Science.gov

Sample records for 2011-2012 financial aid

  1. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  2. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  3. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  4. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  5. National Writing Project. 2011-2012 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Writing Project (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This National Writing Project 2011-2012 Report describes how Writing Project teacher-leaders study and share effective practices that enhance student writing and learning, work collaboratively with other educators, design resources, and take on new roles in effecting positive change. It includes a financial summary for years ended September 30 for…

  6. Financial Aid Handbook for High School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Scholarship Commission, Eugene.

    This booklet is intended to supply high school counselors in Oregon with information and forms that will aid in helping high school students obtain financial aid for higher education. It is divided into three parts. The first section, "About Student Financial Aid," provides information on how and when to apply and what happens after the…

  7. Summary of Student Financial Aid in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    Data on student financial aid in Texas are presented. Tables cover financial aid resources for students in Texas postsecondary institutions by program for 1982-1983, 1984-1985 and 1985-1986. For 17 state aid programs and 6 federal programs, the amount of funding is indicated for the state as a whole and for the following categories of colleges:…

  8. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and…

  9. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  10. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000 based on results from the Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings indicate that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  11. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures gathered information on median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000. Among detailed findings, the survey concluded that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  12. Financial Aid for Higher Education: Anything's Possible!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    Information on programs that provide financial aid to colleges and students are described in this information sheet of the National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth. Four basic categories of financial aid are grants, loans, work, and benefits. The Division of Personnel Preparation of the U.S. Department of Education makes…

  13. Student Financial Aid: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    Loans have become an important, even essential, ingredient of college financial aid and family financial planning. The World Bank and other international groups, such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, regularly review the experiences of many countries in financing education. Their findings are discussed. (MLW)

  14. Financial Aid Applicants: Dependent Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    The Office of Institutional Research (OIR) at Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) conducts analytical studies and provides information in support of institutional planning, policy formation, and decision making. This OIR report, prepared in conjunction with the Financial Aid Office, analyzes dependent students who applied for financial aid…

  15. Students with Disabilities: Financial Aid Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some of the special financial aid needs of students with disabilities and the policy implications of those needs. It focuses on the financial burdens of having a disability, the time demands faced by those with disabilities, the multiple and complex sources from which students with disabilities derive support, and the…

  16. Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase Financial Aid Renewal and Sophomore Year Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    While considerable effort has been invested to increase FAFSA completion among high school seniors, there has been much less investment to ensure that college freshmen re-apply for financial aid. Text messaging is a promising approach to inform students of important stages in the financial aid re-application process and to connect them to…

  17. Optimization Techniques for College Financial Aid Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Palumbo, George; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a theoretical model of expected profit maximization, this paper shows how historic institutional data can be used to assist enrollment managers in determining the level of financial aid for students with varying demographic and quality characteristics. Optimal tuition pricing in conjunction with empirical estimation of…

  18. The Ethical Dimensions of Awarding Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    In countries charging tuition fees, and those that are considering adopting tuition fee policies, recent economic conditions are making education less affordable and accessible for students. To combat these challenges, nations, state/regional governments, and universities are experimenting with financial aid programmes by providing non-repayable…

  19. How College Pricing Undermines Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert E.; Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of government provided student financial aid is to increase college access by bringing the out-of-pocket price of attendance within reach of more students. The basic idea is quite straightforward. If a good or service costs $100 to buy and the government gives consumers a $50 subsidy, then consumers need only spend $50 of their…

  20. Navigating the Complex World of Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    The financial-aid policies and practices of colleges and universities have made too many headlines in recent times to remain the domain of technical experts. Boards of trustees, like other constituencies that are responsible for the health and well-being of postsecondary institutions, should be asking how issues being raised about student…

  1. How Scholarships Morphed into Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the shift from "scholarships" to "financial aid" which was initiated by the federal government during World War II. On June 22, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944--commonly known as the G.I. Bill of Rights--one provision of which gave veterans financial…

  2. Financial Aid for Minorities in Health Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in health or health-related fields includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the fields, including college enrollment statistics, demand for graduates, including salary ranges, and definitions of the fields and specialty areas; (2) directory of…

  3. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    PubMed

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  4. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    PubMed

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  5. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact services and communication interventions…

  6. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  7. Implications of Financial Aid: What College Counselors Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Joe Paul

    2013-01-01

    Counselors who work in a college environment are aware that financial aid is available to help students with college costs, but they may not be aware of all the financial pressures on students that may influence a student's psychological well-being. This article gives an overview of financial aid programs and financial factors affecting students,…

  8. Woodlands Mountain Institute Guide to Financial Aid. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland Mountain Inst., Franklin, WV.

    This guide describes financial assistance available to college-bound students. Need-based financial aid programs such as grants, loans, and college-work study are discussed and the application procedures are described. The guide explains the West Virginia Financial Aid Form (FAF) along with the role of the College Scholarship Service in…

  9. Overcoming the Financial Aid Barrier for E-Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaloux, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Financial aid systems help make higher education available to all who can benefit. To "adjust" the existing financial aid system to make it more student friendly and open doors currently closed to many part-time learners and students with the greatest financial challenges, state policy changes and greater private sector initiatives targeted at…

  10. The Equity of the Distribution of Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, William

    The equity of student financial aid as it is distributed among full-time, dependent freshmen students of different parental incomes and at various types of institutions is examined. The first part of this paper clarifies concepts and definitions surrounding student financial aid. Calculation of the ability to pay, the financial standard of…

  11. An Integrated Model of Application, Admission, Enrollment, and Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; Ahlburg, Dennis A.; McCall, Brian Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We jointly model the application, admission, financial aid determination, and enrollment decision process. We find that expectations of admission affect application probabilities, financial aid expectations affect enrollment and application behavior, and deviations from aid expectations are strongly related to enrollment. We also conduct…

  12. Financial Aid's Share of the Pie: Formulas for Determining an Institution's Financial Aid Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of college policy for determining the proportion of the budget allotted to student financial aid is discussed. The classic marketing approach to revenue optimization is outlined and adapted for college decision-making. Mathematical formulas for addressing differing institutional enrollment situations and risk factors are offered.…

  13. 2011-2012 FSA Handbook with Active Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…

  14. Guide to Financial Aid for American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Hanna J., Ed.; Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

    This directory compiles information on college financial aid for American Indian and Alaska Native students. Information is provided on approximately 175 programs exclusively for American Indian and Alaska Native students, including private scholarships and fellowships, school-specific programs and scholarships, state financial aid, tribal…

  15. Maximizing Enrollment Yield through Financial Aid Packaging Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Randy; Olswang, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using institutional data, this paper presents a model to enable researchers and enrollment managers to assess the effectiveness of financial aid packaging policies in light of student characteristics and institutional market position. The model uses discriminant analysis and a series of hypothetical financial aid award scenarios to predict the…

  16. Financial Aid for Hispanic Americans: 1999-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann; Weber, R. David

    This directory describes nearly 1,400 financial aid sources available to Hispanic American college students. An introduction explains the purpose, compilation, arrangement, and use of the directory. The directory's main body is divided into three sections: individual descriptions of the specific financial aid opportunities, an annotated…

  17. Financial Aid for African Americans: 1999-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann; Weber, R. David

    This directory describes more than 1,500 financial aid sources available to African American college students. An introduction explains the purpose, compilation, arrangement, and use of the directory. The directory's main body is divided into three sections: individual descriptions of the specific financial aid opportunities, an annotated…

  18. Directory of Financial Aids for Women: 1999-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann

    This directory describes nearly 1,700 financial aid sources designed primarily or exclusively for female students. An introduction explains the purpose, compilation, arrangement, and use of the directory. The directory's main body is divided into three sections: individual descriptions of the specific financial aid opportunities, an annotated…

  19. Time to Reexamine Institutional Cooperation on Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Many public and private colleges give out substantial amounts of financial aid in excess of students' demonstrated financial need to attract the most talented students in a competitive marketplace. These colleges see merit aid as an investment in institutional quality. Since top students are in high demand, colleges may have to bid against each…

  20. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. We analyze micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university, and focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. Consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt…

  1. 34 CFR 668.19 - Financial aid history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial aid history. 668.19 Section 668.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION... Programs § 668.19 Financial aid history. (a) Before an institution may disburse title IV, HEA program...

  2. 34 CFR 668.19 - Financial aid history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial aid history. 668.19 Section 668.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION... Programs § 668.19 Financial aid history. (a) Before an institution may disburse title IV, HEA program...

  3. 34 CFR 668.19 - Financial aid history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial aid history. 668.19 Section 668.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION... Programs § 668.19 Financial aid history. (a) Before an institution may disburse title IV, HEA program...

  4. Perceptions of Financial Aid among California Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a 15-minute survey that was administered to four hundred 18-24 year-old Latino youth in California to determine their perceptions of financial aid. Among the key findings were that (1) three out of four Latino young adults who did not attend college cited lack of financial aid as a factor in their decision…

  5. Financial Aid and Enrollment: Questions for Boards to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper encourages board members to take a step back and think about long-term strategies for ensuring that financial aid policies are consistent with institutional mission at the same time that they serve fiscal and enrollment goals. While board members can determine financial aid and enrollment policies only at the broadest level, it is…

  6. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  7. How People Think About: College Prices, Quality, and Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Robert; Baum, Sandy; Steele, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, the authors have discussed college prices, college quality, and student financial aid with elected officials and staff from several state legislatures, financial aid administrators from a variety of campuses, and policy analysts from Washington DC advocacy organizations. They have also been able to informally gain insights at…

  8. A Financial Aid Competency Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Neil; Martinez, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the competencies that financial aid officers need to be successful in their jobs. A survey of 30 competencies was distributed to 508 financial aid officers in the Western United States. Respondents were asked to rate 30 job competencies for their relative importance and frequency of use. Using exploratory factor analysis,…

  9. Running the Application Course: The Student Financial Aid Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Financial aid for students is now a complex educational industry, with expenditures in California reaching $1,500,000,000 in 1987 (including loans, grants, and jobs). This has grown from under $10,000,000 in the 1950s. As it became more important to study the policies involved in student financial aid, The Eureka Project was created. This…

  10. 2 CFR 200.91 - Student Financial Aid (SFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student Financial Aid (SFA). 200.91 Section... AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.91 Student Financial Aid (SFA). SFA means Federal awards under those programs of general student assistance, such as...

  11. Financial Aid for Self-Supporting Students: Defining Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Alan P.; Carlson, Nancy

    Current federal definitions and proposed alternative definitions of financially independent students, and the effect of the definitions on the numbers and attributes of independent students, are reviewed. Current federal law defines financial aid applicants as financially independent of their parents if they meet three criteria (the "tri-form"…

  12. Factors Contributing to Financial Aid Administrators' Job Satisfaction: NASFAA 2008 Financial Aid Administrators' Job Satisfaction Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In what kind of job environment are financial aid administrators (FAA) currently working? How satisfied are they with their jobs? What motivates them and what factors are considered morale dampers? How are financial aid (FA) functions viewed by campus' top administrators? Does FA get similar respect and appreciation from their campus peer offices…

  13. Financial Aid and Persistence in Community Colleges: Assessing the Effectiveness of Federal and State Financial Aid Programs in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Mendez, Jesse P.; Malcolm, Zaria

    2009-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, state-wide dataset, this study assessed the effect of financial aid on the persistence of full-time students in associate's degree programs at the Oklahoma community colleges. Three financial-aid sources were examined: the Oklahoma Higher Learning Access Program (OHLAP), Pell grants, and Stafford loans. Results indicate that…

  14. Trends in State Financial Aid: Actions from the 2013 and 2014 Legislative Sessions. Financial Aid: Trends in the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes states gain from investing in postsecondary financial aid programs remain hotly debated, leading to great interest in developing programs that are both cost-effective and productive in helping states meet goals. In the 2012-13 academic year, states collectively provided approximately $11.2 billion in financial aid to students enrolled…

  15. Reimagining Financial Aid to Improve Student Access and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…

  16. Unmet Need and Unclaimed Aid: Increasing Access to Financial Aid for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Julia I.

    2013-01-01

    In California, public financial aid aimed at low-income students is not reaching some of the poorest students enrolled in community colleges. Outreach efforts to students are important, but high schools and community colleges must also make financial aid receipt a priority.

  17. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  18. "Aid Like a Paycheck: Engaging with Policymakers and Practitioners to Evaluate and Improve Financial Aid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Evan; O'Connell, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    "Aid Like A Paycheck" is a large-scale pilot evaluation of whether an innovative approach to disbursing financial aid can improve academic and financial outcomes for low-income community college students. Lessons from the pilot evaluation were used to create and fine-tune a logic model depicting activities, outputs, mediators, and…

  19. Clearing the Path: Delivering Financial Aid to Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…

  20. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  1. Cost-Free Financial Aid Focuses Kids on College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Tony P.; Martinez, Alison P.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses college student financial aid. The core business of SLM Corporation, better known as Sallie Mae, is college loans. Its charitable affiliate, the Sallie Mae Fund, offers scholarships like the "First in My Family" grant, targeting first-generation Hispanic college students. Latino college students average less financial aid…

  2. Financial Aid: A Broken Bridge to College Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry; Riley, Erin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Bridget Terry Long and Erin Riley argue that in recent years, U.S. financial aid policy has shifted its emphasis from expanding college access for low-income students toward defraying the costs for middle- and upper-income families. They explain how loans, merit-based aid, and education tax breaks are increasingly replacing…

  3. Who Gets More Financial Aid in China? A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese financial aid system intends to increase the affordability of postsecondary education and provide access to college for disadvantaged students. However, the research base for access to aid in China is extremely thin. Using data from a large cross-sectional survey in Beijing, this study found that attending selective institutions with…

  4. Expanding Equal Opportunity: The Princeton Experience with Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilghman, Shirley M.

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Shirley M. Tilghman discusses the purpose, design, and impact of Princeton University's no-loan financial aid policy, which was enacted in 2001. As the centerpiece of an aid and recruitment strategy that seeks to improve college access despite growing socioeconomic stratification, the policy obliges Princeton to meet all student…

  5. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 9: Award Packaging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    With the ninth module in a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration, novice financial aid administrators are taught about financial aid award packaging. A fundamental understanding of management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education act is provided. After completing the…

  6. Effect of Financial Aid Processing Policies on Student Enrollment, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCallum, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive survey of the California community college financial aid offices and data from the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office provide insight into how financial aid office characteristics and financial aid policies and procedures affect the enrollment, retention, and success of financial aid students at the…

  7. A History of Financial Aid to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges, universities, and the communities they serve have always been concerned about students' abilities to pay and the systems of aid to support students' learning. This article reviews the history of aiding student in higher education. Early student- and institutionally-led programs are discussed along with initial philanthropic and…

  8. Redesigning State Financial Aid: Principles to Guide State Aid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors create a challenging environment for individuals seeking financial support to complete a postsecondary degree program. In recognition of the challenges of paying for higher education, decision-makers at the federal and state levels support college-going with public policy. Through direct institutional allocations, need and…

  9. Student Financial Aid: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    Student loans have become an essential ingredient of financial planning for college. The Guaranteed Student Loan Program's default rate is over 10 percent. World Bank and other international data suggest three solutions: longer repayment terms, graduated repayment schedules, and forgiveness for individuals choosing public service. (8 references)…

  10. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This handbook explains the policies and procedures required for institutions of higher education to properly administer federally funded student financial assistance programs. Three major sections cover student eligibility, institutional eligibility and participation, and state grant programs. The student eligibility section includes chapters on…

  11. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  12. Student Financial Aid and National Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Presentations include: the origins of student aid in the United States (Frederick Rudolph); measuring the economic effects of education (Burton A. Weisbrod); the social and political arguments for extending the reach of education (Robert J. Havighurst); our worldwide stake in developing talent (Dael Wolfe); what part the states should play in…

  13. Student Aid for the Eighties: Report of the Study of Financial Aid to Maritime Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).

    A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…

  14. Financial Aid and For-Profit Colleges: Does Aid Encourage Entry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellini, Stephanie Riegg

    2010-01-01

    Concerns over rising college tuition and slow economic growth have brought renewed attention to the role of federal and state financial aid programs in opening access to education. Despite a large body of literature examining the effects of grant aid on four-year and public two-year college enrollment, for-profit colleges--particularly the vast…

  15. Financial Aid for Native Americans, 1997-99. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann; Weber, R. David

    This directory contains information on programs open primarily or exclusively to Native Americans including scholarships, fellowships, loans, grants, awards, internships, state sources of educational benefits, and general financial aid directories for minorities. The directory is divided into six sections. Within sections, each entry lists program…

  16. Financial Aid for Minorities in Engineering and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in engineering or scientific fields includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the field, including college enrollment statistics, degrees awarded, demand for graduates (including salary ranges), and definitions of major fields; (2) directory of…

  17. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  18. Stress and Burnout in Admissions and Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Offers suggestions for college admissions and financial aid officers on coping with job stress and managing burnout. These include: remember that it's usually not personal, a little paranoia is a good thing, don't hire difficult people, and accept not being able to do your best work on every task. (EV)

  19. State Financial Aid: Policies to Enhance Articulation and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2005-01-01

    Financing and financial aid issues in higher education continue to plague state policymakers and higher education leaders. Every year, they struggle with questions of how to meet growing needs through state allocations, how best to ensure shared and equitable responsibility for paying for higher education, and how best to use subsidies such as…

  20. Reference Guide. Meeting the Challenge of Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This is a resource list designed to alert administrators of student financial aid services at institutions of higher education to resources that can assist in responding to the challenges and strategies described in a companion report. It is organized alphabetically by topic. Listings include short bibliographic data and descriptions of each…

  1. Financial Aid for Minorities in Business and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in business (including accounting, finance, human relations, information services, marketing and production) or law includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the fields, including college enrollment statistics, demand for graduates, and…

  2. Reinventing Financial Aid: Charting a New Course to College Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    In this provocative volume, two experts with very different points of view address the growing concern that student loan programs are not a sustainable solution to the problem of mounting college costs. They argue that the time has come to reform the financial aid system so that it is more effective in promoting college affordability, access, and…

  3. Facts for Education Advocates: Price of College and Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The price of college, particularly relative to the amount of available financial aid, has been increasing and has been cited as a major barrier to college attendance and completion. And given the recent economic downturn, these issues have taken on even greater significance to students, their families, educators, employers, policymakers and…

  4. Financial Aid for Lifelong Learning. ERIC Digest No. 224.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Nontraditional students are the fastest-growing segment of the postsecondary population. About 41% of students are over 25, and nearly 12% are over 40. Previously, the bulk of financial aid went to traditional-age, usually full-time, students in degree programs. Today, however, the sheer numbers of nontraditional students, including distance…

  5. Undocumented College Students, Taxation, and Financial Aid: A Technical Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A surprising amount of litigation and legislation has erupted over undocumented college students. Victims at the federal level are the DREAM Act and immigration reform. Financial aid raises technical issues for undocumented college applicants and for the citizen children of undocumented parents. Generally, the undocumented are ineligible for…

  6. College Financial Aid Rules and the Allocation of Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw

    2008-01-01

    The college financial aid system imposes an implicit asset tax that is prevalent and substantial. Facing this tax, rational families should reduce their total assets and shelter assets in protected categories. I find that the tax induces a 7-12% reduction in total assets, a result in line with the literature. Furthermore, I find evidence that…

  7. Financial Aid Can Prepare Schools for a Full Takeoff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, James P.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that by offering financial aid to more students, Catholic schools can add programs and attract more tuition-paying students. Asserts that, just as an airline carefully monitors the price of each seat and the negative impact of each empty seat, Catholic schools can benefit from doing the same by setting optimal enrollment goals and offering…

  8. Financial Aid for Asian Americans, 1997-99. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann; Weber, R. David

    This directory contains information on programs open primarily or exclusively to Asian Americans including scholarships, fellowships, loans, grants, awards, internships, state sources of educational benefits, and general financial aid directories for minorities. The directory is divided into six sections. Within sections, each entry lists program…

  9. Briefly Speaking: An Introduction to Student Financial Aid in California for Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Designed to help educational policy makers understand student financial aid in California, this booklet covers the importance of aid, how it has changed, current programs, need analysis, packaging, public and student views, graduate aid, and politics and problems of aid. As student financial aid became a larger and more complex educational…

  10. 76 FR 45546 - Public Meeting on Recommendations for Improvement of Student Financial Aid Offer Forms...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Public Meeting on Recommendations for Improvement of Student Financial Aid Offer Forms, Development of Model Financial Aid Forms AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION... interested parties to discuss and offer recommendations for improvements to student financial aid offer...

  11. Competencies for Financial Aid Officers: A Competency Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Michael Neil

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid officers play a vital role in assisting prospective and current college students in enrolling and graduating from college. This study explores the competencies that financial aid officers need to be successful in their jobs. A survey of thirty competencies was distributed to 508 practicing financial aid officers in the Western United…

  12. Using Financial Aid to Speed Degree Completion: A Look at MDRC's Research. Issue Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Financial aid has long been used to increase access to postsecondary education, particularly for underrepresented students. Given the size of the financial aid system and the widespread use of aid, it should also be thought of as a tool to improve academic success and postsecondary completion. Evidence suggests that using additional financial aid…

  13. The Differential Effects of Financial Aid on Degree Completion by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Berry, Matthew; Reynolds, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Financial aid and student success are interrelated and essential components of strategic enrollment management. From an economic perspective, by reducing the price students pay, financial aid affects student demand for education. However, financial aid also has nonmonetary effects. For example, students receiving institutional scholarships may…

  14. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  15. Assessment of Training Needs for Arizona Student Financial Aid Practitioners. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.

    The present and future training needs of financial aid practitioners (financial aid officers, counselors, and support staff personnel) at Arizona colleges and government agencies were assessed. Attention was directed to the literature on training and programs for financial aid practitioners, as well as the possibilities of developing a…

  16. Simulating the Longitudinal Effects of Changes in Financial Aid on Student Departure from College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; Ahlburg, Dennis A.; McCall, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates from a hazard model of college student departure for 3,975 students simulated how financial aid changes affect withdrawal decisions. Changing loans to scholarships has a large impact and front-loading aid (giving gift aid for the first 2 years) a modest impact on retention. Financial aid may represent more to students than its dollar…

  17. Financial Needs and Access to Aid among Chinese Vocational High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed 586 students from nine vocational high schools in three provinces in China. It found a substantial gap between the demand for and the supply of government financial aid. Moreover, correct student aid information and aid application was not equally distributed among various student groups. A financial aid application made a…

  18. Financial Aid's Role in Meeting State College Completion Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This brief utilizes the most recent and rigorous financial aid research to inform state higher education leaders about innovative and effective financial aid practices. By simplifying aid eligibility requirements, improving the aid application process, and engaging in early awareness efforts, states could improve the effectiveness of existing aid…

  19. The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This student guide provides financial aid information for high school seniors and college students. The first few pages of this guide are a quick reference to federal student aid programs and how to apply. Most student financial aid comes from the federal government programs, which the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA)…

  20. ADAP faces financial abyss. AIDS Drug Assistance Programs.

    PubMed

    Link, D

    1996-02-01

    State AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are the most heavily utilized AIDS programs in the nation, with over 50,000 people with HIV or AIDS enrolled. Initiated in 1987, the federally-funded programs are now running out of money because of increased caseloads and drug usage, higher drug costs, and more expensive combination therapies coupled with stagnant financial resources. Since 1990, the ADAPs have been funded by the Ryan White CARE Act, with each state administering its own ADAP, so eligibility criteria and formularies vary from state to state. Two states, Colorado and Missouri, have already run out of money and others have cut services, limited enrollment or canceled formulary expansions in the face of growing budget constraints. The National Association of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD) surveyed state ADAPs and found that budget gaps ranged from $5.9 million in New York to $15,000 in Nebraska, and calculated that a total of $12 million would be needed just to make up the budget gaps for this fiscal year. The shortfall has led AIDS organizations to press for more funds at the state and Federal levels.

  1. What We Eat in America Food Categories, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) Food Categories is to provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each food and beverage code in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2011-2012 is sorted into one of the 150+ mutua...

  2. Vertical transmission of bacterial eye infections, Angola, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Justel, Mar; Alexandre, Isabel; Martínez, Prudencio; Sanz, Iván; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Ana; Fernandez, Itziar; Pastor, Jose Carlos; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    To determine transmission rates for neonatal conjunctivitis causative microorganisms in Angola, we analyzed 312 endocervical and 255 conjunctival samples from mothers and newborns, respectively, during 2011-2012. Transmission rates were 50% for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 10.5% for Mycoplasma genitalium. Possible pathogenic effects of M. genitalium in children's eyes are unknown.

  3. Houston Community College 2011-2012 Fact Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community College System, Office of Institutional Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Houston Community College (HCC) 2011-2012 Fact Book provides statistical information about the college district. It is important for the reader to be aware that data presented in this publication may differ slightly from statistics found in other district reports. Such variances may result from differences methodology including the source of…

  4. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  5. Financial Aid: Who Needs It? MIS Research Profile, Volume One, Number 1, Mar. 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda M.

    This report examines various aspects of financial aid including financial need as the basis for financial aid to students and the problem of inadequate funds. Recommendations suggest: (1) When forms are administered to the students, more guidance is needed to make them aware of the differences in the two systems presently serving the colleges and…

  6. Student Financial Aid in Maryland: Programs, Trends, and Analysis. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Trends in financial aid to students in Maryland colleges and universities are reported. Attention is directed to the distribution of different types of aid to undergraduate and graduate students, and financial aid awarded by type of institution. Characteristics of recipients of Guaranteed Student Loans, General State Scholarships, and Senatorial…

  7. Paving the Way: How Financial Aid Awareness Affects College Access and Success. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In a time of ever-rising college costs, financial aid is critical to increase college access and success. Federal, state, and institutional aid programs help to ensure that students can afford higher education regardless of economic background. Financial aid is most effective when students and families learn about it early enough to make the right…

  8. After the FAFSA: How Red Tape Can Prevent Eligible Students from Receiving Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Debbie Frankle

    2010-01-01

    This report sheds light on what happens to federal financial aid applicants after they submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Using 2007-08 financial aid data from 13 California community colleges, the Institute found that one in three likely Pell-eligible applicants did not receive a Pell Grant. Also, while few students'…

  9. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  10. Cashing In or Cashing Out: Tools for Measuring the Effectiveness & Outcomes of Financial Aid Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brianna; Oliverez, Paz M.; Tierney, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Financial aid-related information and services are provided to students and families in a variety of ways. The timing of when information is shared with these groups also varies. Financial aid information is typically provided through events sponsored by high schools, colleges and universities, and multiple community and government-sponsored…

  11. Simulating the Effects of Financial Aid Packages on College Student Stopout, Reenrollment Spells, and Graduation Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact that different financial aid packages have on student stopout, reenrollment, and graduation probabilities. The authors simulate how various financial aid packaging regimes affect the occurrence and timing of these events. Their findings indicate that the number and duration of enrollment and stopout spells affect…

  12. Enrollment Management and Financial Aid Part Two: A Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2008-01-01

    In our previous essay, we considered the role of institutional financial aid and the practice of enrollment management. In that essay we explored the use of financial aid as a tool to enhance equity increase prestige, as a revenue enhancement tool and as a means to shape institutional image in the various markets that comprise our diverse system…

  13. Relationships between Financial Aid Policies, Practices and Procedures at Texas Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Desiree Kornrum

    2006-01-01

    The economic success of the state of Texas is dependent upon future market participants having access to higher education. The ability of Texas citizens to access higher education is dependent upon access to financial aid resources to pay for higher education. Much is known about the impact of particular financial aid outcomes on access and…

  14. Lots of Money, Limited Options: College Choice and Student Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid and college preparatory programs are designed in part to allow students from low-income families to have the same choices of institutions as those from middle- and upper-income groups. Unfortunately, despite providing more than $100 billion in financial aid and college preparatory assistance, state and federal policy makers have been…

  15. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  16. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid. NBER Working Paper No. 17861

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. The empirical work is based upon micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university. We focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. A novel aspect of our modeling strategy is that, consistent…

  17. Determinants of Persistence and the Role of Financial Aid: Lessons from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, María Verónica; Catalán, Ximena; Kruger, Diana; Horn, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of persistence in the Chilean higher education system, considering academic and socio-demographic factors as well as the role of financial aid. The financial aid policy for students in Chile has undergone major changes over the last decade, which has allowed individuals from usually underrepresented income…

  18. Financial Aid and First-Year Collegiate GPA: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curs, Bradley R.; Harper, Casandra E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a regression discontinuity design, we investigate whether a merit-based financial aid program has a causal effect on the first-year grade point average of first-time out-of-state freshmen at the University of Oregon. Our results indicate that merit-based financial aid has a positive and significant effect on first-year collegiate grade point…

  19. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community…

  20. Marketing Need-Based Financial Aid Programs: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities represent one of the most utilized sources of need-based financial aid information for students and families, and yet most research in access marketing is focused at the national and state levels. There is sparse published information about the effects of financial aid marketing observed through quantitative analysis, in…

  1. College Level Financial Aid Opportunities for Migrant Students Within The State University of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Barbara; And Others

    Divided into three parts, this booklet is designed to assist guidance counselors and administrators in identifying financial programs which aid migrant students in obtaining a higher education within the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Part I lists 18 common student financial aid programs available within SUNY. These include grants,…

  2. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2000-2001. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This handbook helps financial aid administrators determine students' eligibility for aid from the U.S. Department of Education's Student Financial Assistance (SFA) programs. An introduction describes information sources, conflicting information, fraud case referral, status change, electronic requirements, the application system, and recent…

  3. Pathways to Career Success for Minorities: A Resource Guide to Colleges, Financial Aid, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powley, Sherry; Schaffert, Tim

    This book contains 10 essays and a directory of financial aid, organizations, and additional information that minority students and employees can use to find sources of funding for further education and career advancement. The 10 essays cover the following topics: (1) general minority work issues; (2) introduction to financial aid; (3) minorities…

  4. State of Maine Student Financial Aid Guide to Post-Secondary Education. 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Post-Secondary Education Commission, Augusta.

    Financial aid information for residents of the State of Maine is presented in this booklet. Instructions for completing the College Scholarship Service Financial Aid Form are presented. The Basic Educational Opportunity Grants Program, the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, Maine State Incentive Scholarship Program, and the New…

  5. Government and Higher Education in Florida. Part One: State Supported Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Joe H.

    Trends in student financial aid in the State of Florida since 1968 and the changing relationships between higher education and government in Florida are examined. The administration of student financial aid programs was centralized in 1969, and in 1970 the old incentive programs such as teacher and nursing scholarship were phased out, the Regents…

  6. Financial Aid in Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Aligning Resources with HSI Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venegas, Kristan M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature related to Hispanic-serving institutions and financial aid. Based on this review, a framework for guiding HSIs that considers the role of financial aid in meeting the needs of Latino/a students is suggested.

  7. How Latino Students Pay for College: Patterns of Financial Aid in 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    2005-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in the postsecondary education of Latino students. However, very little comprehensive and easy to understand information is available about what types or how much financial aid Latinos receive. The goal of this brief is to provide timely and accurate information about how Latino undergraduates currently…

  8. Opinions and Attitudes: How the Public, Students and Parents View Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Raymond; And Others

    The financing of higher education opportunities in California and the impact of current financial aid programs upon the formal structure of higher education and upon students is addressed. The issue of how Californians see student financial aid with particular emphasis on the extent of their understanding and the degree of their support is…

  9. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. This problem can be countered by the delivery of comprehensive, integrated financial aid information, an approach identified by the…

  10. Helping Community College Students Cope with Financial Emergencies: Lessons from the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geckeler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Lumina Foundation for Education created the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs to assist community college students who are at risk of dropping out because of unexpected financial crises. Both programs are multiyear pilot projects that began in 2005 and are administered by Scholarship America and the American Indian…

  11. Analysis of the extraordinary 2011/2012 drought in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindrić, Ksenija; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Herceg-Bulić, Ivana; Mihajlović, Domagoj; Pasarić, Zoran

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a meteorological analysis of the recent 2011/2012 extreme drought which seriously affected the territory of Croatia. The drought event is put in the historical context by examining its severity in terms of duration, intensity and magnitude. The drought climatology is analysed by employing the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on different time scales (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months) for five stations with a secular dataset (1901-2012). The most intense droughts had occurred during the 1920s, 1940s, 1950s and 1990s, as well as in the beginning of the 2010s. The 2011/2012 drought is characterised by extremely long duration in the continental region, with the highest magnitudes since the beginning of the twentieth century. Spatio-temporal evolution of the event is analysed by employing the data from additional 23 stations all over Croatia. The drought had started in February 2011 being intensified later, mainly by the lack of rainfall in November 2011 and March 2012. This happened due to two intense blocking episodes over Europe which resulted in dry northern flows over Croatia. A possible impact of large-scale circulation patterns was also investigated, indicating that the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/Western Russian Teleconnection patterns maintained dry conditions in the period from November 2011 to March 2012.

  12. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2000-2001. Volume 2: Institutional Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    The "Student Financial Aid Handbook" explains the policies and procedures required for institutions of higher education to administer federally funded student financial assistance programs properly. This volume focuses on institutional eligibility and explains how a school becomes eligible to participate in the Student Financial Assistance (SFA)…

  13. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2001-2002. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This volume discusses the eligibility requirements for student and parent borrowers from federal financial aid programs. It reviews the factors an aid administrator must consider when reviewing a student's application for a loan and outlines the administrator's responsibilities in checking to make sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards.…

  14. Reimagining Financial Aid to Improve Student Access and Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…

  15. The Impact of Merit-Based Financial Aid on College Enrollment: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, James

    2009-01-01

    Merit-based financial aid awards have become increasingly prevalent in the pricing policies of higher education institutions. This study utilizes an experiment to estimate the efficacy of merit-aid awards in achieving the institutional objective of attracting the most academically desirable applicants. I find that merit aid has a statistically…

  16. Progress toward measles preelimination--African Region, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Masresha, Balcha G; Kaiser, Reinhard; Eshetu, Messeret; Katsande, Reggis; Luce, Richard; Fall, Amadou; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Naouri, Boubker; Byabamazima, Charles R; Perry, Robert; Dabbagh, Alya J; Strebel, Peter; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James L; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-04-01

    In 2008, the 46 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) adopted a measles preelimination goal to reach by the end of 2012 with the following targets: 1) >98% reduction in estimated regional measles mortality compared with 2000, 2) annual measles incidence of fewer than five reported cases per million population nationally, 3) >90% national first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage and >80% MCV1 coverage in all districts, and 4) >95% MCV coverage in all districts by supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Surveillance performance objectives were to report two or more cases of nonmeasles febrile rash illness per 100,000 population, one or more suspected measles cases investigated with blood specimens in ≥80% of districts, and 100% completeness of surveillance reporting from all districts. This report updates previous reports and describes progress toward the measles preelimination goal during 2011-2012. In 2012, 13 (28%) member states had >90% MCV1 coverage, and three (7%) reported >90% MCV1 coverage nationally and >80% coverage in all districts. During 2011-2012, four (15%) of 27 SIAs with available information met the target of >95% coverage in all districts. In 2012, 16 of 43 (37%) member states met the incidence target of fewer than five cases per million, and 19 of 43 (44%) met both surveillance performance targets. In 2011, the WHO Regional Committee for AFR established a goal to achieve measles elimination by 2020. To achieve this goal, intensified efforts to identify and close population immunity gaps and improve surveillance quality are needed, as well as committed leadership and ownership of the measles elimination activities and mobilization of adequate resources to complement funding from global partners.

  17. Student Financial Aid Issues Hearing Report (Atlanta, Georgia,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, DC.

    This paper summarizes results of a hearing by the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance in Atlanta, Georgia, on the delivery and disposition of higher education student financial assistance funds. Seventeen individuals offered testimony. They included representatives of guarantee agencies, the lending community, the financial aid…

  18. Counselors and Mentors Handbook on Federal Student Aid: A Guide for Those Advising Students about Financial Aid for Postsecondary Education. 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many students are unaware that they might be eligible for financial aid to attend college or trade school. High school, TRIO, and GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) counselors are an important source of information about financial aid from private, school, state, and federal student aid programs. This…

  19. The Changing Role of Financial Aid and Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Kathy A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores common institutional strategies for pricing, awarding aid, and controlling the growth of aid budgets in light of changing recruitment practices. Concludes by discussing the new services that aid offices must provide to meet their new challenges effectively. Discusses net tuition revenue goals to enhance effective management of resources.…

  20. VERITAS observations of M87 in 2011/2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilicke, M.; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The giant radio galaxy M87 is located at a distance of 16.7Mpc and harbors a super-massive black hole (6 billion solar masses) in its center. M87 is one of just three radio galaxies known to emit TeV γ-rays. The structure of its relativistic plasma jet, which is not pointing towards our line of sight, is spatially resolved in X-ray (Chandra), optical and radio (VLA/VLBA) observations. The mechanishm and location of the TeV emitting region is one of the least understood aspects of AGN. In spring 2008 and 2010, the three TeV observatories VERITAS, MAGIC and H.E.S.S. detected two major TeV flares in coordinated observations. Simultaneous high-resolution observations at other wavelengths - radio (2008) and X-rays (2008/2010) - gave evidence that one of the TeV flares was related to an event in the core region; however, no common/repeated patterns could be identified so far. VERITAS continued to monitor M87 in 2011/2012. The results of these observations are presented.

  1. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  2. 77 FR 19649 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Guaranty Agency Financial Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Guaranty Agency Financial Report SUMMARY: The Guaranty Agency Financial Report (GAFR), U.S. Department of Education (ED) Form 2000, is used by the...

  3. Causation and Caution in Financial Aid Reform: A Historical Perspective through Multiple Shades of Gray Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomhead, Keiko Shimizu

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how a once well-intentioned concept of financial tuition assistance for college students has devolved into its current troubled and broken state, this doctoral thesis explored the evolution of the U.S. system of federal financial aid in higher education from a historical perspective. The study began with a review of the…

  4. Financial Need and Aid Volatility among Students with Zero Expected Family Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Students with a zero expected family contribution (EFC) are those with the greatest financial need and least ability to pay for college and now make up more than one in three American undergraduate students. Yet little is known about the year-to-year financial aid volatility of these students, or whether it varies by how the zero EFC was…

  5. The Causes and Consequences of the Federal Student Financial Aid Policy Shift from Grants to Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Matt; Stick, Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the history of student financial aid's emergence as a major issue in American education, including why a policy of financial assistance was initiated, what it sought to accomplish, how national priorities influence those policies, and its current status. Explores how the shift from grants to loans is influencing access, underrepresented…

  6. Pathways to Career Success for Women: A Resource Guide to Colleges, Financial Aid, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powley, Sherry; Sabol, Laurie

    This book provides essays on career topics aimed at women and a directory of tools to help women get started or take their career to the next level. The essays topics are equal education and employment; role models, networks, and mentors for women; financial management; child care; introduction to financial aid; women's colleges and women's…

  7. Green Lights & Red Tape: Improving Access to Financial Aid at California's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle

    2007-01-01

    Financial aid can encourage students to enroll in college and increase their odds of academic success. While the California community colleges (CCCs) have very low fees, which are waived for most low-income students, the additional expenses of books, supplies, transportation, housing, food and childcare can create significant financial barriers to…

  8. The Critical Difference: Student Financial Aid and Educational Opportunities in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Student financial aid in California is a major, complex educational industry, with expenditures of approximately $1,500,000,000 for 1988. Information is provided on whether the student financial system as a whole has made a critical difference to who can afford to go to college, who has gone to college, and where students have gone to college. The…

  9. Finding Money on the Table: Information, Financial Aid, and Access to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Venegas, Kristan M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors do not quarrel with the assumption that increasing financial aid would boost college going. Yet a conundrum exists. Some state agencies have the potential to provide more resources than what college-bound students request. The federal government also has an excess of money in various aid programs. Of course, the authors do not ignore…

  10. At the Last Hour, It's Financial Aid 101 for These High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    The high-school seniors drifting in and out of the office in New York should be weighing financial-aid offers and deciding where to go to college. But some of them have yet to begin the process of applying for student aid. This article describes a nonprofit group in Harlem which gives last-minute help to students uncertain about applying for…

  11. Study of the Impact of Federal Student Financial Aid Policies on State Decisions. Final Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, George J.; And Others

    The impact of federal student financial aid policy on states and state responses to federal programs are assessed. After reviewing federal and state student aid during the past decade, the State Student Incentive Grant program (SSIG), is discussed, along with the effect of federal policy on SSIG. Perspectives of the state legislatures, governors,…

  12. Investigating the Impact of Financial Aid on Student Dropout Risks: Racial and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in college student dropout behavior among racial/ethnic groups. We employ event history methods and data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) and National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) surveys to investigate how financial aid may differentially influence dropout risks among these student…

  13. Financial Aid Application Technology Utilization by High School Students and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne A. Brown; Stewart, Gregory; Burrell, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 19 diverse two- and four-year colleges in Ohio investigated the availability and use of online applications for college admission, parent and student awareness of and planning for financial aid, the perceived value and cost-effectiveness of online aid applications, and public-policy implications relating to the use of technology for…

  14. Student Financial Aid: True Costs! NACUBO Professional File, Vol. 8, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, William T.

    Some of the hidden costs to higher education are examined through a look at a high budget item: student financial aid. It has been noted in the past that among institutions operating at a deficit there was a distinct correlation between the size of the annual deficit and the institutions' appropriations for student aid. There is a philosophical…

  15. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow? Investigating Rates and Patterns of Financial Aid Renewal among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kelli; Castleman, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    College affordability continues to be a top concern among prospective students, their families, and policy makers. Prior work has demonstrated that a significant share of prospective students forgo financial aid because they did not complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); recent federal policy efforts have focused on…

  16. Undergraduates Who Do Not Apply for Financial Aid. Data Point. NCES 2016-406

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This report is based on data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), a large, nationally representative sample survey of students that focuses on how they finance their education. NPSAS includes data on the application for and receipt of financial aid, including grants, loans, assistantships, scholarships,…

  17. The Impact of Federal Financial Aid Policy upon Higher Education Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Green-Derry, Lisa Celeste; Jones, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of financial aid policy from the Higher Education Act of 1965 to its reauthorisation in 1992 and the subsequent ramifications upon African-American students. It considers issues of race and class with regard to college access. This work concludes with a look at contemporary aid, as well as offers race- and…

  18. Direct and Unrestricted State Financial Aid and Private Higher Education in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John F.; Baynes, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Traces state financial aid to private colleges in New York State, culminating in McGeorge Bundy's subsidy program beginning in 1967. Questions whether students have actually benefited from Bundy Aid. A statistical analysis shows that private college tuition levels are determined more by academic quality than by costs, religious affiliation, or…

  19. Maintaining Balances: The Relationship between Student Financial Aid and Institutional Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Following an explanation of the Eureka Project, which studies the financing of higher education opportunities in California, introductory information is provided on the effects of student financial aid in California on both students and colleges. Some points to be considered in understanding the relationship between student aid and institutional…

  20. Office of Student Financial Aid Quality Improvement Program: Design and Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The purpose and direction of the quality improvement program of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Student Financial Aid (OSFA) are described. The improvement program was designed to develop a systematic approach to identify, measure, and correct errors in the student aid delivery system. Information is provided on the general approach…

  1. Aid and Innovation: How Federal Financial Aid Policy Impacts Student Success and How States Can Respond. Policy Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    From Washington to Connecticut, Arkansas to Indiana, state policymakers and community college leaders are focused on building completion pathways to ensure that more students succeed in postsecondary education and make smooth transitions to careers. Financial aid is both an effective and a necessary policy lever to promote this goal. Not only do…

  2. Estimating the Influence of Financial Aid on Student Retention: A Discrete-Choice Propensity Score-Matching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The greatest limitation in establishing causality in observational studies on the effect of financial aid is the presence of endogeneity or selection bias associated with aid status. To control for this statistical confoundedness that besets the research corpus to date, this study estimates the effect of financial aid on freshmen retention at a…

  3. Financial Aid Policies and Practices at Medical and Dental Schools: Current Trends and Future Concerns. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators sponsored the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP), which asked aid administrators at graduate and professional programs to provide information on the types and sources of financial assistance they distributed to their students during the…

  4. Aid and Advocacy: Why Community College Transfer Students Do Not Apply for Financial Aid and How Counselors Can Help Them Get in the Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    According to the American Council on Education, more than 1 million community college students failed to receive financial aid for which they were likely eligible. This is a startling statistic. Given that financial aid is such a critical determinant of college-going and that academic counselors are among students' most important advocates,…

  5. Student and Financial Aid Charges, 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As the 2003?2004 academic year began, the financial woes of public colleges took the spotlight on Capitol Hill and in statehouses. Record spending cuts designed to balance state budgets resulted in program cutbacks,unfilled faculty positions, staff layoffs, wage freezes and salary cuts at state colleges and universities. Institutions worked to…

  6. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.

    2004-01-01

    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…

  7. The Changing Federal Role in Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Byce, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Possible further changes in federal funding and aid delivery systems could have highly divergent consequences for college enrollment patterns and management practices. Department of Education objectives and programs (SEOG, Pell grants, GSL programs, etc.) and change implications are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  8. Community College Students and Federal Student Financial Aid: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszkiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The federal government plays an indispensable role in helping community college students pay for their education. It is hard to imagine today's community college campuses without needs-based federal student aid, such as the Pell Grant program and subsidized loans. There are, however, significant differences between community college students and…

  9. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  10. Barriers to Need-Based Financial Aid: Predictors of Timely FAFSA Completion among Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Mary; Heroff, John

    2013-01-01

    Access to financial aid is dependent on a variety of factors, including the time of application; the earlier students apply for financial aid, the greater their access to institutional and often state resources. We use the Illinois Monetary Award Program (MAP) as a case for investigating the economic, social, and academic factors that affect…

  11. Missing College Attendance Costs: Opportunity, Financing, and Risk. ACT Student Financial Aid Research Report Series 89-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    The way in which costs enter the potential college student's calculation of the benefits of college attendance is examined. In particular, the paper considers how costs not considered in financial aid need analysis can increase college attendance costs and thereby decrease net benefits of college attendance for those who use financial aid. The…

  12. The Effect of Types of Financial Aid on Student Persistence towards Graduation. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Tullise; And Others

    The relationship between student persistence and types of financial aid at a Jesuit comprehensive university was studied. Three freshmen cohorts (134 for 1989, 171 for 1990, and 131 for 1991) of 436 students were tracked through fall 1994. Attention was focused on nine financial aid variables, five additional noncategorical and six categorical…

  13. Reality Check: Hispanic-Serving Institutions on the Texas Border Strategizing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing college degree completion is an important goal. As Latino representation in U.S. higher education grows, a reality check of institutional practices that support Latino students' access, persistence, and graduation is needed. This brief examines financial aid strategies aimed at increasing enrollment, academic success and degree…

  14. Reality Check: Hispanic-Serving Institutions on the Texas Border Strategizing Financial Aid. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    As Latino representation in U.S. higher education grows, a reality check of institutional practices that support Latino students' access, persistence, and graduation is needed. This brief examines financial aid strategies aimed at increasing enrollment, academic success and degree completion at eight Texas Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs)…

  15. The Effects of Financial Aid Education on College Aspirations of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Access to college for low-income, first-generation students is frequently hindered by a lack of knowledge and awareness of the college-related resources and opportunities available to them, including financial aid. Low-income students and their families are more likely to lack pertinent information about the college process and funding…

  16. Causal Inference and Omitted Variable Bias in Financial Aid Research: Assessing Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegg, Stephanie K.

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the problem of omitted variable bias in research on the causal effect of financial aid on college-going. I first describe the problem of self-selection and the resulting bias from omitted variables. I then assess and explore the strengths and weaknesses of random assignment, multivariate regression, proxy variables, fixed…

  17. Volunteering for College? Potential Implications of Financial Aid Tax Credits Rewarding Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2014-01-01

    President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…

  18. The Effect of Labor Market Conditions and Financial Aid on Doctoral Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…

  19. College Financial Aid and the Employee Tuition Benefit Programs of the Fortune 500 Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Joseph P.

    Ways are discussed that internal changes in pricing, tuition collection, and cash-flow management might be sources of financial aid for college students ineligible for state and federal assistance programs. The experiences described are the result of two FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education) projects, one dealing with…

  20. State of Alaska Student Financial Aid Programs. 1990-91 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This report briefly summarizes Alaska student financial aid programs and participation levels for 1990-91. The programs described are the following: (1) Alaska Student Loan Program (program summary, loan award amounts, undergraduate loans, graduate loans, foreign study, loan repayments, default); (2) Alaska Family Education Loan Program…

  1. State of Alaska Student Financial Aid Programs, 1991-92 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This report briefly summarizes Alaska's student financial aid programs and the participation levels for 1991-92. After introductory remarks, more detailed sections focus on the following specific programs: (1) the Alaska Student Loan Program; (2) the Alaska Family Education Loan Program; (3) the Alaska Teacher Scholarship Loan Program; (4) the…

  2. The Opening Door. A Review of New York State's Programs of Financial Aid for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Richard

    This study explores the relationship between access to higher education and the operation of New York State's programs of student financial aid. The first section presents a summary of the major trends affecting access to higher education. These trends include: increasing manpower needs; increasing college attendance not only of intellectually…

  3. State of Alaska Student Financial Aid Programs. 1992-93 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This annual report describes the activities of the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education during the 1992-93 fiscal year and the administration of the various student financial aid programs under its direction. It discusses the Commission's mandate, membership, goals, and current functions, including priorities for the coming year and new…

  4. Supporting Students beyond Financial Aid: Low-Income Students Need Support That Goes Beyond Tuition Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Low-income students face a number of obstacles that go beyond the cost of tuition and fees. For instance, their schooling often requires expenses that aren't covered by financial aid, such as books and commuting costs. What's more, education is often competing for their time with other responsibilities, such as the need to work or take care of…

  5. Campus-Based Practices for Promoting Student Success: Financial Aid. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Aaron S.; Reinert, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid may be particularly critical for promoting full-time enrollment, continuous enrollment, and a manageable balance of school and work responsibilities, which influence the likelihood of timely degree completion (Adelman, 2006; Attewell, Heil, & Reisel, 2012; Hossler et al., 2009). For example, Attewell, Heil, and Reisel (2012)…

  6. The Effect of Financial Aid on Students' College Choice: Differences by Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of specific types of financial aid on students' college choice, with particular focus on racial differences. For overall student populations, the receipt of grants or a combination of grants with loans had a positive impact on attending first choice institutions. In contrast, having loans only had no significant…

  7. Perspectives and Experiences of Financial Aid Counselors on Community College Students Who Borrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya; Shefman, Pamelyn

    2013-01-01

    Loan borrowing among community college students has increased in recent years. This study utilized original survey data to examine this trend from the perspective and firsthand experiences of 107 community college financial aid counselors from three states: California, Florida, and Texas. Findings indicate these counselors are concerned with the…

  8. Tuition and Financial Aid in Higher Education: The Case of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderston, Frederick

    1997-01-01

    Tuition and financial aid affect higher education access and institutional budgeting practices. California's public system has the lowest fees for community college, midrange for the California State University, and highest for the University of California. Although Federal Pell and State Cal Grants soften the tuition burden, the system relies…

  9. Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery: State Higher Education Funding & Student Financial Aid. Volume II: State Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Allison S.; Hines, Edward R.; Hodel, Ross A.; Kelly, Kathleen F.; Mushrush, Christopher E., Pruden, Sheila J.; Vogt, W. Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report is a companion to "Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery: Higher Education Funding and Student Financial Aid" (ED502180). It provides profiles of individual states and their performance on a variety of measures used in the economic and fiscal analysis of the Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery project. The profiles describe the results…

  10. Study of the Cost to Deliver Student Financial Aid on Campus. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    The administrative costs of the student financial aid delivery process at postsecondary institutions were analyzed. After reviewing the literature and interviewing selected experts, 1982 cost data at nine institutions were studied: three public and two private colleges, two community colleges, and two proprietary institutions. Costs were…

  11. Filling the Financial Aid Gap: The Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Patel, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    The intention of the program is that conditioning additional financial aid on certain behaviors will lead students to increase their effort towards their studies, which in turn will lead them to perform better in their classes in the short-term and progress through their degree requirements at a quicker rate in the medium-term. The program is…

  12. State Financial Aid: Applying Redesign Principles through State Engagement. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    College is increasingly expensive for students, but states have an important policy tool to help defray the costs: state financial aid programs. However, many states' programs are misaligned with articulated strategic postsecondary education policy goals. Over the past two years, Education Commission of the States has supported a variety of…

  13. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  14. Information and Access: Modeling the Nexus of the Academic Preparation and Financial Aid Literatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Research concerning the determinants affecting access to postsecondary education has primarily been conducted in two spheres: academic preparation and financial aid. Although these two strands of literature are often treated as oppositional hypotheses, they need not be. This article fuses the two bodies of research while discussing the relatively…

  15. The Association between Financial Aid Availability and the College Dropout Rates in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Torres, Fabio Sanchez; Jaime, Haider

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the…

  16. A Student Records Manual. Guidelines for the Administration of College Admissions, Financial Aid, and Registration Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual has been prepared to provide operating guidelines for admissions officers, financial aid officers, and registrars. The systems described herein were designed specifically for the predominantly Negro colleges, but the procedures are applicable to other 4-year liberal arts colleges with the following general characteristics: (1) small to…

  17. A Conceptual Analysis of State Support for Higher Education: Appropriations versus Need-Based Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use economic concepts to examine the choice that states make between giving appropriations to public colleges or need-based financial aid to students. We begin by reviewing the economic justification for state support for higher education. Next, we introduce a simple economic model for comparing and contrasting appropriations and…

  18. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  19. Sharpening the Dialogue: Engaging Policymakers in the Alignment of Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid Policy. Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Exchanges" highlights a number of issues in the challenge to align appropriations, tuition and financial aid (AFTA) policy. Two distinct trends in the nature of the American student population are identified: significant demographic shifts and the emerging necessity of serving adult learners. These shifts are prompting state…

  20. The Impact of Financial Aid on College GPA at Three Flagship Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stater, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement in higher education is an important current policy issue because institutions are under public pressure to justify state subsidies and rising tuitions with demonstrable gains in student learning. This article uses data from three flagship public universities to examine the effects of financial aid on first-through fourth-year…

  1. Tuition and Financial Aid: Nine Points for Boards to Consider in Keeping College Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The headlines report that college tuition is rising rapidly and students are struggling to pay for college. Financial-aid issues have also been in the news lately, with questions about student debt particularly prominent. Non-tuition revenues are weak because of declining state appropriations, depleted endowments, and anemic annual giving. At the…

  2. Office of Student Financial Aid Quality Improvement Program: Design and Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The purpose and direction of the Office of Student Financial Aid (OSFA) quality improvement program are described. The background and context for the Pell Grant quality control (QC) design study and the meaning of QC are reviewed. The general approach to quality improvement consists of the following elements: a strategic approach that enables OSFA…

  3. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  4. Financial issues in defining levels for HIV/AIDS research.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, S R

    1998-01-01

    This article outlines the issues in cost identification and fair payment for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) research. Costs need to be better identified using activity-based costing methods to reveal the structural pattern of care. Patterns of care can be too expensive if they: (1) overutilize the hospital as the locus of care, or (2) underutilize prevention and education. Managers need to learn more about the cost identification issues payers face in designing a fair payment system. In the long run, more health care professionals would serve the cause of innovation and biomedical research if they all work together to define a stable fair funding mechanism. Payers need to learn that fair payment of indirect costs is not a bonus or a windfall profit. PMID:9718508

  5. Financial Aid at California Community Colleges: Pell Grants and Fee Waivers in 2003-04. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkner, Lutz; Woo, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-04 over half a million students attending the 109 California community colleges received about one billion dollars in financial aid to help meet their college expenses. Nearly all of the aided students received Board of Governors Fee Waivers to cover their enrollment fees. Less than one-half of the aided students also received federal Pell…

  6. The Impact of Financial Aid on Learning, Career Decisions, and Employment: Evidence from Recent Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2011-01-01

    China established a large-scale financial aid system in the late 1980s. This multilayered aid system aimed at enhancing educational and employment opportunities. However, very few studies have examined the impact of student aid on learning effort and outcome, career decisions, and early labor market performance. Using two recent Chinese college…

  7. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2013-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This brief report presents selected findings about student financial aid during the 2011-12 academic year. These findings are based on data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), a nationally representative sample survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled any time between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012,…

  8. Financial Aid in Theory and Practice: Why It Is Ineffective and What Can Be Done about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Financial aid programs are supposed to improve access and affordability in higher education. The effectiveness of these programs is increasingly being questioned as college attainment figures stagnate and the financial burden on students and families continues to climb year after year. This report identifies the main culprit for this…

  9. A critique of the financial requirements to fight HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John Guertin

    2008-07-26

    Funds available for HIV/AIDS programmes in low-income and middle-income countries rose from US$300 million in 1996 to $10 billion in 2007. However, a combination of worldwide economic uncertainty, a global food crisis, and publications that indicate discontent with progress in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic will not only threaten to restrict increases in the overall availability of both donor and national funds, but will also increase the competition for resources during the move towards universal access to treatment and prevention services. Thus, UNAIDS will be under increasing pressure in its presentation and justification of resources needed for HIV/AIDS programming. Here I discuss UNAIDS' 2007 estimates of resource requirements for fighting HIV/AIDS in terms of their usefulness to both donor and recipient governments for budget planning and for setting priorities for HIV/AIDS programmes. I identify weaknesses in the UNAIDS estimates in terms of financial transparency and priority setting, and recommend changes to improve budgeting and priority setting. PMID:18657712

  10. 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 1-40

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 and released 40 summary data tables for this latest 2-year survey release. New to ...

  11. 76 FR 59304 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport... September 9, 2011, revising our regulations concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national... Register on September 9, 2011 (76 FR 56054), to finalize our yearly updates to the Code of...

  12. Outbreaks of Illness Associated with Recreational Water-United States, 2011-2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outbreaks of illness associated with recreational water use result from exposure to chemicals or infectious pathogens in recreational water venues that are treated (e.g., pools and hot tubs or spas) or untreated (e.g., lakes and oceans). For 2011-2012, the most recent years for w...

  13. 2011-2012 Overview of M-DCPS' Academic Performance. Information Capsule. Volume 1203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    This Information Capsule answers the most frequently asked questions about M-DCPS' academic performance during the 2011-2012 school year. Over the past year, the Florida Department of Education made over 28 changes to the school grading formula, including the transition to new, more rigorous assessments, new accountability components, and…

  14. Measuring School and Teacher Value Added in DC, 2011-2012 School Year. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the value-added models used as part of teacher evaluation systems in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) and in eligible DC charter schools participating in Race to the Top. They estimated (1) teacher effectiveness in DCPS and eligible DC charter schools during the 2011-2012 school year; and (2)…

  15. Measuring School and Teacher Value Added in DC, 2011-2012 School Year: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the value-added models used as part of teacher evaluation systems in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) and in eligible DC charter schools participating in "Race to the Top." The authors estimated: (1) teacher effectiveness in DCPS and eligible DC charter schools during the 2011-2012 school year; and (2)…

  16. 77 FR 15361 - Gainful Employment Reporting Deadline Date for the 2011-2012 Award Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... authorized under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA), for the 2011-2012 award year... Education Assistance for College and Higher Education Grant, and Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant programs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Phosphorus Intake of Americans, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the dietary phosphorus intake of Americans and the food categories that contribute to the total intake. Nationally representative data from individuals 2 years and over participating in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2012 were analyzed (n=7,933)...

  18. 2011-2012 Federal Pell Grant Program End-of-Year Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Pell Grant End-of-Year Report presents primary aspects of Federal Pell Grant Program activity for the 2011-2012 award year. This presentation is a compilation of quantitative program data assembled to offer insights into the changes to the Title IV applicant universe and the Federal Pell Grant Program. The Federal Pell Grant…

  19. Fact Sheet: LGBT Discrimination in Higher Education Financial Aid--Assistance Should Be Allocated on Need, Not Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Crosby

    2012-01-01

    Through the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA, the federal government provides more financial aid for higher education than any other institution. But because of discriminatory laws the FAFSA treats families headed by two mothers or two fathers differently than families headed by a mother and a father. This treatment distributes…

  20. Improving the Financial Aid Process for Community College Students: A Literature Review of FAFSA Simplification, Information, and Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that community college and other low income students have the most need regarding the financial aid process. Community college students are less likely to complete the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) than students at public and private four-year and for-profit institutions. Surveys have shown that the complexity…

  1. WWC Review of the Report "Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 study, Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence, measured the impact of sending text message reminders regarding annual Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) renewal to first-year college students who were already receiving financial aid. The study sample included 808…

  2. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. Methods We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i) articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii) have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii) represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv) present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Results Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Conclusions Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important foundation to strengthen

  3. Can Financial Aid Improve Student Success at Louisiana's Community Colleges? A Study of the Potential Impact of Redistributing State Gift Aid on the Success of Pell Grant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Kevin; Heffron, Mark; Schneider, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors investigate the relationship between levels of financial aid and student success in Louisiana community colleges, with a focus on Pell Grant recipients. They measure success by whether a student earned a certificate or an associate's degree within three years of enrolling as a first-time full-time student or transferred…

  4. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal…

  5. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p < .05). People who reported higher enacted stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p < .05). Our findings revealed that devastating consequences of HIV-related stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA.

  6. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2011-2012 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Winter 2011-2012 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: 34th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals; feasibility of NIR spectroscopy-based rapid feedstock reactive screening; demonstrating integrated pilot-scale biomass conversion. The Biochemical Process Integration Task focuses on integrating the processing steps in enzyme-based lignocellulose conversion technology. This project supports the U.S. Department of Energy's efforts to foster development, demonstration, and deployment of 'biochemical platform' biorefineries that economically produce ethanol or other fuels, as well as commodity sugars and a variety of other chemical products, from renewable lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. [The ARI etiology among children in Belarus in 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Gribkova, N V; Sivets, N V; Shmialiova, N P; Cheshenok, T V; Lapo, E P; Anoshka, O N

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of the respiratory viruses for the period of 2011-2012 is presented. The ARI etiological structure among children 0-17 years, who were admitted to the hospital for respiratory disease in Belarus, was defined by the PCR-method. It was found that the etiological agents of the infections were not only influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adeno- and respiratory syncytial viruses, but also described boca- and metapneumoviruses. The most complete spectrum of the respiratory viruses was detected among children aged 0-4 years.

  8. [The ARI etiology among children in Belarus in 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Gribkova, N V; Sivets, N V; Shmialiova, N P; Cheshenok, T V; Lapo, E P; Anoshka, O N

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of the respiratory viruses for the period of 2011-2012 is presented. The ARI etiological structure among children 0-17 years, who were admitted to the hospital for respiratory disease in Belarus, was defined by the PCR-method. It was found that the etiological agents of the infections were not only influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adeno- and respiratory syncytial viruses, but also described boca- and metapneumoviruses. The most complete spectrum of the respiratory viruses was detected among children aged 0-4 years. PMID:26281305

  9. Paying for Default: Change over Time in the Share of Federal Financial Aid Sent to Institutions with High Student Loan Default Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Both federal spending on financial aid and student loan default rates have increased over the past decade. These trends have intensified policymakers' concerns that some postsecondary institutions-- particularly in the for-profit sector--maximize revenue derived from federal financial aid without helping students to graduate or find employment.…

  10. Beyond the Borders: A Discussion of Student Financial Aid and Educational Opportunity in Texas, New York and the Pacific Rim in Relationship to California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Student financial aid is a major education industry. Three papers by educational professionals are presented as points of comparison. "Student Financial Aid Policies and Programs in Texas and California: A Comparison" (Stephen Janes) states that Texas and California have much in common; demographics in the two states are not radically different;…

  11. Increasing College Enrollment among Low- and Moderate-Income Families: An Intervention to Improve Information and Access to Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Eric P.; Long, Bridget Terry; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Higher education plays an increasingly important role in helping individuals attain social and economic success. Yet, despite decades of financial aid policy, substantial gaps in college access remain by income level and race. One major impediment to increasing college enrollment among low-income students is the lack of information about financial…

  12. An Analysis of the Distribution of Student Financial Aid and Social Justice in China: A Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiehua

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese government's stated objective of student financial aid (SFA) policy is to help students from low-income families to access higher levels of education. This article first explores the possible associations between the distribution of SFA and students' various demographic and academic backgrounds. Then it presents the findings regarding…

  13. Annual Report on State Financial Aid Programs: 2007-08 Accounting, 2008-09 Estimates, and Notable Events and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The state of Washington has a long-standing commitment to postsecondary education opportunities for all students, regardless of income. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board with: (1) An overview of state, federal, and institutional financial aid in Washington; (2) A description of notable…

  14. Modeling the Impacts of National and Institutional Financial Aid Opportunities on Persistence at an Elite Chilean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine; Santelices, María Verónica; Avendaño, Ximena Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Much of the recent Chilean educational debate and reform has centered around issues of higher education cost, debt burden, and availability of grants versus loans. This quantitative case study of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile sought to understand the longitudinal contributions of combinations of types of financial aid to persistence of…

  15. Going on to Graduate or Professional School: Sources of Financial Aid and Educational Programs for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, John A., Ed.

    The booklet provides brief information on about 250 sources of financial aid and educational programs for Native Americans wanting to enter graduate or professional level study. Most of those listed have been selected because they are earmarked for minority group students as a general group or Native Americans specifically. Section I contains…

  16. Financial Aid, Access & Equity, and State Policy: An Interview with Richard Freeland, Commissioner of Higher Education for Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states are looking at effective ways to use financial incentives to encourage students to complete a postsecondary credential. JFF's new report, "Statewide Aid Policies to Improve College Access and Success", originally commissioned by the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education's Vision Project, has provided valuable background for that…

  17. Who Does Not Benefit from Federal and State Financial Aid Programs? Information Brief. Volume 7, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brief presents statistics showing that many students from middle-income and lower-income Florida families do not qualify for federal or state grants and scholarships, and that nearly half of state university system middle- and lower-income families do not receive benefits from federal or state financial aid programs. (Contains technical…

  18. Undergraduate Financial Aid Estimates by Type of Institution in 2011-12. Web Tables. NCES 2014-169

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Shaw, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    These Web Tables present estimates of tuition and fees, the total price of attendance (tuition and fees plus living expenses), and several types and combinations of financial aid packages that undergraduates received in 2011-12. The price of an undergraduate education varies widely depending on a number of characteristics, including institution…

  19. Changes in Patterns of Pricing and Financial Aid: Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2006-153

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Carroll, C. Dennis

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on first-time, full-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in order to examine patterns of sticker prices, financial aid, and net prices from an institutional perspective. For the period 1999-2000 to 2001-02, the report examines how the price of attendance for full-time freshmen changed for various types of…

  20. Student Financial Aid Programs. State of Alaska Annual Report, 1983-84. Document Number 85-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    Participation levels for 1983-1984 for two student financial aid programs provided by the State of Alaska and one regional student exchange program are reported. Brief descriptions of these three programs are also provided: the Alaska Student Loan Program, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) Student Exchange Program, and…

  1. Student Financial Aid Programs: State of Alaska. Annual Report, 1984-1985. Document Number 86-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    Participation levels for 1984-1985 for two student financial aid programs provided by the State of Alaska and one regional student exchange program are reported. Brief descriptions of these programs are included: the Alaska Student Loan Program, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) Student Exchange Program, and the State…

  2. The U.S. Department of Education and Student Financial Aid for Distance Education: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Patricia A.

    This digest offers a brief discussion about the growth of distance education in the postsecondary arena and summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's progress in evaluating current rules governing financial aid for distance learning. Department of Education statistics show that there was a 72% increase in the number of institutions offering…

  3. Improving the Productivity of Education Experiments: Lessons from a Randomized Study of Need-Based Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Given scarce resources for evaluation, we recommend that education researchers more frequently conduct comprehensive randomized trials that generate evidence on how, why, and under what conditions interventions succeed or fail in producing effects. Recent experience evaluating a randomized need-based financial aid intervention highlights some of…

  4. The Blue Book: Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This book provides guidance to school business office personnel who handle fiscal recordkeeping, accounting, and reporting functions for federal Title IV student financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. It provides a technical resource for Title IV management responsibilities that are shared among various…

  5. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Membership: The Case of Undocumented Immigrants and Financial Aid for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Andre M.

    2006-01-01

    This case study/philosophical analysis responds to the primary research question: "Should undocumented immigrants receive financial aid by responding to the sub-question: What does it mean to be a member of society?" The case study organizes and collects empirical evidence from stakeholders involved in Texas House Bill 1403 (2001), legislation…

  6. Does One Size Fit All? University Differences in the Influence of Wages, Financial Aid, and Integration on Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkvliet, J.; Nowell, C.

    2005-01-01

    We develop and empirically implement a model of university student retention using opportunity cost, financial aid, academic and social integration, and students' background explanatory variables. For one year, we tracked students from Weber State University (WSU) and Oregon State University (OSU) to learn whether they remained enrolled for 0, 1,…

  7. Federal Student Financial Aid: 2011 National Profile of Programs in Title IV of the Higher Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    As college costs have soared and the U.S. economy struggles to move out of the recession, more and more Americans have relied on federal student financial assistance programs to help them meet their postsecondary expenses. Data from the Federal Student Aid (FSA), an office of the U.S. Department of Education (ED), show that the number of students…

  8. Working Students' Perceptions of Paying for College: Understanding the Connections between Financial Aid and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziskin, Mary; Fischer, Mary Ann; Torres, Vasti; Pellicciotti, Beth; Player-Sanders, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Based on 22 focus groups conducted at institutions located in a Midwestern metropolitan region, this study explores working, commuting and adult-learner college students' implicit theories about financial aid policy and seeks to understand how students make sense of their own experiences in paying for college. The institutions participating…

  9. A Compendium of Selected Abstracts of Literature on Student Financial Aid in the United States Between 1972-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David W., Comp.

    This is an abstract bibliography of selected publications and studies related to the theory and practice of student financial aid in post-secondary education, produced in the United States during the years 1972 through June 1975. Abstracts are grouped under five major headings and three sub-headings: (1) publications related to broad student…

  10. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoi; Minh, Le Nhat; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Morimoto, Konosuke; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs), including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1). The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41) and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5), respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  11. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p < .05). People who reported higher enacted stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p < .05). Our findings revealed that devastating consequences of HIV-related stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA. PMID:26886415

  12. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p < .05). People who reported higher enacted stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p < .05). Our findings revealed that devastating consequences of HIV-related stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA. PMID:26886415

  13. Student Financial Aid: Need Determination Could Be Enhanced through Improvements in Education's Estimate of Applicants' State Tax Payments. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-05-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Sally L.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the Department of Education proposed an update to the state and other tax allowance, a part of the federal need analysis for student financial aid. Most federal aid as well as some state and institutional aid is awarded based on the student's cost of attendance less the student's and/or family's ability to pay these costs--known as the…

  14. [Evaluation of a novel flu vaccination campaign among health personnel for the 2011-2012 season].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ángeles, Roberto; Villanueva-Ruiz, César O; García-Román, Vicente; Mendoza-García, José L; Conesa-Peñuela, F Javier; Tenza Iglesias, Isidra; García Shimizu, Patricia; Sánchez-Payá, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the healthcare personnel seasonal influenza immunization program in the 2011-2012 flu season. The campaign included several innovative actions (informational brochure, recommendations for unvaccinated staff to wear a mask, acknowledgement letters, etc). Coverage and characteristics of the health personnel were compared with the previous season using the chi-square test. Vaccination coverage for the 2011-12 flu season was 26.5%, compared to 24.5% achieved in 2010-2011 (p=0.052). The improvement in vaccination coverage approached statistical significance but remains very low. To improve these low vaccination levels, we recommend developing other strategies, such as incentive policies or making vaccination mandatory.

  15. The 2011-2012 Santorini unrest: Swarms of micro-seismicity, crustal deformation and magma pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis; Newman, Andrew; Papazachos, Costas; Moschas, Fanis

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2012 swarms of micro-seismicity were observed in Santorini caldera for the first probably time since its last eruption 60 years ago. This seismicity was along a major extensional lineament (Kammeni Line), in which all post-Minoan eruptions were confined and was characterized by extensional focal mechanisms. GPS observations provided evidence of a somewhat radial deformation, which was assigned to a spherical magma source ~4km deep in the north part of the caldera, about 2km away from the Kammeni Line. Because such a source cannot explain extensional seismicity observed along the Kammeni Line, we investigated alternative intrusion models. On the basis of seismicity and deformation rates, the unrest period was divided into five intervals each 3-6 months long. Then, using a new inversion method/software we modeled each interval separately for one or two sources. No solution was found possible for the fifth interval, while for the other four there was evidence of a shallow, relative small source at the north part of the caldera; this source tends to overshadow other deeper sources. During intervals of seismicity, the deeper source is identified inside or beneath the Kammeni Line and has the potential to produce the deviatoric stresses and explain the observed seismicity swarms. During the fourth interval, this source was found much smaller and at some distance from the Kammeni Line, in a position not permitting to trigger seismicity. The northern source seems to be systematically arrested by the upper most layers of sediments, as is also derived by marine geophysical surveys. The variability in space and time of intrusions in 2011-2012 is consistent with the hypothesis of composite pulses of magma from deeper sources.

  16. Policies in Sync: Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid for Higher Education. A Compilation of Selected Papers. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    These four papers look into a system comprised of integrated financial and financing policies. Each paper examines a different aspect that is critical to alignment. "Financing in Sync: Aligning Fiscal Policy with State Objectives" (Dennis Jones), identifies distinct elements of financing policy, describes alternative forms of these elements, and…

  17. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. Abridged Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. The early intervention community is calling for a method of delivering age-appropriate information in a timely manner as one means of…

  18. Volcanic deformation sources associated with Fogo 2011-2012 unrest, Azores - The first modelling result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun; Araújo, João; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Lorenzo, Maria; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic deformation is often observed at many active volcanoes in the world by using space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR. More difficulties in judgement if eruptions are imminent or not arise when such phenomenon occurs at dormant volcanoes due to the lack of eruption experiences with monitoring data. The eruption triggering mechanism is still controversial at many cases, but many attempts to image deformation sources beneath volcanoes have been made using geophysical inversion techniques. In this study, we show the case study of Fogo (Água de Pau) volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores which represents over 450 years of eruption dormancy since 1563-1564. In the recent decades Fogo has exhibited three prominent unrest episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012). The lack of geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion during those episodes does not encourage discussions on resuming volcanic activity of Fogo. However, the inflation/uplift are evident on the edifices at least for the last two unrest episodes based on GPS data by Trota et al. (2009) and Okada et al. (2015), respectively. The preliminary deformation modelling based on repeated GPS campaign data suggested a shallow expanding spheroid (Trota et al. 2009) or a single Mogi sources beneath the summit caldera. We performed a more integrated inversion for the 2011-2012 episode using a genetic algorithm optimizing the source parameters. The best fit model agrees well with the regional/local tectonic lineament suggesting the close relation between the volcanic sources and the regional/local tectonics. The regional extensional stress (between Eurasia and Nubia plates) may play important roles for the ascent of volcanic fluids at Fogo volcano. We do not discard the possibility that Fogo may have been preparing for eruptions by intermittent ascents of magma at shallow crust (i.e. experiencing "failed eruptions") during the apparent dormant period. As a local monitoring agency, CIVISA

  19. Influenza vaccination coverage among adults in Korea: 2008-2009 to 2011-2012 seasons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jung; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-11-25

    The aim of this study was to examine seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in adults from the 2008-2009 season to the 2011-2012 season, including pandemic and post-pandemic seasons in Korea. We collected data of self-reported vaccine use from the Korean Community Health Survey. We also collected information on socioeconomic status and health behaviors in subpopulations. We tested for linear trends among the data to investigate vaccine coverage before and after the pandemic; and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of obtaining the influenza vaccination. The results revealed a steady increase in vaccination coverage in every subgroup during four consecutive seasons. The highest rate of vaccine coverage (43.6%) occurred two years after the pandemic. Factors associated with vaccine receipt were: older age; lower education level; lower income; and health behaviors such as regular walking and receiving a health check-up. Smoking and drinking alcohol were inversely associated with vaccination. Having a chronic health condition was also a strong predictor of vaccine receipt. Though vaccination coverage rates were high in high-risk groups; disparities in coverage rates were substantial; particularly in young adults. Interventions are needed to minimize the coverage gaps among subgroups and to improve overall vaccination rates.

  20. 2011-2012 Campaign GPS Geodetic Monitoring of Surface Deformation, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; James, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade, ongoing campaign style geodetic surveys have been conducted on the volcanic island of Dominica in central portion of the Lesser Antilles island arc. An increase in shallow seismicity on the island, the first concentrated in the south from 1998-2000 and the second in the north in 2003, motivated initial measurements in 2001 at 9 sites distributed across Dominica. Subsequent GPS campaigns were conducted in 2003, 2004 and 2007, during which 18 new sites were added to the original network. In 2007, a total of 27 sites were occupied. The most recent data were collected from 13 sites in 2011 and 9 sites in 2012. Out of the 27 sites on the Island, 5 were not occupied during the 2011/2012 field seasons due to accessibility issues. All GPS data have been reprocessed using GIPSY-OASIS II (v. 6) with final, precise IGS08 orbits, clocks, and earth orientation parameters using an absolute point positioning strategy. The purpose of our study is to examine spatial and temporal changes in surface deformation, constrained by GPS, and to investigate the relationship between the recent seismic swarms and shallow volcanic processes.

  1. Food Allergens: State of the Art in Piedmont Region in the Period 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Rubinetti, Francesca; Crisafulli, Annamaria Galleggiante; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Chiavacci, Laura; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Adriano, Daniela; Zuccon, Fabio; Fragassi, Sandra; Buonincontro, Giuseppina; Vencia, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    The US National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases defines food allergy as adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Undeclared allergens in food label represent a risk for consumers, as there is no therapy for food allergies. According to Directive 2003/89/EC, declaration of all ingredients and derived substances in the label is mandatory. In 2011-2012, in Piedmont region (North-western Italy) 285 food samples were analysed for β-lactoglobulin and 234 for egg proteins. The aim of this work was to analyse 2 years data in order to assess the presence of undeclared milk and egg allergenic proteins in food placed on the market checking the compliance of labeling of food allergens. Analyses were carried out with ELISA tests, both for the detection of the egg and milk proteins. β-lactoglobulin was found in 2.8% (8/286) of samples, while egg proteins in 4.7% (11/234). PMID:27800342

  2. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  3. Power Outages, Extreme Events and Health: a Systematic Review of the Literature from 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Chaamala; Landeg, Owen; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme events (e.g. flooding) threaten critical infrastructure including power supplies. Many interlinked systems in the modern world depend on a reliable power supply to function effectively. The health sector is no exception, but the impact of power outages on health is poorly understood. Greater understanding is essential so that adverse health impacts can be prevented and/or mitigated. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for papers about the health impacts of power outages during extreme events published in 2011-2012. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the extracted information. The Public Health England Extreme Events Bulletins between 01/01/2013 - 31/03/2013 were used to identify extreme events that led to power outages during this three-month period. Results We identified 20 relevant articles. Power outages were found to impact health at many levels within diverse settings. Recurrent themes included the difficulties of accessing healthcare, maintaining frontline services and the challenges of community healthcare. We identified 52 power outages in 19 countries that were the direct consequence of extreme events during the first three months of 2013. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first review of the health impacts of power outages. We found the current evidence and knowledge base to be poor. With scientific consensus predicting an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events due to climate change, the gaps in knowledge need to be addressed in order to mitigate the impact of power outages on global health. PMID:24459613

  4. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Beer, Karlyn D; Gargano, Julia W; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent R; Garrison, Laurel E; Kutty, Preeta K; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2015-08-14

    Advances in water management and sanitation have substantially reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). For 2011-2012, 32 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least 431 cases of illness, 102 hospitalizations, and 14 deaths. Legionella was responsible for 66% of outbreaks and 26% of illnesses, and viruses and non-Legionella bacteria together accounted for 16% of outbreaks and 53% of illnesses. The two most commonly identified deficiencies† leading to drinking water-associated outbreaks were Legionella in building plumbing§ systems (66%) and untreated groundwater (13%). Continued vigilance by public health, regulatory, and industry professionals to identify and correct deficiencies associated with building plumbing systems and groundwater systems could prevent most reported outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water systems.

  5. Outbreaks of Illness Associated with Recreational Water--United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Roberts, Virginia A; Kahler, Amy M; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Mecher, Taryn R; Beach, Michael J; Wade, Timothy J; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2015-06-26

    Outbreaks of illness associated with recreational water use result from exposure to chemicals or infectious pathogens in recreational water venues that are treated (e.g., pools and hot tubs or spas) or untreated (e.g., lakes and oceans). For 2011-2012, the most recent years for which finalized data were available, public health officials from 32 states and Puerto Rico reported 90 recreational water-associated outbreaks to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). The 90 outbreaks resulted in at least 1,788 cases, 95 hospitalizations, and one death. Among 69 (77%) outbreaks associated with treated recreational water, 36 (52%) were caused by Cryptosporidium. Among 21 (23%) outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water, seven (33%) were caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 or E. coli O111). Guidance, such as the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC), for preventing and controlling recreational water-associated outbreaks can be optimized when informed by national outbreak and laboratory (e.g., molecular typing of Cryptosporidium) data. PMID:26110837

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  7. Funding and Distribution of Institutional Grants in 1999-2000: Results from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings included that all institutional types, even low-cost community colleges, have awarded a large share of their institutional grants based on students' academic merit or other criteria besides their demonstrated financial need, but that…

  8. A Special Report: The Estimated Impact of the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program on Student Financial Aid at Alabama Colleges and Universities, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    This report anticipates the potential effect upon the financial aid needs of students currently enrolled in Alabama colleges and universities of the Basic Educational Opportunity Program (BOG). The impact of the BOG program on student financial needs at seven types of institutions under current (1972-73) conditions of costs, enrollments, student…

  9. Exploring the Effects of Student Expectations about Financial Aid on Postsecondary Choice: A Focus on Income and Racial/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiyun; DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how the expectations of different types of financial aid affect the student college choice process from application through enrollment. We find that students from different race and income groups respond differentially to aid packages in their application and enrollment decisions depending on their levels of aid…

  10. Report of the Task Force on Student Financial Aid. Expanding Opportunities for Higher Education for the Commonwealth: Quality, Access, and Choice [with] Recommendations of Chancellor Franklyn G. Jenifer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Board of Regents of Higher Education, Boston.

    The Task Force on Student Financial Aid was formed to recommend ways in which Massachusetts' student aid programs might be modified in light of nationwide trends of rising college costs, reduced availability of federal student assistance, and a decline in the ability of many families to pay for college. The first chapter of the task force report,…

  11. Implementation of the Master Plan for Statewide Professional Staff Development for 2011-2012: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    2012-01-01

    This evaluation study examined the formation and implementation of the West Virginia Board of Education's Master Plan for Professional Staff Development for 2011-2012 (PD Master Plan). The performance of PD providers included in the PD Master Plan: Marshall University, all eight regional education service agencies (RESAs), the WV Center for…

  12. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardina, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  13. Nutrient Intakes per 1000 Kilocalories: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 41-44

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 and released 4 additional summary data tables for this latest 2-year survey release...

  14. 78 FR 22227 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661 (February 21, 1995). Changes Since the... Bar From Brazil, 59 FR 66914 (December 28, 1994). These cash deposit requirements shall remain in... Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 4383 (January 22, 2013) (Preliminary Results). We invited...

  15. 76 FR 63563 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure of the 2011-2012 Recreational Sector for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... recreational ACL beginning October 4, 2011, for the 2011-2012 fishing year (76 FR 61285) due to an ACL overage... FR 82280, December 30, 2010), set the recreational ACL for black sea bass in the South Atlantic EEZ....19' N. lat., the latitude of Cape Hatteras Light, North Carolina. NMFS has determined that...

  16. Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery: State Higher Education Funding & Student Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodel, Ross; Laffey, Maureen; Lingenfelter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery Project examined the effects of recessions on financial access to college during the 25-year period 1979-2004, identified states that have been relatively successful in maintaining financial access, and collected policy strategies used by these states. This study examined the similarities and differences…

  17. Financial Aid Awarded, Fiscal Year 2003: Grants, Loans, and Student Earnings from Work-Study Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Higher Education Services Office, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report presents information on financial resources provided to undergraduates at Minnesota post-secondary institutions. The financial resources reported are grants, loans, and student earnings that help students pay tuition, fees, room and board, and other costs of attending post-secondary education. This report presents information for…

  18. Disparities in Adolescents' Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Harris, Carmen D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, only 27% of adolescents in grades 9-12 met the current federal guideline for aerobic physical activity (at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day*), and sex and racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the guideline exist (1). The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommended a range of community-level evidence-based approaches(†) to increase physical activity by improving neighborhood supports for physical activity.(§) To assess the characteristics of adolescents who live in neighborhoods that are supportive of physical activity, CDC analyzed data on U.S. children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (defined as adolescents for this report) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Overall, 65% of U.S. adolescents live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity, defined as neighborhoods that are perceived as safe and have sidewalks or walking paths and parks, playgrounds, or recreation centers. Adolescents who were Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; who lived in lower-income households, households with less educated parents, and rural areas; or who were overweight or obese were less likely to live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity than were white adolescents and adolescents from higher income households, with a more highly educated parent, living in urban areas, and not overweight or obese. Within demographic groups, the largest disparity in the percentage of adolescents living in these neighborhoods was observed between adolescents living in households with a family income <100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (51%) and adolescents living in households with a family income ≥400% of the FPL (76%). Efforts to improve neighborhood supports, particularly in areas with a substantial percentage of low-income and minority residents, might increase physical activity among adolescents and reduce health disparities.

  19. Drowsy driving and risk behaviors - 10 States and Puerto Rico, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Anne G; Shults, Ruth A; Chapman, Daniel P; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-07-01

    Findings in published reports have suggested that drowsy driving is a factor each year in as many as 7,500 fatal motor vehicle crashes (approximately 25%) in the United States. CDC previously reported that, in 2009-2010, 4.2% of adult respondents in 19 states and the District of Columbia reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once during the previous 30 days. Adults who reported usually sleeping ≤6 hours per day, snoring, or unintentionally falling asleep during the day were more likely to report falling asleep while driving compared with adults who did not report these sleep patterns. However, limited information has been published on the association between drowsy driving and other risk behaviors that might contribute to crash injuries or fatalities. Therefore, CDC analyzed responses to survey questions regarding drowsy driving among 92,102 respondents in 10 states and Puerto Rico to the 2011-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. The results showed that 4.0% reported falling asleep while driving during the previous 30 days. In addition to known risk factors, drowsy driving was more prevalent among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers or abstainers and also more prevalent among drivers who sometimes, seldom, or never wear seatbelts while driving or riding in a car, compared with those who always or almost always wear seatbelts. Drowsy driving did not vary significantly by self-reported smoking status. Interventions designed to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving, to increase enforcement of seatbelt use, and to encourage adequate sleep and seeking treatment for sleep disorders might contribute to reductions in drowsy driving crashes and related injuries. PMID:24990488

  20. Financial Aid and Attainment among Students in a State with Changing Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    Using event history analysis, this study investigated to what extent differentiated forms of aid affected the educational attainment of various student populations with particular interest on the Latinos/as within this emerging settlement state: Indiana. Findings suggest that the effects of aid are moderated by race and ethnicity. State grants,…

  1. GKTC ACTIVITIES TO PROVIDE NUCLEAR MATERIAL PHYSICAL PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING TRAINING FOR 2011-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, Olena; Gavrilyuk, Victor I.; Kirischuk, Volodymyr; Gavrilyuk-Burakova, Anna; Diakov, Oleksii; Drapey, Sergiy; Proskurin, Dmitry; Dickman, Deborah A.; Ferguson, Ken

    2011-10-01

    describes the practical efforts applied to the provision of physical protection specialists advanced training in Ukraine and real results on the way to implement such efforts in 2011-2012.

  2. Ground-based and satellite remote sensing of paroxysmal eruptions at Etna volcano, 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonny, Estelle

    Mt Etna's activity has increased during the last decade with a tendency towards more explosive eruptions that produce paroxysmal lava fountains. From January 2011 to April 2012, 25 lava fountaining episodes took place at Etna's New South-East Crater (NSEC). Improved understanding of the mechanism driving these explosive basaltic eruptions is needed to reduce volcanic hazards. This type of activity produces high sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, associated with lava flows and ash fall-out, but to date the SO2 emissions associated with Etna's lava fountains have been poorly constrained. The Ultraviolet (UV) Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua were used to measure the SO2 loadings. Ground-based data from the Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand (OPGC) L-band Doppler radar, VOLDORAD 2B, used in collaboration with the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Catania (INGV-CT), also detected the associated ash plumes, giving precise timing and duration for the lava fountains. This study resulted in the first detailed analysis of the OMI and AIRS SO2 data for Etna's lava fountains during the 2011-2012 eruptive cycle. The HYSPLIT trajectory model is used to constrain the altitude of the observed SO2 clouds, and results show that the SO2 emission usually coincided with the lava fountain peak intensity as detected by VOLDORAD. The UV OMI and IR AIRS SO2 retrievals permit quantification of the SO2 loss rate in the volcanic SO2 clouds, many of which were tracked for several days after emission. A first attempt to quantitatively validate AIRS SO2 retrievals with OMI data revealed a good correlation for high altitude SO2 clouds. Using estimates of the emitted SO2 at the time each paroxysm, we observe a correlation with the inter-paroxysm repose time. We therefore suggest that our data set supports the collapsing foam (CF) model [1] as driving mechanism for the paroxysmal

  3. Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Collected in 2011-2012, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kartsev, Nikolay N; Fursova, Nadezhda K; Pachkunov, Dmitry M; Bannov, Vasiliy A; Eruslanov, Boris V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ETEC) are one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries and travel diarrhoea in adults. Pathogenic properties of ETEC associated with their ability to produce a heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins, as well as adhesins providing bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. This study presents the molecular characterization of the ETEC isolates collected from the Central and Far-Eastern regions of Russia in 2011-2012. It was shown that all ETEC under study (n=18) had the heat-labile enterotoxin-coding operon elt, and had no the genes of the heat-stable enterotoxin operon est. DNA sequencing revealed two types of nucleotide exchanges in the eltB gene coding subunit B of LT in isolates collected from Cherepovets city (Central region, Russia) and Vladivostok city (Far-East region, Russia). Only one ETEC strain carried genes cfaA, cfaB, cfaC and cfaD coding adhesion factor CFA/I. Expression of LT in four ETEC isolates in the agglutination reaction was detected using a latex test-system. The isolates were assigned to serogroups O142 (n = 6), О6 (n = 4), О25 (n = 5), О26 (n = 2), and O115 (n = 1). Genotyping showed that they belonged to an earlier described sequence-type ST4 (n = 3) as well as to 11 novel sequence-types ST1043, ST1312, ST3697, ST3707, ST3708, ST3709, ST3710, ST3755, ST3756, ST3757 and ST4509. The ETEC isolates displayed different levels of antimicrobial resistance. Eight isolates were resistant to only one drug, three isolates-to two drugs, one isolate-to three drugs, two isolates-to four antibacterials, and only one isolate to each of the five, six and ten antibacterials simultaneously. Genetic determinants of the resistance to beta-lactams and other classes of antibacterials on the ETEC genomes were identified. There are blaTEM (n = 10), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1), class 1 integron (n = 3) carrying resistance cassettes to aminoglycosides and

  4. Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Collected in 2011-2012, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kartsev, Nikolay N; Fursova, Nadezhda K; Pachkunov, Dmitry M; Bannov, Vasiliy A; Eruslanov, Boris V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ETEC) are one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries and travel diarrhoea in adults. Pathogenic properties of ETEC associated with their ability to produce a heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins, as well as adhesins providing bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. This study presents the molecular characterization of the ETEC isolates collected from the Central and Far-Eastern regions of Russia in 2011-2012. It was shown that all ETEC under study (n=18) had the heat-labile enterotoxin-coding operon elt, and had no the genes of the heat-stable enterotoxin operon est. DNA sequencing revealed two types of nucleotide exchanges in the eltB gene coding subunit B of LT in isolates collected from Cherepovets city (Central region, Russia) and Vladivostok city (Far-East region, Russia). Only one ETEC strain carried genes cfaA, cfaB, cfaC and cfaD coding adhesion factor CFA/I. Expression of LT in four ETEC isolates in the agglutination reaction was detected using a latex test-system. The isolates were assigned to serogroups O142 (n = 6), О6 (n = 4), О25 (n = 5), О26 (n = 2), and O115 (n = 1). Genotyping showed that they belonged to an earlier described sequence-type ST4 (n = 3) as well as to 11 novel sequence-types ST1043, ST1312, ST3697, ST3707, ST3708, ST3709, ST3710, ST3755, ST3756, ST3757 and ST4509. The ETEC isolates displayed different levels of antimicrobial resistance. Eight isolates were resistant to only one drug, three isolates-to two drugs, one isolate-to three drugs, two isolates-to four antibacterials, and only one isolate to each of the five, six and ten antibacterials simultaneously. Genetic determinants of the resistance to beta-lactams and other classes of antibacterials on the ETEC genomes were identified. There are blaTEM (n = 10), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1), class 1 integron (n = 3) carrying resistance cassettes to aminoglycosides and

  5. Need for, and financial feasibility of, satellite-aided land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Marantz, C. S.; Freibaum, J.

    1982-01-01

    Questions regarding the role of a mobile-satellite system in augmenting the terrestrial communications system are considered, and a market assessment study is discussed. Aspects of an investment analysis are examined, taking into account a three phase financial study of four postulated land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) systems, project profitability evaluation methods, risk analysis methods, financial projections, potential investor acceptance standards, and a risk analysis. It is concluded that a satellite augmented terrestrial mobile service appears to be economically and technically superior to a service depending exclusively on terrestrial systems. The interest in the Mobile Satellite Service is found to be worldwide, and the ground equipment market is potentially large.

  6. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  7. Near cessation of Eighteen Degree Water renewal in the western North Atlantic in the warm winter of 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billheimer, Sam; Talley, Lynne D.

    2013-12-01

    The winter of 2011-2012 was a particularly weak season for the renewal of "Eighteen Degree Water" (EDW), the Subtropical Mode Water of the western North Atlantic, as demonstrated by Argo and repeat hydrography. Weak, late winter buoyancy forcing produced shallower than usual winter mixed layers throughout the subtropical gyre, failing to thoroughly ventilate the underlying mode water, and can likely be attributed to the coinciding high, positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The only region where EDW was renewed was in the far northeastern Sargasso Sea where it is understood that the Gulf Stream plays a central role in formation; no EDW formed over the large regions of the gyre where deep winter mixed layers driven by surface buoyancy loss normally create EDW. The present investigation evaluates 2011-2012 winter buoyancy content anomalies, surface buoyancy fluxes, and advection of buoyancy via the Gulf Stream and compares them with the previous seven winters that exhibited more vigorous EDW formation. The weak 2011-2012 formation did not result from increased Gulf Stream heat advection, and was also not driven by preconditioning as the buoyancy content of the region prior to the onset of winter forcing was not unusually high. Rather, the weak formation resulted from climatologically weak surface cooling late in winter. The winter of 2007-2008 also experienced particularly weak EDW formation under similar conditions, including a high NAO and weak late winter surface cooling.

  8. Why did the 2011-2012 La Niña cause a severe drought in the Brazilian Northeast?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    The Brazilian Northeast (NE) is strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During La Niña events, the precipitation over the NE is generally above average. However, during the last La Niña event in 2011-2012, the NE went through its worst drought in the last 30 years. In this study, observations and numerical simulations are used to determine what made the 2011-2012 event different from other events. We find that eastern Pacific (canonical) La Niña events cause a cooling of the tropical North Atlantic and warming of the tropical South Atlantic that lead to a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which in turn brings rain to the NE. On the other hand, La Niña events with the cooling concentrated in the central Pacific cause the opposite meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic, leading to droughts over the NE. The 2011-2012 event was of the latter type. This study also shows that it is possible to predict the sign of the NE rainfall anomaly during ENSO events using a simple SST index.

  9. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy. NBER Working Paper No. 17811

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and…

  10. Guia para Presentar Solcitudes de Financiacion de Investigaciones (A Guide to Requesting Financial Aid for Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This booklet describes the procedures and requirements to be observed when financial support for education research is requested from the Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia (ICOLPE), an educational improvement agency established by the Colombian government in 1968. The educational priorities for research are listed along with the rules and format…

  11. The College & Financial Aid Guide for: AB540 Undocumented Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverez, Paz M., Ed.; Chavez, Maria Lucia, Ed.; Soriano, Mayra, Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of California Assembly Bill 540 in 2001, authored by the late Assemblyman, Marco Antonio Firebaugh, more than 5,000 undocumented students in California have had improved financial access to higher education. AB 540 has become a pinnacle in the lives of students, who because of their immigration status, have historically been…

  12. Decommissioning of the remediation systems at Waverly, Nebraska, in 2011-2012.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-06-29

    the CCC/USDA characterization and remediation efforts, including the quarterly monitoring reports, is on the compact disc inside the back cover of this report. The EPA reported on the progress of the remediation systems in a series of five-year reviews (EPA 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009). These reports and other EPA documentation are also on the compact disc inside the back cover of this report, along with the Woodward-Clyde (1986, 1988a,b) documentation cited. Starting in 2006, the analytical results for groundwater (the only medium still being monitored) showed no carbon tetrachloride concentrations above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 g/L. Because the cleanup goals specified in the ROD (EPA 1990) had been met, the EPA removed the site from the NPL in November 2006 (Appendix A). In 2008 the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the remediation system was deactivated, and a year later the EPA released its fourth and final five-year report (EPA 2009), indicating that no further action was required for the site and that the site was ready for unlimited use. In 2011-2012, the CCC/USDA decommissioned the remediation systems at Waverly. This report documents the decommission process and closure of the site.

  13. Putting Money on the Table: Information Financial Aid and Access to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that low-income high school students may opt out of preparing for college, because they believe a postsecondary education is more than they or their parents can afford. At the same time, federal agencies and some state agencies have indicated that every year available student aid goes unused. In response to these misconceptions…

  14. A Multimedia Approach for Providing Financial Aid Information in Higher Education: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Millions of current and prospective college students fail to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) annually for a number of reasons. One common obstacle students face is the complexity of the FAFSA which prevents students from completing the federal application. This study examined whether or not a multimedia tutorial can…

  15. Exploring the Effects of Financial Aid on the Gap in Student Dropout Risks by Income Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data and discrete-time logit modeling, this research seeks to understand whether student aid mediates the relationship between parental income and student dropout behavior. Our analysis confirms that there is a gap in dropout rates for low-income students compared with their upper income peers, and suggests that some types of…

  16. [Financial Aid to Independent Students at the Post Secondary Level: The Federal Government's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellenback, John

    One of the new and complex issues related to student aid is the independent student controversy. The author wishes to increase the Basic Opportunity Grant (BOG) and substantially increase work study to help the independent student. For the immediate future the author would like to see: (1) The BOG refined as a major Federal grant program committed…

  17. The End of Need-Based Student Financial Aid in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junor, Sean; Usher, Alex

    2007-01-01

    There was a major change in Canadian student aid in the late 1990s, due largely to a package of measures adopted by the Government Canada as part of its "Canada Opportunities Strategy". At the time, what aroused the most comment was the creation in 1998 of the $2.5 billion Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation (Foundation). But while the…

  18. Priced out: How the Wrong Financial-Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    This report demonstrates how much low-income students must stretch to pay for college, even after grant aid is taken into account. This report finds that just five of the nation's nearly 1,200 four-year colleges and universities have student bodies that are at least 30 percent low-income and offer low-income students a reasonable chance at a…

  19. Influenza immunization coverage for healthcare workers in a community hospital in Qatar (2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons).

    PubMed

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Ramirez, Eduardo Crespo

    2014-02-01

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare workers (HCW) to prevent transmission within healthcare facilities. We conducted a descriptive study on influenza vaccination coverage during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 campaigns in a community hospital in Qatar. 61.7% of the HCW were immunized in the first campaign, with an increase of up to 71.1% (p<0.05) in the second one, which was mainly due to better compliance of doctors (46.9% and 69.2%, respectively). Our results show proper coverage rates according US standards and highlight the need to implement additional strategies to improve health workers adherence of influenza, vaccination.

  20. Student Financial Aid. Schools' Experiences Using the National Student Loan Data System. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This report presents results of a survey of 600 postsecondary schools concerning their use of the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS). NSLDS was developed to improve the quality and accessibility of student financial aid data, to reduce the burden on schools of administering the Department of Education's student financial aid programs, and…

  1. Breaking through the Barriers to College: Empowering Low-Income Communities, Schools, and Families for College Opportunity and Student Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Mari Luna; Tierney, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than promote access, college admissions and financial aid processes often create a series of barriers that the poorest student must overcome to get to college. The Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) of the Rossier School of Education at the University of Southern California directed a three-year research initiative,…

  2. How Need-Based Financial Aid Reduces College Attrition among Low-Income Public University Students: The Role of Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Harris, Douglas N.; Benson, James

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine whether a need-based financial grant distribution "at random" to 1,500 Wisconsin Pell Grant recipients attending 13 public universities had an impact on how they allocated their time devoted to (a) working, (b) studying, (c) sleeping, and (d) socializing. To test whether time use mediates the relationship between aid and…

  3. The Student Loan Handbook. All about the Guaranteed Student Loan Program and Other Forms of Financial Aid for College Students and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Lana J.; Boggs, Michael D.

    The Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP) and other forms of financial aid are described under the following headings: (1) the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (what the program is; how much and when to borrow; the student loan; the Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS) Program; guidelines for the independent undergraduate--the…

  4. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  5. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. REL 2015-082

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history requirements necessary to obtain Parental Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). The study used institution-level data to examine…

  6. Student Financing in the Health Professions: Dependence on and Interactions between the Higher Education Act and the Public Health Service Act Financial Aid Programs: A Background Paper. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, DC.

    This paper identifies issues that underlie student financing of education in the health professions in terms of the interrelationships and interactions between financial aid programs under Title IV of the Higher Education Act and Titles VII and VIII of the Public Health Service Act. Section 1 provides background to the issues by describing…

  7. Toxic Substances: Information on Costs and Financial Aid to Schools To Control Asbestos. Fact Sheet for the Honorable John J. La Falce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Information on the costs of and financial aid available to schools for asbestos abatement is provided in this report. Data are based on interviews with officials from 15 school districts in 5 states--Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Section 1 provides background on the use of asbestos in buildings, health problems, federal…

  8. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  9. Changes in Financial Aid and Student Enrollment at Historically Black Colleges and Universities after the Tightening of PLUS Credit Standards. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Bruch, Julie; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in financial aid and student enrollment at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) after the U.S. Department of Education increased the credit history…

  10. Impact of Educational Development, Family Income, College Costs, and Financial Aid in Student Choice and Enrollment in College. Report No. 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Leo A.

    Relationships among student and college characteristics are studied in conjunction with colleges students chose and attended. Two data sets, one of students who were college bound in 1971-72, and the other of financial aid applicants who were college freshmen in 1972-73, are used. The relation between family income and college cost is examined.…

  11. Is traditional financial aid too little, too late to help youth succeed in college? An introduction to The Degree Project promise scholarship experiment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    One of the key barriers in accessing postsecondary opportunities for many students is financial aid. This chapter begins by providing a review of prior evidence on the relationship between financial aid and postsecondary outcomes. One type of financial aid intervention that challenges traditional aid and scholarship options are "promise programs." These programs make commitments to low-income students when they are much younger than when students typically apply for aid and have the potential to encourage students to better prepare during high school, develop the social capital they need to navigate the path to college, and pay for growing college costs. In this chapter, the author describes the design and rationale for The Degree Project (TDP), which is the first randomized trial of a promise scholarship in the United States. In addition to the important new evidence the demonstration program will generate, TDP also shows how educators and researchers can work together to provide the insight and answers policy makers need to address very real education gaps.

  12. Ten-year trends in the health of young children in California: 2003 to 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Holtby, Sue; Zahnd, Elaine; Grant, David

    2015-05-01

    This policy brief presents 10-year trends in several key health and wellness indicators for children ages 0-5 in California. These indicators are health insurance coverage; source of medical care; dental visits; overweight-for-age; parents singing and reading to their child and going out with the child; and preschool attendance. The data are from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), the largest state health survey in the U.S. The survey gathers information on a range of health behaviors and health conditions, as well as on access to health care among children, adolescents, and adults in California. A number of these key indicators are compared by income and by racial/ethnic group. This policy brief covers the years 2003 to 2011-2012, a period in which public health efforts for children focused on childhood obesity and improved nutrition, access to low-cost and free dental services, and the expansion of children's health insurance programs. CHIS data show improvement in health insurance coverage and access to dental services for low-income children over the 10-year period. However, the percentage of children who were overweight for their age remained unchanged among those in households with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). In terms of measures associated with school readiness, preschool attendance dropped overall between 2003 and 2011-2012, but the proportions of parents who sang, read, and went out with their children every day increased significantly during the 10-year period.

  13. The Santorini Volcanic Complex: A detailed multi-parameter seismological approach with emphasis on the 2011-2012 unrest period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, P.; Kapetanidis, V.; Karakonstantis, A.; Kaviris, G.; Voulgaris, N.; Makropoulos, K.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is focused on the examination of the state of the recently activated Santorini Volcanic Complex (SVC) area, located in the Southern Aegean Sea. The seismic activity was investigated in detail and different methodologies have been applied to examine whether the SVC area approached an eruptive phase during the 2011-2012 seismic crisis period. The detailed spatiotemporal analysis for the broader study area revealed two different seismic patterns: low seismic activity until 2010, mainly concentrated within the Anydros basin and close to the submarine volcano, Columbo, and activation during 2011 and 2012 of two previously quiescent regions. The first is the Santorini Caldera, which had been active for more than one year, and the second is the area south of Christiana Islands, which was activated in January 2012 with the occurrence of two major events of magnitude 5.1 and 5.2, respectively, followed by a large number of aftershocks. In this study, manual analysis and relocation of the 2011-2012 seismic crisis in the SVC was performed, in order to obtain a high-resolution image of the activated structures. The seismicity within the Santorini Caldera, which is oriented approximately NE-SW, was rapidly diminished after the activation of the Christiana area. A large number of focal mechanisms were determined which mainly indicated strike-slip faulting inside the Caldera. Furthermore, the fault plane solutions of the major events in the area south of Christiana, derived by waveform modeling, also suggested similar type of faulting. This type differs from the normal faults observed in the Anydros basin. However, the stress field in all cases is consistently oriented in a NW-SE direction. Since the Santorini Volcano was seismically activated for the first time after the 1950 eruption, changes of the physical properties of the medium were examined using different approaches to assess the state of the volcano. The shear-wave splitting analysis revealed the

  14. Argo float observations of basin-scale deep convection in the Irminger sea during winter 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Anne; Thierry, Virginie; Mercier, Herlé; Caniaux, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of Argo data obtained during winter 2011-2012 revealed the presence over the Irminger Basin of an exceptionally large number of profiles (41) with mixed layer depths (MLD) exceeding 700 m, which was deep enough to reach the pool of the intermediate Labrador Sea Water located in the Irminger Sea. Four of these profiles exhibited an MLD of 1000 m, which was the maximum value observed for the winter in question. The Argo sampling in the Irminger Sea during that winter, which was 3-4 times greater than for the preceding winters, enabled the different phases of the mixed layer deepening down to 1000 m, together with their spatial extents, to be observed for the first time. Two intense convective periods occurred: in late January south of Cape Farewell and in late February-early March east of Greenland. A final deepening period was observed in mid-March, during which the deepest mixed layers were observed. This long deepening period occurred in large regional areas and was followed by a rapid restratification phase. The temporal evolution of oxygen profiles from one Argo float testifies to the local and rapid ventilation of the mixed layer by the deep convection. A mixed layer heat budget along the trajectories of the 4 floats that sampled the deepest mixed layers showed that heat loss at the air-sea interface was mainly responsible for heat content variations in the mixed layer. Greenland Tip Jets were of primary importance for the development of deep convection in the Irminger Sea in the winter of 2011-2012. They enhanced the winter heat loss and two long (more than 24 h), intense late events close together in time pushed the mixed layer deepening down to 1000 m. Net air-sea fluxes, the number of Greenland Tip Jets, the stratification of the water column, the NAO index and the Ekman-induced heat flux are pertinent indicators to assess conditions that are favorable for the development of deep convection in the Irminger Sea. By considering each of those

  15. Origins and Outcomes: An Essay on the History of Student Aid in California. The Eureka Project: A Review of Student Financial Aid in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    The history of student aid policies in California is reviewed by the Eureka Project to help guide policy formation and review developments that have accounted for past consensus about the state's role in providing student aid. Attention is directed to: the demographic facts that have made student aid important to California; the evolution of…

  16. New actors, financial mechanisms and reformed aid reporting: What role for SRHR in post-2015 financing for development?

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Karen; Stratmann, Johanna; Schaffler, Peter

    2015-05-01

    As governments around the world prepare to adopt a new development framework and supportive financial flows, the OECD Development Assistance Committee is exploring new ways of measuring and reporting on resource flows enabling development, including population assistance. These changes will affect the evidence base, discourse about and donor incentives related to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). They may lead to: i) reduction of grant aid in favour of instruments that are less suitable for SRHR, like loans and market-like instruments; ii) expansion of the range of development stakeholders to include those with market power that can steer the discussion away from the needs of the most under-served populations; and iii) diversion of attention and resources away from SRHR. The discourse over how to provide, incentivize and report on development assistance in the new framework demonstrates the crucial relationship between knowledge, evidence, practice and power in relation to funding for SRHR in developing countries. With all that is at stake, although the OECD debate on the future of the development finance measurement system may seem highly abstract, this is a high-stakes game that SRHR advocates need to have a hand in. Those who seek to improve SRHR are well served to engage in these discussions as early and often as possible before the momentous decisions over the coming months.

  17. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career. PMID:24179019

  18. New actors, financial mechanisms and reformed aid reporting: What role for SRHR in post-2015 financing for development?

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Karen; Stratmann, Johanna; Schaffler, Peter

    2015-05-01

    As governments around the world prepare to adopt a new development framework and supportive financial flows, the OECD Development Assistance Committee is exploring new ways of measuring and reporting on resource flows enabling development, including population assistance. These changes will affect the evidence base, discourse about and donor incentives related to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). They may lead to: i) reduction of grant aid in favour of instruments that are less suitable for SRHR, like loans and market-like instruments; ii) expansion of the range of development stakeholders to include those with market power that can steer the discussion away from the needs of the most under-served populations; and iii) diversion of attention and resources away from SRHR. The discourse over how to provide, incentivize and report on development assistance in the new framework demonstrates the crucial relationship between knowledge, evidence, practice and power in relation to funding for SRHR in developing countries. With all that is at stake, although the OECD debate on the future of the development finance measurement system may seem highly abstract, this is a high-stakes game that SRHR advocates need to have a hand in. Those who seek to improve SRHR are well served to engage in these discussions as early and often as possible before the momentous decisions over the coming months. PMID:26278835

  19. Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in HSE-funded hospitals and nursing homes during the 2011/2012 influenza season.

    PubMed

    O'Lorcain, P; Cotter, S; Hickey, L; O'Flanagan, D; Corcoran, B; O'Meara, M

    2014-03-01

    Annual seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended for all health care workers (HCWs) in Ireland. For the 2011/2012 influenza season, information was collected on influenza vaccination uptake among HCWs employed in Health Service Executive (HSE)-funded hospitals (primarily acute) and of nursing homes (NHs) and also among NH long-term and short-term respite care residents. Forty-five hospitals (80%) and 120 NHs (75%) provided uptake data. Nationally, influenza vaccine uptake among hospital employed HCWs was estimated to be 18% and 14% among HCWs in NHs; in NHs vaccine uptake among long-term care residents was estimated to 88%. These findings highlight the continued low uptake among HCWs of all categories and demonstrate the need for sustained measures to improve uptake rates.

  20. The Effect of Policy Changes of State Scholarship Programs on Enrollment and Financial Aid Awards to Students Attending Two-Year Technical Colleges in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Tonya F.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a policy evaluation of the HOPE Grant Program in the state of Georgia. It examines if the HOPE Grant policy change related to the shifts in enrollment and financial aid awards at two-year technical colleges in Georgia. It particularly focuses on the FY2011 policy change where the GPA was raised from a 2.0 to a 3.0 as a…

  1. Counselors and Mentors Handbook on Federal Student Aid: A Guide for Those Advising Students about Financial Aid for Postsecondary Education. 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Student aid is money provided by the federal government or another entity, such as a school or a state government, to help students pay for college or trade school. The U.S. Department of Education's federal student aid programs deliver billions of dollars to students each year, representing a substantial federal commitment to provide financial…

  2. The intrusion of new magma triggered the 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini: evidence from noble-gas isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, A.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M.; Di Piazza, A.; Francalanci, L.; Sortino, F.; D'Alessandro, W.

    2013-12-01

    Santorini is one of the most famous active volcanoes of the world for its catastrophic explosive eruption that occurred during the Minoan civilization. Since then the Kameni eruptive centers that formed within the caldera erupted repeatedly until 1950. In 2011-2012 the volcano has been characterized by a seismic unrest, that was unprecedented at Santorini at least since the 1950 eruption, and that led to fear for an imminent eruption. Because more than 100,000 visitors are present on the island during the tourist season, and considering the eruptive potential of Santorini, it is crucial to evaluate the hazard of this volcano, which depends on the type of magma actually present in the volcanic system. With the aim to address this question, this research shows the first comparison between noble-gas isotope composition of the present fumarolic gases with that of fluid inclusions hosted in enclaves contained in the 1570 and 1925 AD dacitic magmas erupted at Nea Kameni. These enclaves are a portion of mafic magma batches that replenished the shallow chamber of the plumbing system hosting cooler and more silicic melts. Their Sr-Nd isotope ratios are quite similar to those measured in the host dacitic rocks, implying a common parental magma. Therefore, the analyzed enclaves may be considered representative of the historic magma erupted at Nea Kameni which could be still present in the volcano plumbing system feeding the crater fumaroles. The 3He/4He ratios of enclaves, once corrected for air contamination (3.1-3.6 Ra), partially overlap those of the gases (3.5-4.0 Ra) collected from Nea and Palea Kameni. The range of 3He/4He ratios (3.1-4.0 Ra) is appreciably lower than typical arc volcanoes (R/Ra ~7-8), implying that a contamination by 4He-rich fluids occurred either directly in the mantle and/or in the plumbing system. Comparison of 3He/4He and 4He/40Ar* ratios measured in enclaves with those of gases, as well as long-term monitoring of R/Ra in the latters, coherently

  3. 46 Pct. of All Undergraduates Received Some Form of Financial Aid in Fall 1986, U.S. Study Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    1988-01-01

    The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study by the U.S. Department of Education examines the amount and types of aid students receive nationwide. The study covered aid distributed by the federal government, state governments, colleges and universities, and other sources. (MLW)

  4. Fixing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    For 40 years, federal money has sustained higher education while enabling its worst tendencies. That is about to change. The end may have come on February 12, 2013, when President Barack Obama delivered his State of the Union address. "Skyrocketing costs," the president said, "price way too many young people out of a higher education, or saddle…

  5. Molecular detection and Smoothing spline clustering of the IBV strains detected in China during 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhou, Yingshun; Wang, Hongning; Zeng, Fanya; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Anyun

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly variable virus with a large number of genotypes. During 2011-2012, nineteen wild IBV strains were isolated in China. Sequence analysis showed that these isolates were divided into five sub-clusters: A2-like, CKCHLDL08I-like, SAIBK-like, KM91-like and TW97/4-like. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 1118 sequences available on line suggested that all IBVs were classified into six clusters. The prevalent strains including all the isolates were in cluster VI with a 0.194-0.259 genetic distance to Mass type vaccines. In addition, we introduced the smoothing spline clustering (SSC) method to estimate the highly variable sites for some sub-clusters. The results showed that highly variable sites range from sub-clusters, the N-terminal sequences of 4/91-like, TW97/4-like and Arkansas-like are more variable than other sub-clusters. This is the first time that the SSC method has been used for the evolution study of IBV.

  6. Time-space modeling of the dynamics of Santorini volcano (Greece) during the 2011-2012 unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis C.; Newman, Andrew V.; Flanagan, Kelly; Moschas, Fanis

    2014-11-01

    The 2011-2012 unrest of Santorini (Thera) volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) was associated with microseismicity confined to the Kameni Line (KL), a major tectonovolcanic lineament, and has been regarded as a single magmatic episode, produced by a spherical source derived from inversion of GPS data. However, such a source is a few kilometers away from the KL and cannot explain observed microseismicity. For this reason, we divided the unrest episode into five periods based on the fluctuations of seismicity and deformation rates and investigated the connection between seismicity and two spherical magmatic point sources for each period. Based on a new inversion algorithm and consistent GPS data, we recognized during the volcano unrest episode an unstable pattern of intrusions correlating with both the KL and Columbo Line (CL), a second major tectonovolcanic lineament. Intrusions correlating with CL appear relatively persistent, aseismic, small, and shallow, which is consistent with marine geophysical evidence for arrested shallow dykes and geodetic evidence from a previous inflation episode. During the two periods of intense seismicity, sources close to the KL, explaining seismicity, were obtained. This unstable pattern of intrusions explains both the well-observed location and timing of seismicity as well as ground deformation and is consistent with results of an Okada-type inversion for a sill and a dyke. The stress interactions between the two sources agree with Coulomb failure stress models. Santorini appears to be affected by concurrent offset magma pulses, and only recent activity from a magma pulse below the KL produced microseismic swarms.

  7. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products.

  8. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products. PMID:22914225

  9. Annual Report: 2011-2012 Storm Season Sampling, Non-Dry Dock Stormwater Monitoring for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Rupert, Brian; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhart, Christine

    2013-07-03

    Annual PSNS non-dry dock storm water monitoring results for 2011-2012 storm season. Included are a brief description of the sampling procedures, storm event information, laboratory methods and data collection, a results and discussion section, and the conclusions and recommendations.

  10. Rapid reinflation following the 2011-2012 rhyodacite eruption at Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes) imaged by InSAR: Evidence for magma reservoir refill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Basualto, Daniel; Lazo, Jonathan; Córdova, Loreto; Lara, Luis E.

    2016-09-01

    Cordón Caulle is a large fissural volcano that has erupted rhyodacitic magma of the same composition in its past three historical eruptions in 1921, 1960, and 2011-2012. There was significant ground deformation observed before and during the 2011-2012 eruption—here we use C and X band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series results to document posteruptive uplift up to 0.8 m between March 2012 and May 2015, with line-of-sight rates up to 45 cm/yr that have been largely aseismic, along with subsidence in the 2011-2012 lava flow. The 2012 uplift rate is one of the largest for silicic systems and was likely produced by the intrusion of ~0.125 km3 of magma in the same tectonically controlled plumbing system that has been active during the historical eruptions. Nevertheless, the uplift ended before the reservoir refilled with the erupted volume, maybe due to a change in the pressure gradient produced by the 2011-2012 eruption.

  11. Inside the Vent of the 2011-2012 Cordón Caulle Eruption, Chile: The Nature of a Rhyolitic Ash Plume Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; Castro, J. M.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011-2012 activity at Cordon Caulle has provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe a sustained explosive rhyolitic eruption. An initial 27 hour Plinian phase commenced on 4 June 2011, followed by ten months of hybrid explosive-effusive activity, which generated disruptive ≤6 km ash plumes. In January 2012 our close observations of the active vent[1] revealed how episodic release of gas and ash from several sub-vents on an incipient lava dome (Fig. 1b) merged to form a sustained ash plume. Sub-vents ranged from metric point sources to arcuate fractures (>10 m) in the dome carapace. We visited the vent in January 2014, and found two ~50 m-wide, rubble-strewn vent areas adjacent to pancake-like obsidian domes, all within a breached, ~100 m-high tuff cone. Vent areas consist of fractured obsidian lava strewn by loose, rotated lava blocks ≤5 m across. Prominent red fracture surfaces (Fig. 1 d,e) occur in both the in-situ lava and the blocky veneer; these closely correspond to the type of sub-vents observed in 2012[1]. They range from smooth, curviplanar surfaces extending over several m to complex smaller-scale surfaces that follow pre-existing cooling joints in the lava carapace. In-situ fracture surfaces display prominent, predominantly vertical grooves and impact marks, but negligible displacement. Surfaces are coated by μm-mm thick veneers of fine-grained ash, to which larger ash-coated clasts have adhered. Veneer thickness and sintering degree strongly decrease towards the upper carapace of the lava. SEM analysis of ash veneers reveals 1) a high proportion of sub-micron clasts, 2) strong clast sintering, 3) abundant ash aggregation textures spanning submicron-mm scales, and 4) local surface scouring and corrosion of glass and phenocrysts. During ash venting the smallest particles are preferentially trapped on fracture surfaces and rapidly sintered, encouraging sub-vent blockage. Extensive ash aggregation may have been electrostatically aided, with

  12. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents. PMID:27171604

  13. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0-17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6-29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  16. Are urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons associated with adult hypertension, heart attack, and cancer? USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-11-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols and pesticides. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons and adult cardiovascular disease and cancer using human sample in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012, including demographics, self-reported health conditions and urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of 5560 American adults aged 20-80 and included in the statistical analysis, urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons (representatively in one-third sample) were observed to be higher in people with cardiovascular disease and total cancer. In particular, urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene was associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.76, P = 0.048, PAR 5.1%), urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was significantly associated with heart attack (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.05-2.06, P = 0.027, PAR 1.7%), and urinary 2-hydroxynapthalene (2-naphthol) was associated with cancer (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.12-1.90, P = 0.008, PAR 3.9%). Urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons were associated with adult hypertension, heart attack and cancer, although the causality cannot be established. From the research perspective, future studies with a longitudinal or experimental approach would be suggested. From the law and public health perspectives, regulation on minimizing exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies and intervention programs.

  17. Minimal inhibitory concentration of microorganisms causing surgical site infection in referral hospitals in North of Iran, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, Ahmad; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Foroutan Alizadegan, Laleh; Shojaeefar, Arman; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: A surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common nosocomial infection after surgery and is the third most common infection in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to asses minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the causing agents of SSI and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in three referral hospitals in North of Iran during 2011-2012. The samples were taken one month after orthopedic, abdominal, cesarean section surgery and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with scores compatible to SSIs criteria. The sample was sent for bacteriologic culture and MIC determination for positive cases by broth microdilution method. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: From 103 positive cases S. aureus, E.coli and coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common isolated agents as 29.12%, 23.3% and 21.3%, respectively. S. aureus was sensitive to vancomycin (70%), amikacin (70%) and teicoplanin (76.6%) and cogulase negative staphylococci was sensitive to vancomycin (68.1%) and teicoplanin (72.6%) and E.coli to amikacin (95.83%) and imipenem and meropenem (66.66%). P.aeroginosa showed no sensitivity to cefepime and was sensitive to imipenem (93.75%) and meropenem (81.25%). Conclusion: The most important point is worrisome problem of the increased MIC of S. aureus to vancomycin that causes difficult use in the treatment of staphylococcal SSIs. In spite of resistance of micro-organisms to cephalosporins, gram negative organisms had low MIC to carbapenemes especially P.aeroginosa although the rate of its MIC is increasing. PMID:26221495

  18. Serum selenium and lipid levels: Associations observed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen

    2015-07-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and due to its antioxidant activity, is hypothesized to be beneficial to cardiovascular health. However, the evidence for an association between selenium and health markers such as lipid levels has been mixed. This may be due to substantial variability in the level of selenium intake between populations and potential non-linearity of selenium-health outcome associations. We used the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between serum selenium and lipid levels among participants aged 12 years and older. Associations were evaluated using both linear regression models, as well as ordinal logistic regression and quantile regression models to allow for potential non-linear relationships. In all models, potential confounders of sex, age group, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and cotinine were included. Overall, 40% of participants had total cholesterol levels classified as borderline or elevated, and total cholesterol increased with increasing selenium (p=0.01). A similar pattern was seen for triglycerides (p=0.02). LDL cholesterol was also associated with selenium but not in a linear fashion; HDL cholesterol did not vary with selenium. Multivariate quantile regression showed significant associations between selenium and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The effect of selenium was stronger with increasing quantile for total cholesterol and for triglycerides. In contrast, for LDL cholesterol the association was positive in the 10th and 50th percentiles, but (non-significant and) negative in the 90th percentile. These results show that while selenium may impact cardiovascular health via effects on lipid levels, the associations may not be linear.

  19. Assessing exposure to tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK using its urinary metabolite NNAL measured in US population: 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binnian; Blount, Benjamin C; Xia, Baoyun; Wang, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are found only in tobacco and derived products. Food and Drug Administration of the United States (US FDA) lists NNK as one of the 93 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) found in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to use the urinary concentration of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a major metabolite of NNK, to quantitatively estimate exposure to NNK in the US general population. In 2011-2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected urine and serum samples from a representative sample of US residents. We used a serum cotinine cutoff of 10 ng/ml with combination of questionnaire data to select non-users from cigarette users and used self-reported data to determine different tobacco product user groups. We estimated the absorbed total daily dose of NNK using a probabilistic method based on a two-compartment model. The geometric mean (GM) for the daily dose of NNK among smokers aged 12-16 years was significantly higher than that for non-users at the same age stage exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) (P<0.001). Among those exposed to SHS, the GM for daily dose of NNK in young children (6-11 years) was nearly three times of those for adults in the age range 21-59 years. Among cigarette users, non-Hispanic Whites had the highest NNK daily dose and Mexican Americans had the lowest levels. Exclusive snuff or chewing product users had significantly higher daily dose of NNK than did cigarette smokers. Our study found that the maximum daily dose of NNK for children aged from 6 to 11 years and that for a significant percentage of cigarette users, chewing product and snuff users were higher than an estimated provisional "reference" risk level.

  20. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. IV. The Fourth Year (2011-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Miller, Ian; Noguchi, Ryo; Akasaka, Chihiro; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nakazato, Takuma; Nomoto, Takashi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ono, Rikako; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Stein, William; Henden, Arne; de Miguel, Enrique Kiyota, Seiichiro; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Takagi, Ryosuke; Wakabayashi, Yuya; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Pickard, Roger D.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Littlefield, Colin; Sabo, Richard; Ruiz, Javier; Krajci, Thomas; Dvorak, Shawn; Oksanen, Arto; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Monard, Berto; Shears, Jeremy; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pietz, Jochen; Katysheva, Natalia; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Malanushenko, Viktor; Martinelli, Fabio; Denisenko, Denis; Stockdale, Chris; Starr, Peter; Simonsen, Mike; Tristram, Paul J.; Fukui, Akihiko; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Paxson, Kevin B.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Kryachko, Timur V.; Samokhvalov, Andrey V.; Korotkiy, Stanislav A.; Satovski, Boris L.; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Muyllaert, Eddy; Gerke, Vladimir; MacDonald, Walter, II; Linnolt, Michael; Maeda, Yutaka; Hautecler, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 86 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2011-2012 season. We confirmed general trends recorded in our previous studies, such as the relation between period derivatives and orbital periods. There are some systems showing positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period. We observed the 2011 outburst of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova BW Scl, and recorded an O - C diagram similar to those of previously known WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. The WZ Sge-type dwarf nova OT J184228.1+483742 showed an unusual pattern of double outbursts composed of an outburst with early superhumps and one with ordinary superhumps. We propose an interpretation that a very small growth rate of the 3:1 resonance due to an extremely low mass-ratio led to quenching the superoutburst before the ordinary superhump appeared. We systematically studied ER UMa-type dwarf novae, and found that V1159 Ori showed positive superhumps similar to ER UMa in the 1990s. The recently recognized ER UMa-type object BK Lyn dominantly showed negative superhumps, and its behavior was very similar to the present-day state of ER UMa. The pattern of period variations in AM CVn-type objects was very similar to that of short-period hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae, making them a helium analogue of hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae. SBS 1108+574, a peculiar hydrogen-rich dwarf nova below the period minimum, showed a very similar pattern of period variations to those of short-period SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The mass-ratio derived from the detected orbital period suggests that this secondary is a somewhat evolved star whose hydrogen envelope was mostly stripped during the mass-exchange. CC Scl, MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4, and OT J173516.9+154708 showed only low-amplitude superhumps with complex profiles. These superhumps are likely to be a combination of two closely separated periods.

  1. Assessing exposure to tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK using its urinary metabolite NNAL measured in US population: 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binnian; Blount, Benjamin C; Xia, Baoyun; Wang, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are found only in tobacco and derived products. Food and Drug Administration of the United States (US FDA) lists NNK as one of the 93 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) found in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to use the urinary concentration of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a major metabolite of NNK, to quantitatively estimate exposure to NNK in the US general population. In 2011-2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected urine and serum samples from a representative sample of US residents. We used a serum cotinine cutoff of 10 ng/ml with combination of questionnaire data to select non-users from cigarette users and used self-reported data to determine different tobacco product user groups. We estimated the absorbed total daily dose of NNK using a probabilistic method based on a two-compartment model. The geometric mean (GM) for the daily dose of NNK among smokers aged 12-16 years was significantly higher than that for non-users at the same age stage exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) (P<0.001). Among those exposed to SHS, the GM for daily dose of NNK in young children (6-11 years) was nearly three times of those for adults in the age range 21-59 years. Among cigarette users, non-Hispanic Whites had the highest NNK daily dose and Mexican Americans had the lowest levels. Exclusive snuff or chewing product users had significantly higher daily dose of NNK than did cigarette smokers. Our study found that the maximum daily dose of NNK for children aged from 6 to 11 years and that for a significant percentage of cigarette users, chewing product and snuff users were higher than an estimated provisional "reference" risk level. PMID:25564369

  2. The 2011-2012 summit activity of Mount Etna: Birth, growth and products of the new SE crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behncke, Boris; Branca, Stefano; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; De Beni, Emanuela; Miraglia, Lucia; Proietti, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Between January 2011 and April 2012, the Southeast Crater (SEC) on Mount Etna was the site of 25 episodes of lava fountaining, which led to the construction of a new pyroclastic cone on the eastern flank of the SEC. During these episodes lava overflows reached 4.3 km in length with an area of 3.19 km2 and a volume of 28 × 106 m3. The new cone, informally called New Southeast Crater (NSEC), grew over a pre-existing subsidence depression (pit crater), which had been formed in 2007-2009. The evolution of the NSEC cone was documented from its start by repeated GPS surveys carried out both from a distance and on the cone itself, and by the acquisition of comparison photographs. These surveys reveal that after the cessation of the lava fountains in April 2012, the highest point of the NSEC stood 190 m above the pre-cone surface, while the cone volume was about 19 × 106 m3, representing 38% of the total (bulk) volume of the volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout erupted in 2011-2012, which is 50 × 106 m3 (about 33 × 106 m3 dense-rock equivalent). Growth of the new cone took place exclusively during the paroxysmal phases of the lava fountaining episodes, which were nearly always rather brief (on the average 2 h). Overall, the paroxysmal phases of all 25 episodes represent 51 h of lava fountaining activity — the time needed to build the cone. This is the fastest documented growth of a newborn volcanic cone both in terms of volume and height. Mean effusion rates during the lava fountaining episodes on 20 August 2011 (E11), as well as 12 and 24 April 2012 (E24 and E25) exceeded 500 m3/s (with maximum rates of 980 m3/s during E11) and thus they are among the highest effusion rates ever recorded at Etna. The composition of the erupted products varies in time, reflecting different rates of magma supply into the shallow feeding system, but without notable effects on the eruptive phenomenology. This implies that the dynamics leading to the episodic lava fountaining

  3. The effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy: is it from being paid or from the extra aid?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Financial incentives appear to be effective in promoting smoking cessation in pregnancy. The mechanisms by which they might operate however, are poorly understood. The present study examines how financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy may work, by exploring pregnant women's experiences of trying to stop smoking, within and outside of a financial incentives scheme. Methods Thirty-six (n = 36) UK-based pregnant smokers (n = 36), offered standard NHS Stop-Smoking Services, of whom twenty (n = 20) were enrolled in a financial incentives scheme for smoking cessation (n = 20) and sixteen (n = 16) were not, were interviewed about (i) their motivation to stop smoking, and (ii) the factors they perceived as influencing their quitting efforts. Framework Analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Women in the two groups reported similar reasons for wanting to stop smoking during pregnancy. However, they described dissimilar experiences of the Stop-Smoking Services, which they perceived to have differentially influenced their quit attempts. Women who were incentivised reported using the services more than women who were not incentivised. In addition, they described the motivating experience of being monitored and receiving feedback on their progress. Non-incentivised women reported problems receiving the appropriate Nicotine Replacement Therapy, which they described as having a detrimental effect on their quitting efforts. Conclusion Women participating in a financial incentives scheme to stop smoking reported greater engagement with the Stop-Smoking Services, from which they described receiving more help in quitting than women who were not part of the scheme. These results highlight the complexity of financial incentives schemes and the intricacies surrounding the ways in which they operate to affect smoking cessation. These might involve influencing individuals' motivation and self-regulation, changing engagement with and provision of

  4. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  5. State of Alaska Student Financial Aid Programs: Annual Report, 1987-1988. Document Number 89-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This report summarizes the participation levels of the five postsecondary, financial assistance programs in the state of Alaska for 1987-88. The Alaska Student Loan Program (ASLP) awarded approximately 17,000 loans during the period; 53.8% of which went to students attending an institution in Alaska, while 26.7% were awarded to freshmen. The…

  6. An Exploratory Study of College Purchase Options: How Financial Aid Widens Minorities' Choices. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Catherine M.; MacKenzie, Susan

    This study examined, over a 3-year period, the ability of financial assistance for minority students to bridge the gap between generic higher education and the high-prestige, high-cost institutions that are associated with long-term economic benefits to graduates. Applying a variation of the status attainment model to data for the 1989-1990…

  7. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  8. In vitro neuraminidase inhibitory activity of four neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza virus isolates in the 2011-2012 season in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2014-02-01

    The neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®), zanamivir (Relenza®), laninamivir octanoate (Inavir®), and peramivir (Rapiacta®) have been available for the treatment of influenza in Japan since 2010. To assess the extent of viral resistance, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of each drug for influenza virus isolates from the 2011-2012 influenza season. Specimens were obtained from patients prior to treatment. Viral isolation was done using Madine-Darby canine kidney cells, and the type and subtype of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), or influenza B were determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC₅₀ was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. The lineage of influenza B virus was determined by direct sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene. Influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses were isolated in 283 and 42 patients, respectively, while no influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was isolated. No isolate showed an IC₅₀ value exceeding 50 nM for any of the neuraminidase inhibitors. IC50 values for A(H3N2) were similar between the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 seasons. In contrast, the IC₅₀ values for influenza B viruses in the 2011-2012 season to the four drugs were significantly lower than those found in the 2010-2011 season. These results indicate that the currently epidemic influenza viruses are susceptible to all four neuraminidase inhibitors, with no trend for IC₅₀ values to increase in Japan at present.

  9. High effusion rates of the Cordón Caulle 2011-2012 eruption (Southern Andes) and their relation with the quasi-harmonic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, D.; Lara, L. E.; Basualto, D.; Amigo, Á.; Cardona, C.; Franco, L.; Gil, F.; Lazo, J.

    2015-09-01

    High effusion rates of intermediate-to-high-silica lavas seem to be less uncommon than previously thought, in particular during their initial eruptive stages. In this study, we report satellite-based time-averaged discharge rates for the 2011-2012 effusive phase at Cordón Caulle, which are well correlated with the evolution of the quasi-harmonic tremor, the most significant seismic signal after the initial explosive stage. Such a correspondence could become a key method for detection of the onset of effusive phases, especially in remote and/or very cloudy areas, supplying an additional tool for effective warnings and near-real-time hazard appraisal.

  10. Student Financial Aid Systems: Absence of Guiding Architecture Reduces Efficiency, Ease of Use. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemssen, Joel C.

    This testimony is an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's progress in integrating its National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS) with other student financial aid systems, as required by law. NSLDS was authorized under the 1986 Higher Education Act amendments as a means to improve compliance with repayment and loan-limitation provisions,…

  11. Improving Access to Student Financial Aid Information. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Government Information and Regulation of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    This document presents testimony and prepared statements concerning the lack of information about educational and career opportunities for young people beyond high school, and the need for improving access to student financial aid information so that economically disadvantaged students have the opportunity to go on to higher education. Witnesses…

  12. Graduation Rates for Selected Cohorts, 2006-11; Student Financial Aid, Academic Year 2013-14; and Admissions in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2014. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2015-181

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2015-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the IPEDS winter 2014-15 data collection, which included four survey components: (1) Graduation Rates (GR); (2) 200 Percent Graduation Rates (GR200); (3) Student Financial Aid (SFA); and (4) Admissions (ADM). GR and GR200 present graduation rates for selected cohorts within…

  13. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Significant Risks Remain to Department of Education's Student Financial Aid Systems. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemssen, Joel C.

    This testimony discusses the risks faced by the U.S. Department of Education due to the year 2000 (Y2K) computing crisis, focusing on student financial aid systems, the actions the Department has taken in recent months to address these risks, and the key issues the Department must deal with if its computer systems are to be ready for the century…

  14. CONFERENCE OF LARGE CITY BOARDS OF EDUCATION OF NEW YORK STATE, AN ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND FINANCIAL NEEDS OF LARGE CITIES IN N.Y. STATE WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REVISION OF THE STATE AID FORMULAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, AARON; AND OTHERS

    SUGGESTED IS THE SERIOUS CONSIDERATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS BY ALL PERSONS AND AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH A REALISTIC REVISION OF THE STATE-AID PATTERN AIMED AT MEETING TODAY'S EDUCATIONAL NEEDS. DATA AND EMPHASES RELATE TO FACTORS CHARACTERISTIC OF LARGE CITIES. COST DATA ARE BASED ON CURRENT PRACTICE, WITH ITS FINANCIAL LIMITATIONS. RECOMMENDATIONS…

  15. The Impact of Financial Aid on the Enrollment and Retention of Student Athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandre, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to review current literature on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at NCAA Division III institutions. However, the review identifies very few studies that specifically focused on Division III programs and none that looks at the influence of financial aid on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at…

  16. Federal Student Financial Aid Delivery Systems. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Hearing Held in Missoula, Montana, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The U.S. House Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor met in Missoula, Montana for an oversight hearing on the student aid delivery system. An opening statement from Pat Williams is followed by a report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance on the issue of multiple data entry (MDE)…

  17. Undergraduates with Employer-Sponsored Aid: Comparing Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney G.; Wang, Zhenlei

    2014-01-01

    Tuition assistance offered by employers is an understudied area of financial aid research. The purpose of this study is to compare the demographic, socioeconomic, academic and financial aid characteristics of college students who receive employer-sponsored financial aid with students who receive traditional financial aid (institutional, state, or…

  18. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  19. Volcanic Unrest of Fogo Volcano in 2011-2012, S.Miguel Island, Azores, Observed by Continuous and Campaign GPS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Ferreira, Teresa; Gaspar, Joao; Lorenzo, Maria; Araujo, Joao; Rodriques, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions can occur after long time of dormancy as has been seen from the recent examples: Mount St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991, Unzen 1991, Soufrière Hills volcano 1995, Chaitén 2008, and Eyjafjallajökull 2010. By utilizing space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR, it has been reported that the inflation-deflation processes exist at several dormant volcanoes in the world, but the mechanism responsible for this phenomena is still controversial. Fundamental questions such as magma vs. hydrothermal fluids and volcanic vs. tectonic process remain unanswered in many cases. In this study, we analyze both continuous and campaign GPS data from Fogo volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores. Although no geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion were reported during the past seismic swarm episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012), geophysical data, both seismic and ground deformation, indicate possible volcanic sources. GPS time series spanned 2008-2013 period characterize tectonic plate divergence between Eurasian and Nubian, and reveal two different types of ground deformation associated with the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest of Fogo. One is the permanent edifice-scale inflation centered at NE summit which corresponds to the increase of volcano-tectonic events. Another is the subsequent minor-scale inflation-deflation reversals between Congro, a trachyte maar, east of Fogo and Furnas volcano. Calculated strain rates and GPS campaign results indicate that the 2011-2012 deformation is one order smaller than the previous unrest episode. A strong similarity exists to Matsushiro earthquake swarm (1965-1966) and Campi Flegrei volcanic unrests (1969-1972 and 1982-1984), which is the coexistence of an edifice-scale main inflation associated with intense volcano-tectonic earthquakes with inflation to deflation reversal that coincided with a sharp drop of seismicity. High recovery rate of inflation-deflation may be an indicator for the existence of

  20. Finding Financial Resources for Adult Learners: Profiles for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    A variety of special financial aid practices that colleges have created to meet the needs of adult students are described, based on a 1983 survey of financial aid directors from more than 100 colleges. Information is provided on campus-based sources of financial aid such as: credit for prior learning programs, financial and career information…

  1. Locating magma reservoirs using InSAR and petrology before and during the 2011-2012 Cordón Caulle silicic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, Jennifer; Costa, Fidel; Pritchard, Matthew; Lara, Luis; Singer, Bradley; Herrin, Jason

    2014-06-01

    We combine petrological and InSAR observations to probe the origin of deformation of Cordón Caulle volcano in Southern Chile before and during the 2011-2012 eruption. The erupted rhyodacite is crystal-poor and was stored at about 900 °C with ca. 4 wt% H2O and 220 ppm CO2 in the melt, corresponding to a storage depth of about 6-7 km. In addition to a previously documented 2007-2008 deformation episode, we find three pre-eruptive deformation episodes: the first between 2008 and 2009 that covers ∼400 km2 with a maximum uplift of 18.5 cm, the second between February and March 2010 that covers ∼20 km2 with a maximum uplift of 10 cm, and the third between March and May 2011 that covers ∼40 km2 with a maximum uplift of 6 cm. Modeling of the 2008-2009 deformation episode suggests source depths of about 5-9 km, consistent with the petrologically determined magma storage depth. The sum of modeled source volume changes from 2007 to 2009 is about 12 times smaller than the observed erupted volume. Our calculation of magma compressibility shows that there must have been a significant volume of pre-existing magma in the reservoir to account for this difference. Co-eruptive subsidence shows evidence for three distinct magma sources, and pre-eruptive inflation is seen at two of the three sources. Modeled deformation sources are located 2-10 km from the 2011-2012 eruptive vent and coincide with the vents from previous historical eruptions (1921-22, 1960) and with the neighboring Puyehue volcano. This implies the existence of an interconnected magma plumbing system that allows for pressure transfer and which covers an area of at least 20 km2. Thus, the deformation and geochemical characteristics of Cordón Caulle resemble those of a large silicic caldera system. The presence of a mafic crystal clot demonstrates the existence of basaltic melts in the silicic reservoir, but we find that the mafic magmas reached the reservoir at least several hundred years before eruption

  2. InSAR and GPS measurements along the Kivu segment of the East African Rift System during the 2011-2012 Nyamulagira volcanic eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Adriano; Geirsson, Halldor; Smets, Benoît; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François

    2016-04-01

    Along the East African Rift System (EARS), magma intrusions represent a major component in continental rifting. When these intrusions reach the surface, they cause volcanic eruptions. This is the case of the last flank eruption of Nyamulagira, which occurred from November 6 2011 to April 2012. Nyamulagira is an active shield volcano with a central caldera, located in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, along the Kivu segment of the East African Rift System. From 1948 to 2012, Nyamulagira mostly showed a particular eruptive cycle with 1) classical short-lived (i.e., 20-30 days) flank eruptions, sometimes accompanied with intracrateral activity, which occurred every 1-4 years on average, and 2) less frequent long-lived (i.e., several months) eruptions usually emitting larger volumes of lava that take place at larger distance (>8 km) from the central caldera. The 2011-2012 Nyamulagira eruption is of that second type. Here we used InSAR data from different satellite (Envisat, Cosmo SkyMed, TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT) to measure pre-, co and post-eruptive ground displacement associated with the Nyamulagira 2011-2012 eruption. Results suggest that a magma intrusion preceded by two days the eruption. This intrusion corresponded to the migration of magma from a shallow reservoir (~3km) below the caldera to the two eruptive fissures located ~11 km ENE of the central edifice. Available seismic data are in agreement with InSAR results showing increased seismic activity since November 4 2011, with long- and short-period earthquakes swarms. Using analytical models we invert the measured ground displacements during the first co-eruptive month to evaluate the deformation source parameters and the mechanism of magma emplacement for this eruption. GPS data from permanent stations in the KivuGNet network are used to constrain the temporal evolution of the eruption and evaluate far-field deformation, while the InSAR data is more sensitive to the near-field deformation

  3. Does Merit-Based Aid "Crowd Out" Need-Based Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of merit-based state financial aid programs has had several first order effects, such as changes in enrollment. However, these programs may also have second order effects, such as declining state support for need-based state financial aid programs. I hypothesize that the advent of merit-based state financial aid may be an example of…

  4. [Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity according to gender and color/race: the Pro-Health Study, 1999-2001 and 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional data from the Pro-Health Study in 1999-2001 and 2011-2012 revealed important gender and color/race differences in the size and variation across time in educational inequalities related to abdominal obesity. Probability of obesity increased steadily in women (independently of color/race) and men (brown/black) with less schooling. These gradients were quantified according to the relative index of inequality (RII). Over the course of the decade, there was a reduction in inequality in brown/black women (ΔRII: 0.5; 95%CI: 0.2-1.1), underlying a relatively higher increase in the prevalence of abdominal obesity in women with more schooling. RII was stable in white women and brown/black men, indicating a similar increase in the prevalence of abdominal obesity in educational subgroups. The association between schooling and abdominal obesity was affected by the multiple interaction of socio-demographic factors. Our results recommend joint stratification by gender and color/race in the study of socioeconomic inequalities related to abdominal obesity.

  5. Vertical profiles of aerosol and black carbon in the Arctic: a seasonal phenomenology along 2 years (2011-2012) of field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Luca; Cappelletti, David; Busetto, Maurizio; Mazzola, Mauro; Lupi, Angelo; Lanconelli, Christian; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Caiazzo, Laura; Giardi, Fabio; Moroni, Beatrice; Crocchianti, Stefano; Fierz, Martin; Močnik, Griša; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Perrone, Maria G.; Maturilli, Marion; Vitale, Vito; Udisti, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-10-01

    We present results from a systematic study of vertical profiles of aerosol number size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentrations conducted in the Arctic, over Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard). The campaign lasted 2 years (2011-2012) and resulted in 200 vertical profiles measured by means of a tethered balloon (up to 1200 m a.g.l.) during the spring and summer seasons. In addition, chemical analysis of filter samples, aerosol size distribution and a full set of meteorological parameters were determined at ground. The collected experimental data allowed a classification of the vertical profiles into different typologies, which allowed us to describe the seasonal phenomenology of vertical aerosol properties in the Arctic. During spring, four main types of profiles were found and their behavior was related to the main aerosol and atmospheric dynamics occurring at the measuring site. Background conditions generated homogenous profiles. Transport events caused an increase of aerosol concentration with altitude. High Arctic haze pollution trapped below thermal inversions promoted a decrease of aerosol concentration with altitude. Finally, ground-based plumes of locally formed secondary aerosol determined profiles with decreasing aerosol concentration located at different altitude as a function of size. During the summer season, the impact from shipping caused aerosol and BC pollution plumes to be constrained close to the ground, indicating that increasing shipping emissions in the Arctic could bring anthropogenic aerosol and BC in the Arctic summer, affecting the climate.

  6. Isolation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from HIV Patients Referring to HIV Referral Center, Shiraz, Iran, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Parvin; Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Mardaneh, Jalal; Rezai, Esmaeel; Motamedifar, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Extension of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains is one of the problems of modern society. Presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in HIV-infected individuals is an important cause of severe infections. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of MRSA carriage rate among HIV patients referring to the Shiraz HIV referral center (Shiraz, Iran) during 2011-2012. Nasal swabs were obtained from HIV positive patients and were cultured on differential and selective media to isolate Staphylococcus aureus, which was confirmed by standard biochemical tests. For isolation of MRSA isolates, bacterial suspensions were cultured on Muller-Hinton Agar containing NaCl and Oxacillin. Finally, data were analyzed by the SPSS software. Of 180 HIV patients, MRSA was isolated from nasal cavity of 23 (12.8%) patients. Most of the isolates were recovered from male subjects who were under 40 years old. No variables such as skin disease, history of hospitalization or infectious disease had significant association with the MRSA colonization rate. The presence of MRSA isolates in the nasal cavity of HIV patients in such a rate warns us about the potential spreading of MRSA among HIV patients in our society and emphasizes on establishing better prevention strategies.

  7. Population susceptibility to a variant swine-origin influenza virus A(H3N2) in Vietnam, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hoa, L N M; Bryant, J E; Choisy, M; Nguyet, L A; Bao, N T; Trang, N H; Chuc, N T K; Toan, T K; Saito, T; Takemae, N; Horby, P; Wertheim, H; Fox, A

    2015-10-01

    A reassortant swine-origin A(H3N2) virus (A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010) was detected through swine surveillance programmes in southern Vietnam in 2010. This virus contains haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from a human A(H3N2) virus circulating around 2004-2006, and the internal genes from triple-reassortant swine influenza A viruses (IAVs). To assess population susceptibility to this virus we measured haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titres to A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010 and to seasonal A/Perth/16/2009 for 947 sera collected from urban and rural Vietnamese people during 2011-2012. Seroprevalence (HI ⩾ 40) was high and similar for both viruses, with 62·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 59·4-65·7] against A/Perth/16/2009 and 54·6% (95% CI 51·4-57·8%) against A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010, and no significant differences between urban and rural participants. Children aged <5 years lacked antibodies to the swine origin H3 virus despite high seroprevalence for A/Perth/16/2009. These results reveal vulnerability to infection to this contemporary swine IAV in children aged <5 years; however, cross-reactive immunity in adults would likely limit epidemic emergence potential. PMID:25761949

  8. [Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity according to gender and color/race: the Pro-Health Study, 1999-2001 and 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional data from the Pro-Health Study in 1999-2001 and 2011-2012 revealed important gender and color/race differences in the size and variation across time in educational inequalities related to abdominal obesity. Probability of obesity increased steadily in women (independently of color/race) and men (brown/black) with less schooling. These gradients were quantified according to the relative index of inequality (RII). Over the course of the decade, there was a reduction in inequality in brown/black women (ΔRII: 0.5; 95%CI: 0.2-1.1), underlying a relatively higher increase in the prevalence of abdominal obesity in women with more schooling. RII was stable in white women and brown/black men, indicating a similar increase in the prevalence of abdominal obesity in educational subgroups. The association between schooling and abdominal obesity was affected by the multiple interaction of socio-demographic factors. Our results recommend joint stratification by gender and color/race in the study of socioeconomic inequalities related to abdominal obesity. PMID:26981869

  9. Fractal Structure with a Resonance Pattern during El Hierro 2011-2012 Volcano-Seismic Crisis: A Possible New Prediction Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Roberto; Hernandez, Pedro; Perez, Nemesio

    2013-04-01

    A resonance pattern in the number of earthquakes profile has been observed during the recent 2011-2012 period of volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island, Canary Islands. This pattern has allowed us to predicting the ratio number of earthquakes and also offered a fractal profile. Some general mathematical functions have been deduced from the observed resonance phenomenon of the El Hierro submarine eruption related to the number of earthquakes. It is known that the resonance phenomenon occurring in nature usually denote a structure, symmetry or a subjacent law (Fermi et al., 1952; and later- about enhanced cross-sections symmetry in protons collisions), which, in this case, may be indicative of magmatic interactions showing a sequence not completely chaotic but cyclic provided with symmetries. Turbulent phenomena of the magma flow, at a very deep level (maybe convective), with a well-defined structure, may be becoming apparent with the resonances and fractal nature observed, since the number of the seismic movements of the crust may be a measurable conformational effect of the magma movements themselves. The resonance and fractal models allowed making predictions in cycles from a few weeks to months.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments.

  11. Audit system on Quality of breast cancer diagnosis and Treatment (QT): results of quality indicators on screen-detected lesions in Italy, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Antonio; Mano, Maria Piera; Tomatis, Mariano; Baiocchi, Diego; Barca, Alessandra; Berti, Rosa; Casella, Denise; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Delos, Erika; Donati, Giovanni; Falcini, Fabio; Frammartino, Brunella; Frigerio, Alfonso; Giudici, Fabiola; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Olla Atzeni, Carlo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Pagano, Giovanni; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Pitarella, Sabina; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Silvestri, Anna; Taffurelli, Mario; Tidone, Enrica; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-01-01

    This annual survey, conducted by the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa), collects individual data on diagnosis and treatment of about 50% of screen-detected, operated lesions in Italy. The 2011-2012 results show good overall quality and an improving trend over time. A number of critical issues have been identified, including waiting times (which have had a worsening trend over the years) and compliance with the recommendation of not performing frozen section examination on small lesions. Pre-operative diagnosis improved constantly over time, but there is still a large variation between Regions and programmes. For almost 90% of screen-detected invasive cancers a sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed on the axilla, avoiding a large number of potentially harmful dissections. On the other hand, potential overuse of SLN dissection for ductal carcinoma in situ, although apparently starting to decline, deserves further investigation. The detailed results have been distributed, among other ways by means of a web-based data-warehouse, to regional and local screening programmes, in order to allow multidisciplinary discussion and identification of the appropriate solutions to any issues documented by the data. The problem of waiting times should be assigned priority. Specialist Breast Units with adequate case volume and enough resources would provide the best setting for making monitoring effective in producing quality improvements with shorter waiting times.

  12. Isolation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from HIV Patients Referring to HIV Referral Center, Shiraz, Iran, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Parvin; Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Mardaneh, Jalal; Rezai, Esmaeel; Motamedifar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Extension of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains is one of the problems of modern society. Presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in HIV-infected individuals is an important cause of severe infections. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of MRSA carriage rate among HIV patients referring to the Shiraz HIV referral center (Shiraz, Iran) during 2011-2012. Nasal swabs were obtained from HIV positive patients and were cultured on differential and selective media to isolate Staphylococcus aureus, which was confirmed by standard biochemical tests. For isolation of MRSA isolates, bacterial suspensions were cultured on Muller-Hinton Agar containing NaCl and Oxacillin. Finally, data were analyzed by the SPSS software. Of 180 HIV patients, MRSA was isolated from nasal cavity of 23 (12.8%) patients. Most of the isolates were recovered from male subjects who were under 40 years old. No variables such as skin disease, history of hospitalization or infectious disease had significant association with the MRSA colonization rate. The presence of MRSA isolates in the nasal cavity of HIV patients in such a rate warns us about the potential spreading of MRSA among HIV patients in our society and emphasizes on establishing better prevention strategies. PMID:26538782

  13. Audit system on Quality of breast cancer diagnosis and Treatment (QT): results of quality indicators on screen-detected lesions in Italy, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Antonio; Mano, Maria Piera; Tomatis, Mariano; Baiocchi, Diego; Barca, Alessandra; Berti, Rosa; Casella, Denise; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Delos, Erika; Donati, Giovanni; Falcini, Fabio; Frammartino, Brunella; Frigerio, Alfonso; Giudici, Fabiola; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Olla Atzeni, Carlo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Pagano, Giovanni; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Pitarella, Sabina; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Silvestri, Anna; Taffurelli, Mario; Tidone, Enrica; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-01-01

    This annual survey, conducted by the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa), collects individual data on diagnosis and treatment of about 50% of screen-detected, operated lesions in Italy. The 2011-2012 results show good overall quality and an improving trend over time. A number of critical issues have been identified, including waiting times (which have had a worsening trend over the years) and compliance with the recommendation of not performing frozen section examination on small lesions. Pre-operative diagnosis improved constantly over time, but there is still a large variation between Regions and programmes. For almost 90% of screen-detected invasive cancers a sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed on the axilla, avoiding a large number of potentially harmful dissections. On the other hand, potential overuse of SLN dissection for ductal carcinoma in situ, although apparently starting to decline, deserves further investigation. The detailed results have been distributed, among other ways by means of a web-based data-warehouse, to regional and local screening programmes, in order to allow multidisciplinary discussion and identification of the appropriate solutions to any issues documented by the data. The problem of waiting times should be assigned priority. Specialist Breast Units with adequate case volume and enough resources would provide the best setting for making monitoring effective in producing quality improvements with shorter waiting times. PMID:26405775

  14. Evolution of H2O, CO, and CO2 production in Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd during the 2011-2012 apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Adam J.; Cochran, Anita L.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo; Russo, Neil Dello; Vervack, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Chanover, Nancy J.

    2015-04-01

    We present analysis of high spectral resolution NIR spectra of CO and H2O in Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) taken during its 2011-2012 apparition with the CSHELL instrument on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also present analysis of observations of atomic oxygen in Comet Garradd obtained with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the ARC 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and the Tull Coude spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. The observations of atomic oxygen serve as a proxy for H2O and CO2. We confirm the high CO abundance in Comet Garradd and the asymmetry in the CO/H2O ratio with respect to perihelion reported by previous studies. From the oxygen observations, we infer that the CO2/H2O ratio decreased as the comet moved towards the Sun, which is expected based on current sublimation models. We also infer that the CO2/H2O ratio was higher pre-perihelion than post-perihelion. We observe evidence for the icy grain source of H2O reported by several studies pre-perihelion, and argue that this source is significantly less abundant post-perihelion. Since H2O, CO2, and CO are the primary ices in comets, they drive the activity. We use our measurements of these important volatiles in an attempt to explain the evolution of Garradd's activity over the apparition.

  15. Gravity wave characteristics in the middle atmosphere during the CESAR campaign at Palma de Mallorca in 2011/2012: Impact of extratropical cyclones and cold fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Wüst, S.; Schmidt, C.; Bittner, M.

    2015-06-01

    Based on a measuring campaign which was carried out at Mallorca (39.6°N, 2.7°E) as cooperation between Agència Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, engl. 'German Aerospace Center' (DLR) in 2011/2012 (September-January), 143 radiosondes (day and night) providing vertical temperature and wind profiles were released. Additionally, nocturnal mesopause temperature measurements with a temporal resolution of about 1 min were conducted by the infrared (IR) - Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer (GRIPS) during the campaign period. Strongly enhanced gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere is observed which can be attributed to a hurricane-like storm (so-called Medicane) and to passing by cold fronts. Statistical features of gravity wave parameters including energy densitiy and momentum fluxes are calculated. Gravity wave momentum fluxes turned out being up to five times larger during severe weather. Moreover, gravity wave horizontal propagation characteristics are derived applying hodograph and Stokes parameter analysis. Preferred directions are of southeast and northwest due to prevailing wind directions at Mallorca.

  16. Population susceptibility to a variant swine-origin influenza virus A(H3N2) in Vietnam, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hoa, L N M; Bryant, J E; Choisy, M; Nguyet, L A; Bao, N T; Trang, N H; Chuc, N T K; Toan, T K; Saito, T; Takemae, N; Horby, P; Wertheim, H; Fox, A

    2015-10-01

    A reassortant swine-origin A(H3N2) virus (A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010) was detected through swine surveillance programmes in southern Vietnam in 2010. This virus contains haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from a human A(H3N2) virus circulating around 2004-2006, and the internal genes from triple-reassortant swine influenza A viruses (IAVs). To assess population susceptibility to this virus we measured haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titres to A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010 and to seasonal A/Perth/16/2009 for 947 sera collected from urban and rural Vietnamese people during 2011-2012. Seroprevalence (HI ⩾ 40) was high and similar for both viruses, with 62·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 59·4-65·7] against A/Perth/16/2009 and 54·6% (95% CI 51·4-57·8%) against A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010, and no significant differences between urban and rural participants. Children aged <5 years lacked antibodies to the swine origin H3 virus despite high seroprevalence for A/Perth/16/2009. These results reveal vulnerability to infection to this contemporary swine IAV in children aged <5 years; however, cross-reactive immunity in adults would likely limit epidemic emergence potential.

  17. Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) attributed to atmospheric O3, NO2, and SO2 using Air Q Model (2011-2012 year).

    PubMed

    Ghanbari Ghozikali, Mohammad; Heibati, Behzad; Naddafi, Kazem; Kloog, Itai; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Polosa, Riccardo; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important disease worldwide characterized by chronically poor airflow. The economic burden of COPD on any society can be enormous if not managed. We applied the approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the AirQ2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Center for Environment and Health on air pollutants in Tabriz (Iran) (2011-2012 year). A 1h average of concentrations of ozone (O3), daily average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were used to assess human exposure and health effect in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome and annual number of excess cases of Hospital Admissions for COPD (HA COPD). The results of this study showed that 2% (95% CI: 0.8-3.1%) of HA COPD were attributed to O3 concentrations over 10 μg/m(3). In addition, 0.7 % (95% CI: 0.1-1.8%) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0-1%) of HA COPD were attributed to NO2 and SO2 concentrations over 10 μg/m(3) respectively. In this study, we have shown that O3, NO2 and SO2 have a significant impact on COPD hospitalization. Given these results the policy decisions are needed in order to reduce the chronic pulmonary diseases caused by air pollution and furthermore better quantification studies are recommended.

  18. Erecting a Sturdy Financial Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Explanation of the technological setting in which college and university financial systems have developed is provided for financial officers, to aid in devising a plan for the chart of accounts and erecting an efficient, logical, flexible financial structure. Topics include software/hardware advances, understanding the demand for financial…

  19. The Role of the Government in Providing Access to Higher Education: The Case of Government-Sponsored Financial Aid in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Lynette; Neubauer, Deane

    2016-01-01

    The overall financial structure of US higher education has changed dramatically over the past 30 years, resulting in a significant reduction of public funding. One result of this shift has been the steadily increasing costs of tuition as an increasing portion of the financial structure of higher education is shifted to students. Increased costs to…

  20. Who Receives Federal Student Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Washington, DC.

    Information on federal student aid recipients by income, undergraduate and graduate level, and financial dependency status is presented for Pell Grants, campus-based programs, and Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). Income data are reported for all aid recipients and for financially dependent and independent students for 1983-1984 and for 1976-1977,…

  1. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  2. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, thiocyanate, parabens, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not arsenic or polyfluorinated compounds are associated with adult oral health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-10-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects on oral health have been less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary chemical concentrations and adult oral health conditions in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported oral health conditions and urinary environmental chemical concentrations (one third representative sample of the study population). Chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling were performed. Of 4566 American adults aged 30-80, 541 adults (11.9 %) reported poor teeth health while 1020 adults (22.4 %) reported fair teeth. Eight hundred fifty-five people (19.1 %) claimed to have gum disease, presented with higher levels of urinary cadmium, cobalt and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Six hundred three adults (13.3 %) had bone loss around the mouth, presented with higher levels of cadmium, nitrate, thiocyanate, propyl paraben and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) had tooth loose not due to injury, presented with higher level of cadmium, thiocyanate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) with higher levels of lead, uranium, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower level of triclosan noticed their teeth did not look right. Three hundred fifty-one adults (7.7 %) often had aching in the mouth and 650 (14.3 %) had it occasionally, presented with higher levels of phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Benzophenone-3 and triclosan elicited protective effects. Regulation of environmental chemicals in prevention of adult oral health might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies. PMID:26018285

  3. Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders in Early Childhood - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Robinson, Lara R; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem; Smith, Camille; Peacock, Georgina

    2016-03-11

    Sociodemographic, health care, family, and community attributes have been associated with increased risk for mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) in children (1,2). For example, poverty has been shown to have adverse effects on cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development (1). A safe place to play is needed for gross motor development, and accessible health care is needed for preventive and illness health care (3). Positive parenting and quality preschool interventions have been shown to be associated with prosocial skills, better educational outcomes, and fewer health risk behaviors over time (2). Protective factors for MBDDs are often shared (4) and conditions often co-occur; therefore, CDC considered MBDDs together to facilitate the identification of factors that could inform collaborative, multidisciplinary prevention strategies. To identify specific factors associated with MBDDs among U.S. children aged 2-8 years, parent-reported data from the most recent (2011-2012) National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were analyzed. Factors associated with having any MBDD included inadequate insurance, lacking a medical home, fair or poor parental mental health, difficulties getting by on the family's income, employment difficulties because of child care issues, living in a neighborhood lacking support, living in a neighborhood lacking amenities (e.g., sidewalks, park, recreation center, and library), and living in a neighborhood in poor condition. In a multivariate analysis, fair or poor parental mental health and lacking a medical home were significantly associated with having an MBDD. There was significant variation in the prevalence of these and the other factors by state, suggesting that programs and policies might use collaborative efforts to focus on specific factors. Addressing identified factors might prevent the onset of MBDDs and improve outcomes among children who have one or more of these disorders.

  4. High-frequency monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus response in three rural catchments to the end of the 2011-2012 drought in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, F. N.; Lloyd, C. E. M.; Jonczyk, J.; Benskin, C. McW. H.; Grant, F.; Perks, M. T.; Deasy, C.; Burke, S. P.; Collins, A. L.; Freer, J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Hiscock, K. M.; Johnes, P. J.; Lovett, A. L.

    2014-09-01

    This paper uses high-frequency bankside measurements from three catchments selected as part of the UK government-funded Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) project. We compare the hydrological and hydrochemical patterns during the water year 2011-2012 from the Wylye tributary of the River Avon with mixed land use, the Blackwater tributary of the River Wensum with arable land use and the Newby Beck tributary of the River Eden with grassland land use. The beginning of the hydrological year was unusually dry and all three catchments were in states of drought. A sudden change to a wet summer occurred in April 2012 when a heavy rainfall event affected all three catchments. The year-long time series and the individual storm responses captured by in situ nutrient measurements of nitrate and phosphorus (total phosphorus and total reactive phosphorus) concentrations at each site reveal different pollutant sources and pathways operating in each catchment. Large storm-induced nutrient transfers of nitrogen and or phosphorus to each stream were recorded at all three sites during the late April rainfall event. Hysteresis loops suggested transport-limited delivery of nitrate in the Blackwater and of total phosphorus in the Wylye and Newby Beck, which was thought to be exacerbated by the dry antecedent conditions prior to the storm. The high rate of nutrient transport in each system highlights the scale of the challenges faced by environmental managers when designing mitigation measures to reduce the flux of nutrients to rivers from diffuse agricultural sources. It also highlights the scale of the challenge in adapting to future extreme weather events under a changing climate.

  5. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Statin Use Among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Adedinsewo, Demilade; Taka, Nchang; Agasthi, Pradyumna; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Rust, George; Onwuanyi, Anekwe

    2016-09-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend statins for adults age ≤75 years who have clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (IA) and adults age 40 to 75 years with diabetes mellitus and LDL-C 70-189 mg/dl (IA). Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and likelihood of statin use among selected statin benefit groups. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012, we examined 5319 adults age ≥20 years. We estimated weighted frequencies and prevalence of statin use for adults with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia (or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL), defined as statin benefit group 1 (SBG1); and for adults with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, defined as statin benefit group 2 (SBG2). We constructed a logistic regression model to estimate odds of statin use in SBG1. Overall, an estimated 38.6 million Americans are on a statin. In adjusted models, uninsured and Hispanic adults were less likely to be on a statin compared with white adults; 59.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0-66.1) of all adults in SBG1, 58.8% (95% CI: 51.5-66.1) of adults age 40 to 75 in SBG1, and 63.5% (95% CI: 55.6-71.4) of all adults in SBG2 were on a statin. Although the prevalence of statin use has increased over time, Hispanic ethnicity and lack of insurance remain barriers to statin use. Black-white racial disparities were not significant. Our study provides a baseline estimate of statin use in the noninstitutionalized population just prior to introduction of the new guidelines and provides a reference for evaluating the impact of the new guidelines on statin utilization. PMID:27505443

  6. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, thiocyanate, parabens, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not arsenic or polyfluorinated compounds are associated with adult oral health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-10-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects on oral health have been less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary chemical concentrations and adult oral health conditions in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported oral health conditions and urinary environmental chemical concentrations (one third representative sample of the study population). Chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling were performed. Of 4566 American adults aged 30-80, 541 adults (11.9 %) reported poor teeth health while 1020 adults (22.4 %) reported fair teeth. Eight hundred fifty-five people (19.1 %) claimed to have gum disease, presented with higher levels of urinary cadmium, cobalt and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Six hundred three adults (13.3 %) had bone loss around the mouth, presented with higher levels of cadmium, nitrate, thiocyanate, propyl paraben and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) had tooth loose not due to injury, presented with higher level of cadmium, thiocyanate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) with higher levels of lead, uranium, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower level of triclosan noticed their teeth did not look right. Three hundred fifty-one adults (7.7 %) often had aching in the mouth and 650 (14.3 %) had it occasionally, presented with higher levels of phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Benzophenone-3 and triclosan elicited protective effects. Regulation of environmental chemicals in prevention of adult oral health might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies.

  7. Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders in Early Childhood - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Robinson, Lara R; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem; Smith, Camille; Peacock, Georgina

    2016-03-11

    Sociodemographic, health care, family, and community attributes have been associated with increased risk for mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) in children (1,2). For example, poverty has been shown to have adverse effects on cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development (1). A safe place to play is needed for gross motor development, and accessible health care is needed for preventive and illness health care (3). Positive parenting and quality preschool interventions have been shown to be associated with prosocial skills, better educational outcomes, and fewer health risk behaviors over time (2). Protective factors for MBDDs are often shared (4) and conditions often co-occur; therefore, CDC considered MBDDs together to facilitate the identification of factors that could inform collaborative, multidisciplinary prevention strategies. To identify specific factors associated with MBDDs among U.S. children aged 2-8 years, parent-reported data from the most recent (2011-2012) National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were analyzed. Factors associated with having any MBDD included inadequate insurance, lacking a medical home, fair or poor parental mental health, difficulties getting by on the family's income, employment difficulties because of child care issues, living in a neighborhood lacking support, living in a neighborhood lacking amenities (e.g., sidewalks, park, recreation center, and library), and living in a neighborhood in poor condition. In a multivariate analysis, fair or poor parental mental health and lacking a medical home were significantly associated with having an MBDD. There was significant variation in the prevalence of these and the other factors by state, suggesting that programs and policies might use collaborative efforts to focus on specific factors. Addressing identified factors might prevent the onset of MBDDs and improve outcomes among children who have one or more of these disorders. PMID:26963052

  8. Clinical Findings Leading to the Diagnosis of Sepsis in Neonates Hospitalized in Imam Khomeini and Bu Ali Hospitals, Sari, Iran: 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Roya; Yaghobian, Mahbobeh; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important diseases in neonatal period is sepsis. Clinical sign and symptoms in addition to lab tests are the most important way to accurate diagnosis and prevention of mortality. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the most clinical sign and symptoms which leading to diagnosis of sepsis. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The medical records of patients hospitalized in hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences during 2011-2012 were reviewed. Variables were age, sex, birth and admission weight, clinical sign and symptoms, methods of delivery, admission and discharge condition, discharge status, the time elapsed between showing the symptom and admission to hospital, gestational age and the result of cultures. The data were recorded in a checklist and analyzed with SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: finding showed that 120 patients discharged during period of study with diagnosis of sepsis. Discharged status of 27 (%22/5) were expired. Median age was 1 day with 8 hours SD, length of stay were 12±1 days, gestational age was 34±3 weeks and median birth weight was 2477±977 grams. The median time elapsed between showing the symptom and admission to hospital was 38±31 hours. Blood culture in 10 (%8/3) and urine culture in 8 (%7/6) patients were positive. None of patients have positive lumbar puncture culture. The frequent sign and symptpms in patients were respiratory distress, poor feeding and lethargy. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is not possible only by specific laboratory exams. Clinical sign and symptoms can help us to prediction and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Results of this research revealed that it is not clear which one of manifestations was started first or the second because of medical history sheets don’t show this process. PMID:24999128

  9. Examining rhyolite lava flow dynamics through photo-based 3-D reconstructions of the 2011-2012 lava flow field at Cordón Caulle, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Farquharson, J.; Tuffen, H.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011-2012 eruption at Cordón-Caulle, Chile, afforded the opportunity to observe and measure active rhyolitic lava for the first time. In 2012 and 2013, ~2500 photos were acquired on foot, parallel to flow fronts on the north and north-east of the flow field. Image suites were then processed into 3-D point clouds using Structure-from-Motion Multi-view Stereo (SfM-MVS) freeware. Interpolating these clouds into digital elevation models for dates in 2012-13 enabled analysis of the changing flow field dimensions [1], from which velocity, depth and rheological parameters, e.g.viscosity, could be estimated [see Fig. 1]. Viscosities ranged from 7.5 x109 to 1.1 x1011Pa s, allowing for uncertainties in slope, surface displacement and velocity. Temperatures were modeled using a 1D finite difference method; in concert with viscosities of flow units these values compared well with published non-Arrhenian viscosity models. Derived thermodynamic and force ratios confirmed flow characteristics inferred from the image analyses. SfM-MVS represents an effective method of quantifying and displaying variation in the flow field, indicating several parallels between rhyolite emplacement and that of low-silica lavas. Initially channelised lava spread laterally and stagnated due to topography and the influence of the surface crust. Continued effusion resulted in iterative emplacement of breakout lobes, promoting lateral extension of the flow field. Insulation of the flow core by the viscous crust allowed this process to continue after effusion had ceased, creating features comparable to low-silica lavas, despite high viscosity and low effusion rates. This suggests that compound flow emplacement may be described by universal, cross-compositional models encompassing rheological differences of many orders of magnitude. Tuffen et al. 2013, Nat. Comms., 4, 2709, doi:10.1038/ncomms3709

  10. Diabetes self-management education and training among privately insured persons with newly diagnosed diabetes--United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Shrestha, Sundar S; Lipman, Ruth; Burrows, Nilka R; Kolb, Leslie E; Rutledge, Stephanie

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes is a complex chronic disease that requires active involvement of patients in its management. Diabetes self-management education and training (DSMT), "the ongoing process of facilitating the knowledge, skill, and ability necessary for prediabetes and diabetes self-care," is an important component of integrated diabetes care. It is an intervention in which patients learn about diabetes and how to implement the self-management that is imperative to control the disease. The curriculum of DSMT often includes the diabetes disease process and treatment options; healthy lifestyle; blood glucose monitoring; preventing, detecting and treating diabetes complications; and developing personalized strategies for decision making. The American Diabetes Association recommends providing DSMT to those with newly diagnosed diabetes, because data suggest that when diabetes is first diagnosed is the time when patients are most receptive to such engagement. However, little is known about the proportion of persons with newly diagnosed diabetes participating in DSMT. CDC analyzed data from the Marketscan Commercial Claims and Encounters database (Truven Health Analytics) for the period 2009-2012 to estimate the claim-based proportion of privately insured adults (aged 18-64 years) with newly diagnosed diabetes who participated in DSMT during the first year after diagnosis. During 2011-2012, an estimated 6.8% of privately insured, newly diagnosed adults participated in DSMT during the first year after diagnosis of diabetes. These data suggest that there is a large gap between the recommended guideline and current practice, and that there is both an opportunity and a need to enhance rates of DSMT participation among persons newly diagnosed with diabetes.

  11. Dynamic interactions of snow and plants in the boreal forest, winter 2011-2012 revealed by time-lapse photography and LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filhol, S. V.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    The winter blanket of snow in the boreal forest is anything but still. In winter 2011-2012 we followed the evolution of a snowpack on a boreal forest plot (0.5 ha) from first snowfall to the beginning of the melt in springtime. We used multiple methods such as time-lapse ground-based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), time-lapse photography, imagery from a suspended cableway, snow-depth sensors, and frequent manual snow-pits. The experimental site is located near Fairbanks, Alaska, a typical boreal forest underlain by permafrost with sparse black spruce, larch, willow, and dwarf birch. We observed snowpack properties to be greatly affected by the vegetation substrate. Interactions between snow and plants are mainly dependent on falling snow properties (rate, wetness), plant heights and stiffness, plant canopy structure (leaves, number of branches, density), succession of weather events (wind before or after snow, thaw events) and pre-existing snow depth. Time-lapse imagery shows interception of snow by trees and shrubs controlled by air-temperature and wind events. LiDAR and snow pit measurements show one class of flexible shrubs (i.e. dwarf birch) bending under load, while a second class (willows) were far stiffer and resisted bending. Where dwarf birch branches were dense, it prevented snow from reaching the ground, leaving a significant air space under the snowpack. This vertical air gap can be as high as 10% of the total snow depth by the end of winter. Improving our understanding of the dynamic relationships between plants and snow is a fundamental key for studying boreal snow physics and snow ecology.

  12. New mafic magma refilling a quiescent volcano: Evidence from He-Ne-Ar isotopes during the 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, A. L.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; Di Piazza, A.; Francalanci, L.; Sortino, F.; D'Alessandro, W.

    2015-03-01

    In 2011-2012, Santorini was characterized by seismic-geodetic-geochemical unrest, which was unprecedented since the most-recent eruption occurred in 1950 and led to fear an eruption was imminent. This unrest offered a chance for investigating the processes leading to volcanic reactivation and the compositional characteristics of involved magma. We have thus analyzed the He-Ne-Ar-isotope composition of fluid inclusions in olivines and clinopyroxenes from cumulate mafic enclaves hosted in cogenetic dacitic lavas of the 1570-1573 and 1925-1928 eruptions of Nea Kameni. These unique data on Aegean volcanism were compared with those of gases collected in quiescent periods and during the unrest. The 3He/4He ratios (3.1-4.0 Ra) are significantly lower than the typical arc-volcano values (R/Ra ˜ 7-8), suggesting the occurrence of magma contamination in Santorini plumbing system, which would further modify the 3He/4He ratio of parental magmas generated in the local metasomatized mantle. The 3He/4He values of enclaves (3.1-3.6 Ra) are comparable to those measured in gases during quiescent periods, confirming that enclaves reflect the He-isotope signature of magma residing at shallow depths and feeding passive degassing. A significant increase in soil CO2 flux from Nea Kameni and anomalous compositional variations in the fumaroles were identified during the unrest, accordingly with previous studies. Simultaneously, 3He/4He ratios up to 4.0 Ra were also measured, demonstrating that the unrest was due to the intrusion into the shallow plumbing system of a more-primitive 3He-rich magma, which is even volatile richer and less contaminated than mafic magma erupted as enclaves. This new intrusion did not however trigger an eruption.

  13. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  14. Annual NASSGP/NCHELP Research Conference on Student Financial Aid Research (4th, St. Louis, Missouri, June 3-5, 1987). The Proceedings, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Higher Education Services Corp., Albany.

    Papers from the National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs/National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs conference on student aid are presented. They include: (1) "Keynote: Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Student Aid on Access, Choice, and Persistence" (Larry Leslie and Paul Brinkman); (2) "College Choice Issues Defined…

  15. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  16. Examining rhyolite lava flow dynamics through photo-based 3D reconstructions of the 2011-2012 lava flowfield at Cordón-Caulle, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, J. I.; James, M. R.; Tuffen, H.

    2015-10-01

    During the 2011-2012 eruption at Cordón-Caulle, Chile, an extensive rhyolitic flowfield was created (in excess of 0.5 km3 in volume), affording a unique opportunity to characterise rhyolitic lava advance. In 2012 and 2013, we acquired approximately 2500 digital photographs of active flowfronts on the north and east of the flowfield. These images were processed into three-dimensional point clouds using structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) freeware, from which digital elevation models were derived. Sequential elevation models-separated by intervals of three hours, six days, and one year-were used to reconstruct spatial distributions of lava velocity and depth, and estimate rheological parameters. Three-dimensional reconstructions of flowfronts indicate that lateral extension of the rubbly, 'a'ā-like flowfield was accompanied by vertical inflation, which differed both spatially and temporally as a function of the underlying topography and localised supply of lava beneath the cooled upper carapace. Compressive processes also drove the formation of extensive surface ridges across the flowfield. Continued evolution of the flowfield resulted in the development of a compound flowfield morphology fed by iterative emplacement of breakout lobes. The thermal evolution of flow units was modelled using a one-dimensional finite difference method, which indicated prolonged residence of magma above its glass transition across the flowfield. We compare the estimated apparent viscosity (1.21-4.03 × 1010 Pa s) of a breakout lobe, based on its advance rate over a known slope, with plausible lava viscosities from published non-Arrhenian temperature-viscosity models and accounting for crystallinity (~ 50 vol.%). There is an excellent correspondence between viscosity estimates when the lava temperature is taken to be magmatic, despite the breakout being located > 3 km from the vent, and advancing approximately nine months after vent effusion ceased. This indicates the

  17. Recrudescent wave of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza in Mexico, winter 2011-2012: Age shift and severity

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Grajales Muñiz, Concepcion; Rascón Pacheco, Ramón Alberto; González León, Margot; Borja Aburto, Víctor Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial recrudescent wave of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 that began in December 2011 is ongoing and has not yet peaked in Mexico, following a 2-year period of sporadic transmission. Mexico previously experienced three pandemic waves of A/H1N1 in 2009, associated with higher excess mortality rates than those reported in other countries, and prompting a large influenza vaccination campaign. Here we describe changes in the epidemiological patterns of the ongoing 4th pandemic wave in 2011-12, relative to the earlier waves in 2009. The analysis is intended to guide public health intervention strategies in near real time. Methods We analyzed demographic and geographic data on all hospitalizations with acute respiratory infection (ARI) and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza, and inpatient deaths, from a large prospective surveillance system maintained by the Mexican Social Security medical system during 01-April 2009 to 10-Feb 2012. We characterized the age and regional patterns of A/H1N1-positive hospitalizations and inpatient-deaths relative to the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. We also estimated the reproduction number (R) based on the growth rate of the daily case incidence by date of symptoms onset. Results A total of 5,795 ARI hospitalizations and 186 inpatient-deaths (3.2%) were reported between 01-December 2011 and 10-February 2012 (685 A/H1N1-positive inpatients and 75 A/H1N1-positive deaths). The nationwide peak of daily ARI hospitalizations in early 2012 has already exceeded the peak of ARI hospitalizations observed during the major fall pandemic wave in 2009. The mean age was 34.3 y (SD=21.3) among A/H1N1 inpatients and 43.5 y (SD=21) among A/H1N1 deaths in 2011-12. The proportion of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths was higher among seniors >=60 years of age (Chi-square test P<0.001) and lower among younger age groups (Chi-square test, P<0.03) for the 2011-2012 pandemic wave, compared to the earlier waves in 2009. The

  18. Higher urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic but not parabens concentrations in people with high blood pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2014-06-01

    Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP) in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index), urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11-2.20, P = 0.014), molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06-2.01, P = 0.023), manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09-1.86, P = 0.012), lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28-1.96, P < 0.001), tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25-1.66, P < 0.001), antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10-1.77, P = 0.010), and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25-1.77, P < 0.001) concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00-1.62, P = 0.006), mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13-1.62, P = 0.002), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05-1.49, P = 0.014), mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07-1.48, P = 0.007), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07-1.48, P = 0.009), and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15-1.69, P = 0.002) tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27-4.81, P = 0.011) and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12-1.79, P = 0.006) were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the causal effect cannot be

  19. High-resolution monitoring of catchment nutrient response to the end of the 2011-2012 drought in England, captured by the demonstration test catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, F. N.; Lloyd, C.; Jonczyk, J.; Benskin, C. McW. H.; Grant, F.; Dorling, S. R.; Steele, C. J.; Collins, A. L.; Freer, J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Hiscock, K. M.; Johnes, P. J.; Lovett, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) project is a UK Government funded initiative to test the effectiveness of on-farm mitigation measures designed to reduce agricultural pollution without compromising farm productivity. Three distinct catchments in England have been chosen to test the efficacy of mitigation measures on working farms in small tributary sub-catchments equipped with continuous water quality monitoring stations. The Hampshire Avon in the south is a mixed livestock and arable farming catchment, the River Wensum in the east is a lowland catchment with predominantly arable farming and land use in the River Eden catchment in the north-west is predominantly livestock farming. One of the many strengths of the DTC as a national research platform is that it provides the ability to investigate catchment hydrology and biogeochemical response across different landscapes and geoclimatic characteristics, with a range of differing flow behaviours, geochemistries and nutrient chemistries. Although numerous authors present studies of individual catchment responses to storms, no studies exist of multiple catchment responses to the same rainfall event captured with in situ high-resolution nutrient monitoring at a national scale. This paper brings together findings from all three DTC research groups to compare the response of the catchments to a major storm event in April 2012. This was one of the first weather fronts to track across the country following a prolonged drought period affecting much of the UK through 2011-2012, marking an unusual meteorological transition when a rapid shift from drought to flood risk occurred. The effects of the weather front on discharge and water chemistry parameters, including nitrogen species (NO3-N and NH4-N) and phosphorus fractions (total P (TP) and total reactive P (TRP)), measured at a half-hourly time step are examined. When considered in the context of one hydrological year, flow and concentration duration curves reveal that

  20. Annual NASSGP/NCHELP Research Conference on Student Financial Aid Research (4th, St. Louis, Missouri, June 3-5, 1987). The Proceedings, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Higher Education Services Corp., Albany.

    The following papers from the National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs/National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs conference on student aid are provided: (1) "The Equity of Higher Education Subsidies" (John B. Lee); (2) "The Economics and Financing of Higher Education: The Tension between Quality and Equity" (W. Lee…

  1. Annual NASSGP/NCHELP Conference on Student Financial Aid Research (3rd, Chicago, Illinois, May 28-30, 1986). The Proceedings, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Scholarship Commission, Deerfield.

    The following papers from the National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs/National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs conference on student aid are provided: (1) "The Employees Tuition Benefit Programs of the Fortune 1000 Companies: Summary of Survey Results" (Joseph P. O'Neill); (2) "The Interaction of Federal Student Aid…

  2. Annual NASSGP/NCHELP Conference on Student Financial Aid Research (3rd, Chicago, Illinois, May 28-30, 1986). The Proceedings, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Scholarship Commission, Deerfield.

    The National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs/National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs conference on student aid is reported. Following the conference agenda and lists of registrants and conference speakers, the following papers are presented: (1) "Reinterpretation of Hansen's Census Data" (John B. Lee); (2)…

  3. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  7. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  8. Financial Scandals and Student Loans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Meyer; Franke, Ann H.

    2007-01-01

    The investigations of student-loan programs around the country echo previous scandals in the financial world involving stock offerings and mutual funds. The relationships between lenders and financial-aid officers seem to raise the same questions about impropriety, conflict of interest, and possible fraud. Indeed, lessons from Wall Street can…

  9. The Efficiency of Computer-Aided Instruction and Creative Drama on Academic Achievement in Teaching of Integers to Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Özturk, Mesut; Ertör, Eren

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare computer-aided instruction, creative drama and traditional teaching methods in teaching of Integers to the seventh grade students. The study was conducted in a primary school with eighty-seven students (N=87) in a county of Agri, in spring term of academic year 2011-2012. A non equivalent control group quasi experimental…

  10. The Interactions of the Student Aid Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Thomas; Braxton, Larry

    The interactions of student financial aid offices with other campus offices, government agencies, and private groups are described. Campus groups that interact with the financial aid office include the following: campus veterans affairs office, student affairs office/dean of students, recruitment staff, campus registrar, chief executive officer,…

  11. College Aid Policy and Competition for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Chung, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify differences in the freshman financial aid packages of low-income, high-achieving minority students in public and private institutions. Our results suggest that private and selective institutions can offer better financial aid packages that enable them to recruit higher numbers of low-income,…

  12. Student Aid Issues at Private Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulugetta, Yuko; Saleh, Donald A.; Mulugetta, Abraham

    1997-01-01

    The private sector in higher education faces unique challenges related to financial aid, including tuition discounting, the precipitous rise in reliance on student loans, and recycling tuition dollars. An example illustrates the importance of institutional research on financial aid issues in this context of rapid change, and the value of…

  13. The Underpinnings of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsley, Coral B.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the basic concepts governing student aid funding and the mechanics of delivery, including a review of the development of current federal financial aid programs, the complexities of determining student need, institutional responsibility, and suggested areas for institutional research. Notes that the challenges ahead include strengthening…

  14. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-02-24

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  15. Financial, operational issues entangle Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Kalkhof, C J

    1992-08-01

    Federal and state governments may soon require provision of managed care to the Medicaid eligible segment of the community. HMO financial managers must develop financial and operational plans prior to entering into negotiations for the development of a contract with a state. Key financial and operational issues related to Medicaid aid categories, contracting with providers, general administration, and product design must be addressed to minimize financial risk.

  16. Using a Latino Lens to Reimagine Aid Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Federal financial aid is critical to student access and success in postsecondary education for many students, including most Latinos. However, three current realities are challenging the effectiveness of federal financial aid policy today: (1) the inability of federal aid to keep pace with the increase in college costs for students; (2) the…

  17. Merit Aid and Inequality: Evidence from Baccalaureate & Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Derek V.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the distribution of merit-based and need-based financial aid packages among a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate degree recipients. Found that students from underrepresented race and class backgrounds are less likely to receive merit aid and that students with minimal financial need are more likely to receive merit aid. (EV)

  18. Changes in Institutional Aid, 1992-2003: The Evolving Role of Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of student financial aid have taken place at the state and federal level. In addition, several authors have reported on shifts in the awarding of financial aid to students at the institutional level. The analysis described in this study examines shifts in institutional responsiveness to both student need and student…

  19. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  20. A New Partnership: Reshaping the Federal and State Commitment to Need-Based Aid. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2013-01-01

    This brief provides five recommendations for reforming the college financial aid system. Five principles for reform are presented: (1) The purpose of federal financial aid is to ensure that individuals who can benefit from college and would not otherwise attend are able to enroll. (2) Efforts to reform financial aid must limit the unsustainable…

  1. Survey on Student Financial Assistance, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes data from a survey of 54 dental schools concerning dental students' financial aid. Data and analyses include percent of students receiving aid; average annual aid per student; average first-year costs of dental school; aid distribution within private, public, and state-related schools; details on federal loan programs; grant and…

  2. Chinese College Student Aid Policy: A Case Study of "H" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…

  3. 34 CFR 106.37 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or parental status. (b) Financial aid established by certain legal instruments. (1) A recipient may... consistent with this paragraph and § 106.41. (Authority: Secs. 901, 902, Education Amendments of 1972,...

  4. [2010-2011 Federal Student Aid Handbook with Active Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…

  5. Medical student financial assistance, 1996-1997.

    PubMed

    Beran, R L; Lawson, G E

    1998-09-01

    Loans account for the major portion of financial aid available to medical students. In the academic year 1996-1997, 80.1% of all available financial aid came from loans, and medical students borrowed more than $1.11 billion. Of the 1997 medical school graduating class, 83.2% had educational debt, 46% of whom had mean educational debt levels higher than $75000.

  6. Distance Education Report, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on distance education in the California Community College. This is the seventh report to the California Community Colleges Board of Governors (BOG) per BOG Standing Order 409 (b) "that evaluates the effectiveness of distance education and education technology system wide and provides analysis of data demographically (by age,…

  7. Guide to Accreditation, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Guide to Accreditation" includes a full description of TEAC's principles and standards, the accreditation process and audit, and detailed instruction on writing the "Brief." This revision includes expanded information on (1) preparing an "Inquiry Brief Proposal" and the audit of the "Inquiry…

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Changes 2011-2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation showing changes in monthly Arctic sea ice volume using data from ESA's CryoSat-2 (red dots) and estimates from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) (solid li...

  9. Student Charges & Financial Aid, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    Data from several sources, including annual surveys by the College Board, show that the robust economy of recent years relieved pressure on institutions to increase their tuition and fees, but current budget constraints may result in increased tuition and fees for students. The rate of increase in tuition and fees at public four-year institutions…

  10. Student Parents and Financial Aid. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huelsman, Mark; Engle, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Student parents face many challenges to accessing, persisting, and completing postsecondary education. While some of these challenges are unique to student parents--such as finding quality child care during class and work hours and juggling studying and academic assignments with parenting duties--others are typical of low-income and underserved…

  11. Traps for the Unwary Financial Aid Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 11 regulatory traps that can result in fraud and abuse charges. The traps are admissions process, ability to benefit, inability to document attendance, satisfactory academic progress, fictitious students, false eligibility, misstated needs, misuse of funds by students, theft and misuse of funds, lender kickbacks, and loan defaults.…

  12. Requests Seek Financial Aid, Policy Waivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    State leaders have just begun counting the billions of dollars it will take for schools in the Gulf Coast region to recover from Hurricane Katrina. Schools around the country, meanwhile, continue to welcome the estimated 300,000-plus students displaced by the storm--some 50,000 of whom were learning that their home schools would likely be closed…

  13. Financial Aid Facts at California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While California community college (CCC) system fees are much lower than tuition at community colleges in other states or other colleges in California, the total cost of attending a CCC--which includes books, housing, transportation, and food--is higher than most people realize. The illusion of low cost may lead CCC students to forgo valuable…

  14. 18 CFR 1317.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial assistance. 1317.430 Section 1317.430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... parental status. (b) Financial aid established by certain legal instruments. (1) A recipient may...

  15. New Economic and Financial Indicators of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, James; Wilhelm, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Financial accounting methods fall short of fully accounting for the relative sustainability of college and university operations. Management of social, environmental, and economic performance will be aided by changes to and new developments in financial accounting practices to complement other indicators of sustainability.

  16. Can Financial Need Analysis be Simplified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, M. D.; Jones, Paul K.

    This paper examines the problem of collecting financial data on aid applicants. A 10% sample (12,383) of student records was taken from the 1968-69 alphabetic history file for the ACT Student Need Analysis Service. Random sub-samples were taken in certain phases of the study. A relatively small number of financial variables were found to predict…

  17. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms.

  18. Student Aid: The Case for Nonregistrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek

    1983-01-01

    Harvard University's president outlines his institution's policy regarding providing institutional financial aid to male students who have not registered with the Selective Service and therefore do not qualify for federal funds, criticisms of this policy, and arguments supporting it. (MSE)

  19. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  20. Comparison of the FilmArray RP, Verigene RV+, and Prodesse ProFLU+/FAST+ Multiplex Platforms for Detection of Influenza Viruses in Clinical Samples from the 2011-2012 Influenza Season in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Meeuws, Hanne; Van Immerseel, Andrea; Ispas, Gabriela; Schmidt, Kristiane; Houspie, Lieselot; Van Ranst, Marc; Stuyver, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are caused by a plethora of viral and bacterial pathogens. In particular, lower RTIs are a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Timely detection of the infecting respiratory pathogens is crucial to optimize treatment and care. In this study, three U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved molecular multiplex platforms (Prodesse ProFLU+/FAST+, FilmArray RP, and Verigene RV+) were evaluated for influenza virus detection in 171 clinical samples collected during the Belgian 2011-2012 influenza season. Sampling was done using mid-turbinate flocked swabs, and the collected samples were stored in universal transport medium. The amount of viral RNA present in the swab samples ranged between 3.07 and 8.82 log10 copies/ml. Sixty samples were concordant influenza A virus positive, and 8 samples were found to be concordant influenza B virus positive. Other respiratory viruses that were detected included human rhinovirus/enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus type 1, human metapneumovirus, and coronavirus NL63. Twenty-five samples yielded discordant results across the various assays which required further characterization by sequencing. The FilmArray RP and Prodesse ProFLU+/FAST+ assays were convenient to perform with regard to sensitivity, ease of use, and low percentages of invalid results. Although the limit of sensitivity is of utmost importance, many other factors should be taken into account in selecting the most convenient molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of respiratory pathogens in clinical samples. PMID:23824777

  1. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  3. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  4. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management system. 152.303... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor or planning agency shall establish and maintain a financial management system...

  5. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor or planning agency shall establish and maintain a financial management system that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial management system....

  6. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor or planning agency shall establish and maintain a financial management system that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial management system....

  7. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor or planning agency shall establish and maintain a financial management system that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial management system....

  8. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor or planning agency shall establish and maintain a financial management system that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial management system....

  9. Problems and Opportunities in School Financial Management: A Consultant's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes major problems in school financial management and suggests practical improvements to aid external reporting of financial data and internal management. Sections of the article describe these categories of problems: (1) budget presentation; (2) management control; (3) cost accounting; and (4) financial reporting. (PS)

  10. Trends in Student Aid, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, New York, NY.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance--grants, loans, and work-study--available to help students pay for postsecondary education. The College Board began this data series in 1983 to track the value of such aid over time from federal, state, and institutional sources. This year, information on federal education tax…

  11. Student Aid: Who Benefits Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jacqueline E.

    1996-01-01

    The annual survey by the College Board of student financial aid traces development of a system that has grown dramatically, is now dominated by federal student loan programs, and has undergone a long-term shift in purpose from creating access for the disadvantaged to broadening choice and convenience for the middle class. These developments have…

  12. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  13. Financial Assistance

    MedlinePlus

    Health care can be costly. If you have health insurance, it usually pays at least part of your medical costs. If you don't have insurance or need help with costs that aren't covered, financial assistance ...

  14. Reforming Student Aid: How to Simplify Tax Aid and Use Performance Metrics to Improve College Choices and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Patrick; Harmon, Tim; Strawn, Julie; Choitz, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Over the last three decades, college costs have increased nearly four times faster than median family income. Financial aid has not filled the growing gap, and the share of college costs not covered by financial aid or what the family is expected to contribute has risen sharply. Rising costs and rising debt make college a riskier investment for…

  15. Drug Convictions May Affect Your Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet explains problems posed by prior drug convictions to college-bound students seeking federal financial aid. Under a new law which takes effect on July 1, 2000, some students who have drug convictions may be ineligible for federal student aid. For possession of illegal drugs, students are ineligible from the date of conviction for one…

  16. Federal Student Aid Annual Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Federal Student Aid Annual Report for 2010. Federal Student Aid experienced an extraordinary year in 2010. The passage and enactment of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 ushered in sweeping reforms to the federal student financial assistance programs, resulting in tens of billions of dollars in…

  17. Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior and Confidence in Filling Out Online Forms Among Latinos: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the California Health Interview Survey, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Emory, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background Health information is increasingly being disseminated online, but there is a knowledge gap between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites, particularly those whose English language proficiency is poor, in terms both of online health information-seeking behavior and computer literacy skills. This knowledge gap may also exist between US- and foreign-born Latinos. Objective The specific aim of this study was to examine Internet use, online health information-seeking behavior, and confidence in filling out online forms among Latinos, particularly as it relates to health-risk behaviors. We then stratified our sample by nativity. Methods We used the adult population file of the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, analyzing Internet use, online health information-seeking behavior, and confidence in filling out online forms using binary logistic regression among Latinos and whites (N=27,289), Latinos (n=9506), and Latinos who use the Internet (n=6037). Results Foreign-born Latinos (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.88, P=.002) have lower odds of engaging in online health information-seeking behavior, and higher odds (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.07-4.06, P<.001) of reporting a lack of confidence in filling out online forms compared to US-born Latinos. Correlates of online health information-seeking behavior and form confidence varied by nativity. Conclusions Latinos, particularly foreign-born individuals, are at an increased risk of being left behind as the move to increase online content delivery and care expands. As online health information dissemination and online health portals become more popular, the impact of these sites on Latino gaps in coverage and care should be considered. PMID:27377466

  18. Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate for influenza treatment; comparison among the four Japanese influenza seasons from 2011-2012 to 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2016-09-01

    The duration of fever and other symptoms as markers of the clinical effectiveness of laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) were investigated in the Japanese 2014-2015 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the previous three seasons, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. From these four seasons, the data of 636 influenza A(H3N2) and 128 influenza B patients was available for analysis. No significant difference was found in their baseline characteristics. The median duration of fever for all A(H3N2) patients ranged from 32.0 to 41.0 h. The duration of fever in the 2014-2015 season was significantly shorter than that in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons (p = 0.0204 and 0.0391, respectively), but the differences were within nine hours. The median duration of symptoms for A(H3N2) ranged from 80.0 to 89.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons (p = 0.2222). The median duration of fever for B patients ranged from 43.0 to 50.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons. The duration of the symptoms for B varied by season, but no significant difference was found among the four seasons. Over the four seasons, 44 adverse events were reported from among 921 patients, with all resolving without treatment. These results indicate the continuing effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A(H3N2) and B, with no safety issues. It is unlikely that the clinical use of laninamivir has caused viral resistance in the currently epidemic viruses.

  19. Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate for influenza treatment; comparison among the four Japanese influenza seasons from 2011-2012 to 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2016-09-01

    The duration of fever and other symptoms as markers of the clinical effectiveness of laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) were investigated in the Japanese 2014-2015 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the previous three seasons, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. From these four seasons, the data of 636 influenza A(H3N2) and 128 influenza B patients was available for analysis. No significant difference was found in their baseline characteristics. The median duration of fever for all A(H3N2) patients ranged from 32.0 to 41.0 h. The duration of fever in the 2014-2015 season was significantly shorter than that in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons (p = 0.0204 and 0.0391, respectively), but the differences were within nine hours. The median duration of symptoms for A(H3N2) ranged from 80.0 to 89.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons (p = 0.2222). The median duration of fever for B patients ranged from 43.0 to 50.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons. The duration of the symptoms for B varied by season, but no significant difference was found among the four seasons. Over the four seasons, 44 adverse events were reported from among 921 patients, with all resolving without treatment. These results indicate the continuing effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A(H3N2) and B, with no safety issues. It is unlikely that the clinical use of laninamivir has caused viral resistance in the currently epidemic viruses. PMID:27493024

  20. An Optimization Model for the Allocation of University Based Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugrue, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of merit-based financial aid during the college admissions process presents postsecondary institutions with complex and financially expensive decisions. This article describes the application of linear programming as a decision tool in merit based financial aid decisions at a medium size private university. The objective defined for…

  1. Policies, Practices, and Procedures in Graduate Student Aid: A Report on the 1998 NASFAA SOGAPPP Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP) of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA). Finds that professional programs at private institutions have highest tuitions; most students in professional programs receive financial aid; loans are the overwhelming type of aid…

  2. Funding Your Education: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2012-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Every student, who meets some basic eligibility requirements, can get some type of financial aid regardless of age or family income. Federal student aid is a financial aid from the federal government to help a student pay for education expenses at an eligible college, technical school, vocational school, or graduate school. There are three…

  3. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  4. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  5. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  6. An analytical review of hospital financial performance measures.

    PubMed

    Glandon, G L; Counte, M; Holloman, K; Kowalczyk, J

    1987-11-01

    Hospital administrators must have timely, valid, and interpretable financial information that allows them to make operational decisions in response to the threats of the changing health care environment. Aggregate indexes that reflect dimensions of hospital financial performance and simplify the information in financial ratios are needed to aid in decision making. This article reviews the development and use of hospital financial performance measures and lays the groundwork for research into deriving a multidimensional measure.

  7. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  8. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  9. Serum cotinine and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol levels among non-Hispanic Asian American smokers and nonsmokers as compared to other race/ethnicities: data from NHANES 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum cotinine and total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol (NNAL) levels from a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic Asian Americans as compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used for this purpose. The total sample size used was 4580. Regression models were fitted to estimate serum cotinine and urinary NNAL levels for smokers and nonsmokers aged 20 years and older adjusted for other factors that affect these levels. For nonsmokers, exposure to second hand smoke at home was associated with about 30 times higher serum cotinine levels when compared to those without such exposure (0.717 ng mL(-1) vs. 0.024 ng mL(-1), p<0.01). NNAL levels among nonsmokers with second hand smoke exposure at home were about twenty times what they were in those without such exposure (9 pg mL(-1) vs. 109 pg mL(-1), p<0.01). As compared to other racial/ethnic groups, the lowest adjusted serum cotinine levels occurred in non-Hispanic Asian smokers (92.6 ng mL(-1)) and Hispanics (84.5 ng mL(-1)) as compared to non-Hispanic whites (143.8 ng mL(-1)) and non-Hispanic blacks (158.4 ng mL(-1)). Urinary NNAL levels for smokers were in the order: non-Hispanic Asian (0.121 ng mL(-1))

  10. FINANCIAL LITERACY, FINANCIAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We review the literature on alternative policies to improve financial outcomes, and compare the evidence to evidence on the efficacy and cost of financial education. Finally, we discuss directions for future research. PMID:23991248

  11. Does Aid Matter? Measuring the Effect of Student Aid on College Attendance and Completion. NBER Working Paper No. 7422

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Does student aid increase college attendance or simply subsidize costs for infra-marginal students? Settling the question empirically is a challenge, because aid is correlated with many characteristics that influence educational investment decisions. A shift in financial aid policy that affects some youth but not others can provide an identifying…

  12. Aid Like a Paycheck: Incremental Aid to Promote Student Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Michelle; Weissman, Evan; McDermott, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Aid Like A Paycheck is based on a simple idea that is gaining national attention: after tuition and fees have been paid to a college, disburse the remaining financial aid to students evenly throughout the term--like a paycheck. The goals of the program are to help students achieve a good balance between time in work and school, and think about…

  13. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Financial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimovitch, Larry

    1988-09-01

    This is my second annual State-Of-The-Industry, if you will, from the financial standpoint. Swergold, Chefitz & Sinsabaugh, so you understand my position a little bit better, is both an investment banking and institutional research firm. We specialize both in healthcare research and in high technology research. I am one of three healthcare analysts. I am one of the fortunate ones who get to be in the San Francisco office. My speciality includes, in the medical device and technology areas, such subsectors as medical lasers, ophthalmology, critical care medicine, orthopedic devices, and cardiovascular devices. I have followed the medical laser industry for the last few years, and what I wanted to do today was give you kind of an update on the financial state of the industry.

  15. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  16. 75 FR 26944 - Federal Student Aid; Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership, Special Leveraging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Federal Student Aid; Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership, Special Leveraging Educational... Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership (LEAP), Special Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership... in providing aid to students with substantial financial need to help them pay for their...

  17. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  18. Understanding Financial Statements. Financial Matters. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John H.; Turner, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of higher education institutions offers guidelines to help trustees understand the institution's financial statements. Individual sections describe the three major financial statements and cover topics such as: (1) standards of the Financial Accounting Standards Board; (2) the "statement of financial position," which…

  19. Methodology Report for the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1987. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    To establish a comprehensive national database on postsecondary student financial aid, the National Center for Education Statistics conducted the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS). Objectives were to: (1) determine the costs of postsecondary education for aided and non-aided students; (2) evaluate how students finance their…

  20. Financial audit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Liability Fund, a nonprofit corporate entity created in 1973, pays claims for damages, including cleanup costs, arising from oil discharges from vessel transporting Trans-Alaska Pipeline System oil loaded at Alaskan terminals to ports under U.S. jurisdiction. This paper presents the results of GAO's view of the independent certified public accountants' audit of the Fund's financial statements as of December 31, 1990. GAO also assesses progress toward disposing of the Fund's balances and terminating the Fund.

  1. 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04) Full-Scale Methodology Report. Technical Report. NCES 2006-180

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Siegel, Peter; Dudley, Kristin; Roe, David; Gilligan, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04). NPSAS:04 is a comprehensive study of financial aid among postsecondary education students in the United States and Puerto Rico that provides information on trends in financial aid and on the ways in which families pay for…

  2. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  3. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  4. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  5. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  6. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... agency conducting a project for airport system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325...

  7. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning. Each sponsor of a project for airport master planning and each...

  8. National Student Aid Profile: Overview of 2012 Federal Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    From 2000-2001 to 2010-2011, the total amount of federal financial aid awarded to students under Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA) jumped from $64.0 billion to an estimated $169.1 billion, a 10-year increase of 164%. For 2010-2011, the Title IV programs accounted for 72% of the $235 billion in total financial aid received by college…

  9. Financial Assistance to Black Doctoral Students in Two "Adams" States: A Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, James N.; Pruitt, Anne S.

    The context for financial aid policy affecting black doctoral students in Oklahoma and Florida was studied using the case study method. Attention was focused on environmental and organizational variables affecting the implementation of financial aid policy. Historical patterns surrounding race relations in both states before the 1973 "Adams"…

  10. AIDS Orphanages in China: Reality and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Liying

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With the increasing number of AIDS orphans in China, the government has been building AIDS orphanages since 2004 to accommodate some of those children who have lost both parents to AIDS. However, no data are available regarding the quality of this model of institutional care of AIDS orphans in China. This study, based on qualitative data from children and workers in AIDS orphanages, examines the daily lives, needs, and feelings of orphans and explores the advantages and disadvantages of institutionalized care of AIDS orphans in China. The current study was conducted in 2006–2007 in two rural counties of central China. Data in the current study included individual in-depth interviews with 23 children who lost both of their parents to HIV/AIDS (ages 8 to 17 years) living in AIDS orphanages and 5 AIDS orphanage workers. Findings in this study reveal that children living in orphanages mostly felt that the living conditions were better than the families they lived with after the death of their parents. However, according to the children and orphanage workers, the institutional care has some disadvantages, such as administrative restraints, limited psychological guidance, stigma, lack of education on AIDS, and financial burdens of the operation. Implications for intervention programs include continuing support from the government and nongovernmental organizations, improvements in administrative styles, and the need of incorporating psychological support within the institutions. PMID:19281431

  11. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  12. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  13. The Effects of a State Need-based Access Grant on Traditional and Nontraditional Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    In 2011-2012, more than 236.7 billion dollars of student financial aid was disbursed to undergraduate and graduate students at postsecondary institutions in the United States. Today, many groups and organizations are advocating for financial aid to increase student access and success as well as to assist the neediest students. The purpose of this…

  14. Does Federal Aid Hike College Tuition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Imagine a different kind of financial aid for those who can not afford the skyrocketing prices of today's college education. It involves selling shares of oneself--selling shares that would provide a return on one's potential earnings to those willing to invest in one's education. In this article, the author comments on Gary Wolfram's selling…

  15. 22 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - List of Types of Federal Financial Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false List of Types of Federal Financial Assistance C... to Part 218—List of Types of Federal Financial Assistance Federal Financial Assistance Administered by AID Subject to Age Discrimination Regulations 1. Grants to research and educational...

  16. December financial checkup for physicians.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rita

    2014-01-01

    December is a busy month for holiday fun, but don't neglect your financial health! Physicians should review their business and personal finances at year end to ensure they are on target both for income generated and taxes paid. Preparing for the April 15 tax filing is aided by a thorough review in December. Payroll items such as W2s, 1099s, and employee benefits need to be reviewed. Retirement savings should be analyzed. Make sure to look at your business profit/loss statement and balance sheet. Personal contributions and other tax planning strategies need to be completed by the end of the year. Your CPA can help!

  17. December financial checkup for physicians.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rita

    2014-01-01

    December is a busy month for holiday fun, but don't neglect your financial health! Physicians should review their business and personal finances at year end to ensure they are on target both for income generated and taxes paid. Preparing for the April 15 tax filing is aided by a thorough review in December. Payroll items such as W2s, 1099s, and employee benefits need to be reviewed. Retirement savings should be analyzed. Make sure to look at your business profit/loss statement and balance sheet. Personal contributions and other tax planning strategies need to be completed by the end of the year. Your CPA can help! PMID:25807615

  18. Federal Student Aid Program. Bulletin, 1935, No. 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Fred J.; McNeely, John H.

    1935-01-01

    The Federal student aid program is the first instance in American history in which the National Government has assisted needy youth to work their way through college. Inaugurated by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (F.E.R.A.) the plan provides financial aid to qualified young men and women who lack sufficient funds to attend college.…

  19. Student-Aid Analysts Blast Loan Program, Urge Big Overhaul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Student financial aid analysts are suggesting the federal government establish a government-run loan bank or trust fund to eliminate the need for lender involvement in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, but congressional aides think that dismantling the existing program is unlikely. (MSE)

  20. High School Counselor's Handbook: 2004-05 Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides useful information to help high school and TRIO counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. This document focuses on the federal student aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes general information about postsecondary opportunities, and the application process…