFR 435.953 - Identifying items of information to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identifying items of information to use. 435.953 Section 435.953 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... against the case file all items of information received or it may identify (target) separately for...

  4. 46 CFR Section 1 - What this order does.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What this order does. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY REPATRIATION OF SEAMEN Section 1 What this order does. This order prescribes the manner in which seamen separated from vessels operated for the account of the...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.11 - Administration-bridges and buildings (account XX-19-03).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration-bridges and buildings (account XX... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.11 Administration—bridges and buildings (account XX-19-03). Separate common administration—bridges and buildings expenses between freight and...

  6. 43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596.2... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.2 Disposal of waste. The operator/lessee shall dispose of all wastes resulting from the mining, reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances...

  7. 47 CFR 73.825 - Protection to reception of TV channel 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection to reception of TV channel 6. 73.825... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.825 Protection to reception of TV... separation distances in the following table are met with respect to all full power TV Channel 6 stations....

  8. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-11 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 162.050-11 Section 162.050-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-11 Marking. (a) Each separator, oil content meter, and bilge...

  10. 46 CFR Section 1 - Books of account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (46 CFR part 282) and recordings in the accounts shall be in accordance with the descriptions thereof... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Books of account. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME... TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Section 1 Books of account. A separate set of books of...

  11. 49 CFR 375.519 - Must I obtain weight tickets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I obtain weight tickets? 375.519 Section 375... Household Goods Weighing the Shipment § 375.519 Must I obtain weight tickets? (a) You must obtain weight... separate weight ticket for each weighing. The weigh master must sign each weight ticket. Each weight...

  12. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple survivors. 102.45 Section 102.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION... smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms separately or together....

  13. 42 CFR 493.35 - Application for a certificate of waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for a certificate of waiver. 493.35... Application for a certificate of waiver. (a) Filing of application. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of... separate application for each laboratory location. (b) Exceptions. (1) Laboratories that are not at a...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bank account. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME... TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Sec. 2 Bank account. A separate joint bank account will be... the depository or depositories, the owner will issue an order for the establishment of the joint...

  15. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48)...

  17. 45 CFR 86.33 - Comparable facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comparable facilities. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but...

  18. 49 CFR 192.165 - Compressor stations: Liquid removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressor stations: Liquid removal. 192.165... Components § 192.165 Compressor stations: Liquid removal. (a) Where entrained vapors in gas may liquefy under... introduction of those liquids in quantities that could cause damage. (b) Each liquid separator used to...

  19. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  20. 44 CFR 11.71 - Claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claimants. 11.71 Section 11.71 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... of an incident occurring before his/her separation from FEMA; (3) survivors of a person named...

  1. 43 CFR 3592.3 - Production maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production maps. 3592.3 Section 3592.3... OPERATIONS Plans and Maps § 3592.3 Production maps. (a) The operator shall prepare maps which show mineral production from the leased lands. All excavations in each separate bed or deposit shall be shown in such...

  2. 47 CFR 36.111 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 36.111 Section 36.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS... § 36.111 General. (a) The costs of the general support facilities are contained in Account 2110,...

  3. 46 CFR 162.050-37 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vibration test. 162.050-37 Section 162.050-37 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-37 Vibration test. (a... and each control of a separator must be subjected to continuous sinusoidal vibration in each of...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.22 - Shop buildings-locomotives (account XX-19-24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shop buildings-locomotives (account XX-19-24). 1242.22 Section 1242.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.22 Shop buildings—locomotives (account XX-19-24). Separate common expenses according...

  5. 46 CFR 28.390 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means of escape. 28.390 Section 28.390 Shipping COAST... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.390 Means of escape. (a) Each space which is used by... two widely separated means of escape. At least one of the means of escape must be independent...

  6. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  7. 46 CFR 32.40-20 - Sleeping accommodations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations-T/ALL. 32.40-20 Section 32.40-20... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-20 Sleeping accommodations—T/ALL. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping...

  8. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  9. 47 CFR 15.32 - Test procedures for CPU boards and computer power supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test procedures for CPU boards and computer... FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.32 Test procedures for CPU boards and computer power supplies. Power supplies and CPU boards used with personal computers and for which separate authorizations are required to...

  10. 47 CFR 36.504 - Accumulated depreciation-Property held for future telecommunications use-Account 3200.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Property held for future telecommunications use-Account 3200. 36.504 Section 36.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS PROCEDURES;...

  11. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  12. 46 CFR 78.36-15 - Shipboard stowage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipboard stowage. 78.36-15 Section 78.36-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 78.36-15 Shipboard stowage. (a) The approved buoyant work vests shall be stowed separately from the regular stowage of approved life preservers. (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  14. 46 CFR 35.03-15 - Shipboard stowage-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipboard stowage-TB/ALL. 35.03-15 Section 35.03-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-15 Shipboard stowage—TB/ALL. (a) The approved buoyant work vests shall be stowed separately from the...

  15. 46 CFR 129.395 - Radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio installations. 129.395 Section 129.395 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.395 Radio installations. A separate circuit, with overcurrent protection at the switchboard, must be provided for at least one radio installation....

  16. 49 CFR 1242.19 - Electric power systems (account XX-19-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power systems (account XX-19-21). 1242.19... Structures § 1242.19 Electric power systems (account XX-19-21). Separate common expenses on basis of common expenses of electric power purchased or produced for motive power (accounts XX-51-68 and XX-52-68)....

  17. 43 CFR 3465.1 - Use of surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permit (43 CFR 3482.1(b) and 30 CFR part 741). (b) Separate leases, permits, or rights-of-way under the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of surface. 3465.1 Section 3465.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ENVIRONMENT Surface Management and Protection §...

  18. 50 CFR 1.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meaning of terms. 1.1 Section 1.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Meaning of terms. As used in this chapter, unless separately defined, terms shall have...

  19. 49 CFR 236.516 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power supply. 236.516 Section 236.516..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.516 Power supply. Automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device hereafter installed shall operate from a separate or isolated power...

  20. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  1. 49 CFR 1242.28 - Roadway machines, small tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway machines, small tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38, inclusive). 1242.28 Section 1242.28 Transportation Other... tools and supplies, and snow removal (accounts XX-19-36 to XX-19-38, inclusive). Separate...

  2. 47 CFR 73.504 - Channel assignments in the Mexican border area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel assignments in the Mexican border area... assignments in the Mexican border area. (a) NCE-FM stations within 199 miles (320 km) of the United States-Mexican border shall comply with the separation requirements and other provisions of the...

  3. 48 CFR 206.203 - Set-asides for small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.203 Set-asides for small business concerns. (b) Also no separate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Set-asides for small business concerns. 206.203 Section 206.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

  4. 48 CFR 1501.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations (CFR), and (c) a separate loose-leaf form in a distinctive light blue color. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication and code... AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-1 Publication and code arrangement....

  5. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  6. False bisalbuminemia and hyperalphafetoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Boujelbene, A; Hellara, I; Neffati, F; Najjar, M F

    2010-11-01

    The capillary electrophoresis is a very powerful separation method offering a high degree of resolution. However, certain interferences can be detected giving transitory shoulders or peaks. We report the case of a serum protein electrophoresis performed with Capillarys (Sebia) in a 68-year-old patient, hospitalized for cancer of the head of the pancreas, which showed an important shoulder in the migratory range of albumin, simulating bisalbuminemia. An interference with alphafetoprotein was proven explaining this electrophoretic aspect. PMID:20832217

  7. Schizotypy and false memory.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

  8. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  9. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  10. Callisto False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 on July 7, 1979 at a range of 1,094,666 kilometers (677,000 miles) and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W. This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue component. Because the surface displays regional contrast in UV, variations in surface materials are apparent. Notice in particular the dark blue haloes which surround bright craters in the eastern hemisphere. The surface of Callisto is the most heavily cratered of the Galilean satellites and resembles ancient heavily cratered terrains on the moon, Mercury and Mars. The bright areas are ejecta thrown out by relatively young impact craters. A large ringed structure, probably an impact basin, is shown in the upper left part of the picture. The color version of this picture was constructed by compositing black and white images taken through the ultraviolet, clear and orange filters.

  11. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  12. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  13. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  14. Neptune in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this false color image of Neptune, objects that are deep in the atmosphere are blue, while those at higher altitudes are white. The image was taken by Voyager 2's wide-angle camera through an orange filter and two different methane filters. Light at methane wavelengths is mostly absorbed in the deeper atmosphere. The bright, white feature is a high altitude cloud just south of the Great Dark Spot. The hard, sharp inner boundary within the bright cloud is an artifact of computer processing on Earth. Other, smaller clouds associated with the Great Dark Spot are white or pink, and are also at high altitudes. Neptune's limb looks reddish because Voyager 2 is viewing it tangentially, and the sunlight is scattered back to space before it can be absorbed by the methane. A long, narrow band of high altitude clouds near the top of the image is located at 25 degrees north latitude, and faint hazes mark the equator and polar regions. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  15. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  16. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  17. 49 CFR Figure 1c to Subpart B of... - Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door-§§ 238... Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door—§§ 238.113 and 238.114 ER01FE08.004...

  18. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  19. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  20. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  1. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  2. 49 CFR 26.35 - What role do business development and mentor-protégé programs have in the DBE program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What role do business development and mentor-protÃ... What role do business development and mentor-protégé programs have in the DBE program? (a) You may or... BDP or separately, you may establish a “mentor-protégé” program, in which another DBE or non-DBE...

  3. 46 CFR 32.56-55 - Control spaces-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....56-55 Control spaces—T/ALL. Bulkheads and decks that separate control spaces from adjacent spaces must be “A” Class construction and insulated against fire. 46 CFR Table 72.05-10(e) of the Passenger... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control spaces-T/ALL. 32.56-55 Section 32.56-55...

  4. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  5. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  6. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  7. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  8. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality. PMID:21361941

  9. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  10. VESPA: False positive probabilities calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA) calculates false positive probabilities and statistically validates transiting exoplanets. Written in Python, it uses isochrones [ascl:1503.010] and the package simpledist.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

  12. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  13. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  14. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  15. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  16. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  17. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  18. Partial 'Seminole' Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view from Spirit's panoramic camera is assembled from frames acquired on Martian days, or sols, 672 and 673 (Nov. 23 and 24, 2005) from the rover's position near an outcrop called 'Seminole.' The view is a southward-looking portion of a larger panorama still being completed. This is a false-color version to emphasize geological differences. It is a composite of images shot through three different filters, admitting light of wavelengths 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  19. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  20. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  1. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  2. Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

    Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  3. 21 CFR 1301.12 - Separate registrations for separate locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate registrations for separate locations. 1301.12 Section 1301.12 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Separate registrations for separate locations. (a) A separate registration is required for each...

  4. 21 CFR 1309.23 - Separate registration for separate locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate registration for separate locations. 1309.23 Section 1309.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION... Registration § 1309.23 Separate registration for separate locations. (a) A separate registration is...

  5. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  6. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  7. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  8. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  9. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  10. Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2009-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when

  11. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  12. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  13. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  14. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  15. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  16. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  17. 47 CFR 54.522 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 54.522 Section 54.522 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries §...

  18. 47 CFR 54.517 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 54.517 Section 54.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries §...

  19. 47 CFR 54.506 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 54.506 Section 54.506 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries §...

  20. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  1. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  2. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  3. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  4. 48 CFR 1219.1005 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 1219.1005 Section 1219.1005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program...

  5. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-1423 - Inventory Verification Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory Verification Survey. 53.301-1423 Section 53.301-1423 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Survey. ER05AP04.000...

  7. 48 CFR 970.0404 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information. 970.0404 Section 970.0404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... classified information....

  8. 48 CFR 914.409-2 - Award of classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classified contracts. DOE regulations regarding the safeguarding of restricted data and procedures for its destruction are contained at 10 CFR part 1016. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Award of...

  9. 50 CFR 665.99 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.99 Section 665.99 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Ocean Survey Chart Number 83484....

  10. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  12. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  13. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts....

  14. 48 CFR 1.602 - Contracting officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting officers. 1... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602 Contracting officers....

  15. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 19.808 Contract negotiation....

  16. 48 CFR 215.404 - Proposal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal analysis. 215.404 Section 215.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Proposal analysis....

  17. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  18. 47 CFR 27.1221 - Interference protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference protection. 27.1221 Section 27.1221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27.1239 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband...

  20. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  1. 48 CFR 619.804-3 - SBA acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SBA acceptance. 619.804-3 Section 619.804-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL... acceptance....

  2. 48 CFR 619.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 619.804 Section 619.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC....804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance....

  3. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings....

  4. 49 CFR 178.33a - Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles. 178.33a Section 178.33a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable metal receptacles....

  5. 49 CFR 178.33 - Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles. 178.33 Section 178.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable metal receptacles....

  6. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  7. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Contract negotiation....

  8. 48 CFR 836.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 836.606 Section 836.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Negotiations....

  9. 48 CFR 212.7102 - Pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Pilot Program for Acquisition of Military-Purpose Nondevelopmental Items 212.7102 Pilot program. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pilot program....

  10. 48 CFR 239.7408 - Special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special construction. 239.7408 Section 239.7408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Telecommunications Services 239.7408 Special construction....

  11. 48 CFR 211.204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition Streamlining and Standardization Information System database, use provisions, as appropriate... Descriptions Not Listed in the Acquisition Streamlining and Standardization Information System (ASSIST), and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation...

  12. 48 CFR 209.104 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards. 209.104 Section 209.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards....

  13. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501...

  14. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  15. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  16. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items....

  17. 48 CFR 204.7104 - Contract subline items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract subline items... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7104 Contract subline items....

  18. 48 CFR 922.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 922.804 Section 922.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC... Affirmative action programs....

  19. 48 CFR 1522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....

  20. 48 CFR 1422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1422.804 Section 1422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....804 Affirmative action programs....

  1. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 15.321 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 15.321 Section 15.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.321...

  3. 48 CFR 803.405 - Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... referrals of suspected fraudulent or criminal matters to the Department of Justice under FAR 3.405(b)(4... the Department of Justice. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Misrepresentations...

  4. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  5. 48 CFR 1511.011-79 - Information resources management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information resources... AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-79 Information resources management. The... Resource Management, in all solicitations and contracts....

  6. 48 CFR 232.503 - Postaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postaward matters. 232.503 Section 232.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Postaward matters....

  7. 48 CFR 232.502 - Preaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preaward matters. 232.502 Section 232.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....502 Preaward matters....

  8. 48 CFR 1803.104 - Procurement integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procurement integrity. 1803.104 Section 1803.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Procurement integrity....

  9. 48 CFR 203.104 - Procurement integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procurement integrity. 203.104 Section 203.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....104 Procurement integrity....

  10. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  11. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  12. 48 CFR 970.2201-2 - Overtime management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overtime management. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-2 Overtime management....

  13. 48 CFR 970.3770 - Facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities management. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting 970.3770 Facilities management....

  14. 42 CFR 485.58 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Comprehensive... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of Participation: Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facilities §...

  15. 48 CFR 871.208 - Rehabilitation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rehabilitation facilities... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.208 Rehabilitation facilities. Charges by...

  16. 48 CFR 236.206 - Liquidated damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquidated damages. 236... Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.206 Liquidated damages. See 211.503 for instructions on use of liquidated damages....

  17. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face....

  18. 48 CFR 2001.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) (48 CFR Chapter 1). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 2001.101 Section 2001.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL...

  19. 48 CFR 970.35 - Research and development contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research and development contracting. 970.35 Section 970.35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... development contracting....

  20. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  1. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  2. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  3. 47 CFR 10.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 10.2 Section 10.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10.2... Mobile Alert System....

  4. 47 CFR 10.540 - Attestation requirement. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Attestation requirement. 10.540 Section 10.540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.540 Attestation requirement....

  5. 47 CFR 10.460 - Retransmission frequency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retransmission frequency. 10.460 Section 10.460 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.460 Retransmission frequency....

  6. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. 11.12 Section 11.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... provide an audio alert....

  7. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417 Section 1.1417 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pole... Management and Budget....

  8. 46 CFR 176.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 176.818 Section 176.818 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for... sanitary condition....

  9. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  10. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  11. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219...

  12. 48 CFR 470.200 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 470.200 Section 470.200 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.200...

  13. 48 CFR 3009.570 - Limitations on contractors acting as lead system integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on contractors acting as lead system integrators. 3009.570 Section 3009.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractors acting as lead system integrators....

  14. 47 CFR 73.3574 - Processing of international broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of international broadcast station... of international broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for International station... such amended application. (c) Applications for International stations will be processed as nearly...

  15. 47 CFR 76.227 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 76.227 Section 76.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.227...

  16. 48 CFR 952.204 - Clauses related to administrative matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clauses related to administrative matters. 952.204 Section 952.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Clauses related to administrative matters....

  17. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act....

  18. 48 CFR 209.104-4 - Subcontractor responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Responsible Prospective Contractors 209.104-4 Subcontractor responsibility. Generally, the Canadian Commercial Corporation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false...

  19. 49 CFR 178.33b - Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles. 178.33b Section 178.33b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable plastic receptacles....

  20. 47 CFR 52.36 - Standard data fields for simple port order processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Zip code; (4) Company code; (5) New network service provider; (6) Desired due date; (7) Purchase order... Office of Management and Budget. ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard data fields for simple port...

  1. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  2. 48 CFR 970.3002 - CAS program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CAS program requirements. 970.3002 Section 970.3002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....3002 CAS program requirements....

  3. 43 CFR 3103.1 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments. 3103.1 Section 3103.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Payments....

  4. 48 CFR 3028.106 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration. 3028.106 Section 3028.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... 3028.106 Administration....

  5. 48 CFR 1825.003 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1825.003 Section 1825.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION 1825.003 Definitions....

  6. 48 CFR 242.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 242.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  7. 47 CFR 213.1 - Background and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background and purpose. 213.1 Section 213.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC... effect....

  8. 43 CFR 9268.5 - Wilderness management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wilderness management. 9268.5 Section 9268.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Wilderness management....

  9. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  11. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  12. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  13. 48 CFR 243.204-70 - Definitization of change orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204-70 Definitization of change orders. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitization of...

  14. 47 CFR 68.162 - Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... technical regulation interpretations. The competence of the telecommunication certification body shall be... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. 68.162 Section 68.162 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  15. 47 CFR 32.15 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 32.15 Section 32.15 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.15...

  16. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... finding of fraud....

  17. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  18. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  19. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  20. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  1. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  2. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  3. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  4. 48 CFR 970.0470 - Department of Energy Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Energy Directives. 970.0470 Section 970.0470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... Energy Directives....

  5. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  6. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine...

  7. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs....

  8. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs....

  9. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs....

  10. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs....

  11. 46 CFR 196.05-5 - Charts and nautical publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 33 CFR 164.33. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charts and nautical publications. 196.05-5 Section 196.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH...

  12. 46 CFR 385.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 385.2 Section 385.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE..., exclusions, issuance, arrangement, publication, and exceptions....

  13. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  14. 46 CFR 54.05-25 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 54.05-25 Section 54.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-25...

  15. 48 CFR 209.406 - Debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Debarment. 209.406 Section... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.406 Debarment....

  16. 48 CFR 3409.406 - Debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Debarment. 3409.406... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 3409.406 Debarment....

  17. 48 CFR 570.117 - Sustainable requirements for lease acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sustainable requirements... Sustainable requirements for lease acquisition. Contracting officers must include sustainable design...'s sustainable requirements identified in this part....

  18. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... childhood development programs. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination. 98.82 Section 98.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Indian...

  19. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls...

  20. 48 CFR 1545.309 - Providing Government production and research property under special restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Providing Government Property to Contractors 1545.309 Providing Government production and research property under... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Providing...

  1. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... contracts with economic price adjustment....

  2. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  3. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  4. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  5. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  6. 47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.15 Section 27.15 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses §...

  7. 45 CFR 690.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 690.121 Section 690.121 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.121...

  8. 48 CFR 1246.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1246.101 Section 1246.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1246.101 Definitions....

  9. 47 CFR 80.109 - Transmission to a plurality of mobile stations by a public coast station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission to a plurality of mobile stations... Procedures Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.109 Transmission to a plurality of mobile stations by a... mobile stations....

  10. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR parts 27, 37, and 38) and the Attorney General (28 CFR... Compliance Board (36 CFR part 1191). ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with...

  11. 43 CFR 3120.7 - Future interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest. 3120.7 Section 3120.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... interest....

  12. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Editorial Note:...

  13. 48 CFR 813.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 813.302 Section 813.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS... orders....

  14. 48 CFR 619.402 - Small Business Administration procurement center representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small Business... DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation with the Small Business Administration 619.402 Small Business Administration procurement center representatives....

  15. 48 CFR 19.403 - Small Business Administration breakout procurement center representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small Business... System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation With the Small Business Administration 19.403 Small Business Administration breakout procurement...

  16. 48 CFR 3403.101-3 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 34 CFR part 73, Standards of Conduct. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency regulations. 3403.101-3 Section 3403.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  17. 48 CFR 1901.104-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., in cumulative form in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (b) The IAAR is issued as chapter 19 of title 48, CFR. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication and...

  18. 48 CFR 628.309 - Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance. 628.309 Section 628.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... workers' compensation insurance....

  19. 49 CFR 173.448 - General transportation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General transportation requirements. 173.448 Section 173.448 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  20. Ultracapacitor separator

    DOEpatents

    Wei, Chang; Jerabek, Elihu Calvin; LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris

    2001-03-06

    An ultracapacitor includes two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. The electrolyte is a polar aprotic organic solvent and a salt. The porous separator comprises a wet laid cellulosic material.

  1. 48 CFR 241.205 - Separate contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separate contracts. 241... Services 241.205 Separate contracts. Follow the procedures at PGI 241.205 when acquiring utility services by separate contract....

  2. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  3. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  4. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  5. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  6. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  7. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle

  8. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime. PMID:25589599

  9. Creating false memories for visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Miller, M B; Gazzaniga, M S

    1998-06-01

    Creating false memories has become an important tool to investigate the processes underlying true memories. In the course of investigating the constructive and/or reconstructive processes underlying the formation of false memories, it has become clear that paradigms are needed that can create false memories reliably in a variety of laboratory settings. In particular, neuroimaging techniques present certain constraints in terms of subject response and timing of stimuli that a false memory paradigm needs to comply with. We have developed a picture paradigm which results in the false recognition of items of a scene which did not occur almost as often as the true recognition of items that did occur. It uses a single presentation of pictures with thematic, stereotypical scenes (e.g. a beach scene). Some of the exemplars from the scene were removed (e.g. a beach ball) and used as lures during an auditory recognition test. Subjects' performance on this paradigm was compared with their performance on the word paradigm reintroduced by Roediger and McDermott. The word paradigm has been useful in creating false memories in several neuroimaging studies because of the high frequency of false recognition for critical lures (words not presented but closely associated with lists of words that were presented) and the strong subjective sense of remembering accompanying these false recognitions. However, it has several limitations including small numbers of lures and a particular source confusion. The picture paradigm avoids these limitations and produces identical effects on normal subjects. PMID:9705061

  10. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  11. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  12. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  13. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  14. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  15. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  16. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  17. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False statements. 635.119 Section 635.119 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS... any statement, certificate, or report submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Federal-aid Road...

  18. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False statements. 635.119 Section 635.119 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS... any statement, certificate, or report submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Federal-aid Road...

  19. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  20. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  1. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories. PMID:20623419

  2. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  3. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2001-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  4. False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegations of abuse did not occur in the context of parental separation, divorce, or custody disputes concerning the children. They occurred in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The age of the children, 3 to 9 years, was older than the usual age for Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The mother was the source of the false allegations and was the person who encouraged or taught six of the children to substantiate allegations of sexual abuse. PMID:8503664

  5. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  6. 26 CFR 1.663(c)-1 - Separate shares treated as separate trusts or as separate estates; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate shares treated as separate trusts or as separate estates; in general. 1.663(c)-1 Section 1.663(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(c)-1 Separate shares treated as separate trusts or...

  7. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  8. Animal cognition: bumble bees suffer 'false memories'.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Judith

    2015-03-16

    The existence of 'false memories', where individuals remember events that they have never actually experienced, is well established in humans. Now a new study reports that insects similarly form illusory memories through merging of memory traces. PMID:25784044

  9. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  10. Separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, W. L., III; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Goodman, W. L.; Howard, F. G.; Margason, R. J.; Rudy, D. H.; Rumsey, C. L.; Stough, H. P., III; Thomas, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview of flow separation phenomena is provided. Langley has many active research programs in flow separation related areas. Three cases are presented which describe specific examples of flow separation research. In each example, a description of the fundamental fluid physics and the complexity of the flow field is presented along with a method of either reducing or controlling the extent of separation. The following examples are discussed: flow over a smooth surface with an adverse pressure gradient; flow over a surface with a geometric discontinuity; and flow with shock-boundary layer interactions. These results will show that improvements are being made in the understanding of flow separation and its control.

  11. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory. PMID:26390193

  12. Language Promotes False-Belief Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Pyers, Jennie E.; Senghas, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Developmental studies have identified a strong correlation in the timing of language development and false-belief understanding. However, the nature of this relationship remains unresolved. Does language promote false-belief understanding, or does it merely facilitate development that could occur independently, albeit on a delayed timescale? We examined language development and false-belief understanding in deaf learners of an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. The use of mental-state vocabulary and performance on a low-verbal false-belief task were assessed, over 2 years, in adult and adolescent users of Nicaraguan Sign Language. Results show that those adults who acquired a nascent form of the language during childhood produce few mental-state signs and fail to exhibit false-belief understanding. Furthermore, those whose language developed over the period of the study correspondingly developed in false-belief understanding. Thus, language learning, over and above social experience, drives the development of a mature theory of mind. PMID:19515119

  13. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R Reed; Smith, Rebekah E; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2011-11-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone is sufficient to explain extant data. Our research was driven by a framework that distinguishes item-based and event-based distinctive processing to account for the effects of different variables on both correct recall of study list items and false recall. We report the results of three experiments examining the effect of a deep orienting task and the effect of visual presentation of study items, both of which have been shown to reduce false recall. The experiments replicate those previous findings and add important new information about the effect of the variables on a recall test that eliminates the need for monitoring. The results clearly indicate that both post-access monitoring and constraints on access contribute to reductions in false memories. The results also showed that the manipulations of study modality and orienting task had different effects on correct and false recall, a pattern that was predicted by the item-based/event-based distinctive processing framework. PMID:22003267

  14. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

  15. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

  16. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

  17. Photographs cause false memories for the news.

    PubMed

    Strange, Deryn; Garry, Maryanne; Bernstein, Daniel M; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    What is the effect on memory when seemingly innocuous photos accompany false reports of the news? We asked people to read news headlines of world events, some of which were false. Half the headlines appeared with photographs that were tangentially related to the event; others were presented without photographs. People saw each headline only once, and indicated whether they remembered the event, knew about it, or neither. Photos led people to immediately and confidently remember false news events. Drawing on the Source Monitoring Framework (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993), we suggest that people often relied on familiarity and other heuristic processes when making their judgments and thus experienced effects of the photos as evidence of memory for the headlines. PMID:21062659

  18. Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Hammond, Cristina S.; Hanna, Lucy G.; Grove, Margaret R.; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Objective To measure the impact of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility and future screening attitudes. Design Longitudinal Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life sub-study telephone survey shortly after screening and one year later. Setting Twenty-two DMIST sites Participants Randomly-selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Exposure(s) for observational studies Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index short-form (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D with United States scoring. Attitudes toward future screening measured by women’s self-report of future intention to undergo mammography screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to receive a hypothetical new mammogram that would detect as many cancers with half the false-positives. Results Among 1,450 eligible women invited to participate, 1,226 women (85%) were enrolled with follow-up interviews obtained for 1,028 (84%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6:35.2 vs. 32.7), but health utility did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at one year. Future screening intentions differed by group (26% vs. 14% more likely in false-positive vs. negative); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (11% vs. 10% in false-positive vs. negative). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (OR: 2.12; 95%CI:1.54, 2.93), younger age (OR:2.78; 95%CI:1.5,5.0) and poorer health (OR: 1.63; 95%CI:1.09, 2.43). Women’s anticipated high-level anxiety regarding

  19. Separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Duke, T

    1998-10-01

    The past two years have seen continued development of capillary electrophoresis methods. The separation performance of flowable sieving media now equals, and in some respects exceeds, that provided by gels. The application of microfabrication techniques to separation science is gaining pace. There is a continuing trend towards miniaturization and integration of separation with preparative or analytical steps. Innovative separation methods based on microfabrication technology include electrophoresis in purpose-designed molecular sieves, dielectric, trapping using microelectrodes, and force-free motion in Brownian ratchets. PMID:9818184

  20. Loop transformations to prevent false sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Granston, E.D.; Montaut, T.; Bodin, F.

    1995-08-01

    To date, page management in shared virtual memory (SVM) systems has been primarily the responsibility of the run-time system. However, there are some problems that are difficult to resolve efficiently at run time. Chief among these is false sharing. In this paper, a loop transformation theory is developed for identifying and eliminating potential sources of multiple-writer false sharing and other sources of page migration resulting from regular references in numerical applications. Loop nests of one and two dimensions (before blocking) with single-level, DOALL-style parallelism are covered. The potential of these transformations is demonstrated experimentally.

  1. False-positive Gram-stained smears.

    PubMed

    Hoke, C H; Batt, J M; Mirrett, S; Cox, R L; Reller, L B

    1979-02-01

    The rate per 1,000 smears showing nonviable Gram-negative bacilli (false-positive smears) increased from a baseline of 10.8 to 38.5 following purchase of new culture-collection devices; the rate decreased to 8.0 following replacement of contaminated culture sets. False-positive reports led to changes in therapy for five patients. In addition to being sterile, commercial culture-collection devices should be certified by the manufacturer as being free of stainable microorganisms or as unsuitable for preparation of Gram-stained smears. PMID:83398

  2. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  3. What Makes Language Learners False Beginners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Tomoko

    A study in Japan investigated second language skill loss and maintenance in three groups of English-as-a-Second-Language learners: (1) ninth graders studying basic vocabulary and sentence structures (true beginners); (2) students in the lowest level English class at a technical college, but with some English language skills (false beginners); and…

  4. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  5. Growth of false bottoms under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naomi; Feltham, Daniel; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    In the summer months, melt water from the surface of Arctic sea ice can percolate through the relatively porous ice and collect at the ice-ocean interface, filling hollows in the base of the ice. These pools are called under-ice melt ponds. Freezing can occur at the interface between the fresh water and the oceanic mixed layer, forming a sheet of ice called a false bottom. These have been observed to thicken and migrate upwards over time. False bottoms insulate the true base of the sea ice from the ocean and their formation is a significant mechanism of Arctic sea ice summer growth. Current parameterisations of basal ablation of sea ice in climate models do not account for these processes, the inclusion of which could improve the accuracy of predictions of Arctic sea ice. In this poster, a one-dimensional thermodynamic model of the evolution of under-ice melt ponds and false bottoms is presented. Our aim is to develop a parameterisation of the impact of under ice melt ponds and false bottoms on basal ablation of Arctic sea ice appropriate for use in gridded climate models.

  6. Inferring False Beliefs from Actions and Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Louis J.; Flavell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that three year olds would do better on tasks in which belief cues were stronger than on standard false belief tasks, in which the children could reason backward to the belief from its effects. Findings provided strong support for the view that three year olds do not fully understand the…

  7. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  8. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition. PMID:26122896

  9. False Accusations of Nosocomial Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…

  10. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  11. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  12. False beats in coupled piano string unisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as ``false beating'' in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how ``mistunings'' between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. ``False beats'' in a single string partial can be ``inherited'' by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance.

  13. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  14. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  15. [False memory syndrome: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Nemets, Boris; Witztum, Eliezer; Kotler, Moshe

    2002-08-01

    The review describes the heated dispute on the present state of recovered traumatic memories. There are two main schools concerning the status of recovered memories of child abuse. One school believes in their authenticity unconditionally. Those who oppose the authenticity claim False Memory Syndrome's existence. They describe it as "a serious form of psychopathology characterized by strongly believed pseudomemories of childhood sexual abuse" and "condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes". This review presents the allegations of both sides involved in the dispute, with updates of scientific and judicial references and relevant recommendations to care takers. PMID:12222139

  16. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  17. False beats in coupled piano string unisons.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as "false beating" in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how "mistunings" between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. "False beats" in a single string partial can be "inherited" by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance. PMID:15000199

  18. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  19. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  20. False memories in Lewy-body disease.

    PubMed

    Algarabel, Salvador; Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Escudero, Joaquín

    2015-12-01

    Recently, de Boysson, Belleville, Phillips et al. (2011) found that patients with Lewy-body disease (LBD) showed significantly lower rates of false memories than healthy controls, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) experimental procedure. Given that this result could be explained by the practically null rate of true recognition in the LBD group (0.09), we decided to replicate the study by de Boysson et al. (2011), but including a new condition that would maximize the true recognition rate (and analyze its effect on the rate of false memories). Specifically, in a DRM experiment, we manipulated (within subjects) two study and recognition conditions: in the "immediate" condition, both the LBD patients and the control group of healthy older people received a different recognition test after each study list (containing twelve words associated with a non-presented critical word), while in the "delayed" condition (similar to the one in de Boysson et al., 2011), the participants received the entire series of study lists and then took only one recognition test. The results showed that, in both samples, the "immediate" condition produced higher corrected rates of both true and false recognition than the "delayed" condition, although they were both lower in the LBD patients, which shows that these patients are capable of encoding and recognizing the general similitude underlying information (gist memory) in the right conditions. PMID:26355527

  1. The false enforcement of unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

    2009-09-01

    Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

  2. Characteristics of false allegation adult crimes.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; McDonald, Sean; Lawrence, Jennifer M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common factors in false allegation adult crimes, by examining the dynamics involved in 30 confirmed false allegation cases. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of these adjudicated cases and then completed a collection instrument to capture offender demographics, offense characteristics, and motive. The results indicated that most false allegation crimes were committed by women (73.3%) and Caucasians (93.3%). Data indicated that more interpersonally violent allegations were primarily motivated by attention/sympathy needs (50.0%), whereas more impersonal offenses involved other motivations such as providing an alibi (16.7%) or profit (13.3%). Offenders tended to be younger, high school graduates with no higher education (43.3%). A total of 23.3% of offenders had a prior criminal history. Male offenders appeared as likely as women to be motivated by attention/sympathy; however, men tended to select more violent, nonsexual offenses (e.g., attempted murder) than women. PMID:22236499

  3. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  4. Char separator

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Francis T.

    1979-01-01

    Particulates removed from the flue gases produced in a fluidized-bed furnace are separated into high-and low-density portions. The low-density portion is predominantly char, and it is returned to the furnace or burned in a separate carbon burnup cell. The high-density portion, which is predominantly limestone products and ash, is discarded or reprocessed. According to another version, the material drained from the bed is separated, the resulting high-and low-density portions being treated in a manner similar to that in which the flue-gas particulates are treated.

  5. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  6. Stereoisomers Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Piotr

    The use of capillary electrophoresis for enantiomer separation and optical purity determination is presented. The contents start with basic information about the nature of stereoizomers and the mechanism of enantioseparation using capillary electrophoresis techniques. The molecules to be separated show identical chemical structure and electrochemical behavior. Therefore, the chiral recognition of enantiomers is possible only by bonding to chiral selector and the separation based on very small differences in complexation energies of diastereomer complexes formed. This method is useful for this purpose due to the fact that different compounds can be used as chiral selectors. The mostly used chiral selectors like cyclodextrins, crown ethers, chiral surfactants, macrocyclic antibiotics, transition metal complexes, natural, and synthetic polymers and their application for this purpose is also discussed. Finally, examples of practical applications of electromigration techniques for enantiomers separation and determination are presented.

  7. Battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Balouskus, R.A.; Feinberg, S.C.; Lundquist, J.T.; Lundsager, C.B.

    1980-09-23

    A battery separator and a method of forming the same is described. The separator has good electrical conductivity and a high degree of inhibition to dendrite formation, and is in the form of a thin sheet formed from a substantially uniform mixture of a thermoplastic rubber and a filler in a volume ratio of from about 1:0.15 to 1:0.6. The thermoplastic rubber is preferably a styrene/elastomer/styrene block copolymer.

  8. Product separator

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  9. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. 5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.806 Section 842... Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C.... 2109(1)(B) (i.e., a second-level supervisor). A mandatory separation under 5 U.S.C. 8425 is not...

  11. 5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.806 Section 842... Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C.... 2109(1)(B) (i.e., a second-level supervisor). A mandatory separation under 5 U.S.C. 8425 is not...

  12. 5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.806 Section 842... Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C.... 2109(1)(B) (i.e., a second-level supervisor). A mandatory separation under 5 U.S.C. 8425 is not...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  14. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  15. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  16. 5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.806 Section 842... Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C.... 2109(1)(B) (i.e., a second-level supervisor). A mandatory separation under 5 U.S.C. 8425 is not...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  18. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  19. 5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.806 Section 842... Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C.... 2109(1)(B) (i.e., a second-level supervisor). A mandatory separation under 5 U.S.C. 8425 is not...

  20. Quantum efficiency and false positive rate

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, P. E.

    1969-01-01

    1. This paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of performance at the absolute threshold of human vision. The data are from the same series as the previous papers (Hallett, 1969b, c) and consist of frequency-of-seeing curves, thresholds, false positive rates and equivalent background measurements, accumulated as small samples over a number of days. 2. Quantum efficiency is defined here as the ratio of the thresholds of an ideal and a real detector performing the same task with the same sampling error. This avoids the problem as to whether the frequency-of-seeing curve of the real detector is exactly a Poisson sum or not. 3. The long-term quantum efficiency can be low (about 0·04) as a result of drifts in the mean threshold. 4. The average short-term quantum efficiency is in the region of 0·1, which is roughly the physiological limit set by Rushton's (1956b) measurements of rhodopsin density in the living rods. If this is correct, then the absorption of a quantum, and not the bleaching of a rhodopsin molecule, is sufficient for the generation of a neural event. 5. Application of a simple signal/noise theory to the data gives solutions close to those suggested by Barlow (1956) and shows that false positives almost invariably arise from errors subsequent to the signal/noise decision process. PMID:5784295

  1. Why most published research findings are false.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2005-08-01

    There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research. PMID:16060722

  2. On False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions with a Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    Wilcox (1977) examines two methods of estimating the probability of a false-positive on false-negative decision with a mastery test. Both procedures make assumptions about the form of the true score distribution which might not give good results in all situations. In this paper, upper and lower bounds on the two possible error types are described…

  3. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  4. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. PMID:25592676

  5. Layered Outcrops in Gusev Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the ways scientists collect mineralogical data about rocks on Mars is to view them through filters that allow only specific wavelengths of light to pass through the lens of the panoramic camera. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this false-color image of the rock nicknamed 'Tetl' at 1:05 p.m. martian time on its 270th martian day, or sol (Oct. 5, 2004) using the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Darker red hues in the image correspond to greater concentrations of oxidized soil and dust. Bluer hues correspond to portions of rock that are not as heavily coated with soils or are not as highly oxidized.

  6. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  7. Some comments on GMTI false alarm rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2011-06-01

    A typical Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar specification includes the parameters Probability of Detection (PD) - typically on the order of 0.85, and False Alarm Rate (FAR) - typically on the order of 0.1 Hz. The PD is normally associated with a particular target 'size', such as Radar Cross Section (RCS) with perhaps some statistical description (e.g. Swerling number). However, the concept of FAR is embodied at a fundamental level in the detection process, which traditionally employs a Constant-FAR (CFAR) detector to set thresholds for initial decisions on whether a target is present or not. While useful, such a metric for radar specification and system comparison is not without some serious shortcomings. In particular, when comparing FAR across various radar systems, some degree of normalization needs to occur to account for perhaps swath width and scan rates. This in turn suggests some useful testing strategies.

  8. False accusations of physical and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schuman, D C

    1986-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is sometimes mistakenly over-reported. This discussion of seven cases focuses on one potential area which can generate a substantial segment of false positives: conflicted domestic relations litigation situation. Such situations generate striking, regressive affect and behavior especially when issues of child custody or visitation erupt. Parental regression has been discussed in the literature, but children regress too: behavioral symptoms erupt with vegetative and social disruption, and instinctual material regarding both sex and anger is more accessible to consciousness than is age-appropriate. Heightened instinctual forces in children and regressive loosening of pre-litigation character defenses in adults, both in the context of stressful family breakdown, combine to generate genuine perceptions of abuse but invalid reports. PMID:3697518

  9. Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.

    2005-11-15

    This paper examines the classical dynamics of false-vacuum regions embedded in surrounding regions of true vacuum, in the thin-wall limit. The dynamics of all generally relativistically allowed solutions--most but not all of which have been previously studied--are derived, enumerated, and interpreted. We comment on the relation of these solutions to possible mechanisms whereby inflating regions may be spawned from noninflating ones. We then calculate the dynamics of first-order deviations from spherical symmetry, finding that many solutions are unstable to such aspherical perturbations. The parameter space in which the perturbations on bound solutions inevitably become nonlinear is mapped. This instability has consequences for the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism for baby universe production via quantum tunneling.

  10. False context fear memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sarah E; Holmes, Nathan M; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2015-10-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control rats in A. In Experiment 2, rats were pre-exposed to A or C, subjected to an immediate shock in B and tested in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in B and control rats did not freeze in either A or B. The false fear memory to the pre-exposed A was contingent on its similarity with the shocked B. In Experiment 3, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in C and rats pre-exposed to C did not freeze when tested either in A or C. In Experiment 4, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze more when tested in A than rats whose pre-exposure to A began with an immediate shock. The results were discussed in terms of a dual systems explanation of context fear conditioning: a hippocampal-dependent process that forms a unitary representation of context and an amygdala-based process which associates this representation with shock. PMID:26373831

  11. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  12. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  13. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

  14. Separation Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addington, Jean

    1992-01-01

    Describes eight-week short-term group designed to help separated or divorced men and women move through related adjustment phase in focused group setting. Discusses constructs that form the foundations of this short-term psychoeducational and support group and presents brief overview of psychological difficulties that occur as result of marital…

  15. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  16. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

  17. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-07-31

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

  18. The False Security of Blind Dates

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The reuse of clinical data for research purposes requires methods for the protection of personal privacy. One general approach is the removal of personal identifiers from the data. A frequent part of this anonymization process is the removal of times and dates, which we refer to as “chrononymization.” While this step can make the association with identified data (such as public information or a small sample of patient information) more difficult, it comes at a cost to the usefulness of the data for research. Objectives We sought to determine whether removal of dates from common laboratory test panels offers any advantage in protecting such data from re-identification. Methods We obtained a set of results for 5.9 million laboratory panels from the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS), selected a random set of 20,000 panels from the larger source sets, and then identified all matches between the sets. Results We found that while removal of dates could hinder the re-identification of a single test result, such removal had almost no effect when entire panels were used. Conclusions Our results suggest that reliance on chrononymization provides a false sense of security for the protection of laboratory test results. As a result of this study, the NIH has chosen to rely on policy solutions, such as strong data use agreements, rather than removal of dates when reusing clinical data for research purposes. PMID:23646086

  19. Possible and False Biomarkers from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.

    2004-01-01

    The Search for life in the Solar System is one of NASA's main goals for the coming decade. We may never observe alien life directly; we or our robotic craft may always be removed from it by many years, or meters of crust. If we do find evidence of Life elsewhere in the Solar System it will probably be in form of chemical biomarkers, quintessentially biological molecules that indicate the presence of micro-organisms. What molecules would be truly indicative of alien life? Chlorophyll fragments, which are often used by geochemists are probably far too specific. Simpler molecules, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleo-bases might seem to be biomarkers, but they can form non-biotically in space. Alkyl substituted aromatics in ALH 84001 have been invoked as biomarkers, but they are not strong evidence in and of themselves. Understanding the range of nonbiological organic molecules which could act as false biomarkers in space is a prerequisite for any reasonable search for true biomarkers on other worlds. When simple organics arrive at the surface of a body like Europa, either from below or from space, how long do they survive and what do they make? How can we distinguish these from real biomarkers? In this talk I will present some ideas about what might be useful qualities to consider in a potential biomarker, and will ask for advice from the attendant geochemists.

  20. Is the truth in the details? Extended narratives help distinguishing false "memories" from false "reports".

    PubMed

    Sjödén, Björn; Granhag, Pär Anders; Ost, James; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma

    2009-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of fantasy proneness on false "reports" and false "memories", of existent and non-existent footage of a public event. We predicted that highly fantasy prone individuals would be more likely to stand by their initial claim of having seen a film of the event than low fantasy prone participants when prompted for more details about their experiences. Eighty creative arts students and 80 other students were asked whether they had seen CCTV footage preceding the attack on Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh up to, and including, non-existent footage of the actual moment of the attack. If affirmative, they were probed for extended narratives of what they claimed to have seen. Overall, 64% of participants provided a false "report" by answering yes to the initial question. Of these, 30% provided no explicit details of the attack, and a further 15% retracted their initial answer in their narratives. This left 19% of the sample who appeared to have false "memories" because they provided explicit details of the actual moment of the attack. Women scored higher than men and art students scored higher than other students on fantasy proneness, but there was no effect on levels of false reporting or false "memory". Memories were rated more vivid and clear for existent compared to non-existent aspects of the event. In sum, these data suggest a more complex relationship between memory distortions and fantasy proneness than previously observed. PMID:19000104

  1. Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

  2. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  3. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  4. A Frosty Rim In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    Our final image combines the features of the past two days, with a dust covered frosty crater rim and the bluer sand dunes of the north polar region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 351.8 East (8.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Natural and False Color Views of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa. The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa. Dark brown areas represent rocky material derived from the interior, implanted by impact, or from a combination of interior and exterior sources. Bright plains in the polar areas (top and bottom) are shown in tones of blue to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. The bright feature containing a central dark spot in the lower third of the image is a young impact crater some 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. This crater has been provisionally named 'Pwyll' for the Celtic god of the underworld.

    Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth's moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Venus - False Color of Eistla Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false color Magellan image shows a portion of Eistla Regio (region) in the northern hemisphere of Venus, centered at 1 degrees south latitude, 37 degrees east longitude. The area is 440 kilometers (270 miles) wide and 350 kilometers (220 miles) long. This image was produced from Magellan radar data collected in Cycle 2 of the mission. Cycle 2 was completed January 15, 1992. The area was not imaged during the first cycle because of superior conjunction when the sun was between the Earth and Venus, preventing communication with the spacecraft. This image contains examples of several of the major geologic terrains on Venus and illustrates the basic stratigraphy or sequence of geologic events. The oldest terrain appears as bright, highly fractured or chaotic highlands rising out of the plains. This is seen in the right half of the image. The chaotic highlands, sometimes called tessera, may represent older and thicker crustal material and occupy about 15 percent of the surface of Venus. The fractured terrain in this region has a distinctly linear structure with a shear-like pattern. Plains surround and embay the fractured highland tessera. Plains are formed by fluid volcanic flows that may have once formed vast lava seas which covered all the low lying surfaces. Plains comprise more than 80 percent of the surface of Venus. The most recent activity in the region is volcanism that produced the radar bright flows best seen in the upper left quadrant of the image. The flows are similar, in their volcanic origin to the darker plains volcanics, but apparently have more rugged surfaces that more efficiently scatter the radar signal back to the spacecraft. The geologic sequence is early fracturing of the tessera, flooding by extensive plains lavas, and scattered less extensive individual flows on the plains surface. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft.

  7. Venus - False Color of Bereghinya Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false color Magellan image shows a portion of Bereghinya Planitia (plains) in the northern hemisphere of Venus, centered at 31 degrees north latitude, 43 degrees east longitude. The area is 260 kilometers (160 miles) wide and 330 kilometers (200 miles) long. This image was produced from Magellan radar data collected in Cycle 2 of the mission. Cycle 2 was completed January 15, 1992. The area was not imaged during the first cycle because of superior conjunction when the sun was between the Earth and Venus, preventing communication with the spacecraft. This image contains examples of several of the major geologic terrains on Venus and illustrates the basic stratigraphy or sequence of geologic events. The oldest terrains appear as bright, highly-fractured or chaotic highlands rising out of the plains. This is seen in the upper right and lower left quadrants of the image. The chaotic highlands, sometimes called tessera, may represent older and thicker crustal material and occupy about 15 percent of the surface of Venus. Plains surround and embay the fractured highland tessera. Plains are formed by fluid volcanic flows that may have once formed vast lava seas which covered all the low lying surfaces. Plains comprise more than 80 percent of the surface of Venus. The most recent activity in the region is volcanism that produced the radar bright flows best seen in the lower right quadrant of the image. The lava flows in this image are associated with the shield volcano Tepev Mons whose summit is near the lower left corner of the image. The flows are similar to the darker plains volcanics, but apparently have more rugged surfaces that more efficiently scatter the radar signal back to the spacecraft. The geologic sequence is early fracturing of the tessera, flooding by extensive plains lavas and scattered, less extensive individual flows on the plains surface. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft.

  8. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  9. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  10. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  11. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  12. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel A; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of "frog swarms" from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported "frog swarms" are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co

  13. Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

    The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

    The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

    This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false

  14. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  15. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce this view, which is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

  16. Channel with Island in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 29 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This false color image shows part of the Apsus Vallis region. It was collected February 2, 2003 during northern summer season. The local time is 5pm. The image shows a typical channel formation with island created in it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.1, Longitude 135 East (225 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics

  17. Inflation after false vacuum decay: Observational prospects after Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Harlow, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    We assess two potential signals of the formation of our universe by the decay of a false vacuum. Negative spatial curvature is one possibility, but the window for its detection is now small. However, another possible signal is a suppression of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum at large angles. This arises from the steepening of the effective potential as it interpolates between a flat inflationary plateau and the high barrier separating us from our parent vacuum. We demonstrate that these two effects can be parametrically separated in angular scale. Observationally, the steepening effect appears to be excluded at large ℓ; but it remains consistent with the slight lack of power below ℓ≈30 found by the WMAP and Planck collaborations. We give two simple models which improve the fit to the Planck data; one with observable curvature and one without. Despite cosmic variance, we argue that future CMB polarization and most importantly large-scale structure observations should be able to corroborate the Planck anomaly if it is real. If we further assume the specific theoretical setting of a landscape of metastable vacua, as suggested by string theory, we can estimate the probability of seeing a low-ℓ suppression in the CMB. There are significant theoretical uncertainties in such calculations, but we argue the probability for a detectable suppression may be as large as O (1 ), and in general is significantly larger than the probability of seeing curvature.

  18. Cobbles in Troughs Between Meridiani Ripples (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to traverse from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the rover navigates along exposures of bedrock between large, wind-blown ripples. Along the way, scientists have been studying fields of cobbles that sometimes appear on trough floors between ripples. They have also been studying the banding patterns seen in large ripples.

    This view, obtained by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 802nd Martian day (sol) of exploration (April 27, 2006), is a mosaic spanning about 30 degrees. It shows a field of cobbles nestled among wind-driven ripples that are about 20 centimeters (8 inches) high.

    The origin of cobble fields like this one is unknown. The cobbles may be a lag of coarser material left behind from one or more soil deposits whose finer particles have blown away. The cobbles may be eroded fragments of meteoritic material, secondary ejecta of Mars rock thrown here from craters elsewhere on the surface, weathering remnants of locally-derived bedrock, or a mixture of these. Scientists will use the panoramic camera's multiple filters to study the rock types, variability and origins of the cobbles.

    This is a false-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. The false color is used to enhance differences between types of materials in the rocks and soil.

  19. DSM-5, psychiatric epidemiology and the false positives problem.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, J C

    2015-06-01

    The revision effort leading to the publication of the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was flawed in process, goals and outcome. The revision process suffered from lack of an adequate public record of the rationale for changes, thus shortchanging future scholarship. The goals, such as dimensionalising diagnosis, incorporating biomarkers and separating impairment from diagnosis, were ill-considered and mostly abandoned. However, DSM-5's greatest problem, and the target of the most vigorous and sustained criticism, was its failure to take seriously the false positives problem. By expanding diagnosis beyond plausible boundaries in ways inconsistent with DSM-5's own definition of disorder, DSM-5 threatened the validity of psychiatric research, including especially psychiatric epidemiology. I present four examples: increasing the symptom options while decreasing the diagnostic threshold for substance use disorder, elimination of the bereavement exclusion from major depression, allowing verbal arguments as evidence of intermittent explosive disorder and expanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to adults before addressing its manifest false positives problems. PMID:25675983

  20. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is a false-color composite combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  1. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-7 - Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account. 1.904(f)-7 Section 1.904(f)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... United States § 1.904(f)-7 Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account. For...

  2. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  3. Artwork Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Under a grant from California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and LACMA (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) used image enhancement techniques to separate x-ray images of paintings when one had been painted on top of another. The technique is derived from computer processing of spacecraft-acquired imagery, and will allow earlier paintings, some of which have been covered for centuries, to be evaluated. JPL developed the program for "subtracting" the top painting and enhancing the bottom one, and believes an even more advanced system is possible.

  4. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  5. Coaching, Truth Induction, and Young Maltreated Children's False Allegations and False Denials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Talwar, Victoria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of coaching (encouragement and rehearsal of false reports) and truth induction (a child-friendly version of the oath or general reassurance about the consequences of disclosure) on 4- to 7-year-old maltreated children's reports (N = 198). Children were questioned using free recall, repeated yes-no questions, and…

  6. 48 CFR 41.205 - Separate contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separate contracts. 41.205... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Acquiring Utility Services 41.205 Separate contracts. (a) In the... services by separate contract subject to this part, and subject to agency contracting authority. (b) If...

  7. 29 CFR 570.116 - Separate applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate applicability. 570.116 Section 570.116 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Joint and Separate Applicability of Sections 12(a) and 12(c) § 570.116 Separate applicability. There are situations where section 12(c) does...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1608 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.1608 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1608 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply...

  9. 5 CFR 831.808 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.808 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.808 Mandatory separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all nuclear...

  10. 5 CFR 831.808 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.808 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.808 Mandatory separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all nuclear...

  11. 5 CFR 831.808 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.808 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.808 Mandatory separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all nuclear...

  12. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.908 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and...

  13. 5 CFR 842.1006 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.1006 Section....1006 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to customs and border protection officers, including those...

  14. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.908 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and...

  15. 5 CFR 842.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.908 Section 842... separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to all nuclear materials couriers including those in secondary positions. A mandatory...

  16. 5 CFR 842.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.908 Section 842... separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to all nuclear materials couriers including those in secondary positions. A mandatory...

  17. 5 CFR 831.1608 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.1608 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1608 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply...

  18. 5 CFR 842.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.908 Section 842... separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to all nuclear materials couriers including those in secondary positions. A mandatory...

  19. 5 CFR 842.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.908 Section 842... separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to all nuclear materials couriers including those in secondary positions. A mandatory...

  20. 5 CFR 842.1006 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.1006 Section....1006 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to customs and border protection officers, including those...

  1. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.908 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and...

  2. 5 CFR 831.1608 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.1608 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1608 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply...

  3. 5 CFR 831.808 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.808 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.808 Mandatory separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all nuclear...

  4. 5 CFR 831.808 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.808 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.808 Mandatory separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all nuclear...

  5. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.908 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and...

  6. 5 CFR 842.1006 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.1006 Section....1006 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to customs and border protection officers, including those...

  7. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.908 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and...

  8. 5 CFR 842.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.908 Section 842... separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to all nuclear materials couriers including those in secondary positions. A mandatory...

  9. Particle separation

    DOEpatents

    Moosmuller, Hans; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  10. Particle separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moosmuller, Hans (Inventor); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Inventor); Arnott, W. Patrick (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  11. Battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannoni, R.T.; Kung, J.K.J.; Choi, W.M.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes a battery system composed of at least one pair of electrodes of opposite polarity, an electrolyte and a separator positioned between electrodes of opposite polarity. The improvement comprises that the separator is a microporous sheet composed of a substantially uniform composition of A. from 7 to 50 weight percent of a polymer mixture, the mixture formed from (a) from about 95 to about 40 weight percent of polyolefin formed from ethylene, propylene or mixtures thereof or a mixture of the polyolefins having a weight average molecular weight of at least about 3,000,000; and (b) from about 5 to about 60 weight percent of a polymeric blend formed from a polyethylene terpolymer and a vinyl or vinylidene halide polymer in a weight ratio of 19:1 to 1:3, the polyethylene terpolymer formed from (1) ethylene monomer, (2) at least one ethylenically unsaturated organic monomer selected from the group consisting of esters of unsaturated C/sub 3/-C/sub 20/ mono- or dicarboxylic acids, vinyl esters of saturated C/sub 2/-C/sub 18/ carboxylic acids, vinyl alkyl ethers wherein the alkyl group has 1-18 carbon atoms, vinyl or vinylidene halides, acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, norbornene, alpha-olefins of 3-12 carbon atoms, and vinyl aromatic compounds, and, (3) an additional monomer selected from the group consisting of ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/-C/sub 20/ carboxylic acids, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide; B. from 93 to 50 weight percent of a filler which is substantially inert with respect to the battery electrodes and electrolyte; and C. from 0 to 20 weight percent of plasticizer for at least one of the polymers of the composition.

  12. How the Sausage is Made: Kepler's False Alarms, False Positives, and Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Kepler mission has now designated over 7,000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs), or transit-like signatures, utilizing up to four years of data. The number of potentially habitable planet candidates (PCs) among this sample has risen significantly over time. However, starting with Kepler threshold crossing events (TCEs), there are initially about as many false alarms (FAs) detected as there are KOIs. Furthermore, due to its design, contamination from eclipsing binaries, variable stars, and other transiting planets result in a significant number of KOIs being designated as false positives (FPs). Many of these FAs and FPs occur at long orbital periods, where habitable planets are typically found. I will review the process of how an initial TCE becomes a KOI, and then is ultimately classified as a FA, FP, or PC, along with the various vetting tools employed. The understanding of this process is crucial to performing accurate statistical analyses on populations of habitable planet candidates discovered by Kepler.

  13. False memory ≠ false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.

    PubMed

    Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = -.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

  14. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  15. 'Gibson' Panorama by Spirit at 'Home Plate' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this high-resolution view of intricately layered exposures of rock while parked on the northwest edge of the bright, semi-circular feature known as 'Home Plate.' The rover was perched at a 27-degree upward tilt while creating the panorama, resulting in the 'U' shape of the mosaic. In reality, the features along the 1-meter to 2-meter (1-foot to 6.5-foot) vertical exposure of the rim of Home Plate in this vicinity are relatively level. Rocks near the rover in this view, known as the 'Gibson' panorama, include 'Barnhill,' 'Rogan,' and 'Mackey.'

    Spirit acquired 246 separate images of this scene using 6 different filters on the panoramic camera (Pancam) during the rover's Martian days, or sols, 748 through 751 (Feb. 9 through Feb. 12, 2006). The field of view covers 160 degrees of terrain around the rover. This image is a false-color rendering using using Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters, presented to enhance many subtle color differences between rocks and soils in the scene. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  16. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  18. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  20. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  2. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334... § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any indication... distress alert is prohibited and may be subject to the provisions of part 1, subpart A of this chapter...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114... Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts....

  4. 10 CFR 1008.14 - Requests under false pretenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requests under false pretenses. 1008.14 Section 1008.14... for Access or Amendment § 1008.14 Requests under false pretenses. Subsection (i)(3) of the Act... individual from an agency under false pretenses shall be quilty of a misdeamenaor and fined not more than...

  5. 10 CFR 1008.14 - Requests under false pretenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests under false pretenses. 1008.14 Section 1008.14... for Access or Amendment § 1008.14 Requests under false pretenses. Subsection (i)(3) of the Act... individual from an agency under false pretenses shall be quilty of a misdeamenaor and fined not more than...

  6. 7 CFR 160.90 - False, misleading, or deceitful practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False, misleading, or deceitful practices. 160.90... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.90 False, misleading, or... commerce or of anything offered as such shall be false, misleading, or deceitful in any manner....

  7. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  8. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  9. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  10. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  11. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  12. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  13. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    PubMed Central

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  14. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  15. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  16. "False Positive" Claims of Near-Death Experiences and "False Negative" Denials of Near-Death Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs ("false positives"); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs ("false negatives"). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death…

  17. Spirit Says Goodbye to 'Home Plate' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For the past several weeks, Spirit has been examining spectacular layered rocks exposed at 'Home Plate.' The rover has been driving around the northern and eastern edges of Home Plate, on the way to 'McCool Hill.' Before departing, Spirit took this image showing some of the most complex layering patterns seen so far at this location.

    The layered nature of these rocks presents new questions for the rover team. In addition to their chemical properties, which scientists can study using Spirit's spectrometers, these rocks record a detailed history of the physical properties that formed them. In the center of this image, one group of layers slopes downward to the right. The layers above and below this group are more nearly horizontal. Where layers of different orientations intersect, other layers are truncated. This indicates that there were complex patterns of alternating erosion and deposition occurring when these layers were being deposited. Similar patterns can be found in some sedimentary rocks on Earth. Physical relationships among the various layers exposed at Home Plate are crucial evidence in understanding how these Martian rocks formed. Scientists suspect that the rocks at Home Plate were formed in the aftermath of a volcanic explosion or impact event, and they are investigating the possibility that wind may also have played a role in redistributing materials after such an event.

    Images like this one from panoramic camera (Pancam), which shows larger-scale layering, as well as those from the microscopic imager, which reveal the individual sand-sized grains that make up these rocks, are essential to understanding the geologic history of Home Plate.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters, enhanced to emphasize color differences among the rocks and soils. It was taken during Spirit's 774th Martian day (March 8, 2006).

  18. Shoulder separation - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder - aftercare; Acromioclavicular joint separation - aftercare; A/C separation - aftercare ... Shoulder separation is not an injury to the main shoulder joint itself. It is an injury to the top ...

  19. Shoulder separation - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder - aftercare; Acromioclavicular joint separation - aftercare; A/C separation - aftercare ... Shoulder separation is not an injury to the main shoulder joint itself. It is an injury to ...

  20. Neural processing associated with true and false memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the neural bases for false memory with fMRI by examining neural activity during retrieval processes that yielded true or false memories. We used a reality monitoring paradigm in which participants saw or imagined pictures of concrete objects. (A subsequent misinformation task was also used to increase false memory rates.) At test, fMRI data were collected as the participants determined whether they had seen or had only imagined the object at study. True memories were of seen pictures accurately endorsed as seen, and for false memories were of imagined pictures falsely endorsed as seen. Three distinct patterns of activity were observed: Left frontal and parietal activity was not different for true and for false memories, whereas activity was greater for true than for false memories in occipital visual regions and posterior portions of the parahippocampal gyrus, and activity was greater for false than for true memories in right anterior cingulate gyrus. Possible interpretations are discussed. PMID:15040552

  1. The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

    2011-01-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

  2. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  3. 7 CFR 623.22 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 623.22 Section 623.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.22 Filing of false...

  4. The Neural Correlates of Conceptual and Perceptual False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoff-Eaton, Rachel J.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    False recognition, broadly defined as a claim to remember something that was not encountered previously, can arise for multiple reasons. For instance, a distinction can be made between conceptual false recognition (i.e., false alarms resulting from semantic or associative similarities between studied and tested items) and perceptual false…

  5. 7 CFR 1410.61 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1410.61 Section 1410.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.61 Filing of false claims. If CCC determines that...

  6. 7 CFR 1410.61 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1410.61 Section 1410.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.61 Filing of false claims. If CCC determines that...

  7. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  8. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a)...

  9. The neural correlates of conceptual and perceptual false recognition

    PubMed Central

    Garoff-Eaton, Rachel J.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    False recognition, broadly defined as a claim to remember something that was not encountered previously, can arise for multiple reasons. For instance, a distinction can be made between conceptual false recognition (i.e., false alarms resulting from semantic or associative similarities between studied and tested items) and perceptual false recognition (i.e., false alarms resulting from physical similarities between studied and tested items). Although false recognition has been associated with frontal cortex activity, it is unclear whether this frontal activity can be modulated by the precise relationship between studied and falsely remembered items. We used event-related fMRI to examine the neural basis of conceptual compared with perceptual false recognition. Results revealed preferential activity in multiple frontal cortex regions during conceptual false recognition, which likely reflected increased semantic processing during conceptual (but not perceptual) memory errors. These results extend recent reports that different types of false recognition can rely on dissociable neural substrates, and they indicate that the frontal activity that is often observed during false compared with true recognition can be modulated by the relationship between studied and tested items. PMID:17911372

  10. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Experiment 1) and false memories that were accompanied by the phenomenal experience of remembering them (Experiment 2) than did surface-level processing. Moreover, conceptual elaboration consistently led to higher rates of false memory than did perceptual elaboration. The false memory effects that resulted from conceptual elaboration were highly dependent on the organization of the postevent interview questions, such that conceptual elaboration only increased false memory beyond surface level processing when participants evaluated both true and suggested information in relation to the same theme or dimension. PMID:21103451

  11. Warnings reduce false memories for missing aspects of events.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Matthew P; Garry, Maryanne

    2011-01-01

    When people see movies with some parts missing, they falsely recognize many of the missing parts later. In two experiments, we examined the effect of warnings on people's false memories for these parts. In Experiment 1, warning subjects about false recognition before the movie (forewarnings) reduced false recognition, but warning them after the movie (postwarnings) reduced false recognition to a lesser extent. In Experiment 2, the effect of the warnings depended on the nature of the missing parts. Forewarnings were more effective than postwarnings in reducing false recognition of missing noncrucial parts, but forewarnings and postwarnings were similarly effective in reducing false recognition of crucial missing parts. We use the source monitoring framework to explain our results. PMID:21106471

  12. 45 CFR 35.9 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalties. 35.9 Section 35.9 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.9 Penalties. A person who files a false claim or makes a false or fraudulent statement in a...

  13. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  14. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  15. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  16. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  17. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  18. 16 CFR 1512.20 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separability. 1512.20 Section 1512.20 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.20 Separability. If any section or portion thereof of this...

  19. 16 CFR 1512.20 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separability. 1512.20 Section 1512.20 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.20 Separability. If any section or portion thereof of this...

  20. 16 CFR 1512.20 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separability. 1512.20 Section 1512.20 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.20 Separability. If any section or portion thereof of this...