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Sample records for 2011-2013 cal poly

  1. The Cal Poly aircraft design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Van't Riet, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Discussed is the aircraft design program at Cal Poly, SLO. The history of the program and the impact of the NASA/USRA ADP are presented. Examples of student design accomplishments are included. Questions on how the aircraft design education process can be improved are postulated.

  2. Library Renovation Leads to Soul Searching at Cal Poly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a library renovation at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona which incurs complaints from professors and librarians about a shift from print to online materials. The $60-million project at Cal Poly is providing a difficult lesson in the challenges of library renovation, and in the changing role of one of the…

  3. 26-Hours at Cal Poly: A Recruitment Strategy Targeting Underrepresented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Bob; Kellogg, Bill

    The Agriculture Education Department at California Polytechnic State University conducted a program to recruit Black and Hispanic students for the school's agriculture programs during spring 1988 and twice since then. High school sophomores and juniors in Los Angeles were invited to Cal Poly for a 26-hour program of workshops designed to include a…

  4. Mapping Site Response Parameters on Cal Poly Pomona Campus Using the Spectral Ratio Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HO, K. Y. K.; Polet, J.

    2014-12-01

    Site characteristics are an important factor in earthquake hazard assessment. To better understand site response differences on a small scale, as well as the seismic hazard of the area, we develop site response parameter maps of Cal Poly Pomona campus. Cal Poly Pomona is located in southern California about 40 km east of Los Angeles, within 50 km of San Andreas Fault. The campus is situated on top of the San Jose Fault. With about twenty two thousand students on campus, it is important to know the site response in this area. To this end, we apply the Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio technique, which is an empirical method that can be used in an urban environment with no environmental impact. This well-established method is based on the computation of the ratio of vertical ambient noise ground motion over horizontal ambient noise ground motion as a function of frequency. By applying the spectral ratio method and the criteria from Site Effects Assessment Using Ambient Excitations (SESAME) guidelines, we can determine fundamental frequency and a minimum site amplification factor. We installed broadband seismometers throughout the Cal Poly Pomona campus, with an initial number of about 15 sites. The sites are approximately 50 to 150 meters apart and about two hours of waveforms were recorded at each site. We used the Geopsy software to make measurements of the peak frequency and the amplitude of the main peak from the spectral ratio. These two parameters have been determined to be estimates of fundamental frequency and a minimum site amplification factor, respectively. Based on the geological map from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and our data collected from Cal Poly Pomona campus, our preliminary results suggest that the area of campus that is covered by alluvial fan material tends to have a single significant spectral peak with a fundamental frequency of ~1Hz and a minimum amplification factor of ~3.7. The minimum depth of the surface layer is about 56

  5. Aerodynamic design of the Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larwood, Scott; Saiki, Neal

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss the methodology used in designing the rotor and drive propellers for the third generation Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter. The rotor was designed using a lifting surface, uniform inflow hover analysis code and the propeller was designed using a minimum induced-loss method. Construction, geometry, and operating considerations are discussed as they impact the designs. Optimization of the design performance is also explained. The propellers were tested in a wind tunnel and results are compared with theoretical data. Successful flight tests of the Da Vinci III are discussed.

  6. Energy, Sustainability, Collaboration: Learning it, Teaching it, and Living it -- At Cal Poly, in Guatemala, and at Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Pete

    2012-11-01

    Three questions have become important to me: *``What is the future of our energy dilemma, and how can I participate toward a solution?'' Since 2007, I have been teaching ``Energy, Society, and the Environment'' at Cal Poly as well as developing and analyzing renewable energy technologies. In the process I have learned as much as my students. This interest was initially sparked by making ``sustainable'' changes to my home and lifestyle, and has since fueled constant domestic experimentation. *The above question extends to ``Environmental Justice'', which is essentially a question of ``who benefits and who suffers as a result of our societal choices?'' For the past three years, I've developed and directed a collaborative (Guatemalan/Cal Poly) appropriate technology field school. Students from both countries learn together during the two-month summer program in a small mountain village in Guatemala (www.guateca.com). *``What happens to learning efficacy when students become friends?'' For the past three years, I've been actively engaged with a group of Cal Poly instructors in a quest to create community in the learning environment (www.sustainslo.org). Additionally, I've begun to teach all my classes ``inside out'', consistent with the advice of Physics Nobel Prize Laureate Carl Weiman (Science, 13 May 2011, VOL 332 862 -- 864). Students learn the material at home by reading or watching videos available on the web. This opens up class time for guided discussion, experimentation, and calculations. The Guateca field school provides an extreme example of this principle, as all the students do become friends. with very interesting results.

  7. Photodynamic Therapy With Hyperbranched Poly(Ether-Ester) Chlorin(e6) Nanoparticles On Human Tongue Carcinoma Cal-27 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu; Zhu, Xinyuan; Li, Guolin; Yan, Peng; Shen, Linyue; Xu, Qin; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperbranched polymers represent a new class of drug delivery vehicle that can be used to prepare nanoparticles with uniform size distribution. Methods In this study we prepared covalent conjugates between the photosensitizer chlorin(e6) and hyperbranched poly(ether-ester), HPEE. HPEE-ce6 nanoparticles were synthesized by carbodiimide-mediated reaction between HPEE and ce6, and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The uptake and phototoxicity of HPEE-ce6 nanoparticles towards human oral tongue cancer CAL-27 cells was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and MTT assay respectively. Results The absorption peak of HPEE-ce6 nanoparticles was red-shifted 12-nm compared with ce6, and TEM showed uniform nanoparticles with a diameter of 50-nm. HPEE-ce6 nanoparticles were taken up by CAL-27 cells after 4 hour incubation and localized in the cytoplasm. The MTT assay showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher phototoxicity compared to free ce6 after 12 J/cm2 of 660-nm laser illumination. Conclusions This is the first time to our knowledge that hyperbranched polymers have been used in PDT drug delivery. PMID:22369732

  8. Shallow Subsurface Resistivity Profiles Across the San Jose Fault As It Transects the Cal Poly Pomona Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantrapornlert, K. J.; Polet, J.; Colin, H.

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault located in the San Gabriel Valley in Southern California. The 1988 (M4.6) and 1990 (M5.2) Upland earthquakes have been attributed to this fault and it has been suggested that it is capable of producing a magnitude M6.0-6.5 earthquake. Sections of the fault are considered to run through the campus of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona as inferred from a 2001 geotechnical engineering report (Geocon, 2001). As it cuts across the campus, the geotechnical engineering report concluded that it has a reverse component of motion. Ascertaining the precise location of the San Jose fault traces on campus is crucial as the university plans its future buildings. Resistivity surveys were conducted across several suggested traces of the fault. The surveys consisted of 24 electrodes in a Wenner electrode configuration with an electrode spacing that varies between 1-5m. An IRIS Instruments Syscal KID switcher unit provided the power source and data recording hardware. The data was processed using IRIS Prosys II software suite before using Geotomo's Res2Dinv software to obtain 2D images of subsurface resistivity for these profiles. A total of 23 surveys were conducted throughout the campus. Surveys were performed before and after rainfall to compensate for the variation of water content and its effect on resistivity. Preliminary results indicate shallow, north-dipping contrasts in resistivity across many of the areas where the fault was previously identified in the Geocon 2001 report. More data will be analyzed to present an enhanced understanding of the San Jose fault in the vicinity of the Cal Poly Pomona campus at AGU.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    During 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  10. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  11. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  12. Symptomatic Exposures Among California Inmates 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Michael; Al-Abri, Suad; Huntington, Serena; Carlson, Terry; Geller, Richard J; Olson, Kent R

    2015-09-01

    Prisoners have a high prevalence of substance misuse and abuse, but few studies have examined symptomatic exposures among incarcerated populations. We sought to further characterize the nature of these exposures among this population using the California Poison Control System data. Keyword searches identified inmate cases in 2011-2013 for patients 20+ years old exposed to a single substance and taken to hospital from jail, prison, or police custody. Comparisons were made with non-inmate cases during the same period, using similar limitations. Body stuffers and body packers were analyzed as a subgroup. Seven hundred four inmate cases were compared to 106,260 non-inmate cases. Inmates were more likely to be younger, male, and to have engaged in drug misuse or abuse. They most commonly ingested methamphetamine, heroin, acetaminophen, and anticonvulsants. Inmates were more likely to receive activated charcoal (OR 9.87, 8.20-11.88), whole bowel irrigation (OR 44.50, 33.83-58.54), undergo endotracheal intubation (OR 4.09, 2.91-5.73), and to experience a major clinical outcome or death (OR 1.41, 1.05-1.89). When body stuffers and packers were removed, clinical findings were similar, though the odds of a major outcome or death became statistically non-significant. Body stuffers and body packers primarily used methamphetamine and heroin, and compared with other inmates had significantly higher odds of both adverse clinical effects and poor outcome. This large series provides a profile of symptomatic exposures among inmates, a little-studied population. The potential for high morbidity among body stuffers and packers suggests that a high index of suspicion of such ingestions be maintained when evaluating patients prior to incarceration. PMID:25526949

  13. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  14. Arkansas Public Higher Education Operating & Capital Recommendations, 2011-2013 Biennium. 7-A. Volume 1: Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication details the institutional goals, objectives, and strategies of public universities in Arkansas as related to their appropriations requests. It also provides operating and capital recommendations of the Arkansas Public Higher Education Coordinating Board for 2011-2013 biennium for each institution. (Contains 10 tables.) [For Volume…

  15. Fundamental Aspects of CAL!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David F., Ed.; Smith, P. R., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Topics discussed in 14 papers concerned with software design, curriculum development, evaluation, and intelligent systems include teaching and learning systems, development of computer-assisted learning (CAL) courseware (music and reading), evaluation of CAL packages for mastery learning and modelling, assessment of CAL in physics and the primary…

  16. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Congenital Malformations in Tirana, Albania, During 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Çanaku, Dorina; Toçi, Ervin; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Congenital Malformations (CMs) represent a challenge especially for developing countries. Data about CMs in Albania are rather scarce. In this context, our aim was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with CMs in Tirana, the capital of Albania. Methods: Information on all CMs at birth during 2011-2013 was retrieved from the National CM Surveillance System. For each CM case, three controls (babies born without CM) were retrieved as well. Overall, 831 cases and 2522 controls were included in this study. The prevalence was calculated using the total number of live births in Tirana during the same period. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with CMs adjusting for a number of covariates. Results: The three-year prevalence of CMs was 23.41 per 1,000 live births. The most affected body systems were the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and genital systems. CMs were more prevalent among male babies. Advanced mothers’ age, lower education, unemployment status and lower gestational age were all positively associated with increased likelihood of CMs. Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors of mothers are linked to CMs in Albania. Future surveys are needed in Albania in order to establish determinants of CMs at a national level. PMID:25126007

  18. Characterization of rubella virus genotypes among pregnant women in northern Vietnam, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Van Le, Son; Le, Duc Hoang; Hoang, Huong Thi; Hoang, Ha; Nguyen, Nam Trung; Chu, Ha Hoang

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus (RV) infection is an unresolved clinical complication that affects children in developing countries including Vietnam. RV infection during the first trimester of pregnancy causes severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome. This study reports on the genomic characterization of RV strains circulating in northern Vietnam during 2011-2013. RV-IgM positive amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 38 women from northern Vietnam who presented with clinical rubella at the National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Hanoi, Vietnam. The RV genes were determined by nested PCR with primers amplifying the 739-nucleotide coding region of the E1 gene. The sequences from the amplified DNA fragments were phylogenetically analyzed and compared to reference RV strains. Seventeen out of 38 samples are positive for RV detecting. All new RV isolates are clustered to genotype 2B. Eighteen amino acid mutations were found in the T and B cell epitopes. These results suggest that genotype 2B RV strains frequently circulate in northern Vietnam. These data describe the RV genotype in Vietnam with the aim of improving maternal and child health in this country. PMID:25111367

  19. Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Fan, Qi; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang

    2016-08-01

    To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011-2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China-Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase. PMID:27433877

  20. Arkansas Public Higher Education Operating & Capital Recommendations, 2011-2013 Biennium. 7-A. Volume 2: Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication details the institutional goals, objectives, and strategies of public two-year institutions in Arkansas as related to their appropriations requests. It also provides operating and capital recommendations of the Arkansas Public Higher Education Coordinating Board for 2011-2013 biennium for each institution. [For Volume 1, see…

  1. Coral reef monitoring in the Iles Eparses, Mozambique Channel (2011-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabanet, P.; Bigot, L.; Nicet, J.-B.; Durville, P.; Massé, L.; Mulochau, T.; Russo, C.; Tessier, E.; Obura, D.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of coral reefs has become a major tool for understanding how they are changing, and for managing them in a context of increasing degradation of coastal ecosystems. The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) has near-global coverage, but there are few remote sites free of direct human impact that can serve as reference sites. This study provides baseline data for the French Iles Eparses in the Mozambique Channel, Western Indian Ocean (WIO), whose coral reefs are little known owing to their limited accessibility, and have been free from fishing pressure for over 20 years. Surveys of coral reef health and fish community structure were undertaken at four of the islands (Europa, Bassas da India, Juan de Nova and Glorieuses) in 2011-2013. Monitoring was conducted using standardized GCRMN methods for benthos and fish communities, at the highest taxonomic level. Benthic cover showed a latitudinal gradient, with higher coral cover and conversely lower algae cover (60% and 14% respectively) in the south of the Mozambique Channel. This could be due to the geomorphology of the islands, the latitudinal temperature gradient, and/or the history of chronic stress and bleaching events during the last decades. Fish also showed a latitudinal gradient with higher diversity in the north, in a center of diversity for the western Indian Ocean already recognized for corals. An exceptional biomass fish was recorded (approximately 3500 kg/ha excluding sharks, compared to a maximum of 1400 kg/ha elsewhere in the WIO). The presence of large predators and sharks in all the islands as well as the absence of fleshy benthic algae were indicators of the good health of the reef systems. Nevertheless, these islands are beginning to experience illegal fishing, particularly in the north of the Mozambique Channel, demonstrating their vulnerability to exploitation and the need to protect them as reference sites for coral reef studies, including of climate change impacts, for the region

  2. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of

  3. Fond Memories of Cal Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal involvement in the California Council for the Education of Teachers (Cal Council), beginning in 1960 and spanning four decades, which involved associations with key people in California teacher education and credentialing. The Cal Council was organized for leaders in teacher education from the…

  4. A study of the incidence of BCG vaccine complications in infants of Babol, Mazandaran (2011-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Barari-Savadkouhi, Rahim; Shour, Azin; Masrour-Roudsari, Jila

    2016-01-01

    Background: BCG vaccination which is administered to prevent tuberculosis is sometimes associated with serious complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence of complications of BCG vaccination in Babol. Methods: All infants who received BCG vaccination between 2011-2013 in health centers of Babol entered the study. Data regarding complications of vaccine were extracted according to the National Inventory of babies. All complicated cases were confirmed by the Academic Committee to review the adverse consequences of the vaccine. Results: Among the 15984 vaccinated neonates, 150 (0.93%) cases presented lymphadenitis. 46.5% were females and 53.5% were males; 43% were rural residents and 57% were urban residents. No cases of lymphadenitis including 1% of lymphadenitis with abscess formation were recovered without treatment. Disseminated infection occurred in 3 cases of immune deficient patients who responded to the treatment. Most complications occurred during 4 months after vaccination. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the prevalence of lymphadenitis in Babol was higher than the standard of WHO. This may be attributed to type and vaccine storage and injection technique. These findings justify further training of health-center workers. PMID:26958333

  5. Comparative analysis of quantity and quality of biomedical publications in Gulf Cooperation Council countries from 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Dawas, Reema B.; Mallick, Muaz A.; Hamadah, Reem E.; Kharraz, Razan H.; Chamseddin, Ranim A.; Khan, Tehreem A.; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.; Rohra, Dileep K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the research productivity of different Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the field of biomedical sciences from 2011-2013. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in the College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data on the biomedical publications originating from GCC countries published between January 2011 to December 2013 was searched via MEDLINE using PubMed. The total number of publications emanating from each country was normalized with the country’s population. The mean impact factor (IF) of all the publications in a year was calculated for comparative analysis. Results: A total of 11,000 publications were retrieved via MEDLINE using PubMed, out of which, 9222 were selected for analysis. A successive increase in the number of publications by every country was observed. The most striking increase in the number of publications was from Saudi Arabia. However, after normalization with population, the performance of Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait looks far better than Saudi Arabia in terms of research productivity. Data on mean IF showed that the overall mean IF of all GCC countries has remained largely unchanged except Oman. Although Oman had a comparatively low mean IF value in 2011, they recorded a tremendous improvement in successive years. Conclusion: All GCC countries underwent an increase in quantitative research productivity over the last 3 years. However, no increase in quality of research publications was noted based on the proxy reports of mean journal IF. PMID:26318469

  6. HIV Testing in the Past Year among the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: 2011-2013. NCHS Data Brief. Number 202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copen, Casey E.; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, more than 1 million Americans aged 13 and over were living with HIV infection, and one in seven did not know their infection status. Routine, voluntary HIV testing is a recognized way to reduce HIV transmission. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report updates nationally representative estimates…

  7. Psychosocial Work Environment and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among 21-Year-Old Workers: A Population-Based Investigation (2011-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Sara; Carnide, Filomena; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lucas, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Background The current labour market is becoming more flexible and informal, with job insecurity selectively affecting young workers. However, the role of these increasing adverse psychosocial working conditions on health outcomes remains little known among newly employed workers. Objective To estimate the associations between psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal outcomes (widespread pain syndrome features and regional pain) in a population-based sample of young workers. Methods Cross-sectional data from workers aged 21 years were collected during the third wave of the EPITeen cohort study (2011-2013; n=650). The Job Content Questionnaire was used to characterize the psychosocial work environment according to the demand-control-support model. Data on pain and non-pain dimensions of the widespread pain syndrome (Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire) as well as on regional musculoskeletal pain (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were also collected. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using logistic regression and all estimates were adjusted for sex, education and occupational biomechanical demands. Results Job insecurity was significantly associated to the non-pain dimension of the widespread pain syndrome (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.51 [1.08, 2.12]). Young workers with strain jobs were significantly more likely to report high levels of non-pain symptoms when compared with those with no-strain jobs and this effect was even stronger when social support was added to the main exposure: workers with strain jobs and low social support had twice the odds of reporting high levels of non-pain features than those with high strain but high social support jobs (adjusted OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.31). These significant associations were not observed when widespread pain or multisite regional pain were the outcomes. Conclusion In the beginning of professional life, high strain jobs were associated to non

  8. David Georgi's Cal Council Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgi, David

    2015-01-01

    When the author was asked to write a mini-memoir about his time as Cal Council president, his first thought was "Now, when exactly was that?" He says that pretty much summarizes the quality of his memory these days. The author's first contact with the California Council on the Education of Teachers was back in the 1970s when the…

  9. Geodetic constraints to the source mechanism of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei (Italy) caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bonafede, Maurizio; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Campi Flegrei (Italy) is a nested caldera and together with Vesuvius is one of the Italian GEO Geohazard Supersites (GSNL). The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard of the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km²), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m. Minor uplifts of few centimeters, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In this work, we present results from SAR Interferometry and geodetic data modelling at Campi Flegrei in the framework of the EU's FP7 MED-SUV Project. We exploit two COSMO-SkyMed data sets to map the deformation field during 2011-2013. The spatial distributions of the cumulative displacement from COSMO-SkyMed ascending/descending orbits show similar behaviors, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least within the inner rim of the caldera. The resulting data, together with GPS data from the Neapolitan Volcanoes Continuous GPS network (NeVoCGPS) is fitted through a geophysical inversion process using finite element forward models to account for the 3D heterogeneous medium. The best fit model is a north dipping mixed-mode dislocation source lying at ~5 km depth. The driving mechanism is ascribable to magma input into the source of the large 1982-1984 unrest (since similar source characteristics were inferred) that generates initial inflation followed by additional shear slip accompanying the extension of crack tips. The history and the current state of the system indicate that Campi Flegrei is able to erupt again. Constraining the defomation source may have important implications in terms of civil protection and the

  10. Bioinformatics insight into the spike glycoprotein gene of field porcine epidemic diarrhea strains during 2011-2013 in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianwei; Xue, Chunyi; He, Liangliang; Wang, Yang; Cao, Yongchang

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) were isolated from dead or diseased pigs at different swine farms in Guangdong during 2011-2013, and their S genes were sequenced. In the same period, seven PEDV strains were also isolated in Guangdong by other laboratories. The spike sequences of 10 Guangdong isolates were compared with vaccine strains and reference pathogenic isolates using six bioinformatics tools. The results revealed that 10 Guangdong strains, excluding strain GDS03, had distinct characteristics in terms of primary structure, secondary structure, high-specificity N-glycosylation sites, potential phosphorylation sites, and palmitoylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed these findings and revealed that all PEDV strains were clustered into three distinct groups. Ten Guangdong strains, not including GDS03, belong to Group 1, whereas four vaccine strains and GDS03 belong to Group 3, which is evolutionarily distant from Group 1. Alignment analysis of the neutralizing region amino acid sequences indicated that the amino acid substitutions of Y/D766S, T549S, and G594S that are present in the Guangdong strains, not including GDS03, were a sign of predominant genetic changes among the isolated strains. GDS03 is closely related to the 83P-5 vaccine strain, which suggests that it might represent re-isolation of the vaccine strain or vaccine variants. Taken together, these results indicate that there have been predominant new strains circulating in Guangdong from 2011 to 2013, and the circulating PEDV strains have a genetic composition that is distant from reference strains, especially the vaccine strains; however, the vaccinations might also provide some level of cross-protection, as there have been no changes in the neutralizing epitopes of SS2 and 2C10. This explains why there have been constant but infrequent outbreaks recently in comparison to late 2010 in which PEDV outbreaks were more frequent and severe. In addition, the USA

  11. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  12. A CAL-Based Undergraduate Genetics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, K.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a second-year undergraduate practical course in quantitative genetics and biometrics, based upon computer-assisted learning (CAL); and discusses the educational benefits of the course, some problems encountered, and some implications of the extensive use of CAL. (Author/CMV)

  13. Aerosol number size distributions in the lower troposphere over a background region and megalopolis (Novosibirsk) on result of airborne sounding in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Tsaruk, Victoria V.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the data on aerosol number size distribution measured with GRIMM 1.109 aerosol spectrometer in the lower troposphere over Novosibirsk and background area 150 km south-west of it during research flights of Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out along the route Novosibirsk - Ordynskoye - Novosibirsk in 2011-2013. Aerosol number size distributions averaged over 3 years as together so for warm and cold seasons separately are considered here. It is shown that the accumulation of anthropogenic aerosol within the BL over the city is typical for the cold period, which is most likely caused by inversions those are rapidly destroyed by vertical mixing during warm season and anthropogenic aerosols from the city are transported into the free troposphere.

  14. NotCal04 - Comparison / Calibration 14C records 26-50 cal kBP

    SciTech Connect

    der Plicht, J v; Beck, J; Bard, E; Baille, M

    2004-11-11

    The radiocarbon calibration curve, IntCal04, extends back to 26 cal kBP. While several high resolution records exist beyond this limit, these data sets exhibit discrepancies one to another of up to several millennia. As a result, no calibration curve for the time range 26-50 cal kBP can be recommended as yet, but in this paper the IntCal04 working group compares the available data sets and offers a discussion of the information that they hold.

  15. Viewdata-Style Delivery Mechanisms for CAL. CAL Research Group Technical Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacsich, P. D.

    The development and evaluation of a potential viewdata-style delivery system for computer assisted learning (CAL) at the Open University are described. First examined are Open University problems with CAL and television delivery systems, which resulted in the consideration of a viewdata approach involving allocation of a small central processor to…

  16. Epidemiology of tuberculosis and evaluation of treatment outcomes in the national tuberculosis control programme, River Nile state, Sudan, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Elmadhoun, W M; Noor, S K; Bushara, S O; Ahmed, E O; Mustafa, H; Sulaiman, A A; Almobarak, A O; Ahmed, M H

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Sudan, a country that carries 11-15% of the tuberculosis burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in River Nile State and to compare treatment outcomes with WHO recommended indicators. A descriptive study was conducted on data collected from records of 1221 patients registered at tuberculosis management units over the 3 years 2011-2013. The mean age of cases was 37.7 (SD 21.5) years and 65.9% were males; 76.3% were pulmonary tuberculosis and 36.9% were sputum smear-positive cases. Average values for all outcome indicators were suboptimal, notably rates of case notification (30.8 per 100 000), case detection (10.3%), treatment success (79.6%), treatment failure (3.0%), default (8.1%) and death (8.0%). Of the 264 patients tested for HIV, 3.8% were positive. Outcome indicators for the national tuberculosis control programme are lagging behind the required targets. PMID:27180737

  17. The TileCal Laser Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangiobbe, Vincent; On Behalf Of The Atlas Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector operating at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter whose active material is made of scintillating plastic tiles. Scintillation light is read by photomultipliers. A Laser system is used to monitor their gain stability. During dedicated calibration runs the Laser system sends via long optical fibers, a monitored amount of light simultaneously to all the ≈10000 photomultipliers of TileCal. This note describes two complementary methods to measure the stability of the photomultipliers gain using the Laser calibration runs. The results of validation tests are presented for both methods and theirrespective performances and limitations are discussed.

  18. Centromeres of a Different CAL-ibre.

    PubMed

    Zasadzińska, Ewelina; Foltz, Daniel R

    2016-04-18

    Centromeres of higher eukaryotes are defined by the epigenetic inheritance of the centromere-specific CENP-A nucleosome. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Rosin and Mellone (2016) show that co-evolution of the CENP-A histone variant and its chaperone CAL1 accounts for species incompatibility between centromeric histones in Drosophila. PMID:27093076

  19. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

  20. American Thoracic Society and Marron Institute Report. Estimated Excess Morbidity and Mortality Caused by Air Pollution above American Thoracic Society-Recommended Standards, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Cromar, Kevin R; Gladson, Laura A; Perlmutt, Lars D; Ghazipura, Marya; Ewart, Gary W

    2016-08-01

    Estimates of the health impacts of air pollution are needed to make informed air quality management decisions at both the national and local levels. Using design values of ambient pollution concentrations from 2011-2013 as a baseline, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Marron Institute of Urban Management estimated excess morbidity and mortality in the United States attributable to exposure to ambient ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at levels above the American Thoracic Society-recommended standards. Within the subset of counties with valid design values for each pollutant, 14% had PM2.5 concentrations greater than the ATS recommendation, whereas 91% had O3 concentrations greater than the ATS recommendation. Approximately 9,320 excess deaths (69% from O3; 31% from PM2.5), 21,400 excess morbidities (74% from O3; 26% from PM2.5), and 19,300,000 adversely impacted days (88% from O3; 12% from PM2.5) in the United States each year are attributable to pollution exceeding the ATS-recommended standards. California alone is responsible for 37% of the total estimated health impacts, and the next three states (Pennsylvania, Texas, and Ohio) together contributed to 20% of the total estimates. City-specific health estimates are provided in this report and through an accompanying online tool to help inform air quality management decisions made at the local level. Riverside and Los Angeles, California have the most to gain by attaining the ATS recommendations for O3 and PM2.5. This report will be revised and updated regularly to help cities track their progress. PMID:27509145

  1. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and 2 Seroprevalence among first-time blood donors in Chile, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Héctor; Balanda, Monserrat; Vergara, Nicolás; Valenzuela, María Antonieta; Cartier, Luis; Ayala, Salvador; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. HTLV-1/2 infection is endemic in Chile but representative donor prevalence data are lacking. Data on all blood donors in a large network of Chilean blood centers were examined during 2011-2013. Screening of HTLV-1/2 antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at all blood banks. Blood samples with anticoagulants from initially reactive blood donors were analyzed by serological confirmation tests (immunofluorescence or recombinant immunoblot) at the HTLV National Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Chile. Additionally, detection of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed in all blood donors as confirmatory test. Prevalence rates were calculated. Among 694,016 donors, 706 were seropositive for HTLV-1 (prevalence, 1.02 cases per 1,000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.09), and 97 were seropositive for HTLV-2 (prevalence, 0.14 cases per 1,000; 95%CI, 0.11-0.17). Prevalence of HTLV-1 differed considerably by region, from 0.51 to 1.69 per 1,000. Prevalence of HTLV-2 was similar across the country (0.12-0.16). HTLV-1 prevalence was associated with female sex, older age, and residence in the north of Chile. HTVL-2 prevalence was associated with older age. The HTLV-1 prevalence among Chilean blood donors was relatively high and could be reduced by improving donor recruitment and selection in high prevalence areas. Blood center data may contribute to surveillance for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections. PMID:26538335

  2. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  3. Analysis of plasmid-mediated quinolone and oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance mechanisms in Uruguayan Salmonella enterica isolates from 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Nabón, Adriana; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Álvez, Marcelo; Sirok, Alfredo; Camou, Teresa; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    This study characterised the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone and oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in human Salmonella enterica isolates in Uruguay. Salmonella enterica isolates were collected from 2011-2013 and were selected based on non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and/or oxyimino-cephalosporins. The disk diffusion assay was performed for various antibiotics, and the ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined following CLSI guidelines. Genetic relatedness was determined following PulseNet protocols. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases, ampC alleles and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance were characterised by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid analyses were carried out by conjugation or transformation assays, and plasmid-encoded genes were identified by PCR. Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrases were sought by PCR and sequencing. Among 579 isolates, 105 (18.4%) ciprofloxacin-non-susceptible (CIP-NS) isolates, 9 (1.6%) oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant isolates and 2 (0.3%) isolates resistant to both antibiotic families were detected. Thirteen isolates carried qnrB alleles (twelve qnrB19 and one qnrB2), four carried blaCTX-M-8, two blaCTX-M-14, two blaSHV-2 and three blaCMY-2-like genes. No correlation was found between mutations in gyrases and ciprofloxacin MICs. Several co-circulating clones of S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were detected; conversely, S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis corresponded mainly to a single circulating clone. Nine (75%) of twelve of CIP-NS extraintestinal isolates shared the same pulsotype with intestinal isolates. During the study period, the frequency of CIP-NS isolates increased, albeit with ciprofloxacin MICs of 0.125-0.5mg/L. Detection of the same quinolone-resistant clones recovered both from intestinal and extraintestinal samples highlights the significance of epidemiological surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility for every human Salmonella isolate. PMID

  4. Quantifying the vulnerability of carbon stocks and fluxes in six semi-arid biomes in the Southwestern US to the severe 2011-2013 drought (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. E.; Krofcheck, D.; Hilton, T. W.; Fox, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude of carbon fluxes through arid and semi-arid ecosystems is considered modest, but integrated over the ~40% of the global land surface covered by these ecosystems, the total carbon stored is almost twice that in temperate forest ecosystems. Climatic extremes are typical in the Southwestern U.S, and the frequency of extreme temperature and precipitation events (both drought and large storms) in this region is predicted to increase in the next century. Understanding how resilient carbon pools and fluxes in these biomes are to climate extremes constitutes a large uncertainty in our ability to understand regional carbon balance. We use a 7 year record (2007-2013) of continuous measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) made over the New Mexico Elevation Gradient (NMEG) network of flux tower sites (desert grassland, creosote shrubland, juniper savanna, piñon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine and subalpine mixed conifer) to test hypotheses about the biome-specific sensitivity of carbon cycling to both drought and temperature extremes. In particular, we focus on the functional responses in these biomes to the extended drought in this region from 2011-2013, which has triggered extensive mortality in many biomes. We used time series of climatic variables, radiation absorbed by vegetation, sap flux, soil moisture storage, and remotely sensed structural and functional data, including rates of mortality, to compare the biome-specific mechanisms behind these responses. We also produce biome-specific functional response surfaces of productivity and respiration to VPD, temperature and soil water availability. Decreases in annual NEP from the relatively wet year of 2010 to the severe drought year 2011 ranged from 60-165 g C m-2 y-1 across the gradient, due more to decreases in GPP than Re. We observed the greatest sensitivity to both temperature and precipitation extremes in

  5. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  6. The CEOS Cal/Val Portal: a new instrument for the cal/val community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burini, Alessandro; Fox, Nigel; Chander, Gyanesh; Goryl, Philippe

    2010-10-01

    The exploitation of Earth Observation data depends with increasing importance on multi-source inter-calibrated data, as demonstrated, for example, in the ESA DUE GlobColour project.1 The subgroup on Calibration and Validation of the Committee on Earth Observing System (CEOS) formulated a recommendation during the plenary session held in China at the end of 2004, with the goal of setting-up and operating an Internet based system to provide sensor data, protocols and guidelines for the purposes of efficiently supporting sensor calibration, inter-calibration and product validation. ESA has taken the initiative and launched the version 1.0 of the Cal/Val Portal in October 2006 and the version 2.0 in mid 2009. This paper describes the Cal/Val portal webpage, components, and general content organization. It also gives an example of collaboration and Cal/Val facility.

  7. 2006 National Caring Awards. Cal Ripken Jr.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    You can tell a lot about baseball legend Cal Ripken from his office in Baltimore. It's full of mahogany furniture that bespeaks his new role as businessman and philanthropist. Books are piled on the windowsill. Above the sofa are two pictures, one of the All-Century players--he and Ernie Banks are the only shortstops--and another of himself in 1995 after he broke Lou Gehrig's record for consecutive games played. Looming above it all is a huge pencil drawing of Mr. Ripken's dad, the person who shaped him as a player and a man. PMID:17153680

  8. DOSAR/CalLab Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.

    2000-03-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research, primarily using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Program Calibration Laboratory (CalLab), referred to formerly as the Radiation Calibration Laboratory. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and the testing of materials in a variety of radiation environments.

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Parks Collection Photo 1958 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Loop dynamics of thymidine diphosphate-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase (CalS11), an enzyme in calicheamicin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Singh, Shanteri; Thorson, Jon S; Phillips, George N

    2016-01-01

    Structure analysis and ensemble refinement of the apo-structure of thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase reveal a gate for substrate entry and product release. TDP-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase (CalS11) catalyses a 3'-O-methylation of TDP-rhamnose, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of enediyne antitumor antibiotic calicheamicin. CalS11 operates at the sugar nucleotide stage prior to glycosylation step. Here, we present the crystal structure of the apo form of CalS11 at 1.89 Å resolution. We propose that the L2 loop functions as a gate facilitating and/or providing specificity for substrate entry or promoting product release. Ensemble refinement analysis slightly improves the crystallographic refinement statistics and furthermore provides a compelling way to visualize the dynamic model of loop L2, supporting the understanding of its proposed role in catalysis. PMID:26958582

  11. Cal Council at Seventy: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, James S.

    2015-01-01

    James Cantor, a professor in the College of Education at California State University, describes his history with the California Council on Teacher Education (CCTE or Cal Council) before becoming the President of the CCTE in 2008. He served as an active member for 10 years prior to becoming the Cal Council President. The author shares the…

  12. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  13. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  14. SMOS Soil moisture Cal val activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Mialon, A.; Bitar, A. Al; Leroux, D.; Richaume, P.; Gruhier, C.; Berthon, L.; Novello, N.; Rudiger, C.; Bircher, S.; Wigneron, J. P.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Rahmoune, R.

    2012-04-01

    SMOS, successfully launched on November 2, 2009, uses an L Band radiometer with aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution.. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and with the atmosphere being almost transparent, it enables us to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS is now acquiring data and has undergone the commissioning phase. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and China. Many different international teams are now performing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. These campaigns take place in various parts of the world and in different environments, from the Antarctic plateau to the deserts, from rain forests to deep oceans. SMOS is a new sensor, making new measurements and paving the way for new applications. It requires a detailed analysis of the data so as to validate both the approach and the quality of the retrievals, and allow for monitoring and the evolution of the sensor. To achieve such goals it is very important to link efficiently ground

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1854 Rephoto of 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION WITH OTHER BUILDINGS - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Chitin synthase 3 from yeast has zymogenic properties that depend on both the CAL1 and the CAL3 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, W J; Sburlati, A; Cabib, E

    1994-01-01

    In previous studies, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of most of the chitin present in the yeast cell, was found to be inactivated by incubation with trypsin, in contrast to other yeast chitin synthases (Chs1 and Chs2), which are stimulated by this treatment (chitin synthase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase, EC 2.4.1.16). It has now been found that the substrate UDPGlcNAc protects Chs3 against proteolytic inactivation. Treatment of Chs3-containing membranes with detergents drastically reduced the enzymatic activity. Activity could, however, be restored by subsequent incubation with trypsin or other proteases in the presence of UDPGlcNAc. Under such conditions, protease treatment stimulated activity as much as 10-fold. A change in divalent cation specificity after trypsin treatment suggests that the protease directly affects the enzyme molecule. Experiments with mutants in the three genes involved in Chs3 activity--CAL1, CAL2, and CAL3--showed that only CAL1 and CAL3 are required for the protease-elicited (zymogenic) activity. It is concluded that Chs3 is a zymogen and that the CAL2 product functions as its activator. The differences and possible similarities between Chs3 and the other chitin synthases are discussed. PMID:8197125

  20. The Column Density Variance-{\\cal M}_s Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.

    2012-08-01

    Although there is a wealth of column density tracers for both the molecular and diffuse interstellar medium, there are few observational studies investigating the relationship between the density variance (σ2) and the sonic Mach number ({\\cal M}_s). This is in part due to the fact that the σ2-{\\cal M}_s relationship is derived, via MHD simulations, for the three-dimensional (3D) density variance only, which is not a direct observable. We investigate the utility of a 2D column density \\sigma _{\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0}^2-{\\cal M}_s relationship using solenoidally driven isothermal MHD simulations and find that the best fit follows closely the form of the 3D density \\sigma _{\\rho /\\rho _0}^2-{\\cal M}_s trend but includes a scaling parameter A such that \\sigma _{\\ln (\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0)}^2=A\\times \\ln (1+b^2{\\cal M}_s^2), where A = 0.11 and b = 1/3. This relation is consistent with the observational data reported for the Taurus and IC 5146 molecular clouds with b = 0.5 and A = 0.16, and b = 0.5 and A = 0.12, respectively. These results open up the possibility of using the 2D column density values of σ2 for investigations of the relation between the sonic Mach number and the probability distribution function (PDF) variance in addition to existing PDF sonic Mach number relations.

  1. Measurements of Gases and Aerosols during 2010Cal-Mex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Molina, L.

    2012-04-01

    The major goal of the collaborative Cal-Mex 2010 research project is to assess the sources and processing of emissions along the California-Mexico border region and their effects on regional air quality and climate in order to provide scientific information to decision makers of both nations when addressing these two inter-related issues. During the Cal-Mex 2010 field study, the TAMU teams have collected extensive data sets from Tijuana/San Diego border, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and a suite set of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols. This comprehensive data set requires additional effort to process and analyze the measurements of gases and aerosols during Cal-Mex 2010. In this talk, preliminary data analysis of gases and aerosols will be presented, including VOCs and particle mixing states, morphology, and effective densities.

  2. Followup Study of Transfer Students from C.O.S. to California State University, Fresno, & California Poly-Technic State University, San Luis Obispo, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elaine

    A study was conducted at College of the Sequoias (COS) to assess the academic success of students transferring to California State University, Fresno (Fresno State), and California Poly-Technic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal-Poly). The study focused on the number of units completed at COS, grade point average (GPA) at COS, COS units…

  3. Cal Council: A Story of Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunetti, Gerald J.

    2015-01-01

    Gerald Brunetti served as President of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (Cal Council or CCET) from 1992 to 1994. This article describes the author's involvement with the CCET beginning in 1979, and covers the details of accomplishments throughout his presidency, such as the development of "CCNews," mail balloting, and…

  4. CAL1 is the Drosophila CENP-A assembly factor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chi; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Bettini, Emily; Ledoux, Mary B.; Belisario, Christian; Heun, Patrick; Luger, Karolin

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres are specified epigenetically by the incorporation of the histone H3 variant CENP-A. In humans, amphibians, and fungi, CENP-A is deposited at centromeres by the HJURP/Scm3 family of assembly factors, but homologues of these chaperones are absent from a number of major eukaryotic lineages such as insects, fish, nematodes, and plants. In Drosophila, centromeric deposition of CENP-A requires the fly-specific protein CAL1. Here, we show that targeting CAL1 to noncentromeric DNA in Drosophila cells is sufficient to heritably recruit CENP-A, kinetochore proteins, and microtubule attachments. CAL1 selectively interacts with CENP-A and is sufficient to assemble CENP-A nucleosomes that display properties consistent with left-handed octamers. The CENP-A assembly activity of CAL1 resides within an N-terminal domain, whereas the C terminus mediates centromere recognition through an interaction with CENP-C. Collectively, this work identifies the “missing” CENP-A chaperone in flies, revealing fundamental conservation between insect and vertebrate centromere-specification mechanisms. PMID:24469636

  5. Impact of CALS on Electronic Publishing Systems and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beazley, William G.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense has begun using its buying power to enforce standards on the vendors and contractors of automatic data processing hardware and software. An example of this, the Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) program, is described, and how it will affect electronic publishing systems is discussed. (five…

  6. 17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, photographer probably Anton C. Heidrick. This panoramic view looks west over Soldier Field from the upper floor or roof of the gymnasium. Original cool toned silver gelatin print measures 85.1 cm by 22.4 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. Computer Augmented Lectures (CAL): A New Teaching Technique for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, F. A.; And Others

    A new technique described as computer augmented lectures (CAL) is being used at the University of Texas at Austin. It involves the integration of on-line, interactive, time sharing computer terminals and theater size video projectors for large screen display. This paper covers the basic concept, pedagogical techniques, experiments conducted,…

  8. The Laser Videodisc for Interactive CAL in Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a system that combines computer-assisted learning (CAL) with interactive video. It was designed in England for an undergraduate pathology course. Hardware, based on a BBC microcomputer, is described; the design of interactive graphics is explained; and the tutorial design, using an authoring system, is discussed. (26 references) (LRW)

  9. CAL Packages for Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Structural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, W. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes computer assisted learning (CAL) packages written in FORTRAN IV and developed for use in a degree course in civil engineering dealing with hydraulics and structures. All are used in the interactive mode through a terminal with a keyboard and visual display unit. (Author/CMV)

  10. Cal Poly Pomona NUE Project: Implementing Microscale and Nanoscale Investigations Throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Vandervoort, Kurt; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    NUE funded work at California State Polytechnic University involved development and implementation of nanotechnology modules for physics courses spanning all levels of the undergraduate curriculum, from freshman service courses to senior level laboratories and independent research projects. These modules demonstrate the application of fundamental physics at the nanoscale that complement macroscopic investigations. The introductory level and some of the advanced level modules have been described previously in journal papers and will be outlined briefly here. The main focus of this article, however, is to describe some newer work involving nanoscale experiments that have been developed for senior level laboratories and independent research. These experiments involve applications as diverse as tunneling diodes, gas discharge plasmas for biofilm inactivation, and quantized conductance in gold nanowires. PMID:24163716

  11. Contraceptive Use Among Nonpregnant and Postpartum Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy, and Female High School Students, in the Context of Zika Preparedness - United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of

  12. Loop dynamics of thymidine diphosphate-rhamnose 3′-O-methyltransferase (CalS11), an enzyme in calicheamicin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lu; Singh, Shanteri; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Structure analysis and ensemble refinement of the apo-structure of thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-rhamnose 3′-O-methyltransferase reveal a gate for substrate entry and product release. TDP-rhamnose 3′-O-methyltransferase (CalS11) catalyses a 3′-O-methylation of TDP-rhamnose, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of enediyne antitumor antibiotic calicheamicin. CalS11 operates at the sugar nucleotide stage prior to glycosylation step. Here, we present the crystal structure of the apo form of CalS11 at 1.89 Å resolution. We propose that the L2 loop functions as a gate facilitating and/or providing specificity for substrate entry or promoting product release. Ensemble refinement analysis slightly improves the crystallographic refinement statistics and furthermore provides a compelling way to visualize the dynamic model of loop L2, supporting the understanding of its proposed role in catalysis. PMID:26958582

  13. Manifestations of CAL F-- and CAL EP--transients in radio emission based on "Zimenki" station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durasova, M. S.; Fridman, V. M.; Sheiner, O. A.

    The actual direction in the study of solar activity is the study of coronal mass ejection (CME). The onsets of CMEs associated with the flares are called in literature as cal F--transients. There are cases, when CME are not accompanied by flare phenomena in the optical range, although such processes have to associate the dynamical phenomena in the solar atmosphere. Such CMEs are called below cal EP--transients. It is assumed valid, that phenomena connected with formation of cal EP--transients must be manifested in radio emission, which reflects the processes at different levels of the solar atmosphere. We began our study with the examining the manifestations of cal EP--transients in radio emission, because of their lower energy levels than cal F--transients have, supposed that in that case there was the possibility to distinguish the typical features of these phenomenon. We considered the data of sixteen examples of observations made in 1980 and 1984--1989 connected with cal EP--transients. In the analysis we used the observational data of CME (Burkepile and Cyr 1993), the SGD data of the solar flares as well as the original records of observations of the solar radio emission fluxes at "Zimenki" station at six frequencies in the range of 9100--100 MHz. According to the data of optical observations during two--hour period before the registration of the transient, the flares either were not observed or weak flare events were observed but sufficiently far from the solar regions where the transient was formed. During the same time interval sufficiently bursts S and GRF types in the microwave emission were observed. As a rule, in the considered period of time, noise storms were registered at the meter wavelengths, the intensity of which decreased or fluctuated in the time interval preceding the registration of the transient at SMM. It allowed us to analyse radio spectra of manifestations and to give the estimation of appearance of several radio signs in CME-events on

  14. Urban Energy Balance Measurements During CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, C. A.; Pendergrass, W.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental component to understanding air quality and air-surface exchange in urban environments is to understand the turbulent flow characteristics just above the canopy, and the local forcings which drive the exchange process. Studies have indicated UCP (urban canopy parameterization) may have significant ramifications for air-quality modeling because the dynamic characteristics of this volume into which pollutants are injected has been altered. Turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and other scalars of interest, need to be addressed for this complex setting, as well as other quantities involved in the surface energy balance. Further, in modeling the transport of chemical species fundamental scales of turbulent flow must either be directly measured or parameterized. The CalNex 2010 study provided an opportunity to satisfy a number of requirements for obtaining urban canopy model parameter data for mesoscale models in an alternate urban environment from ATDD's urban DCNet National Capital Region program. Specifically, within the CalNex science questions, these data address concerns of potential major deficiencies in the representation of chemistry and meteorology processes in research and operational models and support model development through the collection of additional measurements as well as defining physical and chemical processes not well captured by available models. NOAA/ATDD deployed an energy-balance flux system at the CalNex 2010 Pasadena , CA urban supersite. The e-balance system was roof-top mounted on the California Institute of Technology Keck Building in association with the CalNex urban particulate sampling effort. Observation of energy budgets were obtained between May 16 and June 16, 2010. Initial analysis has focused on evaluating sensible heat flux and determining an estimate for thermal roughness . Coupling of sampled rooftop skin temperatures, ambient temperatures, sensible heat flux, and friction coefficient provides an

  15. Paleoseismic investigations at the Cal thrust fault, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Schmidt, Silke; Hetzel, Ralf; Mingorance, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Along the active mountain front of the Andean Precordillera between 30°S and 34°S in western Argentina several earthquakes occurred in recent times, including a 7.0 Ms event in 1861 which destroyed the city of Mendoza and killed two thirds of its population. The 1861 event and two other earthquakes (Ms = 5.7 in 1929 and Ms = 5.6 in 1967) were generated on the Cal thrust fault, which extends over a distance of 31 km north-south and runs straight through the center of Mendoza. In the city, which has now more than 1 million inhabitants, the fault forms a 3-m-high fault scarp. Although the Cal thrust fault poses a serious seismic hazard, the paleoseismologic history of this fault and its long-term slip rate remains largely unknown (Mingorance, 2006). We present the first results of an ongoing paleoseismologic study of the Cal thrust at a site located 5 km north of Mendoza. Here, the fault offsets Late Holocene alluvial fan sediments by 2.5 m vertically and exhibits a well developed fault scarp. A 15-m-long and 2-3-m-deep trench across the scarp reveals three east-vergent folds that we interpret to have formed during three earthquakes. Successive retrodeformation of the two youngest folds suggests that the most recent event (presumably the 1861 earthquake) caused ~1.1 m of vertical offset and ~1.8 m of horizontal shortening. For the penultimate event we obtain a vertical offset of ~0.7 m and a horizontal shortening of ~1.9 m. A vertical displacement of ~0.7 m observed on a steeply west-dipping fault may be associated with an older event. The cumulative vertical offset of 2.5 m for the three inferred events is in excellent agreement with the height of the scarp. Based on the retrodeformation of the trench deposits the fault plane dips ~25° to the west. In the deepest part of the trench evidence for even older seismic events is preserved beneath an angular unconformity that was formed during a period of erosion and pre-dates the present-day scarp. Dating of samples to

  16. Structure-Guided Functional Characterization of Enediyne Self-Sacrifice Resistance Proteins, CalU16 and CalU19

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calicheamicin γ1I (1) is an enediyne antitumor compound produced by Micromonospora echinospora spp. calichensis, and its biosynthetic gene cluster has been previously reported. Despite extensive analysis and biochemical study, several genes in the biosynthetic gene cluster of 1 remain functionally unassigned. Using a structural genomics approach and biochemical characterization, two proteins encoded by genes from the 1 biosynthetic gene cluster assigned as “unknowns”, CalU16 and CalU19, were characterized. Structure analysis revealed that they possess the STeroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein related lipid Transfer (START) domain known mainly to bind and transport lipids and previously identified as the structural signature of the enediyne self-resistance protein CalC. Subsequent study revealed calU16 and calU19 to confer resistance to 1, and reminiscent of the prototype CalC, both CalU16 and CalU19 were cleaved by 1in vitro. Through site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, we identified the site of cleavage in each protein and characterized their function in conferring resistance against 1. This report emphasizes the importance of structural genomics as a powerful tool for the functional annotation of unknown proteins. PMID:25079510

  17. Structure-guided functional characterization of enediyne self-sacrifice resistance proteins, CalU16 and CalU19.

    PubMed

    Elshahawi, Sherif I; Ramelot, Theresa A; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Chen, Jing; Singh, Shanteri; Yang, Yunhuang; Pederson, Kari; Kharel, Madan K; Xiao, Rong; Lew, Scott; Yennamalli, Ragothaman M; Miller, Mitchell D; Wang, Fengbin; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Kennedy, Michael A; Bingman, Craig A; Zhu, Haining; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2014-10-17

    Calicheamicin γ1I (1) is an enediyne antitumor compound produced by Micromonospora echinospora spp. calichensis, and its biosynthetic gene cluster has been previously reported. Despite extensive analysis and biochemical study, several genes in the biosynthetic gene cluster of 1 remain functionally unassigned. Using a structural genomics approach and biochemical characterization, two proteins encoded by genes from the 1 biosynthetic gene cluster assigned as "unknowns", CalU16 and CalU19, were characterized. Structure analysis revealed that they possess the STeroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein related lipid Transfer (START) domain known mainly to bind and transport lipids and previously identified as the structural signature of the enediyne self-resistance protein CalC. Subsequent study revealed calU16 and calU19 to confer resistance to 1, and reminiscent of the prototype CalC, both CalU16 and CalU19 were cleaved by 1 in vitro. Through site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, we identified the site of cleavage in each protein and characterized their function in conferring resistance against 1. This report emphasizes the importance of structural genomics as a powerful tool for the functional annotation of unknown proteins. PMID:25079510

  18. CalSimHydro Tool - A Web-based interactive tool for the CalSim 3.0 Hydrology Prepropessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Stough, T.; Vu, Q.; Granger, S. L.; Jones, D. J.; Ferreira, I.; Chen, Z.

    2011-12-01

    CalSimHydro, the CalSim 3.0 Hydrology Preprocessor, is an application designed to automate the various steps in the computation of hydrologic inputs for CalSim 3.0, a water resources planning model developed jointly by California State Department of Water Resources and United States Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region. CalSimHydro consists of a five-step FORTRAN based program that runs the individual models in succession passing information from one model to the next and aggregating data as required by each model. The final product of CalSimHydro is an updated CalSim 3.0 state variable (SV) DSS input file. CalSimHydro consists of (1) a Rainfall-Runoff Model to compute monthly infiltration, (2) a Soil moisture and demand calculator (IDC) that estimates surface runoff, deep percolation, and water demands for natural vegetation cover and various crops other than rice, (3) a Rice Water Use Model to compute the water demands, deep percolation, irrigation return flow, and runoff from precipitation for the rice fields, (4) a Refuge Water Use Model that simulates the ponding operations for managed wetlands, and (5) a Data Aggregation and Transfer Module to aggregate the outputs from the above modules and transfer them to the CalSim SV input file. In this presentation, we describe a web-based user interface for CalSimHydro using Google Earth Plug-In. The CalSimHydro tool allows users to - interact with geo-referenced layers of the Water Budget Areas (WBA) and Demand Units (DU) displayed over the Sacramento Valley, - view the input parameters of the hydrology preprocessor for a selected WBA or DU in a time series plot or a tabular form, - edit the values of the input parameters in the table or by downloading a spreadsheet of the selected parameter in a selected time range, - run the CalSimHydro modules in the backend server and notify the user when the job is done, - visualize the model output and compare it with a base run result, - download the output SV file to be

  19. Molecular evolution of the multiple calmodulin-like cal genes in C. elegans and in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Karabinos, Anton

    2016-09-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a major EF hand containing intracellular calcium receptor in animals and plants; however, eukaryotes also express a number of related CaM-like proteins. We have previously characterized an embryonic phenotype of the single Caenorhabditis elegans CaM gene cmd-1, reported no visible RNAi phenotype for the four related cal-1 to cal-4 genes and started tissue-specific expression analyses of these proteins. In the present study, we analyzed evolutionary aspects of the previously reported CAL-1 to CAL-4 proteins, along with the four new CAL-5 to CAL-8 sequences retrieved from the worm database. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that all C. elegans CAL proteins arose from a CaM ancestor through repeated gene duplications, fusions and sequence divergence. The same holds, also, for the variable N-terminal extensions of the CAL-1 to CAL-4 proteins, which have evolved from the CaM-like core domain. We found 97 CAL homologs in different nematode clades and also detected two CAL-7-related sequences outside the nematodes. Moreover, the C. elegans-specific cal-6 gene, representing the most CaM-related sequence found in nematodes so far, harbours many deletions, insertions and sequence substitutions and is predicted, therefore, to be non-functional. These analyses provide an insight into a complex and dynamic origin of the multiple CAL genes in C. elegans and in nematodes and represent also a basis for further functional studies of these CaM-related sequences in nematodes. PMID:27558386

  20. Chemical and Physical Properties of Hi-Cal-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spakowski, A. E.; Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Caves, Robert M.

    1955-01-01

    As part of the Navy Project Zip to consider various boron-containing materials as possible high-energy fuels, the chemical and physical properties of Hi-Cal-2 prepared by the Callery Chemical Company were evaluated at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Elemental chemical analysis, heat of combustion, vapor pressure and decomposition, freezing point, density, self ignition temperature, flash point, and blow-out velocity were determined for the fuel. Although the precision of measurement of these properties was not equal to that obtained for hydrocarbons, this special release research memorandum was prepared to make the data available as soon as possible.

  1. GMOS-IFU Spectrocopy of the CBSS CAL83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Steiner, J. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Compact Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources (CBSS) are X-ray binaries initially discovered in the Magellanic Clouds which are copious sources of supersoft X-rays. The basic model of this class includes a massive white dwarf that suffers stable nuclear burning on its surface due to high mass transfer rates. Here we present the preliminary results of our search for nebular emission in CAL83, a CBSS in the LMC, using GMOS-IFU data obtained at the Gemini South Telescope. We found that CAL83 shows the [FeX] 6375 Å coronal line in emission. This line had never been identified in a CBSS before. This same line was observed, for instance, as the most intense one in the spectrum of the classical nova GQ Mus four years after its outburst. As in that case, this nebular emission is probably associated to hydrostatic hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf. We also found that H and HeII lines present absorption and emission components associated to bipolar jets, with velocities consistent with the escape velocity of a white dwarf. In this preliminary analysis we can not assert the presence of the [OIII], [SII] or [NII] nebular lines. We can identify an emission at the expected position of the [NII] 6548 Å line, but this emission may also be associated to a jet with velocity of -600 km/s with respect to Hα , which in fact is also observed with the same velocity near Hβ .

  2. Radiation Hard Sensors for the BeamCal of the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, C.

    2008-06-01

    BeamCal is an electromagnetic sampling calorimeter in the very forward region of the detectors at the ILC. BeamCal will be hit by a large fraction of electron-positron pairs stemming from beamstrahlung. The sensors used for BeamCal have to withstand very high levels of total ionizing dose. We report on the investigations of radiation hard sensor materials for BeamCal of the FCAL collaboration. Artificial diamond, radiation hard silicon, SiC and GaAs sensors are under consideration. Static measurements of the current-voltage characteristics, response to minimum ionizing particles and test beam measurements are part of our investigations.

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey American Trust Company File CalPictures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey American Trust Company File Cal-Pictures June 1959 CALIFORNIA STREET ELEVATION - Bank Building, California & Liedesdorff Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. The CEOS Cal/Val Portal: A New Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burini, Alessandro; Block, Thomas; Brockmann, Carsten; Goryl, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The exploitation of Earth Observation data depends with increasing importance on multi-source inter-calibrated data, as demonstrated, for example, in the ESA DUE GlobColour project. The subgroup on Calibration and Validation of the Committee on Earth Observing System (CEOS) formulated a recommendation during the plenary session held in China at the end of 2004, with the goal of setting-up and operating an internet based system to provide sensor data, protocols and guidelines for the purposes of efficiently supporting sensor calibration, inter-calibration and product validation. ESA has taken the initiative and launched the version 1.0 of the CalVal Portal in October 2006 and the version 2.0 in mid 2009.

  5. Cal Tech's Program in Meteorology: 1933-1948.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) established a course of study in meteorology in 1933. It was intimately tied to the upsurge of activity in commercial and military aviation that occurred in the period between the world wars. The tragic crash of the airship U.S.S. Akron provided the stimulus for including meteorology as a subprogram in the aeronautics department at Cal Tech. Thoodore von K´rm´n, head of the department and director of the school's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory, masterminded the design of the program and geared it toward the solution of practical problems using the principles of dynamic meteorology. One of his doctoral students, Irving Krick, was groomed to develop the program.Robert Millikan, head of the institute, fostered an approach to science that encouraged the faculty to consuit and work with industry. In this environment, Krick established links with aviation, motion picture studios, and public utilities that would set the stage for the research thrust in meteorology. The program was primarily designed for training at the master' degree level, and a significant number of the graduates became entrepreneurs in meteorology. Based on letters of reminiscence and oral histories from some of these consulting meteorologists, it has been concluded that the Millikan/von K´rm´n philosophy of science played an important part in directing the meteorologists into the private sector.Following World War II, Lee DuBridge replaced Millikan as head of the institute. DuBridge's efforts were directed toward making the small elite school scientifically competitive in the changed conditions of a postwar world. In this climate, the merging of private business with academic work fell into disfavor. Without champions such as Millikan and von K´rm´n,the meteorology program was unable to survive.

  6. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    PubMed

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277

  7. Evaluation of the SB 1041 Reforms to California's CalWORKs Program: Background and Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Bozick, Robert; Davis, Lois M.; Kitmitto, Sami; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Bos, Johannes M.; Holod, Aleksandra; Blankenship, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The California Budget Act of 2012, through a trailer bill known as Senate Bill (SB) 1041, contained significant reforms to the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program. CalWORKs is California's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, a central component of the safety net that provides cash aid for…

  8. 78 FR 1264 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, MN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, MN; Notice of Negative... workers of the subject firm (TA-W-80,399A; CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, Minnesota... Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, Minnesota to apply for TAA, the Department determines that...

  9. CAL and Tools for the Instructor-User (The Features of SPELEO).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de La Passardiere, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    Defines the role of the instructor-user in computer-assisted learning (CAL) and discusses the need to be able to alter and adapt existing CAL software for particular teaching needs. SPELEO, an authoring system developed in France that allows the modification of courseware content, is described. (eight references) (LRW)

  10. Data Management Standards in Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on data management standards in computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS) are presented. CALS is intended to reduce cost, increase quality, and improve timeliness of weapon system acquisition and support by greatly improving the flow of technical information. The phase 2 standards, industrial environment, are discussed. The information resource dictionary system (IRDS) is described.

  11. Comparing Outcomes for Los Angeles County's HUD-Assisted and Unassisted CalWORKS Leavers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Nandita; Hendra, Richard

    The impact of supplemental assistance from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) on CalWORKs leavers was examined in a study of CalWORKs recipients in Los Angeles County, California, who stopped receiving welfare benefits in the third quarter of 1998. Two groups received federal housing assistance at the time of exit from…

  12. The TileCal Optical Multiplexer Board 9U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Alberto; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. The system contains roughly 10,000 channels of read-out electronics, whose signals are gathered and digitized in the front-end electronics and then transmitted to the counting room through two redundant optical links. Then, the data is received in the back-end system by the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB) 9U which performs a CRC check to the redundant data to avoid Single Event Upsets errors. A real-time decision is taken on the event-to-event basis to transmit single data to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) for processing. Due to the low dose level expected during the first years of operations in ATLAS it was decided not to use a redundant system and currently the front-end electronics is directly connected to the RODs. However, the increasing luminosity of the LHC will force to use the redundant read-out and the OMB system will be installed. Moreover, the OMB can be used as a ROD injector to emulate the front-end electronics for ROD software tests during detector maintenance periods taking advantage of its location in the data acquisition chain. First we will give a detailed description of the main components of the board and the different operation modes. Then, the production and qualification tests will be explained including a detailed description of the test-bench, software and validation protocols.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Tumor Effects of 11-Dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-I; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Jiing-Chuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Huang, Han Hsiang; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide, an active ingredient isolated from soft coral Sinularia leptoclados, on CAL-27 cells were investigated in this study. In the MTT assay for cell proliferation, increasing concentrations of 11-dehydrosinulariolide decreased CAL-27 cell viability. When a concentration of 1.5 μg/mL of 11-dehydrosinulariolide was applied, the CAL-27 cells viability was reduced to a level of 70% of the control sample. The wound healing function decreased as the concentration of 11-dehydrosinulariolide increased. The results in this study indicated that treatment with 11-dehydrosinulariolide for 6 h significantly induced both early and late apoptosis of CAL-27 cells, observed by flow cytometric measurement and microscopic fluorescent observation. A comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiling (revealed on a 2-DE map) of CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide and that of CAL-27 cells without the treatment. A total of 28 differential proteins (12 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated) in CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide have been identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Some of the differential proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, protein folding, and energy metabolism. The results of this study provided clues for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells and could be valuable information for drug development and progression monitoring of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:21822415

  14. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  15. Poly(oligonucleotide)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the preparation of poly(oligonucleotide) brush polymers and amphiphilic brush copolymers from nucleic acid monomers via graft-through polymerization. We describe the polymerization of PNA-norbornyl monomers to yield poly-PNA (poly(peptide nucleic acid)) via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with the initiator, (IMesH2)(C5H5N)2(Cl)2RuCHPh.1 In addition, we present the preparation of poly-PNA nanoparticles from amphiphilic block copolymers and describe their hybridization to a complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotide. PMID:25077676

  16. Sentinel-2: presentation of the CAL/VAL commissioning phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémas, Thierry L.; Déchoz, Cécile; Lacherade, Sophie; Nosavan, Julien; Petrucci, Beatrice

    2015-10-01

    In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Copernicus program, the European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbits. Sentinel-2 will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). The first sentinel 2A has been launched on June 22nd, 2015, from Kourou, French Guyana. In this context, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA to insure the cal/val commissioning phase, for Image Quality aspects. This paper provides first, an overview of the Sentinel-2 system after the launch. Then the articles focuses on the means implemented and activated in CNES to perform the In Orbit Commissioning, the availability and performances of the different devices involved in the ground segment : the GPP in charge of producing the level 1 files, the "radiometric unit" that processes sensitivity parameters, the "geometric unit" in charge of fitting the images on a reference map, MACCS that will produce Level 2A files (computing reflectances at the Bottom of Atmosphere) and the TEC-S2 that will coordinate all the previous software and drive a database in which will be gather the incoming Level 0 files and the processed Level 1 files.

  17. EXORCISM: EXOR optiCal Infrared Systematic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniucci, Simone; Arkharov, Arkady A.; Di Paola, Andrea; Giannini, Teresa; Kishimoto, Makoto; Kloppenborg, Brian; Larionov, Valeri M.; Li Causi, Gianluca; Lorenzetti, Dario; Vitali, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    EXors are pre-main sequence eruptive stars showing intermittent outbursts (Dmag about 3-4) of short duration (months) superposed on longer (years) quiescence periods. While a general consensus exists about the origin of the outbursts (i.e. accretion events from the circumstellar disk), many important details (e.g. the trigger mechanism, the disk heating/cooling and its final fragmentation) are not clarified yet. To perform a comprehensive study of EXors, we have recently activated a regular optical/NIR photometric and spectroscopic monitoring program (EXORCISM - EXORs optiCal-Infrared Systematic Monitoring), which will carry on in a more systematic way an observational program that we started a few years ago. During this period we have already obtained interesting results that will be discussed here: (i) EXors become bluer (redder) when brightening (fading), but extinction cannot be uniquely responsible for that; (ii) (quasi-)simultaneous light-curves taken in different bands show a systematic lag with the wavelength; (iii) SEDs at outburst and quiescence differ by a single temperature black-body interpreted as the sudden heating of the inner disk wall by hot spots on the stellar surface; (iv) EXor near-IR spectra look like those of accreting T Tauri stars more than those of FUOr objects; (v) notably, near IR permitted line emission weakens when the continuum fades, but the continuum fluctuations appear faster than those of the lines. These results will help to clarify the scopes of our EXORCISM project and, more importantly, to framework new results on the mid-IR properties of EXors (mainly derived from WISE data), which are so far quite unexplored.

  18. The M8 Power Calibration Experiment (M8CAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W. R.; Bauer, T. H.

    1994-05-01

    The M8 calibration experiment was a series of 23 irradiations in TREAT performed to determine the relationship between the fission power generated in the TREAT core and the fission power generated in experiment fuel located in an in-core experiment vehicle and irradiated by core neutrons. The experiment was planned to provide the essential calibration information specifically needed for planning and analysis of the M8 test (and subsequent tests similar in geometry to M8) to be performed in the post-upgrade TREAT core. Irradiations were performed in TREAT cores loaded with a full-slotted (to optimize hodoscope performance) and with a half-slotted (to maximize energy deposition). Tests included a few selected low-power irradiations of fresh IFR-type U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuel pins supplemented by multiple irradiations of uranium-zirconium monitor wires ranging from low steady-state power to high-power maximal transients. This report describes the M8CAL test hardware, measurements, analysis assumptions, and methods used to deduce power coupling between the reactor and experiment fuel--including both absolute magnitudes and axial distributions. Power coupling results are reported for fresh IF fuel pins under high-power transient test conditions appropriate to the planned M8 transient test. In line with previous calibration data, measured dependence of power coupling on the specifics of each irradiation is also shown to correlate well with the in-core axial locations of the TREAT control rods. Estimates are made for maximal test fuel energy deposition capabilty in controlled transients.

  19. Conformal kernel for NLO BFKL equation in ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian; Chirilli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Using the requirement of M\\"{o}bius invariance of ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM amplitudes in the Regge limit we restore the conformal NLO BFKL kernel out of the eigenvalues known from the forward NLO BFKL result.

  20. Competing for Medi-Cal business: why hospitals did, and did not, get contracts.

    PubMed

    Brown, E R; Cousineau, M R; Price, W T

    1985-01-01

    Although we cannot yet judge the broad consequences of Medi-Cal selective contracting, we can assess the outcome of the contracting process and the role that competition and other factors played in that process. In this study of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of hospitals in Los Angeles County that bid for Medi-Cal contracts, we analyzed the factors that were important determinants of whether or not hospitals received contracts. We found that hospital dependence on Medi-Cal inpatient revenues was most strongly associated with winning a contract and the presence of a teaching program next most strongly related. We discuss the relative importance of hospital need for a contract and the Medi-Cal special negotiator's desire to include certain hospitals in the program, and conclude with a discussion of our study's implications for competition and regulation methods in Medicaid cost containment strategies. PMID:2931367

  1. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and cal T}(*(D_6)) equiv {cal T}(*(2F)) -> T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering cal C}(s_{{cal) T}(*(A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6), cal C}_{{cal T}(*(D_6)}) -> CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  2. Structural and functional characterization of CalS11, a TDP-rhamnose 3′-O-methyltransferase involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shanteri; Chang, Aram; Helmich, Kate E.; Bingman, Craig A.; Wrobel, Russel L.; Beebe, Emily T.; Makino, Shin-Ichi; Aceti, David J.; Dyer, Kevin; Hura, Greg L.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Phillips, George N.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar methyltransferases (MTs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes which catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to sugar-based N-, C- and O- nucleophiles. While sugar N- and C-MTs involved in natural product biosynthesis have been found to act on sugar nucleotide substrates prior to a subsequent glycosyltransferase reaction, corresponding sugar O-methylation reactions studied thus far occur after the glycosyltransfer reaction. Herein we report the first in vitro characterization using 1H-13C-gHSQC with isotopically-labeled substrates and the X-ray structure determination at 1.55 Å resolution of the TDP-3′-O-rhamnose-methyltransferase CalS11 from Micromonospora echinospora. This study highlights a unique NMR-based methyltransferase assay, implicates CalS11 to be a metal and general acid/base-dependent O-methyltransferase and, as a first crystal structure for a TDP-hexose-O-methyltransferase, presents a new template for mechanistic studies and/or engineering. PMID:23662776

  3. PAS-cal: a Generic Recombinant Peptide Calibration Standard for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breibeck, Joscha; Serafin, Adam; Reichert, Andreas; Maier, Stefan; Küster, Bernhard; Skerra, Arne

    2014-08-01

    We describe the design, preparation, and mass-spectrometric characterization of a new recombinant peptide calibration standard with uniform biophysical and ionization characteristics for mass spectrometry. "PAS-cal" is an artificial polypeptide concatamer of peptide cassettes with varying lengths, each composed of the three small, chemically stable amino acids Pro, Ala, and Ser, which are interspersed by Arg residues to allow site-specific cleavage with trypsin. PAS-cal is expressed at high yields in Escherichia coli as a Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) fusion protein, which is easily purified and allows isolation of the PAS-cal moiety after SUMO protease cleavage. Upon subsequent in situ treatment with trypsin, the PAS-cal polypeptide yields a set of four defined homogeneous peptides in the range from 2 to 8 kDa with equal mass spacing. ESI-MS analysis revealed a conveniently interpretable raw spectrum, which after deconvolution resulted in a very simple pattern of four peaks with similar ionization signals. MALDI-MS analysis of a PAS-cal peptide mixture comprising both the intact polypeptide and its tryptic fragments revealed not only the four standard peptides but also the singly and doubly charged states of the intact concatamer as well as di- and trimeric adduct ion species between the peptides, thus augmenting the observable m/z range. The advantageous properties of PAS-cal are most likely a result of the strongly hydrophilic and conformationally disordered PEG-like properties of the PAS sequences. Therefore, PAS-cal offers an inexpensive and versatile recombinant peptide calibration standard for mass spectrometry in protein/peptide bioanalytics and proteomics research, the composition of which may be further adapted to fit individual needs.

  4. Structural characterization of CalO1: a putative orsellinic acid methyltransferase in the calicheamicin-biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Aram; Singh, Shanteri; Bingman, Craig A.; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr, George N.

    2011-11-07

    The X-ray structure determination at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution of the putative orsellinic acid C3 O-methyltransferase (CalO1) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis is reported. Comparison of CalO1 with a homology model of the functionally related calicheamicin orsellinic acid C2 O-methyltransferase (CalO6) implicates several residues that are likely to contribute to the regiospecificity of alkylation. Consistent with the proposed requirement of an acyl-carrier-protein-bound substrate, this structural study also reveals structural determinants within CalO1 that are anticipated to accommodate an association with an acyl carrier protein.

  5. The CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class II reference drawing packet: Revision C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-27

    This CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class II Reference Drawing Packet contains the information needed to conduct tests of the engineering drawing subset, Class II, of the military specification MIL-D-28000 using IGES processors. The material is intended to demonstrate industry's and government's use of MIL-D-28000 in accordance with the CALS initiative. The CALS Test Network (CTN) is the organization tasked with demonstrating this digital data interchange among industry and government and will use this packet during CTN structured testing. The results derived from this testing will allow the CTN to suggest modifications to drafting techniques, CAD vendors' IGES processors, the IGES specification, and most importantly, the MIL-D-28000 military specification.

  6. A Novel CalB-Type Lipase Discovered by Fungal Genomes Mining

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Maria E.; de Eugenio, Laura I.; Martínez, Maria J.; Barriuso, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Pseudozyma antarctica produces a lipase (CalB) with broad substrate specificity, stability, high regio- and enantio-selectivity. It is active in non-aqueous organic solvents and at elevated temperatures. Hence, CalB is a robust biocatalyst for chemical conversions on an industrial scale. Here we report the in silico mining of public metagenomes and fungal genomes to discover novel lipases with high homology to CalB. The candidates were selected taking into account homology and conserved motifs criteria, as well as, phylogeny and 3D model analyses. The most promising candidate (PlicB) presented interesting structural properties. PlicB was expressed in a heterologous host, purified and partially characterized. Further experiments will allow finding novel catalytic properties with biotechnological interest. PMID:25898146

  7. Estimated contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol from fossil fuel combustion during the CalNex and Cal-Mex campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Frossard, A. A.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, S.; Takahama, S.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Zhao, Y.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-05-01

    Observations during CalNex and Cal-Mex field campaigns at Bakersfield, Pasadena, Tijuana, and on board the R/V Atlantis show a substantial contribution of fossil fuel emissions to the ambient particle organic mass (OM). At least two fossil fuel combustion (FFC) factors with a range of contributions of oxidized organic functional groups were identified at each site and accounted for 60-88% of the total OM. Additional marine, vegetative detritus, and biomass burning or biogenic sources contribute up to 40% of the OM. Comparison of the FTIR spectra of four different unburned fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel, motor oil, and ship diesel) with PMF factors from ambient samples shows absorbance peaks from the fuels are retained in organic aerosols, with the spectra of all of the FFC factors containing at least three of the four characteristic alkane peaks observed in fuel standards at 2954, 2923, 2869 and 2855 cm-1. Based on this spectral similarity, we estimate the primary OM from FFC sources for each site to be 16-20%, with secondary FFC OM accounting for an additional 42-62%. Two other methods for estimating primary OM that use carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental carbon (EC) as tracers of primary organic mass were investigated, but both approaches were problematic for the CalNex and Cal-Mex urban sites because they were influenced by multiple emission sources that had site-specific and variable initial ratios to OM. For example, using the ΔPOM/ΔCO ratio of 0.0094 μg ppb V-1 proposed by other studies produces unrealistically high estimates of primary FFC OM of 55-100%.

  8. Robust date for the Bronze Age Avellino eruption (Somma-Vesuvius): 3945 ± 10 calBP (1995 ± 10 calBC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevink, Jan; van Bergen, Manfred J.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Feiken, Hendrik; Anastasia, Carmela; Huizinga, Annika

    2011-05-01

    We found Bronze Age lake sediments from the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) to contain a thin (2-3 cm) continuous tephra layer composed of lithics, crystals and minor volcanic glass. Tephrochronological and compositional constraints strongly suggest that this layer represents the Avellino pumice eruption, which has also been identified in Central Italian lake cores. Its provenance is corroborated by electron-microprobe analyses performed on juvenile pumice grains, showing that the tephra layer is probably the distal equivalent of the EU2 event of the Avellino eruption. We used multiple 14C age estimations of two lacustrine sequences with intercalated tephra layer, from the western border zone (Migliara 44.5) and the centre of the former lake (Campo Inferiore), for in tandem dating of this eruption, employing the OxCal code, which yielded a robust age of 3945 ± 10 calBP (1995 ± 10 calBC). To date, this is the only study providing both a terminus post and terminus ante quem of this precision, also demonstrating the advantage of dating distal tephra layers in a clear stratigraphic context over proximal deposits in sequences with major stratigraphic hiatuses. Our new results underscore the importance of the Avellino tephra layer as a precise time marker for studies on the Early Bronze Age of Central Italy.

  9. High temporal Resolution Fire History in Eastern Africa: the Last 16 kyr cal. BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniere, B.; Carcaillet, C.; Garcin, Y.; Vullien, A.; Williamson, D.

    2004-12-01

    Charcoal series, based on a high temporal resolution analysis, at Lake Massoko (9°20' S, 33° 45' E, 770 a.s.l., SW Tanzania) reveals numerous changes of fire regime over the last 16 kyr cal BP. Data are based on the tallying of charcoal from 700 continuous 1 cm thick samples along a 7m long sequence. The structure of charcoal particles is well preserved with an length:width ratio superior to 5; this appears to testify to the local provenance of the material studied and to the rapid transport of particles to the lake. The majority of particles belongs to herbaceous cuticles produced by savanna or bush fires. Time control is supported by 14 radiocarbon dates. Mean time resolution per sample of 17 yr provides the first long detailed biomass burning record in Africa. This record evidences frequent fires events during the last 16 kyr, indicating that fire is a key component of east African ecosystems since, at least, the last glacial stage up to present. From 16 to 12 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx into the lake is low except during two specific sequences, between 13.5-12.5 kyr cal BP and 14.5-14 kyr cal BP. These may correspond to more arid or more biomass-available phases. Around 10 kyr cal BP, at the early Holocene a greater influx of charcoal is recorded in the lake, probably as a result of a high fire regime likely triggered by severe droughts. Between 8.3 and 1.7 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx displays a cyclic fire history of ca. 500 yr. Low fire regime, between 3.5-2.5, 5.5-5 and 7.5-7 kyr cal BP, correspond to wetter periods. About 12 sequences of fire increase and decrease are highlighted, which appears to support a high climatic variability during the middle-Holocene. After 1.7 kyr BP, there is a long lasting increase of charcoal influx into the lake, as observed by black carbon analysis (Thevenon et al., 2003). This particular period, without analog since 16 kyr cal BP, is consistent with the development of Iron Age settlements in the region, slash

  10. 78 FR 62614 - CalWind Resources, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CalWind Resources, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), CalWind Resources, Inc. (Complainant) filed...

  11. Monitoring Outcomes for Los Angeles County's Pre- and Post-CalWORKS Leavers: How Are They Faring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Nandita; Hendra, Richard

    The characteristics, earnings, employment experiences, and material well-being of California welfare recipients after leaving welfare were examined by comparing the postwelfare experiences of groups who exited welfare before and after institution of California's welfare reform program CalWORKs. The first group (pre-CalWORKs group) exited welfare…

  12. Graphics and Animation in Teaching Dialogues. CAL Research Group Technical Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Every, I. M.

    An Open University project was planned to develop a set of computer assisted learning (CAL) microcomputer programs for a second level, summer school physics course, scheduled to begin in 1982. Major project aims were the development of an underlying system to effectively use medium resolution graphics with a simple animation capability;…

  13. Computer Imagery and Visualization in Built Environment Education: The CAL-Visual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchlaghem, N.; Wilson, A.; Beacham, N.; Sher, W.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of information and communication technology in the United Kingdom focuses on the use of multimedia technologies, particularly digital imagery and visualization material, to improve student knowledge and understanding. Describes the CAL (computer assisted learning)-Visual system that was developed for civil and building engineering…

  14. The Evolution and Redefining of "CAL": A Reflection on the Interplay of Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article comments on how the core idea of the computer as an assistant to teaching and learning became reconfigured through changing technologies, pedagogies and educational cultures. Early influential researchers in computer assisted learning (CAL) made strong but differing links to theories and representations of learning, showing a…

  15. Partners in Success for Young Adolescents: The Cal Ripken, Sr. Foundation and National Middle School Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Middle school students are at a critical point in their lives. One way or another they are learning the decision-making and coping skills that they will use as adults. To be successful they need guidance from caring teachers, parents, coaches, and other significant adults who are positive role models. For Cal Ripken, Jr. and his brother Bill, it…

  16. Proposed Cal Grant Cuts Would Hit Community College Students Hardest. Keeping California's Promise. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle

    2008-01-01

    Many more community college students than students at California's four-year colleges would lose financial aid under Governor Schwarzenegger's proposed budget for 2009. This issue brief finds that the budget-cutting plan would eliminate new Cal Grant awards for 45 percent of community college students who would have received them, compared to five…

  17. Spatial Databases for CalVO Volcanoes: Current Status and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) California Volcano Observatory (CalVO) aims to advance scientific understanding of volcanic processes and to lessen harmful impacts of volcanic activity in California and Nevada. Within CalVO's area of responsibility, ten volcanoes or volcanic centers have been identified by a national volcanic threat assessment in support of developing the U.S. National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS) as posing moderate, high, or very high threats to surrounding communities based on their recent eruptive histories and their proximity to vulnerable people, property, and infrastructure. To better understand the extent of potential hazards at these and other volcanoes and volcanic centers, the USGS Volcano Science Center (VSC) is continually compiling spatial databases of volcano information, including: geologic mapping, hazards assessment maps, locations of geochemical and geochronological samples, and the distribution of volcanic vents. This digital mapping effort has been ongoing for over 15 years and early databases are being converted to match recent datasets compiled with new data models designed for use in: 1) generating hazard zones, 2) evaluating risk to population and infrastructure, 3) numerical hazard modeling, and 4) display and query on the CalVO as well as other VSC and USGS websites. In these capacities, spatial databases of CalVO volcanoes and their derivative map products provide an integrated and readily accessible framework of VSC hazards science to colleagues, emergency managers, and the general public.

  18. Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & Fidley Top, Boat Deck, Radar Platform Lower, Pilot House Top, Navigation Bridge, Upper Bridge Deck, Poop Deck, Cargo Deck, Motor Boat Platform, Bridge Deck, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck - Taluga, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. Telidon and Computer Assisted Learning - A Report on the First Experiment Using Telidon for CAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueman, D.

    As part of the TV Ontario Telidon and Education Field Trials, a study was made of the application of the Telidon videotex systems to computer-assisted learning (CAL), including the future directions of these applications and differences in achievement between advanced and general-level students. Subjects were 129 middle- to upper-middle,…

  20. Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Grosdidier, Charlotte; Guinier, Marie; Perret, Claire; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Germain, Marine; Raslova, Hana; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre E.; Saut, Noemie; Pillois, Xavier; Nurden, Alan T.; Cambien, François; Pierres, Anne; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet’s ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis. PMID:24958846

  1. Organic Aerosol Composition and Sources in Pasadena, California during the 2010 CalNex Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) ...

  2. Taking the Plunge with CLEM: The Design and Evaluation of a Large Scale CAL System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Tom; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a computer-assisted learning (CAL) package called CLEM (CORE Learning Environment for Modula-2) that was developed in Great Britain for teaching the Modula-2 programming language to first-year college students. Topics discussed include interactivity, flexibility, ease of use, student…

  3. Dimensionality reduction and endmember extraction for hyperspectral imaging using an RVC-CAL library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madroñal Quintín, D.; Lazcano López, R.; Juárez Martínez, E.; Sanz Álvaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imaging (HI) collects high resolution spectral information consisting of hundred of bands raging from the infrared to the ultraviolet wave lengths. In the medical field, specifically, in the cancer tissue identification at the operating room, the potential of HI is huge. However, given the data volume of HI and the computational complexity and cost of identification algorithms, real-time processing is the key, differential feature that brings value to surgeons. In order to achieve real-time implementations, the parallelism available in a specification needs to be explicitly highlighted. Data-flow programming languages, like RVC-CAL, are able to accomplish this goal. In this paper, an RVC-CAL library to implement dimensionality reduction and endmember extraction is presented. The results obtained show significant improvements with regard to a state-of-the-art analysis tool. A speedup of 30% is carried out using the complete processing chain and, in particular, a speedup of 5% has been achieved in the dimensionality reduction step. This dimensionality reduction takes ten of the thirteen seconds that the whole system needs to analyze one of the images. In addition, the RVC-CAL library is an excellent tool to simplify the implementation process of HI algorithms. Effectively, during the experimental test, the potential of the RVC-CAL library to reveal possible bottlenecks present in the HI processing chain and, therefore, to improve the system performance to achieve real-time constraints has been shown. Furthermore, the RVC-CAL library provides the possibility of system performance testing.

  4. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 6 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 62 students, >85% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of twelve major research institutions in California, Arizona, and Wyoming. The graduation rate among CAMPARE scholars is 97%, and of the 37 CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor's degree, almost 60% (21) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in astronomy or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, USC, UC Riverside, Stanford, Univ. of Rochester, Georgia Tech, Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse, and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master's-to-PhD program. The Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of faculty form 5 University of California (UC), 8 California State University (CSU), and 8 California Community College (CCC) campuses in Southern California. Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last two years of undergraduate and first year of graduate school to students from this diverse network of higher education institutions. Cal-Bridge Scholars benefit from financial support, intensive, joint mentoring by CSU and UC faculty, professional development workshops, and exposure to research opportunities at the participating UC campuses.

  5. Fixed Combination Aerosol Foam Calcipotriene 0.005% (Cal) Plus Betamethasone Dipropionate 0.064% (BD) is More Efficacious than Cal or BD Aerosol Foam Alone for Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Tyring, Stephen; Bukhalo, Michael; Alonso-Llamazares, Javier; Olesen, Martin; Lowson, David; Yamauchi, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of fixed combination aerosol foam calcipotriene 0.005% (Cal) plus betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD). Design: Patients were randomized (100:101:101) to receive Cal/BD foam, Cal foam, or BD foam once daily for four weeks. Setting: Twenty-eight United States centers. Participants: 302 patients (≥18 years) with Psoriasis vulgaris (plaque Psoriasis; ≥mild disease severity by physicians global assessment). Measurements: Treatment success of the body (“clear”/”almost clear” from baseline moderate/severe disease; “clear” from baseline mild disease). Involved scalp treatment success was an additional endpoint. Results: Most patients (76%) had moderate Psoriasis of the body (66% for scalp). At Week 4, 45 percent of Cal/BD foam patients achieved treatment success, significantly more than Cal foam (14.9%; OR 4.34 [95%CI 2.16,8.72] P<0.001) or BD foam (30.7%; 1.81 [1.00,3.26] P=0.047). Fifty-three percent of Cal/BD foam patients achieved treatment success of the scalp, significantly greater than Cal foam (35.6%; 1.91 [1.09,3.35] P=0.021), but not BD foam (47.5%; 1.24 [0.71,2.16] P=0.45). Mean modified Psoriasis area and severity index (population baseline 7.6) improved in all groups, with statistically significant differences in Week 4 Cal/BD foam score (2.37) versus Cal foam (4.39; mean difference -2.03 [-2.63][-1.43] P<0.001) and BD foam (3.37; -1.19 [-1.80][-0.59] P<0.001). Four (Cal/BD), 10 (Cal), and 8 (BD) adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion: Cal/BD foam was significantly more effective than Cal foam and BD foam in providing treatment success at Week 4 and effective on involved scalp. Trial registration: NCT01536938. PMID:27313822

  6. CalWater 2015 — Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosol Impacts on Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D.; DeMott, P. J.; Dettinger, M. D.; Doyle, J. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L. R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Waliser, D. E.; White, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The CalWater 2015 field experiment was conducted between January and March and consisted of more than fifty science flights, a major research cruise, and continuous ground-based observations coordinated to study phenomena driving the incidence of extreme precipitation events and the variability of water supply along the West Coast of the United States. CalWater 2015 examined key processes linked to (1) atmospheric rivers (ARs) in delivering much of the precipitation associated with major winter storms, and (2) aerosols, originating from local sources as well as from remote continents, within and between storms and their modulating effects on precipitation on the U.S. West Coast. As part of a large interagency field effort including NOAA, DOE, NASA, NSF, and the Naval Research Laboratory, four research aircraft from three government agencies were deployed in coordination with the oceangoing NOAA Ronald H. Brown and were equipped with meteorological and chemical observing systems in near-shore regions of California and the eastern Pacific. At the same time, ground-based measurements from NOAA's HydroMeteorological Testbed (HMT) network on the U.S. West Coast and a major NSF-supported observing site for aerosols and microphysics at Bodega Bay, California provided continuous near surface-level meteorological and chemical observations, respectively, during CalWater 2015. The DOE-sponsored ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) was executed in close coordination with NOAA and NASA facilities and deployed airborne and ship-based observing systems. This presentation summarizes the objectives, implementation strategy, data acquisitions, and some preliminary results from CalWater 2015 addressing science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic

  7. A Comparison of CAL with a Conventional Method of Delivery of Cell Biology to Undergraduate Nursing Students Using an Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharrad, Heather J.; Kent, Christine; Allcock, Nick; Wood, Barry

    2001-01-01

    In study 1, 12 nursing students attended slide lectures on cell biology; 13 used interactive computer-assisted learning (CAL). Study 2 surveyed 38 students who used CAL to study immunology. Students preferred CAL and felt confident in their grasp of the material, even without the presence of lecturers to answer questions. (Contains 16 references.)…

  8. Biodiesel production from different algal oil using immobilized pure lipase and tailor made rPichia pastoris with Cal A and Cal B genes.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, B; Ranjith Kumar, R; PraveenKumar, R; Chakravarthy, M; Yogendran, D; Jayamuthunagai, J

    2016-08-01

    In this investigation, oil extraction was performed in marine macroalgae Gracilaria edulis, Enteromorpha compressa and Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at temperature 55°C, time 150min, particle size 0.10mm, solvent-to-solid ratio 6:1 and agitation rate 500rpm. After optimization, 9.5%, 12.18% and 10.50 (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from the respective algal biomass. The rate constant for extraction was obtained as first order kinetics, by differential method. Stable intracellular Cal A and Cal B lipase producing recombinant Pichia pastoris was constructed and used as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Comparative analysis of lipase activity and biodiesel yield was made with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. PMID:26906444

  9. Synergistic suppression of the PI3K inhibitor CAL-101 with bortezomib on mantle cell lymphoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fu-Lian; Xia, Bing; Li, Su-Xia; Tian, Chen; Yang, Hong-Liang; Li, Qian; Wang, Ya-Fei; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of CAL-101, particularly when combined with bortezomib (BTZ) on mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and to explore its relative mechanisms. Methods MTT assay was applied to detect the inhibitory effects of different concentrations of CAL-101. MCL cells were divided into four groups: control group, CAL-101 group, BTZ group, and CAL-101/BTZ group. The expression of PI3K-p110σ, AKT, ERK, p-AKT and p-ERK were detected by Western blot. The apoptosis rates of CAL-101 group, BTZ group, and combination group were detected by flow cytometry. The location changes of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) of 4 groups was investigated by NF-κB Kit exploring. Western blot was applied to detect the levels of caspase-3 and the phosphorylation of AKT in different groups. Results CAL-101 dose- and time-dependently induced reduction in MCL cell viability. CAL-101 combined with BTZ enhanced the reduction in cell viability and apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that CAL-101 significantly blocked the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathway in MCL cells. The combination therapy contributed to the inactivation of NF-κB and AKT in MCL cell lines. However, cleaved caspase-3 was up-regulated after combined treatment. Conclusion Our study showed that PI3K/p110σ is a novel therapeutic target in MCL, and the underlying mechanism could be the blocking of the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways. These findings provided a basis for clinical evaluation of CAL-101 and a rationale for its application in combination therapy, particularly with BTZ. PMID:26779377

  10. Experiment of Injecting Phase Cal Ahead of the Feed: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Dmitrij; Maslenikov, Anatolij; Vytnov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    For developing the Russian VLBI network of new generation, a few experiments of injecting the phase calibration signal ahead of the feed were carried out. In the experiments an external broadband phase calibration signal was emitted through a special feed to a receiver horn directly. Prototypes of the feed for a frequency range of 2-18 GHz were created. The first experiments on injection phase cal ahead of the feed were carried out at Svetloe Observatory of the QUASAR VLBI network. The phase cal signal was emitted by the broadband feed installed on the roof of a mirror cabin, reflected by the sub-reflector, and received by the horn of the receiving system. The results of these experiments are considered.

  11. The design, fabrication and properties of B4C/Al neutron absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Yuli; Wang, Wenxian; Gao, Zhanping; Wang, Baodong

    2013-06-01

    Neutron absorber is used for the criticality safety during the storage or transportation of spent nuclear fuel. In this work, the metal matrix composite with good mechanical property and thermal neutron absorbing ability was investigated based on B4C/Al neutron radiation shielding material. The composition ratio for B4C/Al composite was firstly designed and the dependence of the neutron transmission on the thickness of the material was calculated. By vacuum hot-pressing technique at a low temperature, the neutron absorbers with high concentration of B4C were fabricated. Furthermore, the corresponding microstructure, physical, mechanical and corrosion properties as well as fracture surface were analyzed, proving that the developed composites can shield the neutron radiation as effectively as cadmium materials.

  12. OxCal: versatile tool for developing paleoearthquake chronologies--a primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Ramsey, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ages of paleoearthquakes (events), i.e., evidence of earthquakes inferred from the geologic record, provide a critical constraint on estimation of the seismic hazard posed by an active fault. The radiocarbon calibration program OxCal (4.0.3 and above; Bronk Ramsey 2007, 2001) provides paleoseismologists with a straightforward but rigorous means of estimating these event ages and their uncertainties. Although initially developed for the chronologic modeling of archaeological data from diverse sources (e.g., radiocarbon, historical knowledge, etc.), OxCal is readily adaptable to other disciplines requiring chronological modeling, such as paleoseismology (Fumal et al. 2002; Lindvall et al. 2002; Kelson et al. 2006; Noriega et al. 2006; Lienkaemper and Williams 2007; Yen et al. 2008).

  13. Health Promotion Interventions for Low-Income Californians Through Medi-Cal Managed Care Plans, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kohatsu, Neal D.; Paciotti, Brian M.; Byrne, Jennifer V.; Kizer, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention is the most cost-effective approach to promote population health, yet little is known about the delivery of health promotion interventions in the nation’s largest Medicaid program, Medi-Cal. The purpose of this study was to inventory health promotion interventions delivered through Medi-Cal Managed Care Plans; identify attributes of the interventions that plans judged to have the greatest impact on their members; and determine the extent to which the plans refer members to community assistance programs and sponsor health-promoting community activities. Methods The lead health educator from each managed care plan was asked to complete a 190-item online survey in January 2013; 20 of 21 managed care plans responded. Survey data on the health promotion interventions with the greatest impact were grouped according to intervention attributes and measures of effectiveness; quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Health promotion interventions judged to have the greatest impact on Medi-Cal members were delivered in various ways; educational materials, one-on-one education, and group classes were delivered most frequently. Behavior change, knowledge gain, and improved disease management were cited most often as measures of effectiveness. Across all interventions, median educational hours were limited (2.4 h), and median Medi-Cal member participation was low (265 members per intervention). Most interventions with greatest impact (120 of 137 [88%]) focused on tertiary prevention. There were mixed results in referring members to community assistance programs and investing in community activities. Conclusion Managed care plans have many opportunities to more effectively deliver health promotion interventions. Establishing measurable, evidence-based, consensus standards for such programs could facilitate improved delivery of these services. PMID:26564012

  14. Development and evaluation of a stand-alone web-based CAL program. A case study.

    PubMed

    Perryer, G; Walmsley, A D; Barclay, C W; Shaw, L; Smith, A J

    2000-08-01

    The use of web browser technology allows the construction of computer-aided learning programs which will have a familiar interface to dentists. This paper reports on the evaluation of a web-based CAL program which covered the topic of tooth wear with an emphasis on the rôle of erosion in its aetiology. Evaluation of the software was made by 50 dentists contacted by an electronic mailing list. They completed a questionnaire which evaluated aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives. The average age of the dentists was 39 years (range 24-70) and 82% were male. The average time of use was 1 h 10 min (range 15 min to 3 h). A significant change in their knowledge of tooth wear before and after using the program was recorded. Both the use of patient cases and leaflets scored highly with other aspects such as treatment planning and patient advice receiving high marks. All dentists commented that they had gained greater knowledge with particular reference to treatment and advice of tooth wear problems. 34 dentists (68%) found the web interface easy to use. Negative comments were mainly attributed to the quality of the pictures (4/50) which were corrected in the final release version. Respondents were asked to compare the program to other educational media on the same subject. 80% rated this CAL program as better than video, and 14% claimed it was as good as video. 84% rated it better than books, and 14% said it was as good as books. 98% preferred it to audio tapes and 86% preferred it to journals. The average amount that they would pay for a CAL package such as "tooth wear" would be 42 ECU. It is concluded that web browser software is a suitable medium for the use of a CAL program and this is reflected in its ease of use by dentists. PMID:11168474

  15. SMOS User Support Tools: SMOS-Box and Cal/Val Data Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quast, Ralf; Fomferra, Norman; Block, Thomas; Delwart, Steven; Goryl, Philippe; Regner, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The SMOS Toolbox for BEAM (SMOS-Box) consists of a collection of BEAM compliant software modules for decoding, visualization and basic inspection and analysis of operational products from ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Since March 2010 the SMOS Data Distribution Facility of the CEOS Cal/Val Portal is delivering mission data to principle investigators coordinating the calibration and validation of the SMOS instrumentation.

  16. Overview and initial results from the ANITA HiCal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockham, Jessica; Anita Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) is a balloon-borne apparatus that surveys the Antarctic ice looking for radio signals produced by ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays. Neutrino signals originating from shower events in the ice and cosmic ray signals originating from shower events in the atmosphere arrive at ANITA after being, respectively, transmitted through or reflected from the ice surface. Since these signals interact with the air-ice interface, it is important to understand the impact of the transmission or reflection on the signal, specifically decoherence caused by surface roughness, in reconstructing the properties of the initial UHE particle. HiCal is a calibration pulsing unit employing a piezo-electric sparking device coupled to a dipole antenna that transmits a UHE-like impulsive signal. The first HiCal payload was launched on a second balloon in conjunction with ANITA-III, with the objective of transmitting pulses that would be received by ANITA both directly and as signals reflected from the ice surface. A ratio of the amplitudes of reflected to direct signals would provide a direct measurement of any decoherence effects caused by surface roughness. The design, testing, and initial results from the first HiCal flight will be discussed. NASA Grant NNX11AC47G.

  17. Exploiting Parallelism in the TileCal Trigger System with GPGPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Marc

    2015-10-01

    After the 2022 upgrades, the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) detector at ATLAS will be generating raw data at a rate of approximately 41 TB/s. The TileCal triggering system contains a degree of parallelism in its processing algorithms and thus presents an opportunity to explore the use of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU). Currently, research into the viability of an sROD ARM-based co-processing unit (PU) is being conducted at Wits University with especial regard to increasing the I/O throughput of the detector. Integration of GPGPU into this PU could enhance its performance by relieving the ARMs of particularly parallel computations. In addition to the PU, use of GPGPU in the front-end trigger is being investigated on the basis of the used algorithms having a similarity to image processing algorithms - where GPU can be used optimally. The use of GPUs in assistance to or in place of FPGAs can be justified by GPUs’ relative ease of programming; C/C++ like languages as opposed to assembly-like Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This project will consider how GPUs can best be utilised as a subsystem of TileCal in terms of power and computing efficiency; and therefore cost.

  18. Assessment of DOD and industry networks for Computer-Aided Logistics Support (CALS) telecommunications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaura, F.L.; Sharp, S.J.; Clark, R.

    1987-06-01

    The Department of Defense is committed to applying the best in modern technology toward improving the transfer of design, engineering, and manufacturing technical information among weapon-system contractors and DoD organizations. The Military Services, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Defense Communications Agency (DCA), and industry are undertaking or planning telecommunications support for such transfer. In view of these many and diverse efforts, the Computer Aided Logistics Support (CALS) Steering Group through the CALS Communications Working Group has recognized the need for evaluating them. The report presents an evaluation of CALS-related telecommunications requirements in DoD, the major efforts for automating engineering drawing and technical data repositories, and various intelligent-gateway efforts in each of the Services. The overall direction within each Service for telecommunication support and transitioning to the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) standards is presented, as well as the status of commercial efforts for defining and implementing the OSI standards and improving long-haul telecommunications support.

  19. An alternative method for the TileCal signal detection and amplitude estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    The Tile Barrel Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a key detector for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, taus and missing transverse energy and it assists the muon measurements due to a low signal-to-noise ratio. The energy deposited in each cell is read out by two electronic channels for redundancy and is estimated by reconstructing the amplitude of the digitized signal pulse sampled every 25 ns. This work presents an alternative approach for TileCal signal detection and amplitude estimation under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, exploring the applicability of a Matched Filter. The proposed method is compared to the Optimal Filter algorithm, that is currently being used at TileCal for energy reconstruction. The results for a simulated data set showed that for conditions where the signal pedestal could be considered stationary, the proposed method achieves a better SNR performance than the Optimal Filter technique.

  20. pCal, a highly unusual Ty1/copia retrotransposon from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G D; Goodwin, T J; Butler, M I; Berryman, T A; Poulter, R T

    1997-01-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements. They can transpose via the reverse transcription of mRNA into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) followed by the insertion of this dsDNA into new sites within the host genome. The unintegrated, linear, dsDNA form of retrotransposons is usually very rare. We report here the isolation of a retrotransposon from Candida albicans which is unusual in this respect. This element, which we have named pCal, was first identified as a distinct band when uncut C. albicans DNA was examined on an agarose gel. Sequence analysis of the cloned element revealed that it is a retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1/copia group. It is estimated that pCal produces 50 to 100 free, linear, dsDNA copies of itself per cell. This is a much higher level of expression than even that of the system in which Ty1 is expressed behind the highly active GAL1 promoter on a high-copy-number plasmid (about 10 copies per cell). Another unusual feature of pCal is that its Pol enzymes are likely to be expressed via the pseudoknot-assisted suppression of an upstream, in-phase stop codon, as has been shown for Moloney murine leukemia virus. PMID:9371461

  1. 75 FR 52589 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... (SEIS) for the Cal Black Memorial Airport at Halls Crossing, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...: Halls Crossing Airport was located within the boundary of the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area,...

  2. The CALS (Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support) Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class I reference illustration packet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-19

    This CALS Test Network MIL-D-28000 Class 1 Reference Illustration Packet contains the information needed to conduct tests of the Technical Publication Subset, Class 1, of the military specification MIL-D-28000 using IGES processors. The material is intended to demonstrate industry and government's use of MIL-D-28000 in accordance with the CALS initiative. The CALS Test Network (CNT) is the organization tasked with demonstrating this digital data interchange among industry and government and uses this packet during CTN testing. The packet is, furthermore, used by CTN members to conduct self-tests of their companies' abilities to utilize CALS data. The results derived from this testing will allow the CTN to suggest modifications to drafting techniques, vendors' IGES processors, the IGES specification, and most importantly, the MIL-D-28000 military specification.

  3. Ionization Nebulae Surrounding CAL 83 and Other Supersoft X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Rappaport, S.; Macri, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an optical search for ionized gaseous nebulae surrounding luminous, "supersoft" X-ray sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. This relatively new and mysterious X-ray class has characteristic luminosities approximately 10(exp 37) - 10(exp 38) ergs/s with effective temperatures in the range of 2 - 6 x 10(exp 5) K. The presence of a large flux of UV and soft X-ray photons from these objects has led to predictions of bright optical emission lines from the local interstellar medium. One such object, CAL 83 in the LMC, was known to have an associated nebula, and we quantify here the asymmetry and luminosity of this remarkable nebula. Deep images were made using narrowband filters to isolate the emission lines of H.alpha and [O III] (lamda5007). In these emission lines, the nebula is detected out to distances as far as 25 pc from the central object, and the integrated luminosity in each line is of order approximately 100 solar luminosity. Model calculations of such nebulae for chemical abundances characteristic of the LMC indicate that approximately 1% of the X-ray luminosity of the central source is reprocessed into the nebular H.alpha and [O III] lamda5007 emission lines, from which we conclude that the time-averaged X-ray luminosity of the central source, CAL 83, is greater than 3 x 10(exp 37) ergs/s. The bright inner nebula contains approximately 150 solar mass within 7.5 pc of CAL 83, which clearly indicates that the nebular material has its origin in the interstellar medium. In sharp contrast, there were null detections for nebulae associated with nine other luminous, supersoft X-ray sources in the LMC and SMC, with upper limits for the [O III] luminosity that are a factor of approximately 10 below that for CAL 83. For eight of these latter sources, we conclude that either their time-averaged luminosity is substantially below that of CAL 83, or that the local interstellar medium is much less dense. The latter effect may be

  4. Ionization nebulae surrounding CAL 83 and other supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Rappaport, S.; Macri, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an optical search for ionized gaseous nebulae surrounding luminous, 'supersoft' X-ray sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. This relatively new and mysterious X-ray class has characteristic luminosities approximately 10(exp 37)-10(exp 38) ergs/s with effective temperatures in the range of 2-6 x 10(exp 5) K. The presence of a large flux of UV and soft X-ray photons from these objects has led to predictions of bright optical emission lines from the local interstellar medium. One such object, CAL 83 in the LMC, was known to have an associated nebula, and we quantify here the asymmetry and luminosity of this remarkable nebula. Deep images were made using narowband filters to isolate the emission lines of H alpha and (O III) (lambda 5007). In these emission lines, the nebula is detected out to distances as far as 25 pc from the central object, and the integrated luminositu in each line is of order approximately 100 solar luminosity. Model calculations of such nebulae for chemical abundances characteristic of the LMC indicate that approximately 1% of the X-ray luminosity of the central source is reprocessed into the nebular H-alpha and (O III) lambda 5007 emission lines, from which we conclude that the time-averaged X-ray luminosity of the central source, CAL 83, is greater than 3 x 10(exp 37) ergs/s. The bright inner nebula contains approximately 150 solar mass within 7.5 pc of CAL 83, which clearly indicates that the nebular material has its origin in the interstelar medium. In sharp contrast, there were null detections for nebulae associated with nine other luminous, supersoft X-ray sources in the LMC and SMC, with upper limits for the (O III) luminosity that are a factor of approximately 10 below that for CAL 83. For eight of these latter sources, we conclude that either their time-averaged luminosity is substantially below that of CAL 83, or that the local interstellar medium is much less dense. The latter effect may be enhanced

  5. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  6. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  7. Teaching undergraduates about familial breast cancer: comparison of a computer assisted learning (CAL) package with a traditional tutorial approach.

    PubMed

    Miedzybrodzka, Z; Hamilton, N M; Gregory, H; Milner, B; Frade, I; Sinclair, T; Mollison, J; Haites, N

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a computer assisted learning package for teaching clinical medical students about familial breast cancer. It explains the principles of genetic predisposition to breast cancer, the association with other cancers, the principles of family history taking and confirmation, risk assessment and possible interventions. Clinical medical students were randomised to either conventional teaching or CAL, 48 students attended the evaluation session. Students randomised to conventional teaching received a 20 min mini-lecture, those randomised to CAL completed the package with technical, but not academic support available. At the end of the intervention both groups of students completed a short written assessment of acceptability and knowledge and understanding of breast cancer genetics. There was no significant difference between the CAL and mini-lecture groups in terms of marks or acceptability. Thus CAL appears to be an acceptable and effective method of teaching clinical medical students about familial breast cancer. Although time consuming to develop, CAL can be used in a variety of settings to increase curriculum flexibility. Methods of motivating students to complete the CAL, and of providing educational support are being explored. PMID:11840198

  8. The Aspergillus nidulans cetA and calA genes are involved in conidial germination and cell wall morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Belaish, Ravit; Sharon, Haim; Levdansky, Emma; Greenstein, Shulamit; Shadkchan, Yana; Osherov, Nir

    2008-03-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans genes cetA (AN3079.2) and calA (AN7619.2) encode a novel class of fungal thaumatin-like proteins of unknown function. Deletion of cetA does not result in an observable phenotype [Greenstein, S., Shadkchan, Y., Jadoun, J., Sharon, C., Markovich, S., Osherov, N., 2006. Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans thaumatin-like cetA gene and evidence for transcriptional repression of pyr4 expression in the cetA-disrupted strain. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43, 42-53]. We prepared knockout calA and calA/cetA A. nidulans strains. The calA mutants were phenotypically identical to the wild-type. In contrast, the cetA/calA double mutant showed a synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that the two genes affect a single function or pathway: most of its conidia were completely inhibited in germination. Many collapsed and underwent lysis. A few showed abnormal germination characterized by short swollen hyphae and abnormal hyphal branching. Nongerminated conidia contained a single condensed nucleus suggesting a block in early germination. This is the first functional analysis of the novel cetA/calA family of thaumatin-like genes and their role in A. nidulans conidial germination. We show that CETA and CALA are secreted proteins that together play an essential role in early conidial germination. PMID:17703972

  9. Structural characterization of CalO2: A putative orsellinic acid P450 oxidase in the calicheamicin biosynthetic

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Jason G.; Johnson, Heather D.; Singh, Shanteri; Bingman, Craig A.; Lei, In-Kyoung; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2009-08-13

    Although bacterial iterative Type I polyketide synthases are now known to participate in the biosynthesis of a small set of diverse natural products, the subsequent downstream modification of the resulting polyketide products remains poorly understood. Toward this goal, we report the X-ray structure determination at 2.5 A resolution and preliminary characterization of the putative orsellenic acid P450 oxidase (CalO2) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis. These studies represent the first crystal structure for a P450 involved in modifying a bacterial iterative Type I polyketide product and suggest the CalO2-catalyzed step may occur after CalO3-catalyzed iodination and may also require a coenzyme A- (CoA) or acyl carrier protein- (ACP) bound substrate. Docking studies also reveal a putative docking site within CalO2 for the CLM orsellinic acid synthase (CalO5) ACP domain which involves a well-ordered helix along the CalO2 active site cavity that is unique compared with other P450 structures.

  10. Crystallization and Preliminary Diffraction Analysis of the CAL PDZ Domain in Complex with a Selective Peptide Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    J Amacher; P Cushing; J Weiner; D Madden

    2011-12-31

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which regulates epithelial fluid and ion homeostasis. The CFTR cytoplasmic C-terminus interacts with a number of PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) proteins that modulate its intracellular trafficking and chloride-channel activity. Among these, the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL) has a negative effect on apical-membrane expression levels of the most common disease-associated mutant {Delta}F508-CFTR, making CAL a candidate target for the treatment of CF. A selective peptide inhibitor of the CAL PDZ domain (iCAL36) has recently been developed and shown to stabilize apical expression of {Delta}F508-CFTR, enhancing net chloride-channel activity, both alone and in combination with the folding corrector corr-4a. As a basis for structural studies of the CAL-iCAL36 interaction, a purification protocol has been developed that increases the oligomeric homogeneity of the protein. Here, the cocrystallization of the complex in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.9, b = 47.7, c = 97.3 {angstrom}, is reported. The crystals diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (1.96 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains two complexes.

  11. The JMMC Stellar Diameters Catalog v2 (JSDC): A New Release Based on SearchCal Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgés, L.; Lafrasse, S.; Mella, G.; Chesneau, O.; Bouquin, J. L.; Duvert, G.; Chelli, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2014-05-01

    The JMMC Calibrator Workgroup has long developed methods to ascertain the angular diameter of stars and provides this expertise in the SearchCal software. SearchCal dynamically finds calibrators near science objects by querying CDS hosted according to observational parameters using either the bright (magK < 5.5) or the faint (magK>5) scenarios. This 2nd JSDC1 release is based on a new SearchCal scenario (derived from the bright one) applied to 110 000 Hipparcos stars instead of aggregating SearchCal results on the whole celestial sphere. It benefits from important SearchCal improvements for 3 years: new catalog queries (HIP2, AKARI), enhanced cross-match algorithm taking into account proper motions / catalog epochs (ASCC, HIP2, 2MASS) and major changes on diameter and error computations (more color relations used and magnitude error propagation). We describe the new JSDC scenario and SearchCal improvements, study catalog results (more than 55 000 stars, more giant stars) and compare this new release with the former one (VizieR II/300).

  12. A VLT VIMOS IFU study of the ionisation nebula surrounding the supersoft X-ray source CAL 83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruyters, P.; Exter, K.; Roberts, T. P.; Rappaport, S.

    2012-08-01

    Context. CAL 83 is a prototype of the class of Super Soft X-ray Sources (SXS). It is a binary consisting of a low mass secondary that is transferring mass onto a white dwarf primary and is the only known SXS surrounded by an ionisation nebula, made up of the interstellar medium (ISM) ionised by the source itself. We study this nebula using integral field spectroscopy. Aims: The study of ionised material can inform us about the source that is responsible for the ionisation, in a way that is complementary to studying the source directly. Since CAL 83 is the only SXS known with an ionisation nebula, we have an opportunity to see if such studies are as useful for SXSs as they have been for other X-ray ionised nebulae. We can use these data to compare to models of how CAL 83 should ionise its surroundings, based on what we know about the source emission spectrum and the physical conditions of the surrounding ISM. Methods: With the VIMOS integral field spectrograph we obtained spectra over a 25 × 25'' field of view, encompassing one quarter of the nebula. Emission line maps - H i, He II λ4686, [OIII] λλ4959,5007, [NII] λλ6548,5683, and [SII] λλ6716,6731 - are produced in order to study the morphology of the ionised gas. We include CAL 83 on diagrams of various diagnostic ion ratios to compare it to other X-ray ionised sources. Finally we computed some simple models of the ionised gas around CAL 83 and compare the predicted to the observed spectra. Results: CAL 83 appears to have a fairly standard ionisation nebula as far as the morphology goes: the edges where H is recombining are strong in the low stage ionisation lines and the central, clumpy regions are stronger in the higher stage ionisation lines. But the He ii emission is unusual in being confined to one side of CAL 83 rather than being homogeneously distributed as with the other ions. We model the CAL 83 nebula with cloudy using model parameters for SXSs found in the literature. The He ii emission does not

  13. The phosphoinositide 3′-kinase delta inhibitor, CAL-101, inhibits B-cell receptor signaling and chemokine networks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hoellenriegel, Julia; Meadows, Sarah A.; Sivina, Mariela; Wierda, William G.; Kantarjian, Hagop; Keating, Michael J.; Giese, Neill; O'Brien, Susan; Yu, Albert; Miller, Langdon L.; Lannutti, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    In lymphocytes, the phosphoinositide 3′-kinase (PI3K) isoform p110δ (PI3Kδ) transmits signals from surface receptors, including the B-cell receptor (BCR). CAL-101, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, displays clinical activity in CLL, causing rapid lymph node shrinkage and a transient lymphocytosis. Inhibition of pro-survival pathways, the presumed mechanism of CAL-101, does not explain this characteristic pattern of activity. Therefore, we tested CAL-101 in assays that model CLL-microenvironment interactions in vitro. We found that CAL-101 inhibits CLL cell chemotaxis toward CXCL12 and CXCL13 and migration beneath stromal cells (pseudoemperipolesis). CAL-101 also down-regulates secretion of chemokines in stromal cocultures and after BCR triggering. CAL-101 reduces survival signals derived from the BCR or from nurse-like cells, and inhibits BCR- and chemokine-receptor–induced AKT and MAP kinase (ERK) activation. In stromal cocultures, CAL-101 sensitizes CLL cells toward bendamustine, fludarabine, and dexamethasone. These results are corroborated by clinical data showing marked reductions in circulating CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL13 levels, and a surge in lymphocytosis during CAL-101 treatment. Thus, CAL-101 displays a dual mechanism of action, directly decreasing cell survival while reducing interactions that retain CLL cells in protective tissue microenvironments. These data provide an explanation for the clinical activity of CAL-101, and a roadmap for future therapeutic development. PMID:21803855

  14. Playback Station #2 for Cal Net and 5-day-recorder tapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1978-01-01

    A second system (Playback Station #2) has been set up to play back Cal Net 1" tapes and 5-day-recorder 1/2" tapes. As with the first playback system (Playback Station #1) the tapes are played back on a Bell and Howell VR3700B tape deck and the records are written out on a 16-channel direct-writing Siemens "0scillomink." Separate reproduce heads, tape guides, and tape tension sensor rollers are required for playing back 111 tapes and 1/2" tapes, but changing these tape deck components is a simple task that requires only a few minutes. The discriminators, patch panels, selector switches, filters, time code translators, and signal conditioning circuits for the time code translators and for the tape-speed-compensation signal are all mounted in an equipment rack that stands beside the playback tape deck. Changing playback speeds (15/16 ips or 3 3/4 ips) or changing from Cal Net tapes to 5-day-recorder tapes requires only flipping a few switches and/or changing a few patch cables on the patch panel (in addition to changing the reproduce heads, etc., to change from 1" tape to 1/2" tape). For the Cal Net tapes, the system provides for playback of 9 data channels (680 Hz thru 3060 Hz plus 400 Hz) and 3 time signals (IRIG-E, IRIG-C, and WWVB) at both 15/16 ips (x1 speed) and 3 3/4 ips (x4 speed). Available modes of compensation (using either a 4688 Hz reference or a 3125 Hz reference) are subtractive, capstan, capstan plus subtractive, or no compensation.

  15. Cal/Val activities for DubaiSat-2 performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushahab, A.; Al-Mansoori, S.; Al-Suwaidi, K.; Al Matroushi, Hessa; Al-Tunaiji, E.; Al Shamsi, Meera

    2014-10-01

    Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST) was established by the Dubai Government in 2006. After three years of working together with Satrec Initiative (South Korea), EIAST was able to launch DubaiSat-1 on the 29th of July 2009. Building on the success of DubaiSat-1 and the roll out of the knowledge transfer program, UAE engineers were involved in almost 70% of the total build and design of DubaiSat-2. Targeting the commercial market, DubaiSat-2 was launched on the 21st of November 2013 for capturing 1-meter resolution images. The 1st Cal/Val phase was the most critical phase in the satellite life-time, where most of the initial measurements took place. This phase extended over the period of 25/11/2013 till 12/12/2013. Moreover, this phase included most of the relative calibration tasks, color balancing and band matching. 2nd Cal/Val phase included most of the debugging and the pointing accuracy calibration tests. This phase extended over the period of 11/02/2014 till 09/03/2014. This phase emphasized on the calibration of the pointing accuracy. The 3rd Cal/Val phase included fine tuning for the Gyro system to further increase the stability of the satellite and thus improve the pointing accuracy. Moreover, new techniques were implemented to the Pan-Sharpening and to the MTF compensation procedures to enhance the final product. This phase extended over the period of 04/05/2014 till 21/05/2014.

  16. User-Friendly Interface Developed for a Web-Based Service for SpaceCAL Emulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liszka, Kathy J.; Holtz, Allen P.

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Space Communications Architecture Laboratory (SpaceCAL) for protocol development activities for coordinated satellite missions. SpaceCAL will provide a multiuser, distributed system to emulate space-based Internet architectures, backbone networks, formation clusters, and constellations. As part of a new effort in 2003, building blocks are being defined for an open distributed system to make the satellite emulation test bed accessible through an Internet connection. The first step in creating a Web-based service to control the emulation remotely is providing a user-friendly interface for encoding the data into a well-formed and complete Extensible Markup Language (XML) document. XML provides coding that allows data to be transferred between dissimilar systems. Scenario specifications include control parameters, network routes, interface bandwidths, delay, and bit error rate. Specifications for all satellite, instruments, and ground stations in a given scenario are also included in the XML document. For the SpaceCAL emulation, the XML document can be created using XForms, a Webbased forms language for data collection. Contrary to older forms technology, the interactive user interface makes the science prevalent, not the data representation. Required versus optional input fields, default values, automatic calculations, data validation, and reuse will help researchers quickly and accurately define missions. XForms can apply any XML schema defined for the test mission to validate data before forwarding it to the emulation facility. New instrument definitions, facilities, and mission types can be added to the existing schema. The first prototype user interface incorporates components for interactive input and form processing. Internet address, data rate, and the location of the facility are implemented with basic form controls with default values provided for convenience and efficiency using basic XForms operations

  17. IntCal04: A New Consensus Radiocarbon Calibration Dataset from 0-26 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, P. J.; Baillie, M. G.; Bard, E.; Beck, J. W.; Buck, C. E.; Blackwell, P. G.; Burr, G. S.; Cutler, K. B.; Damon, P. E.; Edwards, R. L.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Friedrich, M.; Guilderson, T. P.; Hogg, A. G.; Hughen, K. A.; Kromer, B.; McCormac, G.; Ramsey, C. B.; Reimer, R. W.; Remmele, S.; Southon, J. R.; Stuiver, M.; Taylor, F. W.; van der Plicht, J.; Weyhenmeyer, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Because atmosphere 14C levels have not been constant through time, it is necessary to calibrate radiocarbon dates with known age radiocarbon datasets in order to compare paleorecords based on 14C ages and those based on other timescales. The need for a consensus calibration dataset was acknowledged by the radiocarbon community as a way of preventing confusion and the subjective use of selected datasets (1). Since then, radiocarbon calibration datasets have been developed by international collaborations and presented for ratification at the International Radiocarbon Conference (2-4). The IntCal04 Radiocarbon Calibration/Comparison Working Group has put together a dataset which incorporates existing and new measurements of tree-ring records, foraminifera from varved sediments, and corals that meet a strict set of acceptance criteria (5). Uncertainties for both the calendar time scale and the radiocarbon ages have been quantified and included in the dataset combination using a statistical technique based on the ideas of Christen and Nicholls (6) and Gomez Portugal Aguilar (7). The IntCal04 dataset, which covers the range of 0 to 26 ka BP, was presented for ratification at the 19th International Radiocarbon Conference in Wellington, New Zealand, in September, 2003. This paper will highlight the differences between IntCal98 and the new IntCal04 dataset and give an example showing the effect on the calibrated age for a Younger Dryas age sample. 1. J. Klein, J. C. Lerman, P. E. Damon, E. K. Ralph, Radiocarbon 24, 103-150 (1982). 2. M. Stuiver, Radiocarbon 28, R2-R2 (1986). 3. M. Stuiver et al., Radiocarbon 40, 1041-1083 (1998). 4. M. Stuiver, P. J. Reimer, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230 (1993). 5. P. J. Reimer et al., Radiocarbon 44, 653-661. (2002). 6. J. A. Christen, G. Nicholls, "Random-walk radiocarbon calibration." (Mathematics Department, University of Auckland, 2000). 7.D. G. P. Aguilar, C. D. Litton, A. O'Hagan, Radiocarbon 44, 195-212 (2002).

  18. {\\cal N}=2 supersymmetric extension of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz Hamiltonians on a plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesne, C.

    2010-07-01

    The family of Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz Hamiltonians Hk on a plane, corresponding to any positive real value of k, is shown to admit an {\\cal N} = 2 supersymmetric extension of the same kind as that introduced by Freedman and Mende for the Calogero problem and based on an {osp}(2/2, \\mathbb {R}) \\sim {su}(1,1/1) superalgebra. The irreducible representations of the latter are characterized by the quantum number specifying the eigenvalues of the first integral of motion Xk of Hk. Bases for them are explicitly constructed. The ground state of each supersymmetrized Hamiltonian is shown to belong to an atypical lowest-weight state irreducible representation.

  19. China radiometric calibration sites ground-based automatic observing systems for CAL/VAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Xin; Rong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Xiuqing; Ba, Xiutian

    2015-10-01

    A brand-new field observing station has been built up in the China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) of Dunhuang Gobi for CAL/VAL, include house, observing field, power supply, tower crane, et al. Many automatic observation instruments designed and manufactured by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanical Chinese Academy of Sciences were deployed in CRCS Dunhuang Site and introduced deeply in this paper. Followed with the finishing of the basic constructions of the field observing station, it will be an open field test and exchange platform for sharing of test data, research and infrastructure, promote exchanges and cooperation between the relevant disciplines and units.

  20. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  1. CalTOX (registered trademark), A multimedia total exposure model spreadsheet user's guide. Version 4.0(Beta)

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Enoch, K.G.

    2002-08-01

    CalTOX has been developed as a set of spreadsheet models and spreadsheet data sets to assist in assessing human exposures from continuous releases to multiple environmental media, i.e. air, soil, and water. It has also been used for waste classification and for setting soil clean-up levels at uncontrolled hazardous wastes sites. The modeling components of CalTOX include a multimedia transport and transformation model, multi-pathway exposure scenario models, and add-ins to quantify and evaluate uncertainty and variability. All parameter values used as inputs to CalTOX are distributions, described in terms of mean values and a coefficient of variation, rather than as point estimates or plausible upper values such as most other models employ. This probabilistic approach allows both sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to be directly incorporated into the model operation. This manual provides CalTOX users with a brief overview of the CalTOX spreadsheet model and provides instructions for using the spreadsheet to make deterministic and probabilistic calculations of source-dose-risk relationships.

  2. Upgrade of the Laser calibration system for the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerden, Marius Cornelis

    2016-07-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for Laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The Laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration factors of the individual cells of TileCal. The Laser system is mainly used to correct for short term drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration factors is required. To achieve this goal in the LHC Run2 conditions, a new Laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute Laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the Laser, to read out optical monitors and to interface the system with the ATLAS readout, trigger and slow control. The LaserII system has been fully integrated into the framework used for measuring calibration factors and for monitoring data quality. First results on the Laser system performances studied are presented.

  3. Investigating Atmospheric Rivers using GPS TPW during CalWater 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza, V.; Foster, J. H.; Businger, S.

    2015-12-01

    Ship-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been successful in obtaining millimeter accuracy total precipitable water (TPW). We apply this technique with a field experiment using a GPS meteorology system installed on board the R/V Ronald Brown during the CalWater 2015 project. The goal of CalWater is to monitor atmospheric river (AR) events over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and improve forecasting of the extreme precipitation events they can produce. During the 30-day cruise, TPW derived from radiosonde balloons released from the Ron Brown are used to verify the accuracy of shipboard GPS TPW. The results suggest that ship-based GPS TPW offers a cost-effective approach for acquiring accurate real-time meteorological observations of TPW in AR's over remote oceans, as well as near the coastlines where satellites algorithms have limited accuracy. The results have implications for augmenting operational observing networks to improve weather prediction and nowcasting of ARs, thereby supporting hazard response and mitigation efforts associated with coastal flooding events.

  4. Production of CAL-programs in medicine, odontology and veterinary medicine in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rydmark, M; Jalling, H; Petersson, G; Philip, F

    1998-06-01

    At the recommendation of the Swedish Government, the Council for the Renewal of Undergraduate Education was established in 1990. In 1993 the Council was declared a permanent National Agency by Swedish Parliament and became part of the newly established National Agency for Higher Education in 1995. The purpose of the Council for Renewal of Undergraduate Education is to promote and support endeavors to develop quality and renewal of undergraduate education. In particular the council awards grants to development activities. Once a year, teachers at Swedish universities, university colleges and professional schools can apply for funding. Applications are accepted for projects directed towards undergraduate education in all disciplines. The Council selects 15-20 projects and each project is funded for 1-3 years. An advisory group--MEDCAL (Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in MEDicine, Odontology and Veterinary Medicine)--consisting of representatives from all universities supports the Council with registration and evaluation of programs, offers their opinions on the production of CAL and collaborates with similar organizations in other countries, e.g. Australia, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and USA. In all, 12 projects within the frame of MEDCAL will be reported. PMID:9726519

  5. A Discussion on Personnel Exposure to Posttest Byproducts from a 50-cal. Light Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Don; Rodriquez, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In January of 2002, employees working in the Hypervelocity Test Facility (HTF) at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) began to notice common physical complaints. These included loss of smell, loss of taste, skin irritation, a burning sensation of the mucus membranes, and redness and chapping of the lips. These conditions extended to home during the weekends and throughout holiday breaks as well. Concerns about air contaminants were raised with regard to the operation of the .50-cal. two-stage light gas gun (2SLGG). Employees suspected that these conditions might be caused by air contaminants from small leaks at the gun pump tube joint at the breech, and exhaust gas entrainment into the WAC systems. The WSTF Industrial Hygienist (IH) was notified and samples were collected using the MIRAN infrared spectrometer (real time) air sampler on 08 January 2002 at the SO-cal. gun. The results from this screening test suggested the need for more detailed investigations with analytical sampling and analysis.

  6. Effects of axial scanning in confocal microscopy employing adaptive lenses (CAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukourakis, N.; Finkeldey, M.; Stürmer, M.; Gerhardt, N. C.; Wallrabe, U.; Hofmann, M. R.; Czarske, J. W.; Fischer, A.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze axial scanning in Confocal microscopy based on Adaptive Lenses (CAL). A tunable lens located in the illumination path of a confocal setup enables scanning the focus position by applying an electrical voltage. This opens up the possibility to replace mechanical axial scanning which is commonly used. In our proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate a tuning range of about 380 μm. The range can easily be extended by using the whole possible tuning range. During the scan the axial resolution degrades by a factor of about 2.3. The deterioration is introduced by aberrations that strongly depend on the scanning process. Therefore a second lens is located in the detection path of the CAL setup to balance the aberration effects. Both experiments and simulations show that this approach allows creating a homogeneous axial resolution throughout the scan. This is at the cost of tuning range which halves to about 200 μm. The lateral resolution is not noticeably affected and amounts to 500 nm.

  7. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  8. NO2 fluxes from Tijuana using a mobile mini-DOAS during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Claudia; Barrera, Hugo; Grutter, Michel; Zavala, Miguel; Galle, Bo; Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Molina, Luisa T.

    2013-05-01

    NO2 fluxes were measured using a mobile mini-DOAS during Cal-Mex 2010 field study, between May 15 and June 30, 2010, from the urban area of Tijuana, Baja California as well as the Rosarito power plant. The average calculated NO2 fluxes were 328 ± 184 (269 ± 201) g s-1, and 23.4 ± 4.9 (12.9 ± 11.9) g s-1 for Tijuana urban area and Rosarito power plant, respectively, using model based wind fields and onsite measurements (in parenthesis). Wind speed and wind direction data needed to estimate the fluxes were both modeled and obtained from radiosondes launched regularly during the field campaign, whereas the mixing layer height throughout the entire field campaign was measured using a ceilometer. Large variations in the NO2 fluxes from both the Tijuana urban area and Rosarito power plant were observed during Cal-Mex 2010; however, the variability was less when model based wind fields were used. Qualitative comparisons of modeled and measured plumes from the Tijuana urban area and Rosarito power plant showed good agreement.

  9. Did Lake Bonneville Experience A Major Water-Budget Shift At 17.4 cal ka?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviatt, C.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Bonneville, in western Utah, had transgressed to its highest level by 18.3 cal ka, overflowed into the Snake River drainage basin until 17.4 cal ka, then catastrophically dropped 100 m as its overflow threshold was washed out. This event, which is referred to as the “Bonneville flood,” is well documented geomorphically, stratigraphically, and geochronologically. At the same time the Bonneville flood was occurring, the level of Lake Estancia in central New Mexico dropped over 30 m then returned to its previous high level in an event caused by climate change in that basin. The question is: “did Lake Bonneville experience a correlative climate-induced shift in its water budget (a decrease in the ratio of input to output), even while it continuously overflowed before, during, and after the Bonneville flood?” The answer to this question has a bearing on the global effects of the climate change that is well documented in the Estancia basin. Data from sediment cores from the Bonneville basin are providing a means to address the question. Data include: ostracode faunal changes, total inorganic carbon, stable isotopes, detrital sand, and mineralogy. The challenge is to identify the measurable characteristics of the sediment core that can be used to clearly separate the effects of water-budget change from those caused by the catastrophic (essentially instantaneous) 100-m lowering of Lake Bonneville.

  10. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η| < 1.6). The energy deposited by the particles is read out by approximately 5,000 cells, with double readout channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm, which expects a single signal with a well-defined shape. However, the LHC luminosity is expected to increase leading to pile-up that deforms the signal of interest. Due to limited resources, the current hardware setup, which is based on Digital Signal Processors (DSP), does not allow the implementation of sophisticated energy estimation methods that deal with the pile-up. Therefore, the technique to be employed for online energy estimation in TileCal for next LHC operation period must be based on fast filters such as the Optimal Filter (OF) and the Matched Filter (MF). Both the OF and MF methods envisage the use of the background second order statistics in its design, more precisely the covariance matrix. However, the identity matrix has been used to describe this quantity. Although this approximation can be valid for low luminosity LHC, it leads to biased estimators under pile- up conditions. Since most of the TileCal cell present low occupancy, the pile-up, which is often modeled by a non-Gaussian distribution, can be seen as outlier events. Consequently, the classical covariance matrix estimation does not describe correctly the second order statistics of the background for the majority of the events, as this approach is very sensitive to outliers. As a result, the OF (or MF) coefficients are miscalculated leading to a larger variance and biased energy estimator. This work evaluates the usage of a robust covariance estimator, namely the Minimum

  11. Nucleolar activity and CENP-C regulate CENP-A and CAL1 availability for centromere assembly in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwenda, Lucretia; Collins, Caitriona M.; Dattoli, Anna A.; Dunleavy, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    The centromere-specific histone CENP-A is the key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity. Whereas most histones are removed from mature sperm, CENP-A is retained to mark paternal centromeres. In Drosophila males we show that the centromere assembly factors CAL1 and CENP-C are required for meiotic chromosome segregation, CENP-A assembly and maintenance on sperm, as well as fertility. In meiosis, CENP-A accumulates with CAL1 in nucleoli. Furthermore, we show that CENP-C normally limits the release of CAL1 and CENP-A from nucleoli for proper centromere assembly in meiotic prophase I. Finally, we show that RNA polymerase I transcription is required for efficient CENP-A assembly in meiosis, as well as centromere tethering to nucleoli. PMID:27095496

  12. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI. Summary report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-10

    This report provides a summary of the Air Force CALS Test Network (AFCTN) Test Report Transfer of Air Force Technical Procurement Bid Set Data to Small Businesses, Using CALS and EDI (AFCTN Test Report 94-034, UCRL-ID-118619). It represents a synthesis of the results, conclusions, and recommendations, as well as a more concise presentation of the issues and strategies as viewed from AFCTN`s perspective. This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s {open_quote}Blue Ribbon{close_quote} contractors, located throughout the United States. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote.

  13. Assessing arsenic leachability from pulverized cement concrete produced from arsenic-laden solid CalSiCo-sludge.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Puspendu; Pal, Anjali; Bandyopadhyay, Manas

    2007-03-22

    Synthetically prepared arsenic-laden CalSiCo-sludge was converted to pulverized cement concrete (PCC) using solidification/stabilization technology with cement. Batch leaching experiments were conducted to estimate the leaching of As(III) and As(V) from the CalSiCo-sludge as well as from the PCC. The leaching of As(III) and As(V) was found to be the function of time, pH and concentration of anions such as Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and SO(4)(2-) present in the extraction fluid. It is observed that from the CalSiCo-sludge the leaching of As(III) is >0.05mg/l (which is above the permissible limit for arsenic in drinking water) at any pH. But in case of As(V) the leaching is >0.05mg/l only at pH>8 and at pH<4. It is noted that maximum leaching occurs when the extraction liquid contains Cl(-). In contrary, NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) have negligible effect on arsenic leaching from the CalSiCo-sludge. Extraction tests were carried out to determine the maximum leachable concentration under the chosen conditions of leaching medium and leaching time. Leaching of As(III) and As(V) from exhausted arsenic-laden CalSiCo-sludge and from PCC was carried out in both tap water and rain water. It was noticed that tap water has no effect in leaching of arsenic from CalSiCo-sludge but rain water causes significant amount of leaching, which is mostly due to pH effect. However, in all cases the leaching of As(III) was more than that of As(V). When compared with CalSiCo-sludge PCC showed negligible leaching of arsenic. It was noticed further that the variation of 28 days compressive strength was within 15% of the original strength after replacing 35% cement with exhausted CalSiCo-sludge. PMID:16938388

  14. 13000 cal years upwelling variation in southwestern Atlantic (Brazil): continental paleoclima implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ana Luiza ALBUQUERQUE(1); Bruno TURCq(2); Abdel SIFEDDINE(1,2). (1) Departamento de Geoquímica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. (2) LOCEAN, IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Bondy, France. The Cabo Frio region as indicated by its name is a place of low SST due to a local upwelling triggered by the Northeast trade winds, the northward flow of cool South Atlantic Central Water and vortex of the Brazilian current in the upper warm Tropical Water. Paleoceanographic conditions during the last 13000 years have been reconstructed based on two cores collected on the outer shelf. The studied proxies included mineral and heavy metal quantification, bulk organic matter characteristics and planktonic foraminifera. A first phase of sedimentation between 13000 and 7000 cal BP is characterized by high mineral content probably due to the lower sea level. SST reconstruction indicate cool and highly variable temperatures that were probably not related to upwelling events made difficult by the low sea level but to lower regional SSTs. This is in good agreement with observations of continental climate dryer in southwest Brazil with intense events of precipitation. A second phase between 7000 and 3000 cal BP shows higher SST indicating few occurrences of upwelling. Its may be due to the decrease of South Atlantic Convergence Zone (ZCAS) intensity linked to the lower summer insolation and the reduced monsoonal flux at that time. On the adjacent continent the decrease monsoon is evidenced by low lake levels and poorly developed forests. The third and last phase, post 3000 cal BP, is characterized by the onset of upwelling events that may be related to an intensification of the South American Monsoon and of the ZCAS activity leading to an increase of Northeast winds during summer which is typically the upwelling season. On the continent this period was marked by forest development. The transition at 3000 yrs BP is very late compared to other Holocene Record. Paleoclimate model

  15. CalWater 2 - Precipitation, Aerosols, and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Ryan; Ralph, Marty; Prather, Kim; Cayan, Dan; DeMott, Paul; Dettinger, Mike; Fairall, Chris; Leung, Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Rutledge, Steven; Waliser, Duane; White, Allen

    2014-05-01

    Emerging research has identified two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States. These phenomena include the role of (1) atmospheric rivers (ARs) in delivering much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and (2) aerosols—from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents—and their modulating effects on western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. Observations are proposed for multiple winter seasons as part of a 5-year broad interagency vision referred to as CalWater 2 to address these science gaps (http://esrl.noaa.gov/psd/calwater). In the near term, a science investigation is being planned including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data in near-shore regions of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between January 2015 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period in a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) to complement CalWater 2. The motivation for this major study is based on findings that have emerged in the last few years from airborne and ground-based studies including CalWater and NOAA's HydroMeterology Testbed

  16. Advanced poly-LED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Mark; Nisato, Giovanni; Fish, D.; Giraldo, Andrea; Jenkins, A. J.; Johnson, Mark T.

    2003-05-01

    Philips have been actively developing polymer OLED (poly-LED) displays as a future display technology. Their emissive nature leads to a very attractive visual appearance, with wide viewing angle, high brightness and fast response speed. Whilst the first generation of poly-LED displays are likely to be passive-matrix driven, power reduction and resolution increase will lead to the use of active-matrix poly-LED displays. Philips Research have designed, fabricated and characterized five different designs of active-matrix polymer-LED display. Each of the five displays makes use of a distinct pixel programming- or pixel drive-technique, including current programming, threshold voltage measurement and photodiode feedback. It will be shown that hte simplest voltage-programmed current-source pixel suffers from potentially unacceptable brightness non-uniformity, and that advanced pixel circuits can provide a solution to this. Optical-feedback pixel circuits will be discussed, showing that they can be used to improve uniformity and compensate for image burn-in due to polymer-LED material degradation, improving display lifetime. Philips research has also been active in developing technologies required to implement poly-LED displays on flexible substrates, including materials, processing and testing methods. The fabrication of flexible passive-matrix poly-LED displays will be presented, as well as the ongoing work to assess the suitability of processing flexible next-generation poly-LED displays.

  17. Poly-instanton inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order Trh simeq 106 GeV which requires Ne simeq 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is ns simeq 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r simeq 10-5. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 103 in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 1015 GeV.

  18. Poly-instanton inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: f.pedro1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order T{sub rh} ≅ 10{sup 6} GeV which requires N{sub e} ≅ 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is n{sub s} ≅ 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r ≅ 10{sup −5}. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 10{sup 3} in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 10{sup 15} GeV.

  19. Synthesis and self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zicheng; Ono, Robert J.; Wu, Zong-Quan; Bielawski, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    A modular and convenient synthesis of ethynyl end functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) in high purity is reported; this material facilitated access to poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) which self-assembled into hierarchical structures.

  20. NEW APPROACHES: Production of a multimedia CAL package in basic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. F.; Gregory, J. R.

    1997-09-01

    In the late 1980s access to Engineering courses in higher education was widened and Foundation Years were introduced. Some pedagogical problems arose due to the unusually heterogeneous groups which ensued. The authors, who were associated with the Science and Engineering Foundation Programme at Loughborough University, which was instigated in 1991, investigated teaching and learning strategies which could be used beneficially with students having wide ranging previous educational experiences. One area which appeared to be very promising was that of Computer Assisted Learning, which could be undertaken by students as and when required. A piece of computer assisted learning and assessment courseware was produced during the academic year 1994 - 5 and evaluated in the following academic year. The responses of the Foundation students with whom the CAL courseware was piloted were generally favourable, and some useful suggestions concerning ways in which the courseware could be improved were made.

  1. Plate stamping of masterplates for the Tile-Cal hadronic calorimetric for ATLAS detector at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.F.; Petereit, E.; Wood, K.; Proudfoot, J.

    1996-05-16

    Various methods have been explored for the fabrication of the large trapezoidal plates used in the construction of the Tile-Cal hadronic calorimeter for ATLAS. The options include die stamping, laser cutting, waterjet cutting, plasma arc cutting, and a combination of machining and laser cutting. Very early in the program, the Argonne group began investigating the possibility of die stamping the master plates. At that time it was felt that two dies would be necessary to achieve the accuracy required. Quotations were received for dies for both the master and spacer plates. Concern was expressed by many members of the collaboration that due to the very precise tolerances required, die stamping, using standard dies, would not be adequate. Fine blanking techniques were felt to be adequate, but were cost prohibitive. Two methods were finally used for the initial cutting of prototype plates, laser cutting and die stamping. Only the die stamping, will be reviewed here.

  2. Mid-Term Report On 'SMOS CAL/VAL In China'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Wu, Ji; Liu, Heguang; Liu, Hao; Li, Zengyuan; Kerr, Yann; Desnos, Y.-L.; Hahne, A.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2010-10-01

    Within framework of Dragon-2 programme, collaboration on SMOS Cal/Val is on the track. This paper reviewed SMOS behavior and status which follows the latest progress in the field. By analyzing historical low frequency microwave radiometric observation and ground truth data, it is shown the Taklamakan desert is well suited for calibration of spaceborne microwave sensors such as SMOS MIRAS. The pioneer experiment confirms the assumption in the simulation and defines requirements for further works. Sampling tools for the specified environment as well as an L band ground based radiometer were designed and constructed. Data analysis shows many areas in China are affected by RFI problem. It will be necessary to investigate the problem further in depth both technically and tactically.

  3. The Critical Angle for Perforation versus Ricochet of a .38 CAL. LRN Bullet on a Windshield.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Shunsuke; Saimoto, Akihide; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2016-07-01

    From forensic point of view, it is important to clarify the condition whether ricochet or perforate for a bullet fired toward the automobile windshield. The purpose of this study was to specify the critical angle at which the ricochet of the fired bullet takes place. To estimate the result of firing, a rigid-body dynamics simulation of the bullet together with the test-firing using .38 CAL. LRN bullet was examined. It was found both from numerical simulation and firing test that when the incidence angle is <45°, a complete perforation of the windshield was observed, whereas the bullet ricocheted remaining a characteristic damage on the windshield when the incidence angle is >60°. To measure the static failure resistance of various windshields, static indentation test was also examined. PMID:27364291

  4. Airborne lidar measurements of pollution transport in central and southern California during CalNEX 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Hardesty, R.; Langford, A. O.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Davies, F.; Sandberg, S.; Marchbanks, R.; Weickmann, A.

    2010-12-01

    During the CalNEX experiment from May through July 2010, we co-deployed NOAA’s airborne ozone and aerosol lidar TOPAZ and the University of Leeds scanning Doppler wind lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. We flew a total of 46 missions over central and southern California, focusing primarily on the Los Angeles Basin and Sacramento areas. The downward-looking lidars provided highly resolved measurements of ozone concentration, aerosol backscatter, and wind speed and direction in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere. We will use the airborne lidar data to characterize transport of ozone and aerosols on regional and local scales. In particular, we will focus on pollutant transport between air basins and the role of flow patterns in complex terrain, such as gap flows and orographic lifting and venting along mountain slopes, on pollutant distribution.

  5. Elevated ozone layers in the lower free troposphere during CalNex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, R.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NOAA ESRL/CSD nadir-viewing ozone and aerosol lidar (TOPAZ) was deployed aboard the NOAA AOC Twin Otter research aircraft during the 2010 CalNex campaign. Ozone measurements were made on a total of 46 research flights covering much of California between 23 May and 18 July 2010. Many of these flights found widespread layers of high ozone (i.e. >100 ppbv) at altitudes between 2 and 4 km above mean sea level in the free troposphere. Potential sources include stratospheric intrusions, orographic lifting, and transport from Asia. The lidar observations are compared to ground-based ozonesonde measurements, and the origins of these layers investigated using the FLEXPART trajectory and particle dispersion model.

  6. Length heteroplasmy of the polyC-polyT-polyC stretch in the dog mtDNA control region.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2015-09-01

    Previously, the mitochondrial control region of 214 Belgian dogs was sequenced. Analysis of this data indicated length heteroplasmy of the polyT stretch in the polyC-polyT-polyC stretch from positions 16661 to 16674. Nine polyC-polyT-polyC haplotype combinations were observed, consisting of seven major haplotypes (highest signal intensity) combined with minor haplotypes (lower signal intensity) one T shorter than the major haplotype in all but three dogs. The longer the polyT stretch, the smaller was the difference in signal intensity between the major and minor haplotype peaks. Additional sequencing, cloning, and PCR trap experiments were performed to further study the intra-individual variation of this mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Cloning experiments demonstrated that the proportion of clones displaying the minor haplotypes also increased with the length of the polyT stretch. Clone amplification showed that in vitro polymerase errors might contribute to the length heteroplasmy of polyT stretches with at least 10 Ts. Although major and minor polyC-polyT-polyC haplotypes did not differ intra-individually within and between tissues in this study, interpretation of polyT stretch variation should be handled with care in forensic casework. PMID:25394743

  7. High-intensity geomagnetic field 'spike' observed at ca. 3000 cal BP in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Waters, Michael R.; Lundelius, Ernest; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions of the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have found extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity at ca. 3000 yr cal BP. These observations have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been preserved in metallurgical slag and fired, mud brick walls. We present a new, fully oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 yr from Hall's Cave, Texas, whose complete, >3.8 m thick sedimentary sequence spans from the present to 16 , 850 ± 110 RC yr BP (Modern to 20,600 cal BP). Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are negligible to non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from a previously excavated stratigraphic section. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 15 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrates, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, starting ca. 3000 yr ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years. This record presents well-dated evidence, obtained using conventional techniques, for the existence of a geomagnetic intensity spike in North America that is contemporaneous with the

  8. Black Carbon Emissions from In-use Ships: Results from CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffaloe, Gina Marise

    Black carbon (BC) mass emission factors (EFBC; g-BC (kg-fuel)--1) from a variety of ocean going vessels have been determined from measurements of BC and CO2 concentrations in ship plumes intercepted by the R/V Atlantis during the 2010 California Nexus (CalNex) campaign. The ships encountered were all operating within 24 nautical miles of the California coast and were utilizing relatively low sulphur fuels. Black carbon concentrations within the plumes, from which EFBC values are determined, were measured using four independent instruments: a photoacoustic spectrometer and a particle soot absorption photometer, which measure light absorption, and a single particle soot photometer and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, which measure the mass concentration of refractory BC directly. The measured EFBC have been divided into vessel type categories and engine type categories, from which averages have been determined. The geometric average EFBC, determined from over 71 vessels and 135 plumes encountered, was 0.31 g-BC (kg-fuel)--1. The most frequent engine type encountered was the slow speed diesel (SSD), and the most frequent SSD vessel type was the cargo ship sub-category. Average and median EF BC values from these two categories are compared to previous observations from the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2006, in which the ships encountered were predominately operating high sulphur fuels. There is some indication that the EFBC values for SSD vessels during CalNex were lower than during TexAQS, although ship-to-ship variability in these data sets makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the influence of fuel quality on EFBC.

  9. CalWater 2 - Precipitation, Aerosols, and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L. R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Waliser, D. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Emerging research has identified two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States. These phenomena include the role of (1) atmospheric rivers (ARs) in delivering much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and (2) aerosols—from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents—and their modulating effects on western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes the science objectives and strategies to address gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. Observations are proposed for multiple winter seasons as part of a 5-year broad interagency vision referred to as CalWater 2 to address these science gaps (http://esrl.noaa.gov/psd/calwater). In January-February 2015, a field campaign has been planned consisting of a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data in near-shore regions of California and in the eastern Pacific. In close coordination with NOAA, DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is also contributing air and shipborne facilities for ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment), a DOE-sponsored study complementing CalWater 2. Ground-based measurements from NOAA's HydroMeteorological Testbed (HMT) network in California and aerosol chemical instrumentation at Bodega Bay, California have been designed to add important near surface-level context for the

  10. The Kunming CalFit study: modeling dietary behavioral patterns using smartphone data.

    PubMed

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Bestick, Aaron; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Han, Jay; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Human behavioral interventions aimed at improving health can benefit from objective wearable sensor data and mathematical models. Smartphone-based sensing is particularly practical for monitoring behavioral patterns because smartphones are fairly common, are carried by individuals throughout their daily lives, offer a variety of sensing modalities, and can facilitate various forms of user feedback for intervention studies. We describe our findings from a smartphone-based study, in which an Android-based application we developed called CalFit was used to collect information related to young adults' dietary behaviors. In addition to monitoring dietary patterns, we were interested in understanding contextual factors related to when and where an individual eats, as well as how their dietary intake relates to physical activity (which creates energy demand) and psychosocial stress. 12 participants were asked to use CalFit to record videos of their meals over two 1-week periods, which were translated into nutrient intake by trained dietitians. During this same period, triaxial accelerometry was used to assess each subject's energy expenditure, and GPS was used to record time-location patterns. Ecological momentary assessment was also used to prompt subjects to respond to questions on their phone about their psychological state. The GPS data were processed through a web service we developed called Foodscoremap that is based on the Google Places API to characterize food environments that subjects were exposed to, which may explain and influence dietary patterns. Furthermore, we describe a modeling framework that incorporates all of these information to dynamically infer behavioral patterns that may be used for future intervention studies. PMID:25571578

  11. CalClim: An accessible data archive to monitor California climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L. M.; Cayan, D. R.; Redmond, K. T.; McCurdy, G. D.; Riddle, L.; Tyree, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    Climate data for the state of California has historically been provided by several independent sources, requiring time-consuming searches to find the appropriate information. The CalClim California Climate Data Archive (CCDA) provides centralized climate data access to assist those interested in monitoring California climate variability and change. The CalClim website (http://www.calclim.dri.edu) is a gateway to a number of climate observation networks that operate in California, including NWS Cooperative Network, SNOTEL, Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS), and other statewide and regional networks. This archive enables scientists, state agencies and others with California interests to retrieve climate data at their convenience, for periods from days to years, and from one or multiple networks. Software on the website can also produce summaries of data, and graphs of daily or monthly data with options such as running means. Currently a limited selection of data is available, but additional datasets will be added over the next several months to one year. A coastal-focused climate data archive is anticipated to be added in early 2005. Both graphical and text interfaces are used to select networks and/or individual stations. Other products available at the website include the monthly California Climate Watch online newsletter and recent climate maps for periods ranging from the last week to 3 years, updated daily. A climate metadata inventory for the state is being assembled in conjunction with this project, and will be made available online at its completion. An additional aspect in development involves support of an enhanced California climate monitoring network.

  12. Droplet activation properties of organic aerosols observed at an urban site during CalNex-LA

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Fan; Hayes, Patrick L.; Ortega, Amber; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Allan, James D.; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, William; de Gouw, Joost; Jimenez, Jose L.; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-11

    Size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra and aerosol chemical composition were characterized at an urban supersite in Pasadena, California, from 15 May to 4 June 2010, during the CalNex campaign. The derived hygroscopicity (κCCN) of CCN-active particles with diameter between 97 and 165 nm ranged from 0.05 to 0.4. Diurnal variation showed a slight decrease of κCCN from 8:00 to 16:00 (from 0.24 to 0.20), which is attributed to increasing organics volume fraction resulted from secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The derived hygroscopicity distribution and maximum activated fraction of the size selected particles were examined as functions of photochemical age. The result indicates that condensation of secondary species (e.g., SOA and sulfate) quickly converted hydrophobic particles to hydrophilic ones, and during daytime, nearly every particle became a CCN at ~0.4% in just a few hours. Based on κCCN and aerosol chemical composition, the organic hygroscopicity (κorg) was derived, and ranged from 0.05 to 0.23 with an average value of 0.13, consistent with the results from earlier studies. The derived κorg generally increased with the organic oxidation level, and most of the variation in κorg could be explained by the variation of the organic O : C atomic ratio alone. The least squares fit of the data yielded κorg = (0.83 ± 0.06) × (O:C) + (-0.19 ± 0.02). Compared to previous results based on CCN measurements of laboratory generated aerosols, κorg derived from measurements during the CalNex campaign exhibited stronger increase with O : C atomic ratio and therefore substantially higher values for organics with average O : C greater than 0.5.

  13. Meteorological overview and plume transport patterns during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Zavala, Miguel; Barrera, Hugo; Torres, Ricardo; Grutter, Michel; Gutiérrez, Wilfredo; García, Manuel; Ruiz-Suarez, Luis Gerardo; Ortinez, Abraham; Guitierrez, Yaneth; Alvarado, Carlos; Flores, Israel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2013-05-01

    Cal-Mex 2010 Field Study is a US-Mexico collaborative project to investigate cross-border transport of emissions in the California-Mexico border region, which took place from May 15 to June 30, 2010. The current study presents an overview of the meteorological conditions and plume transport patterns during Cal-Mex 2010 based on the analysis of surface and vertical measurements (radiosonde, ceilometers and tethered balloon) conducted in Tijuana, Mexico and the modeling output using a trajectory model (FLEXPRT-WRF) and a regional model (WRF). The WRF model has been applied for providing the meteorological daily forecasts that are verified using the available observations. Both synoptic-scale and urban-scale forecasts (including wind, temperature, and humidity) agree reasonably well with the NCEP-FNL reanalysis data and the measurements; however, the WRF model frequently underestimates surface temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height during nighttime compared to measurements. Based on the WRF-FLEXPART simulations with particles released in Tijuana in the morning, four representative plume transport patterns are identified as “plume-southeast”, “plume-southwest”, “plume-east” and “plume-north”, indicating the downwind direction of the plume; this will be useful for linking meteorological conditions with observed changes in trace gases and particular matter (PM). Most of the days during May and June are classified as plume-east and plume-southeast days, showing that the plumes in Tijuana are mostly carried to the southeast and east of Tijuana within the boundary layer during daytime. The plume transport directions are generally consistent with the prevailing wind directions on 850 hPa. The low level (below 800 m) wind, temperature, and moisture characteristics are different for each plume transport category according to the measurements from the tethered balloon. Future studies (such as using data assimilation and ensemble forecasts) will be

  14. RVC-CAL library for endmember and abundance estimation in hyperspectral image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazcano López, R.; Madroñal Quintín, D.; Juárez Martínez, E.; Sanz Álvaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HI) collects information from across the electromagnetic spectrum, covering a wide range of wavelengths. Although this technology was initially developed for remote sensing and earth observation, its multiple advantages - such as high spectral resolution - led to its application in other fields, as cancer detection. However, this new field has shown specific requirements; for instance, it needs to accomplish strong time specifications, since all the potential applications - like surgical guidance or in vivo tumor detection - imply real-time requisites. Achieving this time requirements is a great challenge, as hyperspectral images generate extremely high volumes of data to process. Thus, some new research lines are studying new processing techniques, and the most relevant ones are related to system parallelization. In that line, this paper describes the construction of a new hyperspectral processing library for RVC-CAL language, which is specifically designed for multimedia applications and allows multithreading compilation and system parallelization. This paper presents the development of the required library functions to implement two of the four stages of the hyperspectral imaging processing chain--endmember and abundances estimation. The results obtained show that the library achieves speedups of 30%, approximately, comparing to an existing software of hyperspectral images analysis; concretely, the endmember estimation step reaches an average speedup of 27.6%, which saves almost 8 seconds in the execution time. It also shows the existence of some bottlenecks, as the communication interfaces among the different actors due to the volume of data to transfer. Finally, it is shown that the library considerably simplifies the implementation process. Thus, experimental results show the potential of a RVC-CAL library for analyzing hyperspectral images in real-time, as it provides enough resources to study the system performance.

  15. The CalNex Los Angeles Experiment: Overview and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, J.; de Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Surratt, J.; Seinfeld, J.; CalNex-LA Team

    2010-12-01

    Air quality has considerably improved in the Los Angeles Basin over the past decades. These improvements were driven by some of the most advanced regulations on air pollution in the world. Nevertheless elevated ozone and particulate matter levels in Los Angeles and its surrounding areas persist. In addition recent regulations on greenhouse gases adopted by the State of California pose new challenges on air pollution mitigation in the LA Basin. With its rigorous air pollution mitigation policies Los Angeles offers a glimpse into the future of many other large urban areas which are following many of the strategies adopted in the LA Basin. Motivated by the desire to better understand the processes controlling air quality and greenhouse gas emissions in Southern California the CalNex experiment was performed in Spring 2010. Here we give an overview of the main surface measurement site in the Los Angeles Basin, which was set up on the campus of the California Institute of Technology on the east side of the South Coast Air Basin. The field site was motivated by the desire to better understand the daytime and nighttime chemistry that controls the formation of ozone and particulate matter. Many aspects of this chemistry, for example the removal of trace gases at night, the role of reactive halogens and the formation of secondary organic aerosol remain poorly understood. To address these, and other questions related to urban atmospheric chemistry, a comprehensive set of surface measurements were performed from May 15 - June 15, 2010. Over 30 research groups from a variety of national and international universities and research institutes performed measurements of meteorological parameters, a large number of trace gas-phase species, and detailed physical and chemical properties of aerosol. Here we present an overview of these measurements and discuss the general conditions encountered during the experiment. We will show early highlights from the CalNex-LA field experiment.

  16. Searching for Evidence of Curricular Effect on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: Some Insights from the LieCal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Jinfa

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on evidence from the Longitudinal Investigation of the Effect of Curriculum on Algebra Learning (LieCal) Project, issues related to mathematics curriculum reform and student learning are discussed. The LieCal Project was designed to longitudinally investigate the impact of a reform mathematics curriculum called the Connected Mathematics…

  17. Karyopherin α2 induces apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells through the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Yu, Lei; Li, Chun-Ming; Li, Ying; Jia, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Tumor onset and progression are associated with dysfunction of the nuclear transport machinery at the level of import and export receptors. However, the role of Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unknown. We assessed the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of TSCC CAL-27 cells using wound healing, Transwell and MTT assays, western blotting, electron microscopy and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining following knockdown of KPNA2. The results revealed the antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-migratory effects of KPNA2 silencing on the TSCC CAL-27 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of KPNA2 proved to be accompanied by the upregulation of active caspase-3, cytochrome c, Bax, Bad and decreased expression of Bcl-2, p-Bad and XIAP. KPNA2 activated the caspase-dependent pathway in the CAL-27 cells with upregulation of p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p16INK4a. Thus, the present study demonstrated that p53/p21Cip1/Waf1/p16INK4a may be an important pathway involved in the function of KPNA2 in TSCC CAL-27 cells. PMID:27109484

  18. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Industrial Lead); Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier Obligation Exemption--in Alameda County, Cal. (San Jose Industrial Lead) On December 12, 2012, Union Pacific... line, to abandon its residual common carrier obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial...

  19. 76 FR 70520 - Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal Energy, Inc., Sun Motor International, Inc., Surebet Casinos, Inc., and Swiss Medica, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading November 9, 2011...

  20. Commission Recommendations Concerning Alternate Delivery Options for the State's Cal Grant Program. Commission Report 03-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2003

    2003-01-01

    In September 2002, the California Legislature adopted Supplemental Report Language (SRL) directing the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) to convene a task force to examine alternative delivery systems for the State's Cal Grant program. This report responds to that legislative request. The recommendations contained in this report…

  1. Uml2 is a novel CalB-type lipase of Ustilago maydis with phospholipase A activity.

    PubMed

    Buerth, Christoph; Kovacic, Filip; Stock, Janpeter; Terfrüchte, Marius; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin; Ernst, Joachim F; Tielker, Denis

    2014-06-01

    CalB of Pseudozyma aphidis (formerly named Candida antarctica) is one of the most widely applied enzymes in industrial biocatalysis. Here, we describe a protein with 66 % sequence identity to CalB, designated Ustilago maydis lipase 2 (Uml2), which was identified as the product of gene um01422 of the corn smut fungus U. maydis. Sequence analysis of Uml2 revealed the presence of a typical lipase catalytic triad, Ser-His-Asp with Ser125 located in a Thr-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly pentapeptide. Deletion of the uml2 gene in U. maydis diminished the ability of cells to hydrolyse fatty acids from tributyrin or Tween 20/80 substrates, thus demonstrating that Uml2 functions as a lipase that may contribute to nutrition of this fungal pathogen. Uml2 was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris and recombinant N-glycosylated Uml2 protein was purified from the culture medium. Purified Uml2 released short- and long-chain fatty acids from p-nitrophenyl esters and Tween 20/80 substrates. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholine substrates containing long-chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids were effectively hydrolysed. Both esterase and phospholipase A activity of Uml2 depended on the Ser125 catalytic residue. These results indicate that Uml2, in contrast to CalB, exhibits not only esterase and lipase activity but also phospholipase A activity. Thus, by genome mining, we identified a novel CalB-like lipase with different substrate specificities. PMID:24469105

  2. Study of the effect of Cal-Red on the secondary structure of human serum albumin by spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lijun; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2007-11-01

    The effect of Cal-Red on the structure of human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using Resonance light scattering (RLS), Fourier transformed Infrared (FT-IR) and Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. The RLS spectroscopic results show that the RLS intensity of HSA was significantly increased in the presence of Cal-Red. The binding parameters of HSA with Cal-Red were studied at different temperatures of 289, 299, 309 and 319 K at pH 4.1. It is indicated by the Scatchard plots that the binding constant K decreased from 4.03 × 10 8 to 7.59 × 10 7 l/mol and the maximum binding number N decreased from 215 to 152 with increasing the temperature, respectively. The binding process was exothermic and spontaneous, as indicated by the thermodynamic analyses, and the major part of the binding energy is hydrophobic interaction. The enthalpy change Δ H0, the free energy change Δ G0 and the entropy change Δ S0 of 289 K were calculated to be -42.75 kJ/mol, -47.56 kJ/mol and 16.66 J/mol K, respectively. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of Cal-Red in aqueous solution were quantitatively calculated from FT-IR and CD spectroscopy with reductions of α-helices content about 5%, β-turn from 10% to 2% and with increases of β-sheet from 38% to 51%.

  3. Teachers' Perceptions on the Use of ICT in a CAL Environment to Enhance the Conception of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Frikkie; Ogunniyi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Instructional methodologies increasingly require teachers' efficacy and implementation of computer-assisted learning (CAL) practices in general and particularly in the science classroom. The South African National Education Department's e-Education[1] policy also encourages the use of computers and computer software in implementing outcome-based…

  4. 78 FR 1252 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... December 13, 2011 (76 FR 77556). At the request of the State of Minnesota, the Department reviewed the... Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Select Staffing, Oxnard, CA; CalAmp Wireless Networks... Select Staffing, Oxnard, California (TA-W-80,399). The workers are engaged in the production of...

  5. Co-evolving CENP-A and CAL1 Domains Mediate Centromeric CENP-A Deposition across Drosophila Species.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Leah; Mellone, Barbara G

    2016-04-18

    Centromeres mediate the conserved process of chromosome segregation, yet centromeric DNA and the centromeric histone, CENP-A, are rapidly evolving. The rapid evolution of Drosophila CENP-A loop 1 (L1) is thought to modulate the DNA-binding preferences of CENP-A to counteract centromere drive, the preferential transmission of chromosomes with expanded centromeric satellites. Consistent with this model, CENP-A from Drosophila bipectinata (bip) cannot localize to Drosophila melanogaster (mel) centromeres. We show that this result is due to the inability of the mel CENP-A chaperone, CAL1, to deposit bip CENP-A into chromatin. Co-expression of bip CENP-A and bip CAL1 in mel cells restores centromeric localization, and similar findings apply to other Drosophila species. We identify two co-evolving regions, CENP-A L1 and the CAL1 N terminus, as critical for lineage-specific CENP-A incorporation. Collectively, our data show that the rapid evolution of L1 modulates CAL1-mediated CENP-A assembly, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the suppression of centromere drive. PMID:27093083

  6. Rapid Assessment with Qualitative Telephone Interviews: Lessons from an Evaluation of California's Healthy Families Program & Medi-Cal for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobo, Elisa J.; Simmes, Diana R.; Landsverk, John A.; Kurtin, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    California's Healthy Families/Medi-Cal for Children (HF/MCC) program provides low- and no-cost health insurance to low-income children. In December 1999 and January 2000, 72 community-based organizations (CBOs) were contracted by California's Department of Health Services (DHS) to supply culturally appropriate HF/MCC outreach and enrollment…

  7. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District--Acquisition Exemption-- In Marin County, Cal. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY: The Board... to Docket No. FD 35732, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street...

  8. Recommendations for Adjusting the Maximum Cal Grant Award at California's Nonpublic Colleges and Universities. Commission Report 05-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report discusses proposals to adjust the maximum Cal Grant award for students attending California's nonpublic colleges and universities. The Commission agrees with the need to enact a long-term policy for adjusting the maximum award and offers two additional recommendations to address implementation and institutional reporting requirements.

  9. Novel mutations in RASGRP2, which encodes CalDAG-GEFI, abrogate Rap1 activation, causing platelet dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lozano, María Luisa; Cook, Aaron; Bastida, José María; Paul, David S; Iruin, Gemma; Cid, Ana Rosa; Adan-Pedroso, Rosa; Ramón González-Porras, José; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María; Fletcher, Sarah J; Johnson, Ben; Morgan, Neil; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca; Vicente, Vicente; Sondek, John; Watson, Steve P; Bergmeier, Wolfgang; Rivera, José

    2016-09-01

    In addition to mutations in ITG2B or ITGB3 genes that cause defective αIIbβ3 expression and/or function in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patients, platelet dysfunction can be a result of genetic variability in proteins that mediate inside-out activation of αIIbβ3 The RASGRP2 gene is strongly expressed in platelets and neutrophils, where its encoded protein CalDAG-GEFI facilitates the activation of Rap1 and subsequent activation of integrins. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify 2 novel function-disrupting mutations in RASGRP2 that account for bleeding diathesis and platelet dysfunction in 2 unrelated families. By using a panel of 71 genes, we identified a homozygous change (c.1142C>T) in exon 10 of RASGRP2 in a 9-year-old child of Chinese origin (family 1). This variant led to a p.Ser381Phe substitution in the CDC25 catalytic domain of CalDAG-GEFI. In 2 Spanish siblings from family 2, WES identified a nonsense homozygous variation (c.337C>T) (p.Arg113X) in exon 5 of RASGRP2 CalDAG-GEFI expression was markedly reduced in platelets from all patients, and by using a novel in vitro assay, we found that the nucleotide exchange activity was dramatically reduced in CalDAG-GEFI p.Ser381Phe. Platelets from homozygous patients exhibited agonist-specific defects in αIIbβ3 integrin activation and aggregation. In contrast, α- and δ-granule secretion, platelet spreading, and clot retraction were not markedly affected. Integrin activation in the patients' neutrophils was also impaired. These patients are the first cases of a CalDAG-GEFI deficiency due to homozygous RASGRP2 mutations that are linked to defects in both leukocyte and platelet integrin activation. PMID:27235135

  10. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Vourch, Clement J.; Drysdale, Timothy D.; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-10-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five “tones” with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB community and (iii) the Amateur Satellite Service bands in the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the Federal Communications Commission. CalSat would be placed in a polar orbit allowing visibility from observatories in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Summit Station in Greenland, and the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Atacama Desert in Chile and the South Pole. CalSat also would be observable by balloon-borne instruments launched from a range of locations around the world. This global visibility makes CalSat the only source that can be observed by all terrestrial and sub-orbital observatories, thereby providing a universal standard that permits comparison between experiments using appreciably different measurement approaches.

  11. A Lactose-Binding Lectin from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Apion (Cal) Induces Cell Death in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo, Luciana; Monteiro, Norberto; Serquiz, Raphael; Santos, Paula; Oliveira, Ruth; Oliveira, Adeliana; Rocha, Hugo; Morais, Ana Heloneida; Uchoa, Adriana; Santos, Elizeu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer represents a set of more than 100 diseases, including malignant tumors from different locations. Strategies inducing differentiation have had limited success in the treatment of established cancers. Marine sponges are a biological reservoir of bioactive molecules, especially lectins. Several animal and plant lectins were purified with antitumor activity, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, but there are few reports in the literature describing the mechanism of action of lectins purified from marine sponges to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells. In this work, a lectin purified from the marine sponge Cinachyrella apion (CaL) was evaluated with respect to its hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties, besides the ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. The antiproliferative activity of CaL was tested against HeLa, PC3 and 3T3 cell lines, with highest growth inhibition for HeLa, reducing cell growth at a dose dependent manner (0.5–10 µg/mL). Hemolytic activity and toxicity against peripheral blood cells were tested using the concentration of IC50 (10 µg/mL) for both trials and twice the IC50 for analysis in flow cytometry, indicating that CaL is not toxic to these cells. To assess the mechanism of cell death caused by CaL in HeLa cells, we performed flow cytometry and western blotting. Results showed that lectin probably induces cell death by apoptosis activation by pro-apoptotic protein Bax, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cell cycle arrest in S phase and acting as both dependent and/or independent of caspases pathway. These results indicate the potential of CaL in studies of medicine for treating cancer. PMID:22690140

  12. Pathways to poly-victimization.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Holt, Melissa

    2009-11-01

    Some children, whom we have labeled poly-victims, experience very high levels of victimizations of different types. This article finds support for a conceptual model suggesting that there may be four distinct pathways to becoming such a poly-victim: (a) residing in a dangerous community, (b) living in a dangerous family, (c) having a chaotic, multiproblem family environment, or (d) having emotional problems that increase risk behavior, engender antagonism, and compromise the capacity to protect oneself. It uses three waves of the Developmental Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample of children aged 2-17 years. All four hypothesized pathways showed significant independent association with poly-victim onset. For the younger children, the symptom score representing emotional problems was the only significant predictor. For the older children, the other three pathway variables were significant predictors--dangerous communities, dangerous families, and problem families--but not symptom score. Poly-victimization onset was also disproportionately likely to occur in the year prior to children's 7th and 15th birthday, corresponding roughly to the entry into elementary school and high school. The identification of such pathways and the ages of high onset should help practitioners design programs for preventing vulnerable children from becoming poly-victims. PMID:19837972

  13. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.

    2009-04-01

    Fire is a key disturbing agent in a wide range of ecosystems: boreal biome (Pitkanen, 2000), Mediterranean area (Colombaroli et al., 2008) as well as temperate European mountain zones (Tinner et al., 1999). During the Holocene, climate may control fire regime by both ignition and fire spread-favouring conditions (i.e. composition, structure and moisture of biomass) whereas man may change charcoal accumulation patterns through type and intensity of agro-pastoral activities. In western and Mediterranean Europe, single sites charcoal analysis recorded the anthropogenic forcing over fire regime broadly between the mid and the late-Holocene. Turner et al (2008) showed that climate and fire had been disconnected since 1700 cal. BP in Turkey. In central Swiss, Mean Fire Interval decreased by two times 2000 years ago due to increasing human impact (Stahli et al., 2006). In Italy, climate and man have had a combined influence on fire-hazard since ca 4000 cal. BP (Vannière et al., 2008). In the Pyrenees Mountains, the linkage between agro-pastoral practices and fire could be dated back to ca 4000-3000 cal. BP with a clear succession of a clearance phase (high fire frequency) followed by a quite linear trend throughout Middle Ages and Modern times corresponding to a change in fire use (Vanniere et al., 2001; Galop et al., 2002, Rius et al., in press). The quantification of fire regimes parameters such as frequency with robust methodological tools (Inferred Fire Frequency, Mean Fire Interval) is needed to understand and characterise such shifts. Here we present two sequences from the Lourdes basin (col d'Ech peat bog) and from the occidental Pyrenees (Gabarn peat bog), which cover the last 9000 years with high temporal resolution. The main goals of this study were to (1) assess control factors of fire regime throughout the lateglacial and Holocene (climate and/or man) on the local scale, (2) evidence the local/regional significance of these control factors , (3) discuss the

  14. Poly(lactide)-block-poly([epsilon]-caprolactone-co-[epsilon]-decalactone)-block-poly(lactide) copolymer elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Hill, Erin M.; Martello, Mark T.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-08-28

    Batch ring opening transesterification copolymerization of ε-caprolactone and ε-decalactone was used to generate statistical copolymers over a wide range of compositions and molar masses. Reactivity ratios determined for this monomer pair, rCL = 5.9 and rDL = 0.03, reveal ε-caprolactone is added preferentially regardless of the propagating chain end. Relative to poly(ε-caprolactone) the crystallinity and melting point of these statistical copolymers were depressed by the addition of ε-decalactone; copolymers containing greater than 31 mol% (46 wt%) ε-decalactone were amorphous. Poly(lactide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-ε-decalactone)-block-poly(lactide) triblock polymers were also prepared and used to explore the influence of midblock composition on the temperature dependent Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). In addition, uniaxial extension tests were used to determine the effects of midblock composition, poly(lactide) content, and molar mass on the mechanical properties of these new elastomeric triblocks.

  15. The CalWater 2 - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, L. Y.; Prather, K. A.; Ralph, F. M.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, J. R.; Fairall, C. W.; DeMott, P. J.; Fan, J.; Zhao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Two elements of significant importance in predicting precipitation variability in the western U.S. are atmospheric rivers and aerosols. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced water vapor associated with the warm sector of extratropical cyclones over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. While ARs are responsible for a large fraction of heavy precipitation in the western U.S. during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in post-frontal clouds, which are typically quite shallow, with tops just high enough to pass the mountain barrier. Such clouds are inherently quite susceptible to aerosol effects on both warm rain and ice precipitation-forming processes. In January - March 2015, the ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign will take place in northern California. Joined with CalWater 2, the field campaign aims to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud and precipitation processes associated with ARs and aerosol-cloud interactions that influence precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. We will implement an observational strategy consisting of the use of land and offshore assets to monitor (1) the evolution and structure of ARs from near their regions of development, (2) long range transport of aerosols in eastern North Pacific and potential interactions with ARs, and (3) how aerosols from long-range transport and local sources influence cloud and precipitation in the U.S. West Coast where ARs make landfall and post-frontal clouds are frequent. This presentation will provide an overview of the science questions and hypotheses to be addressed by CalWater 2/ACAPEX, review key results from prior studies, and discuss recent findings from

  16. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ortega, A. M.; Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglueck, B.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Several traditional and recently proposed models are applied to predict the concentrations and properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and organic gases at the Pasadena ground site during the CalNex campaign. The models are constrained with and compared against results from available observations. The CalNex campaign and specifically the Pasadena ground site featured a large and sophisticated suite of aerosol and gas phase instrumentation, and thus, it provides a unique opportunity to test SOA models under conditions of strong urban emissions at a range of low photochemical ages. The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using an updated traditional model cannot explain the observed ambient SOA, and under-predicts the measurements by a factor of ~40. Similarly, after accounting for the multi-generation oxidation of VOCs using a volatility basis set (VBS) approach as described by Tsimpidi et al. (2010), SOA is still under-predicted by a factor of ~8. For SOA formed from VOCs (V-SOA) the dominant precursors are aromatics (xylenes, toluene, and trimethylbenzenes). The model SOA formed from the oxidation of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs, producing SI-SOA) is also predicted using the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007) and Grieshop et al. (2009), and the properties of V-SOA + SI-SOA are compared against the measured O:C and volatility. We also compare the results of the different models against fossil/non-fossil carbon measurements as well as tracers of different SOA precursors. Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) measurements of the SOA forming potential of the Pasadena air masses are also compared against that predicted by the models. The PAM analysis allows for model/measurement comparisons of SOA properties over a range of photochemical ages spanning almost two weeks. Using the V-SOA model, at low photochemical ages (< 1 day) the modeled PAM V-SOA is less than the measured PAM SOA, similar to the

  17. Coatings of black carbon in Tijuana, Mexico, during the CalMex Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Duran, R.; Subramanian, R.; Kok, G.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon number and mass concentrations were measured by a single-particle soot photometer (SP2; by Droplet Measurement Technologies) in Tijuana, Mexico between May 15, 2010, and June 30, 2010, for the CalMex campaign. The measurement site, Parque Morelos, is a recreational area located in the Southeast region of Tijuana. The SP2 was equipped with 8-channels of signal detection that spans a wider range of sensitivity for incandescing and scattering measurements than traditional configurations. The campaign-average number concentration of incandescing particles was 280 #/cc, peaking during traffic activity in the mornings. Incandescing particles made up 50% of all particles (incandescing and purely scattering) detected by the SP2. The mode of the number size distribution estimated for black carbon, according to estimated mass-equivalent diameters, was approximately 100 nm or smaller. Temporal variations in estimated coating thicknesses for these black carbon particles are discussed together with co-located measurements of organic aerosol and inorganic salts.

  18. The design and development of hypertext courseware for CAL in diagnostic radiography.

    PubMed

    Cole, P R; Moores, B M

    1995-01-01

    Educational software has been designed and developed for training within the field of diagnostic radiography and is particularly concerned with the science and technology of diagnostic X-rays. The material has been structured into hypertext networks and as such allows interactive exploration of the available information. The courseware development platform was Microsoft Windows and authoring was accomplished using the constructional tool kit ToolBook. The resulting CAL package is highly graphical in nature with a user interface designed to meet the 'friendliness' demands of the end user group. Mechanisms for navigation through, and orientation within, the hypertext have also been established which support two levels of user activities. By changing the level of user freedom, students using the system as a learning tool are restricted to more structured routes than experienced staff using the courseware as an information resource. An aim of this work has been to provide interactive educational activities to support the main courseware, and consequently a novel application has been developed using dynamic data exchange (DDE) and the spreadsheet software Excel. Through a ToolBook front end students can interactively alter an X-ray spectrum by changing the operating conditions of a simulated X-ray tube. PMID:8882562

  19. Ship-board Flux Measurements made during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, D. E.; Fairall, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Air-Sea flux measurements were made from the research vessel Atlantis during the California Air Quality Study (CalNex 2010) off the California coast from San Diego to San Francisco (Fig. 1). Measurements included sensible and latent heat fluxes in conjunction with long and short-wave incoming solar radiation, total precipitable and liquid water, remote sensing of the clouds, and thermodynamic and wind profiles from radiosonde launches to capture the boundary layer structure. As can be seen in Fig. 1 a diverse and complicated set of data were collected in such regions as the harbors of San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, the Sacramento ship channel, coastal transects, and the open ocean. These measurements combined with the large suite of air chemistry measurements being made on the Atlantis as well as the many land-base sites will attempt to provide a detailed picture of the emissions, chemical processes, transport, and meteorology as they relate to California’s air quality and climate assessment. These data will be carefully analyzed to sort out the influence of the land, ocean, micro-climates, and the continually changing air-sea temperature differences on the boundary layer. Measurements from a W-band cloud radar will be used to better understand the cloud forcing in addition to providing comparisons with several aircraft overpasses and satellite observations.

  20. Interfacial microstructure in a B{sub 4}C/Al composite fabricated by pressureless infiltration.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Z.; Song, Y.; Zhang, S.; Miller, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, B{sub 4}C particulate-reinforced Al composite was fabricated by a pressureless infiltration technique, and its interfacial microstructure was studied in detail by X-ray diffraction as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The B{sub 4}C phase was unstable in Al melt during the infiltration process, forming AlB{sub 10}-type AlB{sub 24}C{sub 4} or Al{sub 2.1}B{sub 51}C{sub 8} as a major reactant phase. The Al matrix was large grains (over 10 {micro}m), which had no definite orientation relationships (ORs) with the randomly orientated B{sub 4}C or its reactant particles, except for possible nucleation sites with {l_brace}011{r_brace}{sub B{sub 4}C} almost parallel to {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub Al} at a deviation angle of 1.5 deg. Both B{sub 4}C-Al and reactant-Al interfaces are semicoherent and free of other phases. A comparison was made with the SiC/Al composite fabricated similarly by the pressureless infiltration. It was suggested that the lack of ORs between the Al matrix and reinforced particles, except for possible nucleation sites, is the common feature of the composites prepared by the infiltration method.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock poly(ether-ester-urethane)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Tan Ching; Ahmad, Azizan; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock poly(ether-ester-urethane)s was synthesized in the framework of environmental friendly products to meet the need for highly flexible polymers. Triblock copolymer with poly(ethylene glycol) as center block and poly(D,L-lactide) as side block were first synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide, followed by chain extension reaction of triblocks using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). NMR and infra-red spectroscopies were used to determine the molecular composition whereas XRD analysis revealed crystallinity behavior of synthesized multiblock copolymers.

  2. Massachusetts Special Olympics Poly Hockey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Jim

    Poly Hockey is featured in this manual of instructions for coaches and teachers to use with mentally retarded boys and girls of all ages and ability levels. It is noted that the sport has been supported by the Board of Directors of the Special Olympics and has been used in Massachusetts for over 7 years. Explained is use of the game indoors, and…

  3. Leadership, Rhetoric, and the "Polis."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellis, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some of the relationships between rhetoric and the concepts of leadership and the "polis" (the active assembly of citizens empowered to discuss and make public policy). Argues that the study of leadership belongs in composition, rhetoric, and communication and that scholars and teachers are more than justified in studying leadership and…

  4. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polymerization of p-methylstyrene. (2) Rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) (CAS Reg. No. 33520-88-6) polymer... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and...

  5. CalQuo: automated, simultaneous single-cell and population-level quantification of global intracellular Ca2+ responses

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Marco; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Colin-York, Huw; Santos, Ana M.; Lee, Steven F.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detecting intracellular calcium signaling with fluorescent calcium indicator dyes is often coupled with microscopy techniques to follow the activation state of non-excitable cells, including lymphocytes. However, the analysis of global intracellular calcium responses both at the single-cell level and in large ensembles simultaneously has yet to be automated. Here, we present a new software package, CalQuo (Calcium Quantification), which allows the automated analysis and simultaneous monitoring of global fluorescent calcium reporter-based signaling responses in up to 1000 single cells per experiment, at temporal resolutions of sub-seconds to seconds. CalQuo quantifies the number and fraction of responding cells, the temporal dependence of calcium signaling and provides global and individual calcium-reporter fluorescence intensity profiles. We demonstrate the utility of the new method by comparing the calcium-based signaling responses of genetically manipulated human lymphocytic cell lines. PMID:26563585

  6. Evaluation of AutoCAL for electronic portal imaging device-based multi-leaf collimator quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Tarafder J

    2016-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques commonly include multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) to shape the treatment fields and to conform the radiation dose to the target volume. MLCs require accurate and frequent quality assurance (QA) to ensure spatial and temporal accuracy of the leaves in order to allow optimal dose delivery to the patient. In this study, the accuracy and efficacy of AutoCAL, a commercial software for MLC QA, were evaluated. The software was found to be reproducible to within 0.2 mm and to correspond with conventional QA methods (within 1.2 and 0.9 mm of film and water tank measurements, respectively.) Thus, AutoCAL was found to be an accurate and efficient tool for routine MLC QA and calibration. PMID:26508357

  7. Development of the FoCal-E PAD detector and its electronics for the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Motoi; Chujo, Tatsuya; Hirano, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    In order to study the initial state of high-energy heavy-ion collisions, a forward calorimeter as an upgrade to the ALICE experiment is in the planning stage. The first beam test of the forward electro-magnetic calorimeter (FoCal-E) prototype was carried out in 2014 at the CERN PS and SPS accelerators. With the aim of reading out a signal from the low-granularity silicon pad sensors of FoCal-E, electronic circuits such as a temperature monitor, a trigger-signal converting-circuit, a trigger-signal processor, an independent regulated power circuit and an isolated high-voltage generator were developed. The electric noise problem was solved by means of both the power circuit and the high-voltage generator, and the signal was successfully read out.

  8. SearchCal: a virtual observatory tool for searching calibrators in optical long baseline interferometry. I. The bright object case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, D.; Clausse, J.-M.; Delfosse, X.; Mourard, D.; Cetre, S.; Chelli, A.; Cruzalèbes, P.; Duvert, G.; Zins, G.

    2006-09-01

    Context: .In long baseline interferometry, the raw fringe contrast must be calibrated to obtain the true visibility and then those observables that can be interpreted in terms of astrophysical parameters. The selection of suitable calibration stars is crucial for obtaining the ultimate precision of interferometric instruments like the VLTI. Potential calibrators must have spectro-photometric properties and a sky location close to those of the scientific target. Aims: .We have developed software (SearchCal) that builds an evolutive catalog of stars suitable as calibrators within any given user-defined angular distance and magnitude around the scientific target. We present the first version of SearchCal dedicated to the bright-object case (V≤10; K≤5). Methods: .Star catalogs available at the CDS are consulted via web requests. They provide all the useful information for selecting of calibrators. Missing photometries are computed with an accuracy of 0.1 mag and the missing angular diameters are calculated with a precision better than 10%. For each star the squared visibility is computed by taking the wavelength and the maximum baseline of the foreseen observation into account. Results: .SearchCal is integrated into ASPRO, the interferometric observing preparation software developed by the JMMC, available at the address: http://mariotti.fr.

  9. The Cal-Bridge Program: Increasing the Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Astrophysics Students in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.

  10. Effects of green tea extracts on gene expression in HepG2 and Cal-27 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shin-Pei; Wilson, Kimberly; Kawa, Abdul; Raner, Gregory M

    2006-07-01

    Green tea extract is known to contain compounds that are able to produce antioxidant effects in many types of living cells. Treatment of cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells with green tea extract resulted in dramatically increased expression of at least 15 genes that are present on a commercial human drug metabolism gene array. RT-PCR was used to confirm the microarray results, and analysis of the 5'-flanking region of each of these genes revealed potential electrophile/antioxidant response elements. Members of the acetyl transferase, epoxide hydrolase, sulfotransferase and glutathione transferase gene families were strongly induced. In addition, the human tongue carcinoma cell line Cal-27 did not respond to green tea extract in the same way, as none of the induced genes in the HepG2 cells were induced in the Cal-27 cells. The lack of induction of detoxification enzymes in the Cal-27 cell line may help to explain the previously observed increased cytotoxicity of green tea catechins on this cell line. PMID:16487642

  11. Dietary shift after 3600 cal yr BP and its influencing factors in northwestern China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Minmin; Dong, Guanghui; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yifu; Chen, Fahu

    2016-08-01

    Human diets rely on natural resource availability and can reflect social and cultural values. When environments, societies, and cultures change, diets may also shift. This study traced the extent of dietary change and the factors influencing such change. Through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen, we found that significant shifts in human diets were closely associated with intercontinental cultural exchanges in Eurasia and climate change in northwestern China. The isotopic evidence indicated that human diets mainly consisted of C4 foodstuffs (presumably millet and/or animals fed with C4 foods) around 4000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to the flourishing of millet agriculture in the context of the optimal climate conditions of the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, more C3 foods (probably wheat, barley, and animals fed with C3 foods) were added to human diets post-3600 cal yr BP when the climate became cooler and drier. Such dietary variation is also consistent with the increasing intensity of long-distance exchange after 4000 cal yr BP. While many factors can lead to human dietary shifts (e.g. climate change, population growth, cultural factors, and human migration), climate may have been a key factor in Gansu and Qinghai.

  12. Changes of ns-soot mixing states and shapes in an urban area during CalNex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Buseck, Peter R.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol particles from megacities influence the regional and global climate as well as the health of their occupants. We used transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) to study aerosol particles collected from the Los Angeles area during the 2010 CalNex campaign. We detected major amounts of ns-soot, defined as consisting of carbon nanospheres, sulfate, sea salt, and organic aerosol (OA) and lesser amounts of brochosome particles from leaf hoppers. Ns-soot-particle shapes, mixing states, and abundances varied significantly with sampling times and days. Within plumes having high CO2 concentrations, much ns-soot was compacted and contained a relatively large number of carbon nanospheres. Ns-soot particles from both CalNex samples and Mexico City, the latter collected in 2006, had a wide range of shapes when mixed with other aerosol particles, but neither sets showed spherical ns-soot nor the core-shell configuration that is commonly used in optical calculations. Our TEM observations and light-absorption calculations of modeled particles indicate that, in contrast to ns-soot particles that are embedded within other materials or have the hypothesized core-shell configurations, those attached to other aerosol particles hardly enhance their light absorption. We conclude that the ways in which ns-soot mixes with other particles explain the observations of smaller light amplification by ns-soot coatings than model calculations during the CalNex campaign and presumably in other areas.

  13. The immunomodulatory activities of pullulan and its derivatives in human pDC-like CAL-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Qiao, Linan; Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yinsong; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ning

    2016-05-01

    In this study, acidic and alkaline pullulan derivates were synthesized and their immunomodulatory activities compared to pullulan were investigated in human pDC-like CAL-1 cell line. Pullulan was reacted respectively with succinic anhydride and N-(-2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine/N,N-carbonyl diimidazole to form acidic pullulan monosuccinate (SUPL) and alkaline pullulan-g-N-(-2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (AMPL). In CAL-1 cells, pullulan, SUPL and AMPL up-regulated the mRNA expressions of type I interferons (IFN), including IFN-α and IFN-β1, and some other proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-23 (IL-23), and also significantly enhanced the protein expressions of IFN-α and TNF-α. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the nuclear translocations of interferon regulation factors (IRFs), including IRF-3 and IRF-5, exhibited pivotal roles in the immune responses induced by pullulan, SUPL and AMPL. By comparison, pullulan and SUPL displayed weak effects on the activation of CAL-1 cells, but AMPL showed remarkably enhanced immunomodulatory activities, which were comparable to that induced by R848, an agonist for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8. Our results suggested that AMPL, as an alkaline pullulan derivative, could be used as a potent immunomodulatory agent in the food and pharmacological fields. PMID:26854885

  14. A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H; Bob, R; Dürkop, H; Erck, C; Kämpfe, D; Kvasnicka, H-M; Martens, H; Roth, A; Streubel, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method. PMID:26202929

  15. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, M. C.; Baker, K. R.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Koo, B.; Pye, H. O. T.

    2015-10-01

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for organic aerosols (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of organic aerosol (OA) in southern California. CMAQ-VBS (OA lumped by volatility, semivolatile POA) underpredicted total organic carbon (OC) at CSN (-25.5 % Normalized Median Bias (NMdnB)) and IMPROVE (-63.9 % NMdnB) locations and total OC was underpredicted to a greater degree compared to the CMAQ-AE6 (9.9 and -55.7 % NMdnB, respectively; semi-explicit OA treatment, SOA lumped by parent hydrocarbon, nonvolatile POA). However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and the primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS secondary organic aerosol (SOA) underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate of SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2 (4.7 μg m-3 measured vs. 0.9 μg m-3 modeled), a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions, which were approximately 24× lower than the average AMS OOA concentration. We use two new methods, based on species ratios and on a simplified SOA parameterization from the observations, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to too slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5× lower than observed at Pasadena using - log (NOx: NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2× for Pasadena), and too low emissions or too high dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3× too low/high). The first and third factors will be similar for CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  16. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-03-29

    In this paper, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS insteadmore » treats POA as semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS). We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 × lower than observed at Pasadena using -log(NOx:NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 × for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 × too low/excessive). The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  17. Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ΔCH4 / ΔCO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence

  18. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-03-01

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA as semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS). We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 × lower than observed at Pasadena using -log(NOx : NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 × for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 × too low/excessive). The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation efficiency for that model is

  19. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-03-29

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA asmore » semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS). We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 ×  lower than observed at Pasadena using −log(NOx : NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 ×  for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 ×  too low/excessive). The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  20. Characterization of Particulate Ship Emissions during CalNex 2010 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Mellon, D.; Lack, D. A.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Onasch, T. B.; Massoli, P.; Coffman, D. J.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Nuaaman, I.; Li, S.; Hayden, K.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    An important and under-characterized source of particulate matter is emissions from ships, and in particular, ocean going vessels. For example, emissions from commercial shipping operations are thought to be ca. 8% of primary organic emissions from fossil and bio fuels and 2% of the global black carbon (BC) emissions. Although nominally a small contribution, ship emissions often occur in either pristine marine environments or concentrated near large population centers making the impacts potentially much more important than such numbers would tacitly suggest. During CalNex 2010, particulate emissions from numerous ships were directly characterized and quantified from measurements made on board the R/V Atlantis and the NOAA P3 aircraft. In this talk, first results from these measurements will be discussed, with a particular emphasis on emissions of black carbon (BC). On board the R/V Altlantis, BC emissions were characterized at high time resolution using a variety of methods and techniques: light absorption (via PAS and PSAP), SP2, SP-AMS and ATOFMS. On the NOAA P3, BC was characterized using an SP2 and PAS. In addition to these BC-focused techniques, a wide range of other techniques were employed to determine emissions factors of co-emitted pollutants. Specific discussion will focus on two case studies: emissions from a single ship operating at different engine loads and emissions from a single ship as it changed from a high sulfur to low sulfur fuel type. The results from this study have implications for impending US and global regulations that mandate lower sulfur fuel and an industry wide push to slow steaming which reduces fuel consumption.

  1. Measurements of hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radicals during CalNex-LA: Model comparisons and radical budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, S. M.; Hansen, R. F.; Dusanter, S.; Michoud, V.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Veres, P. R.; Graus, M.; Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J.; Young, C.; Washenfelder, R.; Brown, S. S.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E.; Volkamer, R.; Tsai, C.; Stutz, J.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Mielke, L. H.; Osthoff, H. D.; Stevens, P. S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2*) radical concentrations were made at the Pasadena ground site during the CalNex-LA 2010 campaign using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique. The measured concentrations of OH and HO2* exhibited a distinct weekend effect, with higher radical concentrations observed on the weekends corresponding to lower levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The radical measurements were compared to results from a zero-dimensional model using the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism-2 constrained by NOx and other measured trace gases. The chemical model overpredicted measured OH concentrations during the weekends by a factor of approximately 1.4 ± 0.3 (1σ), but the agreement was better during the weekdays (ratio of 1.0 ± 0.2). Model predicted HO2* concentrations underpredicted by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.2 on the weekends, while measured weekday concentrations were underpredicted by a factor of 3.0 ± 0.5. However, increasing the modeled OH reactivity to match the measured total OH reactivity improved the overall agreement for both OH and HO2* on all days. A radical budget analysis suggests that photolysis of carbonyls and formaldehyde together accounted for approximately 40% of radical initiation with photolysis of nitrous acid accounting for 30% at the measurement height and ozone photolysis contributing less than 20%. An analysis of the ozone production sensitivity reveals that during the week, ozone production was limited by volatile organic compounds throughout the day during the campaign but NOx limited during the afternoon on the weekends.

  2. Organic aerosol composition and sources in Pasadena, California, during the 2010 CalNex campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ortega, A. M.; Cubison, M. J.; Froyd, K. D.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Hu, W. W.; Toohey, D. W.; Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Grossberg, N.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Gouw, J. A.; Massoli, P.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Weber, R. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Isaacman, G.; Worton, D. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E. M.; Volkamer, R.; Lin, Y. H.; Surratt, J. D.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Dusanter, S.; Griffith, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-08-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and two types of oxygenated OA (OOA). The Pasadena OA elemental composition when plotted as H : C versus O : C follows a line less steep than that observed for Riverside, CA. The OOA components from both locations follow a common line, however, indicating similar secondary organic aerosol (SOA) oxidation chemistry at the two sites such as fragmentation reactions leading to acid formation. In addition to the similar evolution of elemental composition, the dependence of SOA concentration on photochemical age displays quantitatively the same trends across several North American urban sites. First, the OA/ΔCO values for Pasadena increase with photochemical age exhibiting a slope identical to or slightly higher than those for Mexico City and the northeastern United States. Second, the ratios of OOA to odd-oxygen (a photochemical oxidation marker) for Pasadena, Mexico City, and Riverside are similar, suggesting a proportional relationship between SOA and odd-oxygen formation rates. Weekly cycles of the OA components are examined as well. HOA exhibits lower concentrations on Sundays versus weekdays, and the decrease in HOA matches that predicted for primary vehicle emissions using fuel sales data, traffic counts, and vehicle emission ratios. OOA does not display a weekly cycle—after accounting for differences in photochemical aging —which suggests the dominance of gasoline emissions in SOA formation under the assumption that most urban SOA precursors are from motor vehicles.

  3. Evaluating N2O5 heterogeneous hydrolysis parameterizations for CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wayne L.; Brown, Steven S.; Stutz, Jochen; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Bahreini, Roya; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Dubé, William P.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Nighttime chemistry in the troposphere is closely tied to the dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) budget, but high uncertainties remain regarding the model representation of the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on aerosol particles. In this study we used the community model WRF-Chem to simulate a 3-day period during the California Nexus (CalNex) Campaign in 2010. We extended WRF-Chem to include the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 and contrasted the impact of different published parameterizations of N2O5 heterogeneous hydrolysis on the spatial distribution of uptake coefficients and the resulting N2O5 concentrations. For all the cases, modeled N2O5 uptake coefficients showed strong spatial variability, with higher values in the nocturnal boundary layer compared to the residual layer, especially in environments with high relative humidities, such as over the ocean and along the coast. The best agreement of modeled and observed uptake coefficients was obtained using the parameterization by Davis et al. (2008) combined with the treatment of organic coating by Riemer et al. (2009). For this case the temporal evolution of lower boundary layer N2O5 mixing ratios was reproduced well, and the predictions of surface mixing ratios of ozone and NOx were improved. However, the model still overpredicted the uptake coefficients in the residual layer and consequently underpredicted N2O5 concentrations in the residual layer. This study also highlights that environments with low relative humidities pose a challenge for aerosol thermodynamic models in calculating aerosol water uptake, and this impacts N2O5 heterogeneous hydrolysis parameterizations.

  4. An Investigation of Ammonia and Inorganic Particulate Matter in California during the CalNex Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiferl, L. D.; Heald, C. L.; Nowak, J. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Wiedinmyer, C.; McKeen, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last century, the rise of industrial agriculture has greatly increased the emission of ammonia (NH3) from livestock waste and synthetic crop fertilizers to the atmosphere. Ammonium (NH4+) aerosol, which can be formed through the neutralization of atmospheric acids by NH3, is a key component of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. PM causes negative human health effects and reduces visibility, and transport and deposition of excess NH3 can cause environmental degradation. Airborne observations of gas precursors and inorganic aerosol taken during the CalNex field campaign in May and June 2010 are used in this study to investigate the role of NH3 in PM formation in California and test the representation of the key processes relevant to this chemical system in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. The model simulation, using NEI-2005 anthropogenic emissions, substantially underestimates ammonia concentrations throughout California and this leads to an underestimate of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) formation in the Los Angeles region. SO2 concentrations are also underestimated, particularly in the Central Valley. Investigation of model sensitivity to the processes of gas-particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition and emissions reveal that emissions have the largest potential for correction of model deficiencies. Increases to anthropogenic livestock NH3 emissions throughout CA and anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the Valley eliminate the bias in the simulation of gases in both regions and PM near LA. We find that an increase in NH3 emissions in the LA region is critical to capturing NH4NO3 formation down-wind of the city core. Using this modified emissions simulation, we examine seasonal PM differences in the Central Valley and Los Angeles region and the export of excess NH3 out of the Valley.

  5. Volatile organic compounds in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign: Measurements and source apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Garzón, Jessica P.; Huertas, María E.; Zhang, Renyi; Levy, Misti; Ma, Yan; Huertas, José I.; Jardón, Ricardo T.; Ruíz, Luis G.; Tan, Haobo; Molina, Luisa T.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality study, a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was deployed at the San Diego-Tijuana border area to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 15 May to 30 June 2010. The major VOCs identified during the study included oxygenated VOCs (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and methyl ethyl ketone) and aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, C8- and C9-aromatics). Biogenic VOCs (e.g., isoprene) were scarce in this region because of the lack of vegetation in this arid area. Using an U.S. EPA positive matrix factorization model, VOCs together with other trace gases (NOx, NOz and SO2) observed in this border region were attributed to four types of sources, i.e., local industrial solvent usage (58% in ppbC), gasoline vehicle exhaust (19% in ppbC), diesel vehicle exhaust (14% in ppbC), and aged plume (9% in ppbC) due to regional background and/or long-range transport. Diesel vehicle emission contributed to 87% of SO2 and 75% of NOx, and aged plume contributed to 92% of NOz. An independent conditional probability function analysis of VOCs, wind direction, and wind speed indicated that the industrial source did not show a significant tendency with wind direction. Both gasoline and diesel engine emissions were associated with air masses passing through two busy cross-border ports. Aged plumes were strongly associated with NW wind, which likely brought in aged air masses from the populated San Diego area.

  6. Environmental change in the Limfjord, Denmark (ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP): a multiproxy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jonathan P.; Ryves, David B.; Rasmussen, Peter; Knudsen, Karen L.; Petersen, Kaj S.; Olsen, Jesper; Leng, Melanie J.; Kristensen, Peter; McGowan, Suzanne; Philippsen, Bente

    2013-10-01

    The Limfjord region of northern Jutland, Denmark, supports a rich archaeological record dating back to the Mesolithic, which documents long-term change in human practices and utilisation of marine resources since approximately 7500 BP. The presence and availability of marine resources in the Limfjord is sensitively regulated by environmental parameters such as salinity, sedimentary regime, nutrient status and primary productivity, but long-term changes in these parameters are currently poorly understood. In this study a multiproxy approach (including sedimentary parameters, diatoms, molluscs, foraminifera, sedimentary pigments, C and O stable isotopes and plant macrofossils) has been adopted to assess environmental change over the period ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP at Kilen, a coastal fjord (before AD 1856) situated in the Western Limfjord. A diatom-based salinity transfer function based on a pan-Baltic training set has been applied to the fossil diatom dataset for quantitative assessment of salinity change over the study period. This study demonstrates that large-scale shifts in salinity are a common feature of the Limfjord's long-term history and are driven by the level of connection with the North Sea and the Skagerrak respectively, which in turn is likely driven by the complex interplay between climate, sea-level change, current velocity and rates of erosion/sedimentary accretion. Three shifts in state at Kilen are identified over the study period: a deep, periodically stratified fjord with medium-high salinity (and high productivity) between ca 7500-5000 BP, followed by a gradual transition to a shallow benthic system with more oceanic conditions (i.e. higher salinity, lower productivity, slower sedimentary accumulation rate and poorer fossil preservation) after ca 5000 BP and no stratification after ca 4400 BP, and lastly, within this shallow phase, an abrupt shift to brackish conditions around 2000 BP. Environmental-societal interactions are discussed on the

  7. Evaluating NOx emissions in the LA basin and their implications for O3 and NOx during CalNex-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Li, Q.; Stutz, J.; Pikelnaya, O.; Tsai, C.; Haman, C. L.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.; Roberts, J. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    We evaluate NOx emissions in the Los Angeles Basin during the CalNex-2010 field campaign by analyzing O3 and NOy observations using WRF/Chem. Model simulations are conducted at 4-km spatial resolution over the basin and the results are compared against ARB surface measurements as well as CalNex surface and aircraft observations. We adjust the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI'05) for the CalNex simulations with a 24% reduction in NOx and 28% reduction in CO according to the emission statistics from California ARB. WRF/Chem O3 reproduces the observed diurnal cycle and day-to-day variations in surface O3 (r2 = 0.92, n = 114, p = 0.01) across the basin. Model results underestimate daytime O3 at the CalNex-LA supersite (Caltech) by 20-40 ppbv during May 29-30 when O3 levels approached 80-100 ppbv. The underestimate is in large part because of the deeper than observed PBL heights in the model and the model's inability to simulate observed strong stratospheric intrusion that penetrated deep into the basin on May 29th (Langford et al., 2011). Titration due to excessively high NOx emissions at downtown L.A. sites leads to near-zero nighttime O3. The vertical profiles of CO below 3 km show good agreement with the observation (r2=0.64, n=576, p=0.01), but with ~90 ppb overestimation for the altitude below 400 m altitude. Model NO2 and NOy concentrations along the June 2-3 NOAA P-3 flights over the basin are biased high by 106% and 48%, respectively. Model results capture the overall variability in the LP-DOAS observed NO2 and O3 but overestimate NO2 below 500 m altitude. A 45% reduction of NOx emissions from 2005 to 2010, as implied by OMI NO2 columns (Russell et al., 2010), significantly improves model comparisons of NO2, NOy and O3 during CalNex.

  8. The E3 ligase CUL3/RDX controls centromere maintenance by ubiquitylating and stabilizing CENP-A in a CAL1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bade, Debora; Pauleau, Anne-Laure; Wendler, Astrid; Erhardt, Sylvia

    2014-03-10

    Centromeres are defined by the presence of the histone H3 variant CENP-A in a subset of centromeric nucleosomes. CENP-A deposition to centromeres depends on a specialized loading factor from yeast to humans that is called CAL1 in Drosophila. Here, we show that CAL1 directly interacts with RDX, an adaptor for CUL3-mediated ubiquitylation. However, CAL1 is not a substrate of the CUL3/RDX ligase but functions as an additional substrate-specifying factor for the CUL3/RDX-mediated ubiquitylation of CENP-A. Remarkably, ubiquitylation of CENP-A by CUL3/RDX does not trigger its degradation but stabilizes CENP-A and CAL1. Loss of RDX leads to a rapid degradation of CAL1 and CENP-A and to massive chromosome segregation defects during development. Essentially, we identified a proteolysis-independent role of ubiquitin conjugation in centromere regulation that is essential for the maintenance of the centromere-defining protein CENP-A and its loading factor CAL1. PMID:24636256

  9. Multilineage polyclonal engraftment of Cal-1 gene-modified cells and in vivo selection after SHIV infection in a nonhuman primate model of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christopher W; Haworth, Kevin G; Burke, Bryan P; Polacino, Patricia; Norman, Krystin K; Adair, Jennifer E; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Bartlett, Jeffrey S; Symonds, Geoff P; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have focused on gene therapy approaches to induce functional cure/remission of HIV-1 infection. Here, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of the clinical grade anti-HIV lentiviral vector, Cal-1, in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Cal-1 animals exhibit robust levels of gene marking in myeloid and lymphoid lineages without measurable adverse events, suggesting that Cal-1 transduction and autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells are safe, and lead to long-term, multilineage engraftment following myeloablative conditioning. Ex vivo, CD4+ cells from transplanted animals undergo positive selection in the presence of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). In vivo, Cal-1 gene-marked cells are evident in the peripheral blood and in HIV-relevant tissue sites such as the gastrointestinal tract. Positive selection for gene-marked cells is observed in blood and tissues following SHIV challenge, leading to maintenance of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell counts in a normal range. Analysis of Cal-1 lentivirus integration sites confirms polyclonal engraftment of gene-marked cells. Following infection, a polyclonal, SHIV-resistant clonal repertoire is established. These findings offer strong preclinical evidence for safety and efficacy of Cal-1, present a new method for tracking protected cells over the course of virus-mediated selective pressure in vivo, and reveal previously unobserved dynamics of virus-dependent T-cell selection. PMID:26958575

  10. Multilineage polyclonal engraftment of Cal-1 gene-modified cells and in vivo selection after SHIV infection in a nonhuman primate model of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Christopher W.; Haworth, Kevin G.; Burke, Bryan P.; Polacino, Patricia; Norman, Krystin K.; Adair, Jennifer E.; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Bartlett, Jeffrey S.; Symonds, Geoff P.; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have focused on gene therapy approaches to induce functional cure/remission of HIV-1 infection. Here, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of the clinical grade anti-HIV lentiviral vector, Cal-1, in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Cal-1 animals exhibit robust levels of gene marking in myeloid and lymphoid lineages without measurable adverse events, suggesting that Cal-1 transduction and autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells are safe, and lead to long-term, multilineage engraftment following myeloablative conditioning. Ex vivo, CD4+ cells from transplanted animals undergo positive selection in the presence of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). In vivo, Cal-1 gene-marked cells are evident in the peripheral blood and in HIV-relevant tissue sites such as the gastrointestinal tract. Positive selection for gene-marked cells is observed in blood and tissues following SHIV challenge, leading to maintenance of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell counts in a normal range. Analysis of Cal-1 lentivirus integration sites confirms polyclonal engraftment of gene-marked cells. Following infection, a polyclonal, SHIV-resistant clonal repertoire is established. These findings offer strong preclinical evidence for safety and efficacy of Cal-1, present a new method for tracking protected cells over the course of virus-mediated selective pressure in vivo, and reveal previously unobserved dynamics of virus-dependent T-cell selection. PMID:26958575

  11. Emission estimates of HCFCs and HFCs in California from the 2010 CalNex study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Barbara; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Cohan, Alex; Nissenson, Paul; Dabdub, Donald; Meinardi, Simone; Atlas, Elliot; Lueb, Rich; Holloway, John S.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Pederson, James; Vancuren, Richard A.; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-02-01

    The CalNex 2010 (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition of air masses over key source regions in California. During May to June 2010, air samples were collected on board a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D aircraft over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) and the Central Valley (CV). This paper analyzes six effective greenhouse gases—chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b), 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b), 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)—providing the most comprehensive characterization of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compound emissions in California. Concentrations of measured HCFCs and HFCs are enhanced greatly throughout the SoCAB and CV, with highest levels observed in the SoCAB: 310 ± 92 pptv for HCFC-22, 30.7 ± 18.6 pptv for HCFC-141b, 22.9 ± 2.0 pptv for HCFC-142b, 4.86 ± 2.56 pptv for HCFC-124, 109 ± 46.4 pptv for HFC-134a, and 91.2 ± 63.9 pptv for HFC-152a. Annual emission rates are estimated for all six compounds in the SoCAB using the measured halocarbon to carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios and CO emissions inventories. Emission rates of 3.05 ± 0.70 Gg for HCFC-22, 0.27 ± 0.07 Gg for HCFC-141b, 0.06 ± 0.01 Gg for HCFC-142b, 0.11 ± 0.03 Gg for HCFC-124, 1.89 ± 0.43 Gg for HFC-134a, and 1.94 ± 0.45 Gg for HFC-152b for the year 2010 are calculated for the SoCAB. These emissions are extrapolated from the SoCAB region to the state of California using population data. Results from this study provide a baseline emission rate that will help future studies determine if HCFC and HFC mitigation strategies are successful.

  12. Ozone formation along the California-Mexican border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ozone (O3) formation along the California-Mexico border region using the WRF-CHEM model in association with the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign. Four two-day episodes in 2010 are chosen based on plume transport patterns: 1) May 15-16 (plume north), 2) May 29-30 (plume southwest), 3) June 4-5 (plume east), and 4) June 13-14 (plume southeast). Generally, the predicted O3 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites in the San Diego-Tijuana region, but in the Calexico-Mexicali region, the model frequently underestimates the observation. In the San Diego-Tijuana region, the morning anthropogenic precursor emissions in the urbanized coastal plain are carried inland and mixed with the local biogenic emissions during transport, causing the high O3 level over the mountain region. Biogenic emissions enhance the O3 concentrations by up to 40 ppb over the mountain region in the afternoon. The factor separation approach is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of emissions from California and Baja California to the O3 level in the California-Mexico border region. The Baja California emissions play a minor role in the O3 formation in the San Diego region and do not seem to contribute to the O3 exceedances in the region, but have large potential to cause O3 exceedances in the Calexico region. The California emissions can considerably enhance the O3 level in the Tijuana region. Generally, the California emissions play a more important role than the Baja California emissions on O3 formation in the border region (within 40 km to the California-Mexico border). On average, the O3 concentrations in the border region are decreased by 2-4 ppb in the afternoon due to the interactions of emissions from California and Baja California. Further studies need to be conducted to improve the sea breeze simulations in the border region for evaluating O3 formation.

  13. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-01-01

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California.

    Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA as semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS).

    We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 ×  lower than observed at Pasadena using −log(NOx : NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 ×  for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 ×  too low/excessive). The first and third

  14. A putative interferon induced in hamsters by poly(I) . poly(C).

    PubMed

    Round, E M; Stebbing, N

    1981-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus causes lethal infection of hamsters against which poly(I) . poly(C) causes dose-dependent protection. In contrast, no antiviral effects occur with poly(I) . poly(C) against influenza virus infection of hamsters. Serum from poly(I) . poly(C) treated hamsters protects other hamsters against EMC virus infection with maximum protection with serum removed 3h after poly(I) . poly(C) treatment of the donor hamsters. In such assays the factor was found to be inactivated by trypsin and pH 2 and 56 degrees C for 1 hr. The serum factor did not confer protection against EMC virus infection of L-929, BHK, Hak or primary hamster embryo cells. The amount of poly(I) . poly(C) carried over into serum samples of poly(I) . poly(C) treated hamsters was insufficient to account for the antiviral effects. The antiviral serum factor is presumed to be a form of interferon despite the fact that it does not titrate in cell cultures and has a novel set of properties from those which describe known interferons. PMID:6180078

  15. CalTOX, a multimedia total exposure model for hazardous-waste sites; Part 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-06-01

    CalTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in health-risk assessments that address contaminated soils and the contamination of adjacent air, surface water, sediments, and ground water. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure models. This report provides an overview of the CalTOX model components, lists the objectives of the model, describes the philosophy under which the model was developed, identifies the chemical classes for which the model can be used, and describes critical sensitivities and uncertainties. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a dynamic model that can be used to assess time-varying concentrations of contaminants introduced initially to soil layers or for contaminants released continuously to air or water. This model assists the user in examining how chemical and landscape properties impact both the ultimate route and quantity of human contact. Multimedia, multiple pathway exposure models are used in the CalTOX model to estimate average daily potential doses within a human population in the vicinity of a hazardous substances release site. The exposure models encompass twenty-three exposure pathways. The exposure assessment process consists of relating contaminant concentrations in the multimedia model compartments to contaminant concentrations in the media with which a human population has contact (personal air, tap water, foods, household dusts soils, etc.). The average daily dose is the product of the exposure concentrations in these contact media and an intake or uptake factor that relates the concentrations to the distributions of potential dose within the population.

  16. Nocturnal loss of NOx during the 2010 CalNex-LA study in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Catalina; Wong, Clare; Hurlock, Steve; Pikelnaya, Olga; Mielke, Levi H.; Osthoff, Hans D.; Flynn, James H.; Haman, Christine; Lefer, Barry; Gilman, Jessica; Gouw, Joost; Stutz, Jochen

    2014-11-01

    The chemical removal of NOx at night in urban areas remains poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the contribution of various loss pathways and the impact of the suppressed nocturnal vertical mixing. Here we present long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy observations of nocturnal vertical concentration profiles of O3, NO2, and NO3 in the lower atmosphere (33-556 m above ground level) measured during the CalNex-LA 2010 study. Positive nocturnal vertical gradients of O3 and NO3 and negative gradients of NO2 were observed during the night. Relatively short lifetime of nocturnal NO3 (less than 1000 s) and high nighttime steady state N2O5 mixing ratios (up to 2 ppb) indicated active nocturnal chemistry during CalNex. Comparison of modeled and observed altitude-resolved NO3 loss frequencies shows that hydrolysis of N2O5 on aerosols was the dominant loss pathway of NO3 and NOx. Based on this argument, the nocturnal loss rates of NOx, L(NOx), at different altitudes and averaged over the lowest 550 m of the atmosphere were calculated. The nocturnally averaged L(NOx) ranged between 0.8 and 1.3 ppb h-1 for the lower atmosphere with the L(NOx) for the first 8 days at about 1 ppb h-1. This number is close to the one previously determined in Houston in 2009 of ~0.9 ppb h-1. Comparisons between daytime NOx loss due to the OH + NO2 reaction and nighttime L(NOx) show that during CalNex, nocturnal chemistry contributed an average of 60% to the removal of NOx in a 24 h period in the lower atmosphere.

  17. Evidence for a nitrous acid (HONO) reservoir at the ground surface in Bakersfield, CA, during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBoer, T. C.; Markovic, M. Z.; Sanders, J. E.; Ren, X.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, L.; Thomas, J.; Brune, W. H.; Murphy, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    Measurements of HONO(g) and particulate nitrite (NO2-(p)) were made with a modified Ambient Ion Monitor-Ion Chromatography (AIM-IC) instrument during California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate 2010 in Bakersfield, CA (CalNex-San Joaquin Valley (SJV)). Observations of gas and particulate matter (PM2.5) water-soluble composition showed accumulation of both species at night, followed by loss the next day. Intercomparison with a Stripping Coil-UV/Vis Absorption Photometer (SC-AP) demonstrated excellent agreement with the AIM-IC HONO(g) measurement (slope = 0.957, R2 = 0.86), and the particulate nitrite observations were validated to be free of known interferences for wet chemical instrumentation. The accumulation of nitrite into particulate matter was found to be enhanced when gaseous mixing ratios of HONO(g) were highest. Reactive uptake of HONO(g) on to lofted dust and the ground surface, forming a reservoir, is a potential mechanism to explain these observations. The AIM-IC HONO(g) measurements were parameterized in a chemical model to calculate the ground surface daytime HONO(g) source strength at 4.5 m above the surface, found to be on the order of 1.27 ppb h-1, to determine the relative importance of a surface reservoir. If all deposited nighttime HONO(g) is reemitted the following day, up to 30% of the daytime HONO(g) source at CalNex-SJV may be accounted for. The observations of HONO(g) and NO2-(p) in Bakersfield, during CalNex, suggest a surface sink and source of HONO(g). Extension of currently accepted unknown daytime HONO(g) source reactions to include a potential surface HONO(g) reservoir should therefore be sound, but quantitation of the relative contributions of each surface source toward daytime HONO(g) production remains to be resolved.

  18. The Impact of Science Graduate Students in Urban Science Classrooms: The SFOS Program at Cal State Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, S.; Mayo, D.; Strauss, J.

    2005-12-01

    The SFOS program at Cal State Los Angeles places science graduate students in minority serving high schools and middle schools in the Los Angeles region. Graduate fellows pursue Master's degrees in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics while working with partner teachers to provide science demonstrations and activities that are based on California science content standards. Fellows in the classroom are not apprentice teachers, but rather, their role is science communication. Now in its third year, we discuss the impacts of the SFOS program on graduate fellows, teachers, and high school curricula. We thank the National Science Foundation for funding through the GK-12 program.

  19. The Impact of Science Graduate Students in Urban Science Classrooms: The SFOS Program at Cal State Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, Susan; Mayo, D.

    2006-12-01

    The SFOS program at Cal State Los Angeles places science graduate students in minority serving high schools and middle schools in the Los Angeles region. Graduate fellows pursue Master's degrees in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics while working with partner teachers to provide science demonstrations and activities that are based on California science content standards. Fellows in the classroom are not apprentice teachers, but rather, their role is science communication. Now in its fourth year, we discuss the impacts of the SFOS program on graduate fellows, teachers, and high school curricula.

  20. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  1. Localization properties of electronic states in a polaron model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Starikov, E B; Hennig, D; Archilla, J F R

    2005-06-01

    We numerically investigate localization properties of electronic states in a static model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers with realistic parameters obtained by quantum-chemical calculation. The randomness in the on-site energies caused by the electron-phonon coupling is completely correlated to the off-diagonal parts. In the single electron model, the effect of the hydrogen-bond stretchings, the twist angles between the base pairs and the finite system size effects on the energy dependence of the localization length and on the Lyapunov exponent are given. The localization length is reduced by the influence of the fluctuations in the hydrogen bond stretchings. It is also shown that the helical twist angle affects the localization length in the poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA polymer more strongly than in the poly(dA)-poly(dT) one. Furthermore, we show resonance structures in the energy dependence of the localization length when the system size is relatively small. PMID:15906117

  2. The 8200 cal yr BP cooling event in eastern North America and the utility of midge analysis for Holocene temperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurek, Joshua; Cwynar, Les C.; Spear, Ray W.

    2004-03-01

    Between about 8400 and 8000 cal yr BP two sites from the White Mountains of eastern North America record loss-on-ignition (LOI) reductions in the organic content of lake sediment. At Speck Pond LOI values reach a near-Holocene minimum of 35% whereas at Surplus Pond LOI values are maintained near 35% for about 100 cal yr. We interpret this change in LOI as a response to the 8200 cal yr BP cooling event known to occur throughout the circum-North Atlantic region. Detailed midge (including Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, and Ceratopogonidae) analyses were used to measure changes in summer surface-water temperatures from about 8800 to 8000 cal yr BP at both sites. Midge-inferred temperatures are highly variable at Speck Pond (ranging from 12.2°C to 16.7°C) whereas a "no-analogue" situation persists at Surplus Pond with inferred temperatures near 30°C. These results bring into question the usefulness of midges as a climate proxy to infer relatively brief, small-magnitude Holocene climatic events such as the 8200 cal yr BP cooling event.

  3. Mass concentration, composition and sources of fine and coarse particulate matter in Tijuana, Mexico, during Cal-Mex campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Campos, Arturo Alberto; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Blanco, Salvador; Molina, Luisa T.; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the Cal-Mex project, which focuses on investigating the atmosphere along Mexico-California border region. Sampling was carried out at two sites located in Tijuana urban area: Parque Morelos and Metales y Derivados. PM2.5 and PM10 24 h samples were collected every three days from 17th May 2010 to 27th June 2010, and were used for gravimetric and chemical analyses (major and minor elements, inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon) of PM. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations during Cal-Mex were relatively lower compared to usual annual averages. Trace elements concentrations recorded in the present study were lower than those recorded in Mexico City in 2006, with the exception of Pb at Metales y Derivados, attributed to the influence of a specific industrial source, which also includes As, Cd and Tl. Apart from this industrial source, both urban sites were found to be affected by similar sources with respect to bulk PM. Fine PM (PM2.5) was mainly apportioned by fueloil and biomass combustion and secondary aerosols, and road traffic. Coarse PM (PM2.5-10) was mainly apportioned by a mineral source (sum of road dust resuspension, construction emissions and natural soil) and fresh and aged sea salt. The road traffic was responsible for more than 60% of the fine elemental carbon and almost 40% of the fine organic matter.

  4. The X-ray eclipse geometry of the super-soft X-ray source CAL 87

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, T.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.

    2014-09-01

    We explore XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing super-soft X-ray source CAL 87 in order to map the accretion structures of the system. Indirect imaging techniques were applied in X-ray light curves to provide eclipse maps. The surface brightness distribution exhibits an extended and symmetric emission, and a feature is revealed from the hardest X-rays that is likely due to a bright spot. A rate of P-dot =(+6±2)×10{sup −10} for changes in the orbital period of the system was derived from the eclipses. There is no significant variation of the emission lines even during eclipses, arguing that the lines are formed in an extended region. The continuum emission dominates the decrease in flux that is observed during eclipses. The O VIII Lyα line reveals a broadening velocity that is estimated to be 365{sub −69}{sup +65} km s{sup –1} (at 1σ), marginal evidence for asymmetry in its profile, and sometimes shows evidence of double-peaked emission. Together, the results support that the wind-driven mass transfer scenario is running in CAL 87.

  5. Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 regulates the proliferation of oral adenosquamous carcinoma CAL-27 cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma is very poor due to local recurrence and metastasis. This study explores the molecular events involved in oral carcinoma with the goal of developing novel therapeutic strategies. The mitotic spindle is a complex mechanical apparatus required for the accurate segregation of sister chromosomes during mitosis. Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 (SKA1) is a microtubule-binding subcomplex of the outer kinetochore that is essential for proper chromosome segregation. In recent years, much attention has been focused on determining how SKA proteins interact with each other, as well as their biological role in cancer cells. However, the precise role of SKA1 in oral carcinoma remains unknown. Methods In order to investigate the role of SKA1 in oral cancer, we employed lentivirus-mediated shRNA to silence SKA1 expression in the CAL-27 human oral adenosquamous carcinoma cell line. Results Depletion of SKA1 in CAL-27 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. These results strongly demonstrate that reduced SKA1 protein levels may cause inhibition of tumor formation. The shRNA-mediated depletion of SKA1 also led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion This is the first report to show that SKA1 plays an important role in the progression of oral adenosqamous carcinoma. Thus, silencing of SKA1 by RNAi might be a potential therapy for this disease. PMID:23962337

  6. Power coupling in TREAT M-Series: New experimental results from M7CAL and updated analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W R; Bauer, T H

    1988-02-01

    Experiments and methods used to determine power coupling of test fuel to the TREAT reactor during six recent metal-fueled sodium loop tests (M2-M7) are described. Previously reported calibration work on a three-pin test configuration with uranium-fissium fuel is updated (M2CAL). Additional results on a two-pin test configuration with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) reference fuel (uranium-zirconium and uranium-plutonium-zirconium) are reported (M7CAL). The peak axial low-level, steady-state (LLSS) fresh fuel pin power coupling factors for the IFR fuel compositions were determined from radiochemical analysis of fuel segments. A large data base of uranium-zirconium neutron flux monitor wire measurements were compiled to extend the fuel measurements to high-power transient conditions by comparing the measured power couplings from high and low-power wire irradiations. Power coupling results were obtained in both a full-slotted and a half-slotted TREAT core configuration. Relative power coupling measurements are compared to calculations for the three different types of fuel; U/Fs, U/Zr and U/Pu/Zr. Estimates of power coupling including corrections accounting for the effect on the power coupling of isotopic depletion and fuel swelling as the fuel undergoes burnup are presented for planning and analysis of tests M5, M6 and M7.

  7. Proapoptotic Activity of Propolis and Their Components on Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line (CAL-27)

    PubMed Central

    Czyżewska, Urszula; Siemionow, Katarzyna; Zaręba, Ilona; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Propolis has been used since ancient times in folk medicine. It is a popular medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. This material is one of the richest sources of polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) evokes antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anticancer properties. Due to pharmacological properties it is used in the commercial production of nutritional supplements. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify main polyphenols in EEPs. The effect of EEPs, individual EEPs components (chrysin, galangin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid) and their mixture on viability of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line (CAL-27) as well as the molecular mechanisms of the process were examined. The results of MTTs assay demonstrated that EEP, polyphenols and mixture of polyphenolic compounds were cytotoxic for CAL-27 cells in a dose dependent manner. The mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by these components undergoes through apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry. The ethanolic extracts of propolis activated caspases -3, -8, -9. Mixture of polyphenols was found as the most potent inducer of apoptosis thorough both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. Therefore, we suggest that anticancer properties of propolis is related to synergistic activity of its main components. PMID:27281369

  8. Northern San Andreas Earthquake Recurrence: Rupture lengths, Correlations and Constrained OxCal Analysis of Event Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, A. E.; Goldfinger, C.; Erhardt, M.; Nelson, C. H.; Johnson, J. E.; Gutierrez-Pastor, J.

    2005-12-01

    We are using multiple proxies, including XRF analysis, to determine hemipelagic thickness between turbidite events recorded in cores along the offshore northern San Andreas margin. Inter-event times are calculated from these improved estimates of sediment thickness and regression-determined sedimentation rates, and used along with known stratigraphic information to constrain calibrated radiocarbon age ranges using Bayesian statistical methods within the program OxCal. OxCal can also be used to combine multiple ages for the same event. Multiple ages are given "credit" where age ranges overlap, resulting in reduced 1- or 2-sigma age ranges compared to averaging peak ages and propagating errors. These methods reduce calendar age variability of events along strike that are thought to correlate. We tested three methods of estimating calendar ages, using the most recent events in a Noyo Canyon core. These methods are: 1. unconstrained radiocarbon age calibration, 2. age determination using known dates and inter-event time calculated from hemipelagic thickness and the regression-determined sedimentation rate, and 3. (preferred method) use OxCal's sequence option to calibrate and constrain radiocarbon ages given all available stratigraphic information, including date of collection, historical or geological datums, inter-event times and radiocarbon ages. The upper-most event was chosen for these tests because it is known to be the 1906 earthquake and the 20th century reservoir correction is well known in this area. The penultimate event was chosen because it has been dated at multiple land sites. 1906 event: Unconstrained calibration: calibration of the radiocarbon age of the 1906 event yields an age of ~1913, (1σ: 1898-1940). Sedimentation time: subtracting the time represented by the hemipelagic thickness above the 1906 event from the date of collection (1999) yields an age of ~1904. OxCal sequence: constrained calibration yields an age of ~1902 (1σ: 1880

  9. Na+ and Mg2+ ion effect on the stability of a poly I . poly A . poly I triple helix.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Victor A; Valeev, Vladimir A; Andrus, Elena A; Gladchenko, Galina O; Blagoi, Yuri P

    2004-05-17

    Differential UV spectroscopy was used to study the temperature dependence of the conformational equilibrium in aqueous poly I . poly A . poly I (A2I) solutions containing Na+ (0.1-2 M) and Mg2+ (10(-5)-0.005 M) ions. Over the whole range of the studied Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations, the heating-induced destruction of the triple A2I helix is actually the A2I --> A + I + I (3 --> 1) transition. The rise of the transition temperature with increasing Na+ and Mg2+ contents is well described by Manning's and the "ligand" theories, which makes it possible to estimate the linear charge density on the single-stranded poly I (xi = 1.9 +/- 0.1) and the Mg2+-A2I binding constant (K = 1,250 M(-1) for the zero degree of binding). An analytical expression has been obtained, which correlates the constants of Mg2+ binding to three- and single-stranded polynucleotides (K3 and K1, respectively) and the linear charge density on them. There are only minor distinctions between the K3 values for A2U and A2I because these polynucleotides have similar structures. The difference in the K1 values is also slight as single-stranded poly U, poly I, and poly A have similar conformations. Dependence of the conformational transition temperatures of two triple helices with changing Mg2+ concentration. PMID:15468246

  10. Progress toward studies of bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity with a ground-based prototype of NASA CAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, Nathan; Jarvis, Thomas; Paseltiner, Daniel; Lannert, Courtney

    2016-05-01

    We have proposed using NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL, launching to the International Space Station in 2017) to generate bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates through radiofrequency dressing of an atom-chip magnetic trap. This geometry has not been truly realized terrestrially due to the perturbing influence of gravity, making it an ideal candidate for microgravity investigation aboard CAL. We report progress in the construction of a functional prototype of the orbital BEC apparatus: a compact atom-chip machine loaded by a 2D+MOT source, conventional 3D MOT, quadrupole trap, and transfer coil. We also present preliminary modeling of the dressed trap uniformity, which will crucially inform the geometric closure of the BEC shell surface as atom number, bubble radius, and bubble aspect ratio are varied. Finally, we discuss plans for experimental sequences to be run aboard CAL guided by intuition from ground-based prototype operation. JPL 1502172.

  11. The synthesis of short- and medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) mixtures from glucose- or alkanoic acid-grown Pseudomonas oleovorans.

    PubMed

    Ashby, R D; Solaiman, D K Y; Foglia, T A

    2002-03-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-778 accumulated mixtures of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) when grown on glucose, octanoic acid or oleic acid, whereas growth on nonanoic acid or undecanoic acid resulted in copolymers of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHB-co-HV). Acetone fractionation verified the presence of PHB/mcl-PHA mixtures. The acetone-insoluble (AIS) fractions of the polymers derived from glucose (PHA-glucose), octanoic acid (PHA-octanoic) and oleic acid (PHA-oleic) were exclusively PHB while the acetone-soluble (AS) fractions contained mcl-PHA composed of differing ratios of 3-hydroxy-acid monomer units, which ranged in chain length from 6 to 14 carbon atoms. In contrast, both the AIS and AS fractions from the polymers derived from nonanoic acid (PHA-nonanoic) and undecanoic acid (PHA-undecanoic) were composed of comparable ratios of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV). The unfractionated PHA-glucose, PHA-octanoic and PHA-oleic polymers had melting temperatures (Tm) between 177 and 179 degrees C, enthalpies of fusion (AHf) of 20 cal/g and glasstransition temperatures (Tg) of 3-4 degrees C. This was due to the large PHB content in the polymer mixtures. On the other hand, the PHA-nonanoic and PHA-undecanoic polymers had thermal properties that supported their copolymer nature. In both cases, the Tm values were 161 degrees C, deltaHf values were 7 cal/g and Tg values were - 3 degrees C. PMID:12074088

  12. FlowCal: A User-Friendly, Open Source Software Tool for Automatically Converting Flow Cytometry Data from Arbitrary to Calibrated Units.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Hair, Sebastian M; Sexton, John T; Landry, Brian P; Olson, Evan J; Igoshin, Oleg A; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-15

    Flow cytometry is widely used to measure gene expression and other molecular biological processes with single cell resolution via fluorescent probes. Flow cytometers output data in arbitrary units (a.u.) that vary with the probe, instrument, and settings. Arbitrary units can be converted to the calibrated unit molecules of equivalent fluorophore (MEF) using commercially available calibration particles. However, there is no convenient, nonproprietary tool available to perform this calibration. Consequently, most researchers report data in a.u., limiting interpretation. Here, we report a software tool named FlowCal to overcome current limitations. FlowCal can be run using an intuitive Microsoft Excel interface, or customizable Python scripts. The software accepts Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) files as inputs and is compatible with different calibration particles, fluorescent probes, and cell types. Additionally, FlowCal automatically gates data, calculates common statistics, and produces publication quality plots. We validate FlowCal by calibrating a.u. measurements of E. coli expressing superfolder GFP (sfGFP) collected at 10 different detector sensitivity (gain) settings to a single MEF value. Additionally, we reduce day-to-day variability in replicate E. coli sfGFP expression measurements due to instrument drift by 33%, and calibrate S. cerevisiae Venus expression data to MEF units. Finally, we demonstrate a simple method for using FlowCal to calibrate fluorescence units across different cytometers. FlowCal should ease the quantitative analysis of flow cytometry data within and across laboratories and facilitate the adoption of standard fluorescence units in synthetic biology and beyond. PMID:27110723

  13. Integrin αvβ3 expression in tongue squamous carcinoma cells Cal27 confers anticancer drug resistance through loss of pSrc(Y418).

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Nikolina; Brozovic, Anamaria; Majhen, Dragomira; Bosnar, Maja Herak; Fritz, Gerhard; Osmak, Maja; Ambriović-Ristov, Andreja

    2016-08-01

    Integrins play key roles in the regulation of tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and sensitivity to anticancer drugs. In the present study we investigate the mechanism of resistance of tongue squamous carcinoma cells Cal27 with de novo integrin αvβ3 expression to anticancer drugs. Cal27-derived cell clones, obtained by transfection of plasmid containing integrin subunit β3 cDNA, as compared to control cells demonstrate: expression of integrin αvβ3; increased expression of integrin αvβ5; increased adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin; resistance to cisplatin, mitomycin C, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil; increased migration and invasion, increased amount of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and decreased amounts of non-receptor tyrosine kinase (Src) and pSrc(Y418). Knockdown of ILK and integrin β5 in cells expressing integrin αvβ3 ruled out their involvement in drug resistance. Opposite, Src knockdown in Cal27 cells which led to a reduction in pSrc(Y418), as well as treatment with the pSrc(Y418) inhibitors dasatinib and PP2, conferred resistance to all four anticancer drugs, indicating that the loss of pSrc(Y418) is responsible for the observed effect. We identified differential integrin signaling between Cal27 and integrin αvβ3-expressing cells. In Cal27 cells integrin αv heterodimers signal through pSrc(Y418) while this is not the case in integrin αvβ3-expressing cells. Finally, we show that dasatinib counteracts the effect of cisplatin in two additional head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines Cal33 and Detroit562. Our results suggest that pSrc(Y418) inhibitors, potential drugs for cancer therapy, may reduce therapeutic efficacy if combined with chemotherapeutics, and might not be recommended for HNSCC treatment. PMID:27108184

  14. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 inhibits the growth, migration, and invasion of Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hong-Bo; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Yu-Fei

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 on the growth, invasion, and migration of Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The methods of the study are as follows: After being routinely cultured for 24 h, Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells were treated with Y-27632 solution. The morphological change of Y-27632-treated cells was observed under an optical microscope and an inverted microscope; MTT assay was performed to measure the optical density (OD) of cells and calculate cell growth inhibition rate; the change of apoptosis was detected by AnnexinV-FITC/PI assay; cell invasion and migration were measured by Transwell assay. The results were as follows: (1) With increasing concentration of Y-27632, cell morphology changed and cell apoptosis appeared; (2) MTT assay showed that inhibition effect of Y-27632 on Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells was enhanced with increasing concentrations and time (all P < 0.01); (3) Apoptosis showed that, compared with controls, the number of apoptosis cells in experimental groups was significantly increased (all P < 0.01). Apoptosis rate was elevated with increasing concentrations of Y-27632; (4) Transwell assay showed, after a treatment with Y-27632, the number of migrated and invaded Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells in each group was statistically different (all P < 0.01); compared with controls, the number of migrated cell in groups treated with Y-27632 was decreased and less Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells in experimental groups passed through polycarbonate membrane (all P < 0.05). The study concludes that Y-27632 can inhibit the growth, invasion, and migration of Tca8113 and CAL-27 cells, suggesting that Y-27632 may be therapeutically useful in TSCC. PMID:26468018

  15. Kinetic resolution of (R/S)-propranolol (1-isopropylamino-3-(1-naphtoxy)-2-propanolol) catalyzed by immobilized preparations of Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Oveimar; Ariza, Cesar; Ortiz, Claudia; Torres, Rodrigo

    2010-12-31

    Enzyme preparations of Candida antarctica B lipase (CAL-B) - immobilized on Eupergit C and partially modified Eupergit C supports - were tested for kinetic resolution of (R/S)-propranolol, using vinyl acetate as acyl donor, and toluene as organic solvent. The effects of (R/S)-propranolol concentration, vinyl acetate concentration and biocatalyst loading on the esterification and resolution of propranolol were studied. Additionally, different types of immobilized lipase derivatives were also evaluated in terms of its selectivity on kinetic resolution of (R,S)-propranolol. These derivatives showed different enantiomeric ratios (E), with high enantiomeric ratios (E=57) with CAL-B immobilized on Eupergit C supports. PMID:20667519

  16. Climatic and environmental changes in north-western Russia between 15,000 and 8000 cal yr BP: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Barbara; Lacourse, Terri; Bennike, Ole; Subetto, Dmitry; Tarasov, Pavel; Demidov, Igor; Filimonova, Ludmila; Sapelko, Tatyana

    2007-07-01

    Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental studies of nine sediment sequences from four areas in north-western Russia reveal significant changes in climate, lake productivity and vegetation during the Lateglacial and early Holocene that show some degree of correlation with changes reconstructed from sites throughout the North Atlantic region. At Lake Nero in the Rostov-Jaroslavl' area, which is outside the maximum limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, sedimentation recommenced shortly after 15 cal ka BP in response to increases in temperature and humidity during Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1; Bølling-Allerød). However, climatic amelioration during GI-1 was slow to increase lake organic productivity or trigger large-scale changes in much of northwestern Russia. In general, this region was characterised by long-lasting lake-ice cover, low lake productivity, soil erosion, and dwarf shrub and herb tundra until the end of Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1; Younger Dryas). At some sites, distinct increases in lake organic productivity, mean summer temperatures and humidity and the expansion of forest trees coincide with rapid warming at the beginning of the Holocene and the increasing influence of warm air masses from the North Atlantic. At other sites, particularly on the Karelian Isthmus, but also in Russian Karelia, the delayed response of limnic and terrestrial environments to early Holocene warming is likely related to the cold surface waters of the Baltic Ice Lake, the proximity of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet and associated strengthened easterlies, and/or extensive permafrost and stagnant ice. These multi-proxy studies underscore the importance of local conditions in modifying the response of individual lakes and their catchments. While Lateglacial vegetation was dominated by Betula nana and Salix shrubs and various herbs, pollen and plant macrofossils suggest that Betula pubescens trees became established as early as 14-13 cal ka BP in the Rostov-Jaroslavl' area. In general, our

  17. Bayesian spectral analysis of raw tree-ring IntCal04 data: No continuous sinusoids some short duration sinusoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palonen, V.; Tikkanen, P.

    2007-06-01

    An improved Bayesian model for detection of periodic signals is presented and applied to IntCal04 tree-ring data. Our previous model used a discrete-time autoregressive process to model the noise and here a continuous autoregressive process is implemented. In order to take into account the temporal width of the raw tree-ring data samples, the model function has been changed to a mean of the underlying signal for temporal interval of the datapoint. A wavelet-type variant of the model is also presented. It is shown that the presence of continuous cycles in the raw tree-ring data is doubtful. There is however evidence for wavelet-type temporally constrained high-frequency oscillations with periods in the 2-20 year range. The temporal location of these oscillations is given. It is probable that even these oscillations result from the measurement offsets between the datasets used for calibration.

  18. Observations of isocyanic acid in the marine boundary layer during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, T. A.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), a carcinogen present in cigarette smoke and industrial emissions, has recently been measured in the troposphere. Large uncertainties exist in ambient HNCO concentrations due to limited field measurements and limited understanding of the sources and fate of HNCO in the troposphere. Previous measurements indicate that HNCO mixing ratios may be elevated (>1ppb) in urban environments, posing significant health concerns. Here, we present ambient measurements of HNCO during the CalNex 2010 field study using a fast-response chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer. We discuss potential sources as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO in coastal California to comment on the impact of this gas-phase species in polluted marine regions.

  19. Climate forcing and the response of vegetation and disturbances during the 'Populus Period', 2000-4000 cal yr BP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, V.; Brunelle, A.; Brewer, S.; Minckley, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoecological proxies, such as charcoal and pollen, are valuable tools for reconstructing previous fire regimes, vegetation change and ecosystem resilience. This study attempts to analyze fire severity and ecosystem response using lake sediments from southeastern Wyoming, during a unique period of time coined the 'Populus period' (Carter et al., 2013). The 'Populus period' (3,100-4,000 cal yr BP) was a time when vegetation composition changed from a lodgepole pine dominant system to a quaking aspen system. This change in vegetation altered the fire regime from a low frequency regime to a high disturbance regime. This study investigates 12 fire events from 2000-4000 cal yr BP to determine the ecological response associated with the fire events and to identify driver(s) associated with vegetation change and fire regimes. In order to determine fire severity, this study compares high-resolution charcoal and pollen data to peak magnitude data from CharAnalysis (a statistical treatment program). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to set a threshold by which pollen taxa are associated with low or high severity fires. Preliminary LDA results suggest that low severity fires have a peak magnitude lower than 200 particles/cm2/episode and high severity fires have a peak magnitude higher than 200 particles/cm2/episode. Superposed epoch analysis (SEA) will be used to model pollen behavior through fire sample intervals to determine the ecology response associated with each of the 12 fires events. Statistical analysis using LDA and SEA can potentially be used in combination to determine fire severity and thus ecosystem resilience. Long-term reconstructions of fire severity can be beneficial for informing land managers in the 21st century.

  20. Optical and X-ray properties of CAL 83 - II. An X-ray pulsation at ˜67 s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odendaal, A.; Meintjes, P. J.; Charles, P. A.; Rajoelimanana, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    CAL 83 is the prototypical close binary supersoft X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud, has a 1 d orbital period, and is believed to consist of a white dwarf (WD) primary accreting from an evolved donor. Based on published WD model atmosphere fits to X-ray data, the WD has a mass of ˜1.3 M⊙, just below the Chandrasekhar limit. From a systematic search through archival XMM-Newton data for periodic emission from CAL 83 down to the shortest possible period just above the WD break-up period, we report the discovery of an ˜67 s supersoft X-ray modulation, which we interpret as the rotation period of a highly spun-up WD. Such a short period can be explained within the framework of a high mass accretion history, where accretion disc torques could have spun up the WD over time-scales comparable to the thermal time-scale. The presence of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in published optical and ultraviolet spectra may suggest CNO cycling in the envelope of a secondary star that is oversized for its inferred mass, suggesting that the secondary star shed a significant fraction of its envelope during a high mass-transfer history, resulting in a highly spun-up WD. The reported 67 s period shows an approximately ±3 s drift from the median value in single runs, which we interpret as a hydrogen burning gas envelope surrounding the WD, with a period not quite synchronized with the WD rotation period.

  1. Poly(silylene)vinylenes from ethynylhydridosilanes

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1992-11-10

    Catalytic polymerization of dialkyl-, alkylaryl- or diaryldiethynylhydridosilanes cleanly affords soluble poly(silylene)vinylenes which can be shaped as fibers, films and bulk objects and thermally converted to silicon carbide.

  2. Poly(silyl silane) homo and copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, J.K.

    1991-08-13

    Poly(silyl silanes) have been prepared. They have high photosensitivity and excellent resistance to oxygen-reactive ion etching processes. They are useful as photodepolymerizable photoresists, barrier layers, etc.

  3. Poly(silyl silane) homo and copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, John K.

    1991-01-01

    Poly(silyl silanes) have been prepared. They have high photosensitivity and excellent resistance to oxygen-reactive ion etching processes. They are useful as photodepolymerizable photoresists, barrier layers, etc.

  4. Phenylethynl-terminated poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) are prepared in a wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratio and adding an appropriate amount of 4-fluoro- 4'-phenylethynyl benzophenone during polymer synthesis. The resulting phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) react and crosslink upon curing for one hour at 350 C to provide materials with improved solvent resistance, higher modulus, and better high temperature properties than the linear, uncrosslinked polymers.

  5. Antifouling poly(β-peptoid)s.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaohui; Zhang, Bo; Skoumal, Michael J; Ramunno, Brian; Li, Xiaopeng; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Liu, Lingyun; Jia, Li

    2011-07-11

    A new type of polymer highly resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption is reported. Poly(N-methyl-β-alanine) (PMeA) and poly(N-ethyl-β-alanine) (PEtA) synthesized via cobalt-catalyzed carbonylative polymerization of N-methylaziridine and N-ethylaziridine were end-functionalized with thiol groups and grafted onto Au surfaces. Protein adsorption was studied by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. The amounts of representative single proteins adsorbed onto the PMeA- and PEtA-grafted surfaces were below the detection limit of SPR at the pg/mm(2) level. After exposure to full blood plasma and serum for 10 min, protein adsorption was at the level of ∼ 100 pg/mm(2), similar to the level of protein adsorption on poly(ethylene glycol) surfaces subjected to identical conditions. These poly(β-peptoid)s therefore provide excellent protein resistance comparable to the best antifouling materials known to date. The strong proton-accepting ability when forming hydrogen bonds is suggested to be an important attribute for these poly(β-peptoid)s as well as other poly(tertiary amide)s as antifouling materials. PMID:21585194

  6. New Linear and Star-Shaped Thermogelling Poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Barouti, Ghislaine; Liow, Sing Shy; Dou, Qingqing; Ye, Hongye; Orione, Clément; Guillaume, Sophie M; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis of multi-arm poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based triblock copolymers (poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-[[poly(methyl ether methacrylate)-g-poly(ethylene glycol)]-co-[poly(methacrylate)-g-poly(propylene glycol)

  7. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations, 2011-2013 Biennium. 7-B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists "non-classified" personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and "classified" positions recommended by the Office of Personnel Management, Department of Finance and Administration for public institutions of higher education for the 2011-13 biennium. The Office of Personnel…

  8. Final Technical Report for NSF/DOE partnership grant 1004284/ER54905/SC0004660; 2011- 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, Manuel

    2014-10-15

    Research has been performed on two topics: (1) Nonlinear time-dependent phenomena in the regime of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). (2) Plasma structures forming ”bubbles”. The latter are regions of localized density depletions or enhancements separated from the ambient plasma by sheaths or double layers. Three-dimensional magnetic null points can also be considered as ”magnetic bubbles”. Nonlinear EMHD fields are generated by pulsed magnetic loops. The magnetic field varies in time faster than an ion cyclotron period, hence interacts only with electrons. Space charge electric fields are created when magnetic forces try to separate electrons from ions. Electric and magnetic forces nearly balance to keep the plasma quasi neutral. This leads to rotational electron motions, i.e. Hall currents and associated magnetic perturbations. When the time scale falls between the ion and electron cyclotron period the magnetic perturbation is convected in the whistler mode. When the time-varying magnetic field exceeds the background magnetic field the whistler mode becomes highly nonlinear since its properties depend on the total magnetic field. When the time-varying magnetic field creates magnetic null points or null lines EMHD breaks down. Electrons can be accelerated in null lines which dissipated magnetic energy like in magnetic reconnection. Energized electrons with anisotropic distributions create secondary whistler instabilities. These effects have been observed in field topologies resembling spheromaks and field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The whistler mode propagation near magnetic nulls is not trivial when the field gradients and wavelength are comparable. Ray tracing is inappropriate when the WKB approximation breaks down. Experiments have been started to map wave propagation on curved field lines with null points. Initial results show that whistlers in highly nonuniform fields have highly oblique phase velocities but the energy flow remains dominantly along the field. Density bubbles are created by anode discharges, typically forming spherical ”fireballs” bounded by a double layer. In a magnetized plasma the shape becomes cylindrical, in nonuniform magnetic fields many asymmetric fireball shapes are possible. Due to electron energization the fireball plasma has higher density and temperature than the ambient plasma. The double layer can also be produced by a high transparency positively biased grid. Instabilities arise from the electron transit through the plasma bubble and the double layer. When a permanent magnet is biased positively the electrons perform ExB drifts in the equatorial plane between the poles. Electron drift modes are excited with a high spectral contents. Similarly, a negatively biased magnet produces a disk-shaped plasma bubble. The cold magnet emits secondary electrons due to the impact of energetic ions. Such magnetron discharges exhibit a variety of instabilities which affect the cross-field transport and sputtering applications. This report will summarize the main effects observed and provide references to more detailed publications.

  9. Developments in coupled solid-phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Ramautar, Rawi; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the design and application of coupled SPE-CE systems that have been reported in the literature between January 2011 and June 2013. The present paper is an update of three previous review papers covering the years 2000-2011 (Electrophoresis 2008, 29, 108-128; Electrophoresis 2010, 31, 44-54; Electrophoresis 2012, 33, 243-250). The use of in-line and on-line SPE-CE approaches is described in this review. Emerging technological developments, such as the use of in-line frit-free SPE and chip-based SPE for extraction of sample components prior to CE analysis, are outlined. Selected examples illustrate the applicability of SPE-CE in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. A complete overview of recent SPE-CE studies is given in table format, providing information on sample type, SPE sorbent, coupling mode, detection mode, and LOD. Finally, some general conclusions and future perspectives are provided. PMID:24114847

  10. NAEP Fourth-, Eighth-, and Twelfth-Grade Reading Scores by Gender: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecker, Beverly M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a secondary analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scores by gender. Data were national public 4th- and 8th-grade reading scores from composite and subscales for 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Twelfth-grade scores for composite and literary experience from 2005, 2009, and 2013 and gain…

  11. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  12. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

  13. Unreported Male Sex Partners Among Men with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection - North Carolina, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiu; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gay, Cynthia L; Zhang, Xinjian; Beagle, Steve; Hall, Laura; Jackson, Tonyka; Marmorino, Jenni; Do, Ann N; Peters, Philip J

    2015-09-25

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions, such as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are often targeted to men who have sex with men (MSM) who self-report high-risk behaviors. Data from a prospective study evaluating methods to detect acute HIV infection among a primarily young (aged <25 years) and black or African American (African American) population from North Carolina were analyzed. In the study, participants were asked about risk behaviors during pretest counseling (at the time of testing) and then during a partner services interview (at HIV diagnosis). Participants whose disclosure of sexual risk behaviors during pretest counseling was different from their disclosure of sexual risk behaviors during their partner services interview were identified, and factors associated with these discordant responses were examined. Among 113 HIV-infected men, 26 (23.0%) did not disclose male sex partners at pretest counseling, but subsequently did disclose this information during their partner services interview. When compared with men who disclosed having male partners at pretest counseling, these 26 MSM who did not disclose male partners during pretest counseling were found to have a similar number of male partners during contact tracing, but were more likely to have a female partner (30.8% versus 6.9%). In addition, the proportions of MSM found to have at least one HIV-infected partner were similar for both groups (MSM who disclosed having male partners during pretest counseling and those who did not). To better customize HIV prevention interventions for MSM, HIV prevention programs might consider using novel strategies to accurately assess risk in this population. PMID:26401589

  14. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Community Preventive Services Task Force. TABLE 1. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of nonpregnant women ... years) was selected as the referent. TABLE 2. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of pregnant women ...

  15. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro experience we consider the objectivity of the Volcanic Activity Level a powerful tool to focus the discussions in a Scientific Committee on the activity forecast and on the expected scenarios, rather than on the multiple explanations of the data fluctuations, which is one of the main sources of conflict in the Scientific Committee discussions. Although the Volcanic Alert System was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the involved methodologies may be applied to other situations of unrest.

  16. Audit of the management of the syphilis outbreak in Herefordshire 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Cox, Joanna H; Elliott, Enid; Sivaprakasam, Venkat; Chima-Okereke, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this audit was to evaluate a localised rural outbreak of syphilis against British Association of Sexual Health and HIV guidelines. Forty-nine cases were identified; 98% were men, and 88% were men who have sex with men (MSM). There was a low incidence of HIV co-infection (18%). All standards regarding monitoring and treatment were met, whereas the standard concerning contact tracing was narrowly missed, highlighting a number of issues and areas for improvement. This audit has highlighted that a proactive approach is necessary to identify cases of syphilis in rural communities. This is due to difficulties in outreach testing and contact tracing in the absence of designated meeting places for MSM. PMID:24912537

  17. 75 FR 51853 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Public Libraries Survey, FY 2011-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...The Institute of Museum and Library Service (``IMLS'') as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, conducts a pre-clearance consultation program to provide the general public and Federal agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). This......

  18. Geographical differences in seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Norway, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; White, Richard A; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Aase, Audun

    2016-07-01

    Detection of specific antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a useful aid for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. However, antibodies are present in the general population. The seroprevalence increase with age, and varies according to the prevalence of infected ticks. We performed a seroprevalence study of IgM and IgG antibody reactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Norway by age-groups and geography, in order to provide a reference set of seroprevalence to inform the interpretation of positive test results. We used two commercially available enzyme immuno assays (EIA) and a multiplexed bead assay to detect Borrelia IgG antibodies in a convenience sample of 3057 sera collected from clinical chemistry laboratories in 10 of 19 counties in Norway between December 2011 and January 2013. We estimated seroprevalence by age and county by a logistic regression model. IgM antibodies were detected by two commercially available EIAs and a multiplexed bead assay. The overall seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG was 4.0% (95% CI: 2.4-6.6%) and 4.2% (2.6-6.8%) by the two EIAs, respectively. The seroprevalence increased by age, and by geography from north to south. The IgG assays showed a good agreement for positive test results. All sera positive for IgG in the multiplexed bead assay reacted with the VlsE antigen, and also had high antibody levels by EIA. The Borrelia seroprevalence varied by geography and increased by age. The results indicate regional differences in pre-test probabilities for positive test results, and can inform the interpretation of laboratory results. PMID:26961275

  19. Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Michael; Conroy, Andrea L; Opoka, Robert O; Namasopo, Sophie; Zhong, Kathleen; Liles, W Conrad; John, Chandy C; Kain, Kevin C

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives is emerging in Asia. We examined molecular markers of resistance in 78 children in Uganda who had severe malaria and were treated with intravenous artesunate. We observed in the K13-propeller domain, A578S, a low-frequency (3/78), nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with prolonged parasite clearance. PMID:26079933

  20. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Festa, James; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Fedele; Cheung, Ross; Deutschmann, Tim; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Navarro, Maria; Atlas, Elliot; Chipperfield, Martyn; Hossaini, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Bromine plays an important role for the chemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was deployed onboard NASA's UAV Global Hawk during the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) during a series of flights into the eastern and western Pacific tropopause layer (flight altitudes up to 18 km), which is a gateway to the stratosphere. The measurement methodology to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. Observations of BrO, NO2 and O3 and of other trace species, in particular of brominated hydrocarbons are compared with simulations of the SLIMCAT CTM and interpreted with respect to photochemistry and the budget of bromine within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

  1. Mesoscale contribution to salinity transport in the North Atlantic subtropics (2011-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Gilles; Boutin, Jacqueline; Centurioni, Luca; Hormann, Verena; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Font, Jordi; Salvador, Joaquin; Sommer, Anna; Martin, Nicolas; Morisset, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Mesoscale activity is expected to contribute to transport salt horizontally out of the region of maximum salinity of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Using in situ and satellite observations, we investigate the contribution of mesoscale activity to the salinity budget in the central part of the subtropical gyre. Surface current data originate from close to 150 surface drifters deployed for SPURS, as well as satellite altimetry from Aviso products, and salinity data originate mostly from Argo floats, over 100 drifters and thermosalinographs, in particular from the SSS observing system ships Coriolis and Toucan (www.legos.obs-mip.fr/fr/soa/ore-sss/distribution). The period investigated is from 2011 to 2013. Near 30°N, north of the subtropics, as well as near 20°N, SMOS data indicate significant meridional transport, despite the large noise on the data, and the filtering of the smaller scales (100 km) of the transport. Closer to the core of the subtropical gyre, we find evidence in the drifter data of significant meridional transport, but that is highly irregular in time, as it seems associated with a few specific events. Whether this is due to the inhomogneous and Lagrangian nature of the sampling is discussed. We also check the budget at a smaller spatial scale using a dedicated meso-scale cruise (Strasse) in August 2012.

  2. Biochemical determination of enzyme-bound metabolites: preferential accumulation of a programmed octaketide on the enediyne polyketide synthase CalE8.

    PubMed

    Belecki, Katherine; Townsend, Craig A

    2013-09-25

    Despite considerable interest in the enediyne family of antitumor antibiotics, assembly of their polyketide core structures in nature remains poorly understood. Discriminating methods to access enzyme-bound intermediates are critical for elucidating unresolved polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic pathways. Here, we describe the development of broadly applicable techniques for the mild chemical release and analysis of intermediates bound to carrier proteins (CPs), providing access to these species even in sensitive systems. These techniques were applied to CalE8, the polyketide synthase (PKS) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis, facilitating the unambiguous identification of enzyme-bound polyketides on an enediyne PKS. Moreover, these methods enabled the preparation of fully unloaded CalE8, providing a "clean slate" for reconstituted activity and allowing us to demonstrate the preferential accumulation of a PKS-bound octaketide with evidence of programmed processing control by CalE8. This intermediate, which has the expected chain length for enediyne core construction, could previously only be indirectly inferred. These studies prove that this polyketide is an authentic product of CalE8 and may be a key precursor to the enediyne core of calicheamicin, as it is the only programmed, enzyme-bound species observed for any enediyne system to date. Our experimental advances into a generally inaccessible system illustrate the utility of these techniques for investigating CP-based biosynthetic pathways. PMID:24041368

  3. Biochemical Determination of Enzyme-bound Metabolites: Preferential Accumulation of a Programmed Octaketide on the Enediyne Polyketide Synthase CalE8

    PubMed Central

    Belecki, Katherine; Townsend, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the enediyne family of antitumor antibiotics, assembly of their polyketide core structures in nature remains poorly understood. Discriminating methods to access enzyme-bound intermediates are critical for elucidating unresolved polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide biosynthetic pathways. Here, we describe the development of broadly applicable techniques for the mild chemical release and analysis of intermediates bound to carrier proteins (CPs), providing access to these species even in sensitive systems. These techniques were applied to CalE8, the polyketide synthase (PKS) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis, facilitating the unambiguous identification of enzyme-bound polyketides on an enediyne PKS. Moreover, these methods enabled the preparation of fully unloaded CalE8, providing a "clean slate" for reconstituted activity and allowing us to demonstrate the preferential accumulation of a PKS-bound octaketide with evidence of programmed processing control by CalE8. This intermediate, which has the expected chain length for enediyne core construction, could only be indirectly inferred previously. These studies prove that this polyketide is an authentic product of CalE8 and may be a key precursor to the enediyne core of calicheamicin, as it is the only programmed, enzyme-bound species observed for any enediyne system to date. Our experimental advances into a generally inaccessible system illustrate the utility of these techniques for investigating CP-based biosynthetic pathways. PMID:24041368

  4. Adsorption of biopolymers on SWCNT: ordered poly(rC) and disordered poly(rI).

    PubMed

    Karachevtsev, Maksym V; Gladchenko, Galina O; Plokhotnichenko, Alexander M; Leontiev, Victor S; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2013-03-01

    Polymer adsorption onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) depends on its rigidity/flexibility. The adsorption properties of two related homopolynucleotides poly(rI) and poly(rC) but of different rigidities were compared, employing absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. It was shown that adsorption of the poor base stacked poly(rI) onto the nanotube is less effective than that of the strong base stacked poly(rC), the chain of which is of higher rigidity. Analysis of UV absorption spectra of polymer:nanotube suspension at heating until 90 °C, which leads to partial nanotube aggregation because of the weakly bound polymer sliding from the tube surface, revealed that the percent of precipitated nanotubes in suspension with poly(rI) is larger than that in suspension with poly(rC) (16% vs 7%). This fact indicates the higher stability of SWCNT:poly(rC) hybrid in comparison with SWCNT:poly(rI). Less effective adsorption of poly(rI) is confirmed with a weaker hypochromic effect of nanotubes covered with poly(rI) than with poly(rC), which originates from π-π stacking of nitrogen bases with the nanotube surface. Spontaneous adsorption of oligomers on the nanotube simulated by the molecular dynamics showed that oligomer r(I)25 has a weaker energy of binding to the carbon nanotube surface than r(C)25. The oligomer with ordered bases has a tendency to form the stretched conformation along the nanotube, which provides a higher binding energy, while more flexible r(I)25 forms the stable loop spaced away from the nanotube surface, the stability of which is strengthened with H-bonding between bases. PMID:23402540

  5. Impact of climate variability on terrestrial environment in Western Europe between 45 and 9 kyr cal. BP: vegetation dynamics recorded by the Bergsee Lake (Black Forest, Germany).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat-Oualid, Fanny; Begeot, Carole; Rius, Damien; Millet, Laurent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Between 9 and 45 kyr cal. BP, two great transitions lead the global climate system to evolve from the Last-Glacial period (115-14.7 kyr cal. BP), to two successive warmer periods, the Late-Glacial Interstadial (14.7-11.7 kyr cal. BP) and the Holocene (11.7-0 kyr cal. BP). δ18O variations recorded in Greenland ice cores (GRIP & NGRIP) revealed high frequency climate variability within the Last Glacial. These reference isotopic records highlighted a succession of centennial-to-millennial warm/cold events, the so-called Greenland Interstadials (GI) and Greenland Stadials (GS). The number continental records about the period 14.7-0 kyr cal. BP is substantial. This allowed to understand the vegetation dynamics in response to climate changes this period at the North-Atlantic scale. However, sequences covering the glacial period (beyond 20 kyr cal.BP) remain rare, because of hiatuses mostly due to local glaciers. Therefore, sedimentary continuous records of vegetation dynamics are still needed to better understand climate changes during the Last Glacial in Western Europe (Heiri et al. 2014). Here we present a new high-resolution pollen record from Lake Bergsee (47°34'20''N, 7°56'11''E, 382 m a.s.l). This lake is located south of Black Forest and north of the Alps, beyond the zone of glaciers maximal extension. Therefore it could have recorded the whole last climatic cycle, i.e. 120-0 kyr cal. BP. In 2013, a 29 m long core was extracted from the Bergsee. According to the depth-age model based on 14C AMS dating and the Laacher See Tephra (LST), the record spans continuously at least the last 45 kyrs. The first series of pollen analysis, focused on the 45-9 kyr cal. BP time window, allows us to reconstruct a precise, faithful and continuous vegetation history at the centennial scale. This high temporal resolution enabled to assess the response of vegetation to secular climate events (e.g. GI-4 = 200 yrs). First, our results show that vegetation responded to climate

  6. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  7. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-02-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  8. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-08-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  9. Poly(A) polymerase-based poly(A) length assay

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Deepak P.; Bakthavachalu, Baskar; Schoenberg, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary mRNA polyadenylation functions in nuclear export, translation and stability. We describe an efficient protocol designed to assess poly(A) tail length that is based on 3' tailing by yeast poly(A) polymerase and product analysis to single-nucleotide resolution by capillary electrophoresis. PMID:24590776

  10. Mechanism of Cis-Inhibition of PolyQ Fibrillation by PolyP: PPII Oligomers and the Hydrophobic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Gregory D.; Derryberry, JohnMark; Kurutz, Josh W.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract PolyQ peptides teeter between polyproline II (PPII) and β-sheet conformations. In tandem polyQ-polyP peptides, the polyP segment tips the balance toward PPII, increasing the threshold number of Gln residues needed for fibrillation. To investigate the mechanism of cis-inhibition by flanking polyP segments on polyQ fibrillation, we examined short polyQ, polyP, and tandem polyQ-polyP peptides. These polyQ peptides have only three glutamines and cannot form β-sheet fibrils. We demonstrate that polyQ-polyP peptides form small, soluble oligomers at high concentrations (as shown by size exclusion chromatography and diffusion coefficient measurements) with PPII structure (as shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy and 3JHN-Cα constants of Gln residues from constant time correlation spectroscopy NMR). Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggest that self-association of these peptides occurs as a result of both hydrophobic and steric effects. Pro side chains present three methylenes to solvent, favoring self-association of polyP through the hydrophobic effect. Gln side chains, with two methylene groups, can adopt a conformation similar to that of Pro side chains, also permitting self-association through the hydrophobic effect. Furthermore, steric clashes between Gln and Pro side chains to the C-terminal side of the polyQ segment favor adoption of the PPII-like structure in the polyQ segment. The conformational adaptability of the polyQ segment permits the cis-inhibitory effect of polyP segments on fibrillation by the polyQ segments in proteins such as huntingtin. PMID:19843462

  11. Oceanographic and climatic record for the last 18 ka cal BP in marine sediments from Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escorza-Reyes, M.; Pérez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Salas-de-León, D.

    2012-04-01

    In this study a marine sequence is analyzed in order to reconstruct the oceanographic and climatic conditions based on geochemical and magnetic data, in centennial to multi-decadal time scales during the past 18 ka in the southern Gulf of California. The gravity core DIPAL III-T2 was recovered in the eastern part of Pescadero Basin, at 577 m depth, in the Pacific Intermediate Water (PIW) and Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), aboard the R/V "El Puma" of the National University of Mexico (UNAM). The core is 262 cm long. This core is characterized by clay sediments. It shows massive and homogeneous sediments from bottom to 200 cm, and from there to the top a well defined laminated structure. Light laminae exhibit high content of biogenic components (mainly diatoms, radiolarian and silicoflagellates remains), whereas dark laminae are formed mostly by terrigenous material. Age model is based on five AMS radiocarbon dating, calibrated applying the CALIB 6.1.0 radiocarbon program. The sedimentation rates estimated range from ~0.1 mm/yr to ~0.3 mm/yr (in the upper part); sedimentary sequence comprises approximately the past 18 ka cal BP. Samples were taken every cm and they were dried and grounded, and elemental chemical concentrations measured using an X-ray fluorescence analyzer (Niton XL3t GOLDD). For magnetic susceptibility, measurements were taken every 0.5 cm with a Bartington Susceptibilimeter with MS2B sensor. A sharp difference in concentrations of Fe, Ti, K, Si, Ca y V, also observed in magnetic susceptibility measurements, marks the transition between Holocene and Pleistocene epochs, suggesting deposition under different conditions of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. In particular, low Ti, Fe and K concentrations at ~ 8 ka cal BP, indicate a decrease in terrigenous input, indicating a decrease in rainfall and river discharges from mainland to the basin, suggesting dry and cold conditions. We propose that this signal correlate with the 8.2 ka cooling event, that

  12. Radiative Effects of Carbonaceous and Inorganic Aerosols over California during CalNex and CARES: Observations versus Model Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoj, V.; Fast, J. D.; Liu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols have been identified to be a major contributor to the uncertainty in understanding the present climate. Most of this uncertainty arises due to the lack of knowledge of their micro-physical and chemical properties as well as how to adequately represent their spatial and temporal distributions. Increased process level understanding can be achieved through carefully designed field campaigns and experiments. These measurements can be used to elucidate the aerosol properties, mixing, transport and transformation within the atmosphere and also to validate and improve models that include meteorology-aerosol-chemistry interactions. In the present study, the WRF-Chem model is used to simulate the evolution of carbonaceous and inorganic aerosols and their impact on radiation during May and June of 2010 over California when two field campaigns took place: the California Nexus Experiment (CalNex) and Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). We merged CalNex and CARES data along with data from operational networks such as, California Air Resources Board (CARB's) air quality monitoring network, the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), and satellites into a common dataset for the Aerosol Modeling Test bed. The resulting combined dataset is used to rigorously evaluate the model simulation of aerosol mass, size distribution, composition, and optical properties needed to understand uncertainties that could affect regional variations in aerosol radiative forcing. The model reproduced many of the diurnal, multi-day, and spatial variations of aerosols as seen in the measurements. However, regionally the performance varied with reasonably good agreement with observations around Los Angeles and Sacramento and poor agreement with observations in the vicinity of Bakersfield (although predictions aloft were much better). Some aerosol species (sulfate and nitrate) were better represented

  13. Immobilization of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) triblock copolymer on poly(lactide- co-glycolide) surface and dual biofunctional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aiping; Lu, Ping; Wu, Hao

    2007-01-01

    Poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymer was covalently immobilized onto poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) surface with the precursor of photopolymerizable and biodegradable PCL-PEG-PCL diacrylates. Argon plasma technique was exploited to obtain hydrophilic PLGA surface (HPLGA). The surface properties were characterized by Water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. PCL-PEG-PCL surface modified hydrophobic PLGA and hydrophilic PLGA results in different surface physicochemical properties. PCL-PEG-PCL modified hydrophobic PLGA surface (PLGA-PCL-PEG-PCL) demonstrates excellent inhibition of platelet adhesion and activation; while PCL-PEG-PCL modified hydrophilic PLGA surface (HPLGA-PCL-PEG-PCL) results in good cytocompatibility. The possible mechanism was discussed and the driven force was ascribed to the different assembly behavior of PCL-PEG-PCL on PLGA surface dependant on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic property of PLGA. This simple and effective surface engineering method is also suitable for the other biomaterials such as polyurethane (PU), silicon rubber and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to obtain the enhanced biocompatibility.

  14. Poly(hydroxy acids) in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Juni, K; Nakano, M

    1987-01-01

    Poly(hydroxy acids) so far have been examined for use in drug delivery in limited number, while the advantageous use of the polymers has been recognized due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. Homo- and copolymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid have been studied in drug delivery by many workers, while homo- and copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone have been studied by only one group of workers. Although poly-hydroxybutyric acid had been found to be a naturally occurring polymer, examination as to the use of the polymer in drug delivery is rather recent and reports are still limited. In the present article, the use of poly(hydroxy acids) including homo- and copolymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid, polycaprolactone, and poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in drug delivery is reviewed. Physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility of the polymers, and evaluations in vitro and in vivo of specific dosage forms using the polymers, are included. The most recent work in our laboratories on the use of polyactic acid and poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid is also included. PMID:3549007

  15. Miscibility and degradability of poly(lactic acid)poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) blends

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, C.L.; Dave, V.; Gross, R.A.; McCarthy, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) [PLA] was melt blended with polyethylene(oxide) [PEG] and poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] in different compositions to form blown films. It was determined that PLA was miscible with PEO in all compositions. Based on Gordon-Taylor equation, it was determined that the interactions between PLA and PEO is stronger than PEG. The addition of low molecular weight PEG improved the elongation and tear strength of the blends. Enzymatic degradation results shows that the weight loss of all the samples was more than 80% of the initial weight in 48 hours.

  16. Freshwater input into the Gulf of Mexico Prior to the 8.2 cal kyr BP Cool Event in Greenland Ice Core Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodico, J. M.; Flower, B. P.; Quinn, T. M.

    2004-12-01

    The most prominent event recorded in Greenland ice core records over the past 10 calendar kiloyears before present (cal kyr BP) is an abrupt cooling at 8.2 cal kyr BP, which lasted for 300-400 yrs. It has been proposed that this climatic event was caused by a weakening of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic forced by a vast outflow of freshwater through the Hudson Strait from glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Sediment core MD02-2550 from Orca Basin located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provides an early Holocene record (10 to 7 cal kyr BP) of GOM climate changes, input from the Mississippi River system and adjacent continental areas. Paired analysis of Mg/Ca, a proxy of sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and \\delta18O on the planktonic foraminifera { \\it Globigerinoides ruber } (white variety; 250 -350 μ m) sampled at 0.5 cm (providing ˜20 year resolution), indicate a large isotopic excursion of ˜ -1 ‰ \\delta18O seawater from 8.5 to 8.4 cal kyr BP, coincident with the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.47 cal kyr BP. We consider three possible sources for this freshwater pulse: freshwater input from glacial lakes, meltwater input from the drainage of the Laurentide Ice Sheet's final dome, and/or increased precipitation in North American drainage basins. Mg/Ca-SSTs show minimal mean change across the freshwater interval and an average of ˜28 ° C from 7 to 10 cal kyr BP, which is within the current mean SSTs for GOM ( ˜28 ° C). Mg/Ca-SST and \\delta18O seawater time series contain concentrations of variance near 500, 220, 146, and 60 years, significant at the 90 % confidence level, indicating possible sensitivity to solar variations. Ongoing faunal assemblage work will provide additional assessment for SST, sea surface salinity (SSS) and nutrient changes during the early Holocene in the GOM.

  17. The Dielectric Properties of Poly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Alfredo

    The dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF(,2)) are discussed in this work. A review of the literature concerning the five known dielectric relaxations of PVF(,2) is presented and the general theory of dielectric relaxations in polymers is summarized. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of several samples of PVF(,2) were measured as a function of frequency, temperature and pressure. In the temperature experiment covering the range from 5 K to 380 K at five audio frequencies (100 Hz to 10 KHz), four relaxations were found: (alpha), (beta), (delta) and (epsilon). The (alpha) relaxation at temperatures between 345 and 370 K at 1000 Hz, was found to be dependent on the history and preparation method of the sample and also to have a Debye like behavior. The (beta) relaxation around 250 K at 1000 Hz was found to be related to the glass transition of PVF(,2) and its behavior is parametrized by using the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model. The (delta) relaxation around 76 K at 1000 Hz was found to be Debye like and associated with the (alpha)-phase of PVF(,2). The (epsilon) relaxation was found in (beta)-phase PVF(,2) at 14.5 K at 1000 Hz. Evidence of the relaxation was found also in (alpha)-phase PVF(,2). In the pressure experiments the (beta) relaxation was studied in the temperature range from 240 to 360 K and at pressures from 0.0001 to 0.6 GPa. The behavior was explained by using the WLF free volume model and comparison between the calculated glass transition temperature parameter in the WLF equation and the experimental peak temperature is made. It was found that even though the WLF equation mathematically describes the (beta) relaxation, the T(,g) parameter does not represent the real transition temperature behavior with pressure. The peak temperature of the (beta) relaxation, was found to be a better guide to the behavior of the real T(,g).

  18. Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P.

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti Lippi, Marta; Foggi, Bruno; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Revedin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Residue analyses on a grinding tool recovered at Grotta Paglicci sublayer 23A [32,614 ± 429 calibrated (cal) B.P.], Southern Italy, have demonstrated that early modern humans collected and processed various plants. The recording of starch grains attributable to Avena (oat) caryopses expands our information about the food plants used for producing flour in Europe during the Paleolithic and about the origins of a food tradition persisting up to the present in the Mediterranean basin. The quantitative distribution of the starch grains on the surface of the grinding stone furnished information about the tool handling, confirming its use as a pestle-grinder, as suggested by the wear-trace analysis. The particular state of preservation of the starch grains suggests the use of a thermal treatment before grinding, possibly to accelerate drying of the plants, making the following process easier and faster. The study clearly indicates that the exploitation of plant resources was very important for hunter–gatherer populations, to the point that the Early Gravettian inhabitants of Paglicci were able to process food plants and already possessed a wealth of knowledge that was to become widespread after the dawn of agriculture. PMID:26351674

  19. Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P.

    PubMed

    Mariotti Lippi, Marta; Foggi, Bruno; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Revedin, Anna

    2015-09-29

    Residue analyses on a grinding tool recovered at Grotta Paglicci sublayer 23A [32,614 ± 429 calibrated (cal) B.P.], Southern Italy, have demonstrated that early modern humans collected and processed various plants. The recording of starch grains attributable to Avena (oat) caryopses expands our information about the food plants used for producing flour in Europe during the Paleolithic and about the origins of a food tradition persisting up to the present in the Mediterranean basin. The quantitative distribution of the starch grains on the surface of the grinding stone furnished information about the tool handling, confirming its use as a pestle-grinder, as suggested by the wear-trace analysis. The particular state of preservation of the starch grains suggests the use of a thermal treatment before grinding, possibly to accelerate drying of the plants, making the following process easier and faster. The study clearly indicates that the exploitation of plant resources was very important for hunter-gatherer populations, to the point that the Early Gravettian inhabitants of Paglicci were able to process food plants and already possessed a wealth of knowledge that was to become widespread after the dawn of agriculture. PMID:26351674

  20. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  1. Skill Test of the West-WRF and GFS Models Verified Using CalWater Dropsonde Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirdjian, R.; Martin, A.; Ralph, F. M.; Iacobellis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (AR) play a crucial role in the horizontal transport of water vapor and moist static energy in the midlatitudes and in delivering water to a variety of continental climate zones. In California, up to 60% of the annual precipitation depends on the arrival of a small number of AR. Despite their importance, state-of-the art atmospheric circulation models are consistently poor in predicting AR location and timing. We will demonstrate that model predictions also contain large errors in the magnitude of AR horizontal vapor transport. In this study we aim to compare the prediction skill in horizontal water vapor transport from a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecast (West-WRF) and the Global Forecast System (GFS) models. We verify model skill using dropsonde observations taken from the CalWater 2014 - 2015 field campaigns and a ground-based network of co-located wind profiling radar and GPS receivers. We compare each model across a large number of lead times ranging from 12 hours to 8 days. Our preliminary results suggest that the Integrated Vapor Transport (IVT) and total vapor flux are more accurately predicted by the higher resolution West-WRF model. Furthermore, we find that GFS typically has a consistent 2-6 hour lag in the timing of peak water vapor flux compared to the West-WRF model. Physical explanations of the more accurate West-WRF horizontal vapor transport and the apparent delay in peak vapor flux timing are also examined.

  2. Performance of the CalTOX fate and exposure model in a case study for a dioxin-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Åberg, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wiberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Soil with high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is found at contaminated sites all over the world. Transfer of PCDD/Fs from contaminated soil to the food chain could lead to elevated human exposure. As a complement to available monitoring data, multimedia fate and exposure modeling can be applied to support risk assessment of sites with PCDD/F contaminated soil. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the CalTOX fate and exposure model for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs against measured concentrations in air, soil, grass, carrots, potatoes, milk, meat, and eggs from a contaminated site in northern Sweden. The calculated total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations agree with measurements within a factor of 10 for all exposure media but one. Results for individual congeners demonstrated that the model did not always perform well at describing key processes that mobilize PCDD/Fs out of soils, such as transfer into root crops and ingestion of soil by chickens. Uncertainty in only a small subset of input parameters affects the model output. Improved information and models describing transfer of soil particles onto leafy vegetation by rain splash and biotransfer factors for PCDD/Fs to milk, meat, and eggs are particular research needs to reduce uncertainties in model-based assessments. PMID:25572268

  3. Rigidifying Acyl Carrier Protein Domain in Iterative Type I PKS CalE8 Does Not Affect Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jackwee; Sun, Huihua; Fan, Jing-Song; Hameed, Iman Fahim; Lescar, Julien; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Yang, Daiwen

    2012-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains shuttle acyl intermediates among the catalytic domains of multidomain type I fatty acid synthase and polyketide synthase (PKS) systems. It is believed that the unique function of ACPs is associated with their dynamic property, but it remains to be fully elucidated what type of protein dynamics is critical for the shuttling domain. Using NMR techniques, we found that the ACP domain of iterative type I PKS CalE8 from Micromonospora echinospora is highly dynamic on the millisecond-second timescale. Introduction of an interhelical disulfide linkage in the ACP domain suppresses the dynamics on the millisecond-second timescale and reduces the mobility on the picosecond-nanosecond timescale. We demonstrate that the full-length PKS is fully functional upon rigidification of the ACP domain, suggesting that although the flexibility of the disordered terminal linkers may be important for the function of the ACP domain, the internal dynamics of the helical regions is not critical for that function. PMID:23009853

  4. IRF5 and IRF8 modulate the CAL-1 human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line response following TLR9 ligation.

    PubMed

    Steinhagen, Folkert; Rodriguez, Luis G; Tross, Debra; Tewary, Poonam; Bode, Christian; Klinman, Dennis M

    2016-03-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing CpG motifs stimulate human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to produce type-1 interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Previous studies demonstrated that interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a central role in mediating CpG-induced pDC activation. This work explores the inverse effects of IRF5 and IRF8 (also known as IFN consensus sequence-binding protein) on CpG-dependent gene expression in the human CAL-1 pDC cell line. This cell line shares many of the phenotypic and functional properties of freshly isolated human pDCs. Results from RNA interference and microarray studies indicate that IRF5 upregulates TLR9-driven gene expression whereas IRF8 downregulates the same genes. Several findings support the conclusion that IRF8 inhibits TLR9-dependent gene expression by directly blocking the activity of IRF5. First, the inhibitory activity of IRF8 is only observed when IRF5 is present. Second, proximity ligation analysis shows that IRF8 and IRF5 colocalize within the cytoplasm of resting human pDCs and cotranslocate to the nucleus after CpG stimulation. Taken together, these findings suggest that IRF5 and IRF8, two transcription factors with opposing functions, control TLR9 signaling in human pDCs. PMID:26613957

  5. Synergistic Stimulation with Different TLR7 Ligands Modulates Gene Expression Patterns in the Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Line CAL-1

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Tobias; Steinhagen, Folkert; Weisheit, Christina; Baumgarten, Georg; Hoeft, Andreas; Klaschik, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Objective. TLR7 ligation in plasmacytoid dendritic cells is promising for the treatment of cancer, allergy, and infectious diseases; however, high doses of ligands are required. We hypothesized that the combination of structurally different TLR7 ligands exponentiates the resulting immune response. Methods. CAL-1 (human pDC line) cells were incubated with the TLR7-specific adenine analog CL264 and single-stranded 9.2s RNA. Protein secretion was measured by ELISA. Microarray technique was used to detect modified gene expression patterns upon synergistic stimulation, revealing underlying functional groups and networks. Cell surface binding properties were studied using FACS analysis. Results. CL264 in combination with 9.2s RNA significantly enhanced cytokine and interferon secretion to supra-additive levels. This effect was due to a stronger stimulation of already regulated genes (by monostimulation) as well as to recruitment of thus far unregulated genes. Top scoring canonical pathways referred to immune-related processes. Network analysis revealed IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, and IFN-β as major regulatory nodes, while several minor regulatory nodes were also identified. Binding of CL264 to the cell surface was enhanced by 9.2s RNA. Conclusion. Structurally different TLR7 ligands act synergistically on gene expression patterns and on the resulting inflammatory response. These data could impact future strategies optimizing TLR7-targeted drug design. PMID:26770023

  6. Molecular characterization of organic aerosol using nanospray desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Shang; Weber, Robin; Russell, Lynn M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol samples from the CalNex 2010 field study were analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to a nanospray desorption/electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) source. The samples were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 22-23, 2010. The chemical formulas of over 850 unique molecular species were detected in the mass range of 50-400 m/z using positive mode ESI of aerosol samples in the 0.18-0.32 μm size range. Our analysis focused on identification of two main groups: compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO), and nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). The NOC accounted for 40% (by number) of the compounds observed in the afternoon, and for 52% in the early morning samples. By comparing plausible reactant-product pairs, we propose that over 50% of the NOC in each sample could have been formed through reactions transforming carbonyls into imines. The CHO only compounds were dominant in the afternoon suggesting a photochemical source. The average O/C ratios of all observed compounds were fairly consistent throughout the day, ranging from 0.33 in the morning to 0.37 at night. We conclude that both photooxidation and ammonia chemistry may play a role in forming the compounds observed in this mixed urban-rural environment.

  7. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  8. Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosol Using Nanospray Desorption/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Shang; Weber, Robin; Russell, Lynn; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol samples from the CalNex 2010 field study were analyzed using high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to a nanospray-desorption/electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) source. The samples were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 22-23, 2010. The chemical formulas of over 1300 unique molecular species were detected in the mass range of 50-800 m/z. Our analysis focused on identification of two main groups: compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only), and nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). The NOC accounted for 35% (by number) of the compounds observed in the afternoon, and for 59% in the early morning samples. By comparing plausible reactant-product pairs, we propose that over 50% of the NOC in each sample could have been formed through reactions transforming carbonyls into imines. The CHO only compounds were dominant in the afternoon suggesting a photochemical source. The average O:C ratios of all observed compounds were fairly consistent throughout the day, ranging from 0.34 in the early morning to 0.37 at night. We conclude that both photooxidation and ammonia chemistry play important roles in forming the compounds observed in this mixed urban-rural environment.

  9. Observations of Convective Development from Repeat Pass Radiometry during CalWaters 2015: Outlook for the TEMPEST Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST), which was recently selected as a NASA Earth Ventures technology demonstration mission, uses a constellation of five CubeSats flying in formation to provide observations of developing precipitation with a temporal resolution of 5 minutes. The observations are made using small mm-wave radiometers with frequencies ranging from 90 to 183 GHz which are sensitive to the integrated ice water path above the precipitation layer in the storm. This paper describes TEMPEST like observations that were made with the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) on the ER-2 during CalWaters 2015. HAMSR is a mm-wave airborne radiometer with 25 channels in three bands; 50, 118 and 183 GHz. During the campaign, a small isolated area of convection was identified by the ER-2 pilot and 5 overpasses of the area were made with about 5 minutes between each pass. The HAMSR data reveal two convective cells, one which was diminishing and one which was developing. The mm-wave channels near the 183 GHz water vapor line clearly show the change in the vertical extent of the storm with time, a proxy for vertical velocity. These data demonstrate the potential for TEMPEST like observations from an orbital vantage point. This paper will provide an overview of the measurements, an analysis of the observations and offer perspectives for the TEMPEST mission.

  10. A study on the combustion characteristics of PVC, poly(styrene), poly(ethylene), and poly(propylene) particles under high heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotou, T.; Levendis, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The combustion characteristics of four commonly encountered plastics: poly(styrene), PVC, poly(ethylene) and poly(propylene) were studied under conditions pertinent to incinerators, that is, high heating rates (in the order of 10,000 K/s) and elevated gas temperatures (1,200--1,500 K). Batches of spherical and monodisperse particles of these plastics were generated in the size range of 53--300 [mu]m. Combustion of single particles, of known size and mass, was conducted in a laminar-flow drop-tube furnace, at controlled atmospheres. The radiation emitted from burning particles was monitored, along their flight path, by simultaneous three-color optical pyrometry and high-speed cinematography. Results indicate that polymer particles (plastics) burned expediently with burntimes similar to those of light oil drops such as kerosene, hexadecane, etc. Both PVC and poly(styrene) burned with very luminous yellow flames, which were attributed to high soot loadings. The flame combustion of PVC was the brightest and fastest with steadily decreasing temperature and flame diameter, while that of poly(styrene) occurred mostly at constant flame diameter and mildly decreasing temperature. Combustion of both poly(ethylene) and poly(propylene) was dimmer and somewhat lengthier. Furthermore, in this temperature region, it is argued herein that the combustion of poly(styrene), poly(ethylene), and poly(propylene) occurred concurrently with, and was partially controlled by, pyrolysis reactions. PVC seemed to undergo significant pyrolysis prior to ignition; thereafter, combustion occurred in a premixed-like flame mode and, finally, dimly glowing combustion of the remaining char was observed. PVC exhibited the highest soot volume fraction in its flame, followed by poly(styrene); poly(propylene), and poly(ethylene). Moreover, it was observed that the rate of burning was the highest for PVC particles and the lowest for poly(ethylene).

  11. Voltammetric studies of poly(carbon disulfide)

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, L.; Xu, J.; Prasad, S.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J.

    1992-12-31

    Poly(carbon disulfide) was studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon and platinum macro- and microdisk electrodes. The electron transfer kinetics is significantly faster at glassy carbon electrodes than at Pt electrodes. It is chemically reversible with moderate electron transfer rates. Voltammetric results of poly(carbon disulfide) are in good agreement with battery testing data. The k{sup 0} value measured at a Pt microdisk electrode is 7{times}10{sup 3} cm/sec. Electrochemical data suggest that PCS can be a potential cathode material for low current density lithium batteries.

  12. A comparison of the Greenland Ice-Core and IntCal timescales through the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion, utilising new 14c data from Tenaghi Philippon, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Richard A.; Hardiman, Mark; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C, share a common production signal, with their formation in the Earth's upper atmosphere modulated by changes to the geomagnetic field, as well as variations in the intensity of the solar wind. Here, we present 54 new 14C measurements from a terrestrial fen peat core extracted from the classical site of Tenaghi Philippon, NE Greece, contiguously spanning the time period between ~48,000 and 39,000 cal. BP. Utilising the most pronounced cosmogenic production peak of the last 100,000 years - that associated with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion circa 41,000 years ago - we exploit this common production signal, comparing Greenland 10Be with our Tenaghi Philippon 14C record, thereby providing a means to assess the concordance between the radiocarbon (IntCal) and Greenland ice-core (GICC05) timescales themselves for this, the oldest portion of the radiocarbon technique.

  13. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  14. Glacial to paraglacial history and forest recovery in the Oglio glacier system (Italian Alps) between 26 and 15 ka cal BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Badino, Federica; Marsetti, Diego; Patera, Glauco; Reimer, Paula J.

    2012-12-01

    The integrated stratigraphic, radiocarbon and palynological record from an end-moraine system of the Oglio valley glacier (Italian Alps), propagating a lobe upstream in a lateral reach, provided evidence for a complete cycle of glacial advance, culmination and withdrawal during the Last Glacial Maximum and early Lateglacial. The glacier culminated in the end moraine shortly after 25.8 ± 0.8 ka cal BP, and cleared the valley floor 18.3-17.2 ± 0.3 ka cal BP. A primary paraglacial phase is then recorded by fast progradation of the valley floor. As early as 16.7 ± 0.3 ka cal BP, early stabilization of alluvial fans and lake filling promoted expansion of cembran pine. This is an unprecedented evidence of direct tree response to depletion of paraglacial activity during the early Lateglacial, and also documents the cembran pine survival in the mountain belt of the Italian Alps during the last glaciation. Between 16.1 and 14.6 ± 0.5 ka cal BP, debris cones emplacement points to a moisture increase favouring tree Betula and Pinus sylvestris-mugo. A climate perturbation renewed paraglacial activity. According to cosmogenic ages on glacial deposits and AMS radiocarbon ages from lake records in South-Eastern Alps such phase compares favourably with the Gschnitz stadial and with the oscillations recorded at lakes Ragogna, Längsee and Jeserzersee, most probably forced by the latest freshening phases of the Heinrich Event 1. A further sharp pine rise marks the subsequent onset of Bølling interstadial. The chronology of the Oglio glacier compares closely with major piedmont glaciers on the Central and Eastern Alpine forelands. On the other hand, the results of the present study imply a chronostratigraphic re-assessment of the recent geological mapping of the Central Italian Alps.

  15. Application of the CAL 3-D CVS program to evaluate the equilibrium position of an Euler-jointed Alderson Part572

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The adaptation of the Cal 3-D crash victim simulation program in its version 20A form to a Vax 11/780 computer is described. The effectiveness of the modifications is demonstrated by using the program to seat a Euler-jointed Alderson Part 572 dummy with the equilibrium subroutine. The resulting segment linear acceleration values of .09 g or better indicate that the dummy can be considered to be in equilibrium.

  16. High-resolution paleomagnetic and sedimentological investigations on the Tibetan Plateau for the past 16 ka cal B.P.—The Tangra Yumco record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Karoline; Haberzettl, Torsten; St-Onge, Guillaume; Wang, Junbo; Ahlborn, Marieke; Daut, Gerhard; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2016-03-01

    The spatial distribution of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records on the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas covering the Holocene and Late Glacial is sparse. In order to reconstruct PSV in this area, a piston core covering the past 17.5 ka cal B.P. retrieved from Lake Tangra Yumco, southern-central Tibetan Plateau, was analyzed. In the laminated sediments, several event layers are intercalated. Those were identified by sedimentological analysis and excluded for age-depth modeling and interpretation. Paleomagnetic measurements on u-channels reveal two contrasting core sections. The lower section (dated to 17.5-15.9 ka cal B.P.) is very coarse grained (up to 220 µm) and characterized by low intensities (0.8 mA m-1) and high maximum angular deviation values (mean 25°), making it unsuitable for PSV reconstruction. In contrast, the upper unit (dated to <15.9 ka cal B.P.) yields ideal properties with a well-defined magnetization carried by low-coercivity minerals in the pseudo single domain state making those younger sediments a proper record for PSV studies. The robustness of the PSV reconstruction for the past 3000 years is highlighted by a comparable inclination and declination pattern of three short sediment cores (2 m) from Tangra Yumco. On a regional scale, the obtained inclination signal for the past 15.9 ka cal B.P. is in good agreement with the Lake Baikal record (3000 km to the North), PSV stack for East Asia, as well as with predictions of geomagnetic field models. This study is a step forward in constructing a PSV reference curve for central Asia.

  17. Compound-specific isotopic analyses track changes in seasonal precipitation regimes in the Northeastern United States at ca 8200 cal yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, Bryan; Huang, Yongsong; Newby, Paige; Wang, Yi

    2006-11-01

    We analyzed the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary leaf wax (C 28n-acid) and palmitic acid (C 16n-acid) in cores from Berry and Crooked Ponds in Massachusetts. The results show a dramatic positive shift in leaf wax δD values around 8200 cal yr BP, when regional lake levels rose and plant communities shifted in favor of plants intolerant of dry conditions. To aid our interpretation, we studied modern lake sediment samples and found that the δD values of leaf wax and palmitic acid record the hydrogen isotopic composition of water available during the synthesis of these compounds. Palmitic acid δD values follow lake water values often derived from winter precipitation, and leaf wax δD values track the water available to terrestrial plants during the growing season. Based on these results, we interpret the downcore isotopic shift as an increase in the fraction of precipitation falling during the growing season. The increase coincides with evidence from pollen and palmitic acid δD values for a multi-century period of cold conditions at ca 8200 cal yr BP. The close timing of the brief cool period and a step-change in summer precipitation levels in the northeastern United States is consistent with the hypothesis that the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet occurred in association with cold North Atlantic conditions from 8400 to 8000 cal yr BP. The location of the northeastern US downwind of the ice sheet and close to the North Atlantic makes it sensitive to both factors. Our results also provide insight into later changes in the northeastern US because they indicate a progressive decrease in summer precipitation levels after ca 8000 cal yr BP.

  18. [gamma]-Irradiation-induced grafting of poly(styrenesulfonate) to poly(tetrafluoroethylene) shielded microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, B.L.; Blubaugh, E.A.; Ridgway, T.H.; Heineman, W.R. )

    1994-06-01

    A new method for the fabrication and polymer modification of microelectrodes is described. These electrodes are constructed by heat sealing the electroactive material in dual shrink/melt poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) under vacuum. The PTFE shield may be activated to provide a support upon which polymers of interest may be grafted. [gamma]-Irradiation was used to graft polymerize styrene to the surface. The poly-(styrene) was subsequently sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid to form poly(styrenesulfonate). Scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy provide evidence that the poly-(styrenesulfonate) film has been formed and extends over the electrode material. Voltammetry indicates that hexaammine-ruthenium(III) cation is preconcentrated and stabilized via an association with the polymer film. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Preparation of poly (styrene)-b-poly (acrylic acid)/γ-Fe 2O 3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. D.; Liu, W. L.; Xiao, C. L.; Yao, J. S.; Fan, Z. P.; Sun, X. L.; Zhang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X. Q.

    2011-12-01

    The use of a block copolymer, poly (styrene)-b-poly (acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) to prepare a magnetic nanocomposite was investigated. Poly (styrene)-poly (t-butyl acrylate) block copolymer, being synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization, was hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid for obtaining PS-b-PAA. The obtained PS-b-PAA was then compounded with the modified γ-Fe2O3, and subsequently the magnetic nanocomposite was achieved. The products were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the nanocomposites exhibited soft magnetism, with the mean diameter of 100 nm approximately.

  20. In Vitro Effect of the Synthetic cal14.1a Conotoxin, Derived from Conus californicus, on the Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    De León-Nava, Marco A; Romero-Núñez, Eunice; Luna-Nophal, Angélica; Bernáldez-Sarabia, Johanna; Sánchez-Campos, Liliana N; Licea-Navarro, Alexei F; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé

    2016-04-01

    Toxins that are secreted by cone snails are small peptides that are used to treat several diseases. However, their effects on parasites with human and veterinary significance are unknown. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite that affects approximately 30% of the world's population and can be lethal in immunologically compromised individuals. The conventional treatment for this parasitic infection has remained the same since the 1950s, and its efficacy is limited to the acute phase of infection. These findings have necessitated the search for new drugs that specifically target T. gondii. We examined the effects of the synthetic toxin cal14.1a (s-cal14.1a) from C. californicus on the tachyzoite form of T. gondii. Our results indicate that, at micromolar concentrations, s-cal14.1a lowers viability and inhibits host cell invasion (by 50% and 61%, respectively) on exposure to extracellular parasites. Further, intracellular replication decreased significantly while viability of the host cell was unaffected. Our study is the first report on the antiparasitic activity of a synthetic toxin of C. californicus. PMID:27070627

  1. In Vitro Effect of the Synthetic cal14.1a Conotoxin, Derived from Conus californicus, on the Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    De León-Nava, Marco A.; Romero-Núñez, Eunice; Luna-Nophal, Angélica; Bernáldez-Sarabia, Johanna; Sánchez-Campos, Liliana N.; Licea-Navarro, Alexei F.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé

    2016-01-01

    Toxins that are secreted by cone snails are small peptides that are used to treat several diseases. However, their effects on parasites with human and veterinary significance are unknown. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite that affects approximately 30% of the world’s population and can be lethal in immunologically compromised individuals. The conventional treatment for this parasitic infection has remained the same since the 1950s, and its efficacy is limited to the acute phase of infection. These findings have necessitated the search for new drugs that specifically target T. gondii. We examined the effects of the synthetic toxin cal14.1a (s-cal14.1a) from C. californicus on the tachyzoite form of T. gondii. Our results indicate that, at micromolar concentrations, s-cal14.1a lowers viability and inhibits host cell invasion (by 50% and 61%, respectively) on exposure to extracellular parasites. Further, intracellular replication decreased significantly while viability of the host cell was unaffected. Our study is the first report on the antiparasitic activity of a synthetic toxin of C. californicus. PMID:27070627

  2. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  3. A Z-like form of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT) in solution?

    PubMed Central

    Vorlíckovă, M; Kypr, J; Stokrová, S; Sponar, J

    1982-01-01

    Circular dichroism was used to study changes in conformation of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT) caused by a high concentration of various monovalent salts. It was found that CsF induced the gradual appearance of a negative band in the long wavelength part of the CD spectrum of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT), which might reflect a transition of this DNA toward a Z-like structure. PMID:7063415

  4. Mg2+ ion effect on conformational equilibrium of poly A . 2 poly U and poly A poly U in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Victor A; Valeev, Vladimir A; Gladchenko, Galina O; Degtiar, Marina V; Karachevtsev, Victor A; Blagoi, Yuri P

    2003-01-15

    Differential UV spectroscopy and thermal denaturation were used to study the Mg(2+) ion effect on the conformational equilibrium in poly A.2 poly U (A2U) and poly A . poly U (AU) solutions at low (0.01 M Na(+)) and high (0.1 M Na(+)) ionic strengths. Four complete phase diagrams were obtained for Mg(2+)-polynucleotide complexes in ranges of temperatures 20-96 degrees C and concentrations (10(-5)-10(-2)) M Mg(2+). Three of them have a 'critical' point at which the type of the conformational transition changes. The value of the 'critical' concentration ([Mg(t)(2+)](cr)=(4.5+/-1.0) x 10(-5) M) is nearly independent of the initial conformation of polynucleotides (AU, A2U) and of Na(+) contents in the solution. Such a value is observed for Ni(2+) ions too. The phase diagram of the (A2U+Mg(2+)) complex with 0.01 M Na(+) has no 'critical' point: temperatures of (3-->2) and (2-->1) transitions increase in the whole Mg(2+) range. In (AU+Mg(2+)) phase diagram at 0.01 M Na(+) the temperature interval in which triple helices are formed and destroyed is several times larger than at 0.1 M Na(+). Using the ligand theory, a qualitative thermodynamic analysis of the phase diagrams was performed. PMID:12568931

  5. Poly(aniline) in corrosion resistant coatings

    SciTech Connect

    McAndrew, T.P.; Miller, S.A.; Gilicinski, A.G.; Robeson, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    During the past two decades, one of the most active fields of solid-state science has been electrically conductive polymers. These are polymers which are insulators as prepared, but which can be converted to polymers having many or all the properties of a metal, by virtue of appropriate chemical/electrochemical oxidation or reduction. Typically, applications examined for electrically conductive polymers have been in areas such as rechargeable batteries and charge dissipative coatings. Recently it has been reported that poly(aniline), in its electrically conductive, protonated form, shows excellent performance as a coating for preventing the corrosion of carbon steel. The present research has shown that in fact, the non-conductive, unprotonated form of poly(aniline) shows even better performance in corrosion prevention than the conductive form. Moreover, it has been shown that poly(aniline) can be blended with other polymers to improve their corrosion resistance performance (e.g., polyimides), or used as a hardener for epoxides or diisocyanates, to give very good corrosion resistant coatings. Poly(aniline) performance is explained in terms of its ability to form dense, adherent films, and create a basic surface on carbon steel surfaces.

  6. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) (CAS Reg. No. 24936-41-2) polymer produced by the polymerization of p-methylstyrene. (2) Rubber... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1635 Poly(p-methylstyrene) and...

  7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  8. Ideal CO2/Light Gas Separation Performance of Poly(vinylimidazolium) Membranes and Poly(vinylimidazolium)-Ionic Liquid Composite Films

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, TK; Wiesenauer, EF; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2013-01-23

    Six vinyl-based, imidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) monomers were synthesized and photopolymerized to form dense poly(RTIL) membranes. The effect of polymer backbone (i.e., poly(ethylene), poly(styrene), and poly(acrylate)) and functional cationic substituent (e.g., alkyl, fluoroalkyl, oligo(ethylene glycol), and disiloxane) on ideal CO2/N-2 and CO2/CH4 membrane separation performance was investigated. The vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be generally less CO2-selective compared to analogous styrene- and acrylate-based poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 permeability of n-hexyl-(69 barrers) and disiloxane- (130 barrers) substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be exceptionally larger than that of previously studied styrene and acrylate poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 selectivity of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s was enhanced, and the CO2 permeability was reduced when compared to the n-hexyl-substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL). Nominal improvement in CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed upon fluorination of the n-hexyl vinyl-based poly(RTIL), with no observed change in CO2 permeability. However, rather dramatic improvements in both CO2 permeability and selectivity were observed upon blending 20 mol % RTIL (emim Tf2N) into the n-hexyl- and disiloxane-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s to form solid liquid composite films.

  9. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zotter, P.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Four different parameterizations for the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region during the CalNex 2010 field campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model/measurement agreement for mass concentration. When comparing the three parameterizations, the Grieshop et al. (2009) parameterization more accurately reproduces both the SOA mass concentration and oxygen-to-carbon ratio inside the urban area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed SOA concentrations in Pasadena. All the parameterizations over-predict urban SOA formation at long

  10. Fine-scale photochemical modeling of ozone and ammonium nitrate over California during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Baker, K.; Misenis, C.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Veres, P. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Markovic, M. Z.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Weber, R.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple areas of California are designated as nonattainment of the ozone and PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards making air quality (AQ) modeling for California an important aspect of national-scale modeling for EPA rulemaking. Fine-scale AQ modeling for key population centers in California is also useful to inform health and exposure studies. However, AQ modeling is challenging in California due to complex emissions, terrain, meteorology, and chemistry, and understanding model performance is difficult using routine network observations alone. In May-June 2010, the CalNex field study was conducted in California to answer important scientific questions related to air quality and climate processes. The field study provides a rich observational dataset for probing the performance of fine-scale AQ simulations and identifying causes of model performance limitations. In this study, we conduct fine-scale (4-km horizontal resolution) photochemical model simulations for California during May-June 2010 using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model with the Carbon Bond 05 and SAPRC07 gas-phase chemical mechanisms. Model predictions are then evaluated using observations from the CalNex ground, aircraft, and ship platforms in addition routine network observations. Our model evaluations focus on understanding predictions of ammonium nitrate and ozone concentrations given the importance of these pollutants to California's air quality. Model predictions of ammonium and nitrate have a slight low bias but are strongly correlated with network observations in Riverside and Bakersfield. The model tends to under-predict NH3 concentrations observed on the NOAA P3 aircraft near large NH3 sources in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). At the SJV ground site, NH3 predictions are of similar magnitude as observations, while NH3 tends to be over-predicted at the Pasadena ground site. Nitric acid is over-predicted during the day at the SJV ground site

  11. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; et al

    2014-12-20

    Four different parameterizations for the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region during the CalNex 2010 field campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generationmore » oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model/measurement agreement for mass concentration. When comparing the three parameterizations, the Grieshop et al. (2009) parameterization more accurately reproduces both the SOA mass concentration and oxygen-to-carbon ratio inside the urban area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed SOA concentrations in Pasadena. All the parameterizations over-predict urban SOA formation at long

  12. WRF-Chem simulation of NOx and O3 in the L.A. basin during CalNex-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Li, Qinbin; Stutz, Jochen; Mao, Yuhao; Zhang, Li; Pikelnaya, Olga; Tsai, Jui Yi; Haman, Christine; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Alvarez, Sergio L.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Flynn, James; Roberts, James M.; Nowak, John B.; de Gouw, Joost; Holloway, John; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Veres, Patrick; Brown, Steven S.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Warneke, Carsten; Pollack, Ilana B.

    2013-12-01

    NOx emissions and O3 chemistry in the Los Angeles (L.A.) Basin during the CalNex-2010 field campaign (May-June 2010) have been evaluated by analyzing O3 and NOy (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN) observations using a regional air quality model (WRF-Chem). Model simulations were conducted at 4-km spatial resolution over the basin using the Carbon-Bond Mechanism version Z (CBM-Z) and NOx emissions reduced by 24% relative to 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI’05), according to recent state emission statistics (BASE_NOx scenario). In addition, a 22-26% NOx emission reduction from weekday to weekend was applied. WRF-Chem reproduced the observed diurnal cycle and day-to-day variations in surface O3, Ox, HNO3 and HCHO (correlation r2 = 0.57 - 0.63; pairs of data n > 400; confidence value p < 0.01) at the CalNex supersite at Caltech but consistently overestimated surface NO and NO2. A 45% reduction of NOx emissions relative to NEI’05 (LOW_NOx scenario), as suggested by the OMI-NO2 column trend in California over the same period, improved the agreement of modeled NO2, NOx, and O3 with observations on weekdays. Three-dimensional distributions of daytime O3 and NOy were compared with five daytime NOAA WP-3D flights (three on weekdays and two on weekends) to study the Weekend-to-Weekday (WE-to-WD) effects by using the LOW_NOx scenario. Aircraft data showed a 17.3 ppb O3 increase and a 54% NOy reduction in the boundary layer on weekends relative to weekdays, while modeled WE-to-WD differences were much smaller, with a 2.9 ppb O3 increase and 16% NOy reduction only. Model results on weekends underestimated O3 by 23% and overestimated NOy and HNO3 by 40% and 27%, respectively, which may indicate that weekend NOx emissions (45% reduction relative to NEI’05 with a 22-26% reduction on weekends compared to weekdays) were still overestimated in the model. Comparisons of PAN to HNO3 ratios also indicated that the enhanced photochemistry on weekends was not well represented in the model

  13. Heterogeneous formation of nitryl chloride and its role as a nocturnal NOx reservoir species during CalNex-LA 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, L. H.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, C.; Hurlock, S. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Froyd, K. D.; Hayes, P. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Young, C. J.; Gilman, J. B.; Gouw, J. A.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Liu, J.; Weber, R. J.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2013-09-01

    nocturnal conversion of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to nitryl chloride (ClNO2) on chloride-containing aerosol can be a regionally important NOx (= NO + NO2) recycling and halogen activation pathway that affects oxidant photochemistry the following day. Here we present a comprehensive measurement data set acquired at Pasadena, California, during the CalNex-LA campaign 2010 that included measurements of odd nitrogen and its major components (NOy = NOx + NO3 + 2N2O5 + ClNO2 + HNO3 + HONO + peroxyacyl, alkyl, and aerosol nitrates) and aerosol size distribution and composition. Nitryl chloride was present during every night of the study (median mixing ratio at sunrise 800 pptv) and was usually a more significant nocturnal NOx and odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2 + 3N2O5 + ClNO2) reservoir species than N2O5 (whose concentrations were calculated from its equilibrium with NO2 and NO3). At sunrise, ClNO2 accounted for 21% of NOz (=NOy - NOx), 4% of NOy, and 2.5% of Ox, respectively (median values). Kinetic parameters for the N2O5 to ClNO2 conversion were estimated by relating ClNO2 concentrations to their time-integrated heterogeneous production from N2O5 and were highly variable between nights. Production of ClNO2 required conversion of N2O5 on submicron aerosol with average yield (φ) and N2O5 reactive uptake probability (γ) of γφ = 0.008 (maximum 0.04), scaled with submicron aerosol chloride content, and was suppressed by aerosol organic matter and liquid water content. Not all of the observed variability of ClNO2 production efficiency could be rationalized using current literature parameterizations.

  14. Selection of CalB immobilization method to be used in continuous oil transesterification: analysis of the economical impact.

    PubMed

    Séverac, Etienne; Galy, Olivier; Turon, Fabrice; Pantel, Catherine Azzaro; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane; Monsan, Pierre; Marty, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic transesterification of triglycerides in a continuous way is always a great challenge with a large field of applications for biodiesel, bio-lubricant, bio-surfactant, etc. productions. The lipase B from Candida antarctica (CalB) is the most appreciated enzyme because of its high activity and its non-regio-selectivity toward positions of fatty acid residues on glycerol backbone of triglycerides. Nevertheless, in the field of heterogeneous catalysis, we demonstrated that the medium hydrophilic nature of the support used for its commercial form (Lewatit VPOC1600) is a limitation. Glycerol is adsorbed onto support inducing drastic decrease in enzyme activity. Glycerol would form a hydrophilic layer around the enzyme resulting in diffusional limitations during triglyceride transfer to the enzyme. Accurel MP, a very hydrophobic macroporous polymer of propylene, was found not to adsorb glycerol. Immobilization conditions using this support were optimized. The best support was Accurel MP1001 (particle size<1000 μm) and a pre-treatment of the support with acetone instead of ethanol enables the adsorption rate and the immobilized enzyme quantity to be maximized. An economical approach (maximization of the process net present value) was expanded in order to explore the impact of immobilization on development of an industrial packed bed reactor. The crucial ratio between the quantity of lipase and the quantity of support, taking into account enzyme, support and equipped packed bed reactor costs was optimized in this sense. The biocatalyst cost was found as largely the main cost centre (2-10 times higher than the investments for the reactor vessel). In consequence, optimal conditions for immobilization were a compromise between this immobilization yield (90% of lipase immobilized), biocatalyst activity, reactor volume and total investments. PMID:22112772

  15. Submicron organic aerosol in Tijuana, Mexico, from local and Southern California sources during the CalMex campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, S.; Johnson, A.; Guzman Morales, J.; Russell, L. M.; Duran, R.; Rodriguez, G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2013-05-01

    The CalMex campaign was conducted from May 15 to June 30 of 2010 to study the properties and sources of air pollution in Tijuana, Mexico. In this study, submicron organic aerosol mass (OM) composition measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), and X-ray spectromicroscopy are combined with statistical analysis and measurements of other atmospheric constituents. The average (±one standard deviation) OM concentration was 3.3 ± 1.7 μg m-3. A large source of submicron aerosol mass at this location was determined to be vehicular sources, which contributed approximately 40% to the submicron OM; largely during weekday mornings. The O/C ratio estimated from ACSM measurements was 0.64 ± 0.19; diurnal variations in this value and the more oxygenated fraction of OM as determined from Positive Matrix Factorization and classification analyses suggest the high degree of oxygenation originates from aged OM, rather than locally-produced secondary organic aerosol. A large contribution of this oxygenated aerosol to Tijuana from various source classes was observed; some fraction of this aerosol mass may be associated with non-refractory components, such as dust or BC. Backtrajectory simulations using the HYSPLIT model suggest that the mean wind vector consistently originated from the northwest region, over the Pacific Ocean and near the Southern California coast, which suggests that the origin of much of the oxygenated organic aerosol observed in Tijuana (as much as 60% of OM) may have been the Southern California Air Basin. The marine aerosol contribution to OM during the period was on average 23 ± 24%, though its contribution varied over synoptic rather than diurnal timescales. BB aerosol contributed 20 ± 20% of the OM during the campaign period, with notable BB events occurring during several weekend evenings.

  16. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2012-11-21

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the

  17. Case Studies in CAL!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David F., Ed.; Smith, P. R., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Ten papers focus on applications in specific curriculum areas, modelling and simulation, and computer managed learning. Projects described include voice support for the visually handicapped, distance education, and industrial training, as well as teaching applied mathematics, several facets of engineering, zoology, and, with videodisc, observation…

  18. Occlusion of the HIV poly(A) site.

    PubMed

    Weichs an der Glon, C; Monks, J; Proudfoot, N J

    1991-02-01

    To investigate the selective use of poly(A) sites in the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) but not the 5' LTR of retroviruses, we have studied the poly(A) site of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Using hybrid HIV/alpha-globin gene constructs, we demonstrate that the HIV poly(A) site is inactive or occluded when adjacent to an active promoter, either the homologous HIV promoter or the alpha-globin gene promoter. Furthermore, this occlusion of the HIV poly(A) site occurs over a considerable distance of up to at least 500 bp. In contrast, two nonretroviral poly(A) sites [alpha-globin and a synthetic poly(A) site] are active when close to a promoter. We also show that a short fragment of approximately 60 nucleotides containing the HIV poly(A) site is fully active when placed at the 3' end of the human alpha-globin gene or within the rabbit beta-globin gene. This result rules out the requirement of more distant upstream elements for the activity of the HIV poly(A) site, as has been suggested for other viral poly(A) sites. Finally, we show that the GT-rich downstream region of the HIV poly(A) site confers poly(A) site occlusion properties on a synthetic poly(A) site. This result focuses attention on this more variable part of a poly(A) site in retroviruses as a possible general signal for poly(A) site occlusion. PMID:1995416

  19. The last 7500 cal yr B.P. of westerly rainfall in Central Chile inferred from a high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Aculeo (34°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Villagrán, Carolina; Jenny, Bettina

    2003-11-01

    We report multiproxy analyses of a sediment core obtained from Laguna Aculeo that spans the past 7500 years. Laguna Aculeo (33°50'S, 70°55'W) is one of the few natural inland lakes located in the Mediterranean zone of Central Chile, near the northern margin of the influence of the southern westerlies. The record shows elevated pollen counts of halophytes and seasonally drying of the lake basin prior to 5700 cal yr B.P., indicating severe aridity and warmer-than-present conditions. This was followed by the establishment of a fresh-water lake, along with an increase in arboreal and herbaceous plant diversity between 5700 and 3200 cal yr B.P. An intensification of this trend started at 3200 cal yr B.P., along with the abrupt decrease of halophytes until 100 cal yr B.P. Within this humid period, pollen accumulation rates show large-amplitude fluctuations, coeval with numerous turbidite layers, suggesting a highly variable and torrential rainfall pattern. This intense and variable precipitation regime is probably associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We suggest that the modern Mediterranean climate of Central Chile was established at ˜3200 cal yr B.P. Paleovegetation and paleolimnological changes starting at 100 cal yr B.P. correlate with documented human activity surrounding the lake.

  20. Adsorption of poly(rA) on the carbon nanotube surface and its hybridization with poly(rU).

    PubMed

    Karachevtsev, Victor A; Gladchenko, Galyna O; Karachevtsev, Maksym V; Valeev, Vladimir A; Leontiev, Victor S; Lytvyn, Oksana S

    2008-10-01

    Adsorption of poly(rA) on a single-walled carbon nanotube surface in aqueous suspension and the subsequent hybridization of this polymer with free poly(rU) is studied. A comparison of the temperature dependence of the absorbance of free poly(rA) and poly(rA) adsorbed on the nanotube surface [poly(rA)(NT)] at nu(max)= 38,500 cm(-1) shows that the thermostability of the adsorbed polymer is higher. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that more than half of the adenines are not stacked on the tube surface and some of them undergo self-stacking. After addition of a complementary poly(rU) to the poly(rA)(NT) suspension, a double-stranded polymer is formed as confirmed by the characteristic S-like form of its melting curve. However, the melting temperature of this polymer is lower than that of the free poly(rA)poly(rU) duplex. This result indicates that poly(rU) hybridization with poly(rA)(NT) occurs with defects along the whole length of the polymer because of pi-pi stacking between nitrogen bases and the nanotube surface, which hinders the usual hybridization process. Computer modeling demonstrates different possible structures of hybridized polymers on the nanotube surface. PMID:18780410

  1. Surface activity of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandridis, P.; Athanassiou, V.; Fukuda, Shinya; Hatton, T.A. )

    1994-08-01

    The surface tension of aqueous solutions of seven poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) Pluronic copolymers, covering a wide range of molecular weights (3400-14600) and PPO/PEO ratios (0.19-1.79), was determined over the 10[sup [minus]5]-10% w/v concentration range, at two temperatures (25 and 35[degree]C). Two breaks (changes in slope) were observed in the surface tension vs log concentration curve for most of the copolymers. The low-concentration break, occurring at bulk copolymer concentrations of approximately 10[sup [minus]3]%, is believed to originate from rearrangement of the copolymer molecules on the surface at complete coverage of the air/water interface. The breaks at the high-concentration part of the surface tension curve occurred at concentrations that correspond to the critical micellization concentration values as determined by a dye solubilization technique. The surface area per copolymer molecule, A, increased as a function of the number of EO segments, N[sub EO], obeying a scaling law (A [approx] N[sub EO][sup 1/2]) similar to that of lower molecular weight C[sub i]E[sub j] nonionic surfactants. 56 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Formation of nanoparticles in aqueous solution from poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Hong Anh; Nguyen, Van Cuong

    2010-06-01

    The amphiphilic triblock copolymer of poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL–PEG–PCL) was prepared by ring opening polymerization of PEG and ε-caprolactone in the presence of stannous 2-ethyl hexanoate (Sn(Oct)2) as catalyst. The structure of triblock copolymer was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymeric nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by a co-solvent precipitation technique at room temperature. Nanoparticles were formed from the amphiphilic triblock copolymer, and the effect of organic solvent water-miscibility on the size of nanoparticles was also investigated. Polymeric nanoparticles were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), with sizes in the range of 70–90 nm and narrow polydispersity. Additionally, the toxicities of polymeric micelles were evaluated by MTT assay. These results confirmed low toxic polymeric micelles and suggest that the polymeric micelles hold a potential for anticancer drug delivery.

  3. Compositions containing poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1992-02-18

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and the apparatus used in effecting the removal are described. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 figs.

  4. Compositions containing poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  5. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(D, L-lactic acid) microspheres/poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) micelles composite for skin augmentation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Liao, Jinfeng; Guo, Gang; Ding, Qiuxia; Yang, Yi; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2014-04-01

    Soft tissue augmentation using various injectable fillers has gained popularity as more patients seek esthetic improvement through minimally invasive procedures requiring little or no recovery time. The currently available injectable skin fillers can be divided into three categories. With careful assessment, stimulatory fillers are the most ideal fillers. In this study, dexamethasone-loaded poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres of approximately 90 micro m suspended in poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) micelles were prepared as stimulatory filler for skin augmentation. The biodegradable PECE copolymer can form nano-sized micelles in water, which instantly turns into a non-flowing gel at body temperature due to micellar aggregation. The PECE micelles (making up 90% of composite) served as vehicle for subcutaneous injection were metabolized within 44 days. At the same time, the dexamethasone-loaded PLA microspheres (10% of composite) merely served as stimulus for connective tissue formation. Dexamethasone-loaded PLA microspheres/PECE micelles composite presented great hemocompatibility in vitro. It was demonstrated in the in vive study that the composite was biodegradable, biocompatible, nontoxic and nonmigratory. Histopathological studies indicated that the composite could stimulate collagen regeneration. Furthermore, granuloma, the main complication of the stimulatory fillers, did not appear when the composite was injected into the back of SD rats, because of the dexamethasone controlled release from the composite. All results suggested that dexamethasone-loaded PLA microspheres/PECE micelles composite may be an efficient and promising biomaterial for skin augmentation. PMID:24734511

  6. Poly(amide-graft-acrylate) interfacial compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Michael Perez

    Graft copolymers with segments of dissimilar chemistries have been shown to be useful in a variety of applications as surfactants, compatibilizers, impact modifiers, and surface modifiers. The most common route to well defined graft copolymers is through the use of macromonomers, polymers containing a reactive functionality and thus capable of further polymerization. However, the majority of the studies thus far have focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of reacting with vinyl monomers to form graft copolymers. This study focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of participating in condensation polymerizations. A chain transfer functionalization method was utilized. Cysteine was evaluated as a chain transfer agent for the synthesis of amino acid functionalized poly(acrylate) and poly(methacrylate) macromonomers. Low molar mass, functionalized macromonomers were produced. These macromonomers were proven to be capable of reacting with amide precursors to form poly(amide-g-acrylate) graft copolymers. Macromonomers and graft copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The second part of this research involved poly(dimethacrylate) dental restorative materials. Volumetric shrinkage during the cure of these resins results in a poor interface between the resin and the remaining tooth structure, limiting the lifetime of these materials. Cyclic anhydrides were incorporated into common monomer compositions used in dental applications. Volume expansion from the ring opening hydrolysis of these anhydrides was shown to be feasible. The modified dental resins were characterized by swelling, extraction and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and density measurements. Linear poLymers designed to model the crosslinked dental resins were

  7. Poly(Arylene Ether Imidazole) Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Towell, Timothy W.; Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Films adhere well to some substrates, provide smooth surfaces, and facilitate release from molds. Thin films of thermoplastic poly(arylene ether imidazole)s (PAEI's) particularly suitable for use as surface modifiers for graphite/epoxy or graphite/bismaleimide composite panels. Molecule of PAEI includes imidazole groups along its backbone that co-cure with epoxies or bismaleimides during processing. Films thermally stable and resistant to bombardment by energetic electrons.

  8. Final Report for the PolyHANAA

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.B.; Stratton, P.L.; Benett, W.J.; Koopman, R.P.; Milanovich, F.P.

    2001-04-30

    The PolyHanaa is a 24 chamber thermal cycling instrument designed to perform rapid, real-time optical detection of biological agents using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process with TaqMan{trademark} reagents. Liquid samples are pipetted into small, disposable polypropylene tubes that are then inserted into the chambers. The 24 duplex chambers are divided into 6 independent groups and run information is presented simultaneously, in real time, for all groups.

  9. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Christopher W.; Hneihen, Azzam S.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  10. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks for improving optrode-neural tissue interface in optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Li, Yanling; Pan, Jianqing; Wei, Pengfei; Liu, Nan; Wu, Bifeng; Cheng, Jinbo; Lu, Caiyi; Wang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The field of optogenetics has been successfully used to understand the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric diseases through the precise spatial and temporal control of specific groups of neurons in a neural circuitry. However, it remains a great challenge to integrate optogenetic modulation with electrophysiological and behavioral read out methods as a means to explore the causal, temporally precise, and behaviorally relevant interactions of neurons in the specific circuits of freely behaving animals. In this study, an eight-channel chronically implantable optrode array was fabricated and modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks (PEDOT/PSS-PVA/PAA IPNs) for improving the optrode-neural tissue interface. The conducting polymer-hydrogel IPN films exhibited a significantly higher capacitance and lower electrochemical impedance at 1 kHz as compared to unmodified optrode sites and showed significantly improved mechanical and electrochemical stability as compared to pure conducting polymer films. The cell attachment and neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells on the IPN films were clearly observed through calcein-AM staining. Furthermore, the optrode arrays were chronically implanted into the hippocampus of SD rats after the lentiviral expression of synapsin-ChR2-EYFP, and light-evoked, frequency-dependant action potentials were obtained in freely moving animals. The electrical recording results suggested that the modified optrode arrays showed significantly reduced impedance and RMS noise and an improved SNR as compared to unmodified sites, which may have benefited from the improved electrochemical performance and biocompatibility of the deposited IPN films. All these characteristics are greatly desired in optogenetic applications, and the fabrication method of conducting polymer-hydrogel IPNs can be easily integrated with other modification methods to build a

  11. California's Methane Budget derived from CalNex P-3 Aircraft Observations and the WRF-STILT Lagrangian Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, G. W.; Xiang, B.; Kort, E. A.; Daube, B.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Wecht, K.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Angevine, W. M.; Trainer, M.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We present constraints on California emission inventories of methane (CH4) using atmospheric observations from nine NOAA P-3 flights during the California Nexus (CalNex) campaign in May and June of 2010. Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) and a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) and calibrated to NOAA standards in-flight. Five flights sampled above the northern and southern central valley and an additional four flights probed the south coast air basin, quantifying emissions from the Los Angeles basin. The data show large (>100 ppb) CH4 enhancements associated with point and area sources such as cattle and manure management, landfills, wastewater treatment, gas production and distribution infrastructure, and rice agriculture. We compare aircraft observations to modeled CH4 distributions by accounting for a) transport using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorology, b) emissions from inventories such as EDGAR and ones constructed from California-specific state and county databases, each gridded to 0.1° x 0.1° resolution, and c) spatially and temporally evolving boundary conditions such as GEOS-Chem and a NOAA aircraft profile measurement derived curtain imposed at the edge of the WRF domain. After accounting for errors associated with transport, planetary boundary layer height, lateral boundary conditions, seasonality of emissions, and the spatial resolution of surface emission prior estimates, we find that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) CH4 budget is a factor of 1.64 too low. Using a Bayesian inversion to the flight data, we estimate California's CH4 budget to be 2.5 TgCH4/yr, with emissions from cattle and manure management, landfills, rice, and natural gas infrastructure, representing roughly 82%, 26%, 9% and 32% (sum = 149% with other sources accounting for the additional 15%) of the current CARB CH4 budget estimate of 1.52 TgCH4

  12. Journey of poly-nucleotides through OmpF porin.

    PubMed

    Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Rouhani, Maryam

    2015-05-21

    OmpF is an abundant porin in many bacteria which attracts attention as a promising biological nanopore for DNA sequencing. We study the interactions of OmpF with pentameric poly-nucleotides (poly-Ns) in silico. The poly-N molecule is forced to translocate through the lumen of OmpF. Subsequently, the structural and dynamical effects of translocation steps on protein and poly-N molecules are explored in detail. The external loops of OmpF are introduced as the main region for discrimination of poly-Ns based on their organic bases. Structural network analyses of OmpF in the presence or absence of poly-Ns characterize special residues in the structural network of porin. These residues pave the way for engineering OmpF protein. The poly-N-specific pattern of OmpF's local conductance is detected in the current study. Computing the potential of mean force for translocation steps, we define the energetic barrier ahead of poly-N to move through OmpF's lumen. We suggest that fast translocation of the examined poly-N molecules through OmpF seems unattainable by small external driving forces. Our computational results suggest some abilities for OmpF porin like OmpF's potential for being used in poly-N sequencing. PMID:25965338

  13. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; et al

    2015-05-26

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle- and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA that formed only from the oxidationmore » of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model–measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model–measurement agreement for mass concentration. The results from the three parameterizations show large differences (e.g., a factor of 3 in SOA mass) and are not well constrained, underscoring the current uncertainties in this area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the

  14. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappengluck, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Ma, P. K.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle- and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA that formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model-measurement agreement for mass concentration. The results from the three parameterizations show large differences (e.g., a factor of 3 in SOA mass) and are not well constrained, underscoring the current uncertainties in this area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed

  15. Degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis T1.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Y; Fukui, T; Saito, T; Okamoto, Y; Narikawa, T; Koide, K; Tomita, K; Takemasa, T; Masamune, S

    1986-01-15

    The extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase purified from Alcaligenes faecalis T1 has two disulfide bonds, one of which appears to be necessary for the full enzyme activity. This depolymerase hydrolyzed not only hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) but also water-soluble trimer and larger oligomers of D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, regardless of their solubilities in water. Kinetic analyses with oligomers of various sizes indicated that the substrate cleaving site of the enzyme consisted of four subsites with individual affinities for monomer units of the substrate. Analyses of the hydrolytic products of oligomers, which had labeled D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate at the hydroxy terminus, showed that the enzyme cleaved only the second ester linkage from the hydroxy terminus of the trimer and tetramer, and acted as an endo-type hydrolase toward the pentamer and higher oligomers. The enzyme appeared to have a hydrophobic site which interacted with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and determined the affinity of the enzyme toward the hydrophobic substrate. PMID:3942778

  16. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  17. AMPK-dependent signaling modulates the suppression of invasion and migration by fenofibrate in CAL 27 oral cancer cells through NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Chang, Nai-Wen; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2016-07-01

    Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist and lipid-lowering agent, has been used worldwide for treatment of hyperlipidemia. The clinical trials demonstrate that fenofibrate possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including antitumor effects. However, the precise mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of fenofibrate on the migration and invasion of human oral cancer CAL 27 cells. Fenofibrate inhibited the cell migration and invasion of CAL 27 cells by the wound healing and Boyden chamber transwell assays, respectively. In addition, fenofibrate reduced the protein expressions of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 by Western blotting and inhibited enzyme activities of MMP-2/-9 using gelatin zymography assay. Results from immunoblotting analysis showed that the proteins of p-LKB1 (Ser428), LKB1, p-AMPKα (Thr172), p-AMPKα1/α2 (Ser425/Ser491), p-AMPKβ1 (Ser108), and AMPKγ1 were upregulated by fenofibrate; the levels of p-IKKα/β (Ser176) and p-IκBα were reduced in fenofibrate-treated cells. Also, fenofibrate suppressed the expressions of nuclear NF-κB p65 and p50 by immunoblotting and NF-κB DNA binding activity by EMSA assay. The anti-invasive effect of fenofibrate was attenuated by compound C [an adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor] or dominant negative form of AMPK (DN-AMPKα1). Thus, fenofibrate considerably inhibited metastatic behaviors of CAL 27 cells might be mediated through blocking NF-κB signaling, resulting in the inhibition of MMPs; these effects were AMPK-dependent rather than PPARα signaling. Our findings provide a molecular rationale, whereby fenofibrate exerts anticancer effects and additional beneficial effects for the treatment of cancer patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 866-876, 2016. PMID:25545733

  18. Nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) scaffolds provide a functional microenvironment for cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kuan Y; Andriotis, Orestis G; Li, Siwei; Basnett, Pooja; Su, Bo; Roy, Ipsita; Tare, Rahul S; Sengers, Bram G; Stolz, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Articular cartilage defects, when repaired ineffectively, often lead to further deterioration of the tissue, secondary osteoarthritis and, ultimately, joint replacement. Unfortunately, current surgical procedures are unable to restore normal cartilage function. Tissue engineering of cartilage provides promising strategies for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage. As yet, there are still significant challenges that need to be overcome to match the long-term mechanical stability and durability of native cartilage. Using electrospinning of different blends of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), we produced polymer scaffolds and optimised their structure, stiffness, degradation rates and biocompatibility. Scaffolds with a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) ratio of 1:0.25 exhibit randomly oriented fibres that closely mimic the collagen fibrillar meshwork of native cartilage and match the stiffness of native articular cartilage. Degradation of the scaffolds into products that could be easily removed from the body was indicated by changes in fibre structure, loss of molecular weight and a decrease in scaffold stiffness after one and four months. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis after three weeks of culture with human articular chondrocytes revealed a hyaline-like cartilage matrix. The ability to fine tune the ultrastructure and mechanical properties using different blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) allows to produce a cartilage repair kit for clinical use to reduce the risk of developing secondary osteoarthritis. We further suggest the development of a toolbox with tailor-made scaffolds for the repair of other tissues that require a 'guiding' structure to support the body's self-healing process. PMID:27013217

  19. Polymeric Nanomedicines Based on Poly(lactide) and Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Rong; Gabrielson, Nathan P.; Fan, Timothy M.; Cheng, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule chemotherapeutics often have undesired physiochemical and pharmacological properties, such as low solubility, severe side effect and narrow therapeutic index. To address these challenges, polymeric nanomedicine drug delivery technology has been routinely employed, in particular with the use of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters, such as poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Here we review the development and use of PLA and PLGA for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in the forms of polymer-drug conjugates and nanoconjugates. PMID:23914135

  20. Molecular dynamics of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(phenylene sulfide) nanocomposites with barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konieczna, Monika; Woźniak-Braszak, Aneta; Hołderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna; Jurga, Jan

    2011-04-01

    The relaxation processes and the properties of polymer/ceramic nanocomposites have been studied by the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET and poly(phenylene sulfide) PPS with 0.25, 2.5 and 5% wt. barium titanate BT were prepared using a twin screw extruder and injection moulding machine. The spin-lattice relaxation time T1, second moment M2 and the motional parameters as e.g. the activation energies in the nanocomposites were investigated.

  1. Miscibility and Morphology of Poly(lactic ACID)/POLY(Β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tri Phuong, Nguyen; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille

    2011-01-01

    The miscibility and morphology of poly(lactic)acid (PLA)/polyβ-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) prepared by melt blending method were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), melt rheology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. FTIR and DSC methods present some limits to examine the miscibility state of PLA/PHB blends. This drawback can be overcome with the Cole-Cole method by observing the η" = f(η') curves to confirm the miscibility of semicrystalline PLA/ semicrystalline PHB blends. MEB micrographs of fractured surface of blends were also used to investigate the miscibility of these blends.

  2. Poly(ADP-ribose): An organizer of cellular architecture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Distinct properties of poly(ADP-ribose)—including its structural diversity, nucleation potential, and low complexity, polyvalent, highly charged nature—could contribute to organizing cellular architectures. Emergent data indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) aids in the formation of nonmembranous structures, such as DNA repair foci, spindle poles, and RNA granules. Informatics analyses reported here show that RNA granule proteins enriched for low complexity regions, which aid self-assembly, are preferentially modified by poly(ADP-ribose), indicating how poly(ADP-ribose) could direct cellular organization. PMID:24914234

  3. Electrical and Optical Properties of Poly(3,4-dialkylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Katsumi; Manda, Yasuhisa; Sawada, Keiji; Morita, Shigenori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu-ichi; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    1989-04-01

    Poly(3,4-dialkylthiophene) films prepared by both electrochemical and chemical methods utilizing FeCl3 as catalyst exhibit much larger band gap compared with non-substituted and 3-substituted polythiophene films. Poly(3,4-dialkylthiophene)s with long alkyl chains are soluble in several solvent. However, thermochromism has not been found contrary to poly(3-alkylthiophene), which are explained in terms of large torsion angle between neighbouring thiophene rings due to the steric hindrance by bulky alkyl group. Poly(3,4-dimethylthiophene) with large band gap also demonstrates drastic spectral, electron spin resonance (ESR) and conductivity changes upon doping due to an insulator-metal transition.

  4. Method for the hydrogenation of poly-si

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi

    2013-11-12

    A method for hydrogenating poly-si. Poly-si is placed into the interior of a chamber. A filament is placed into the interior of a chamber. The base pressure of the interior of the chamber is evacuated, preferably to 10.sup.-6 Torr or less. The poly-si is heated for a predetermined poly-si heating time. The filament is heated by providing an electrical power to the filament. Hydrogen is supplied into the pressurized interior of the chamber comprising the heated poly-si and the heated filament. Atomic hydrogen is produced by the filament at a rate whereby the atomic hydrogen surface density at the poly-si is less than the poly-si surface density. Preferably, the poly-si is covered from the atomic hydrogen produced by the heated filament for a first predetermined covering time. Preferably, the poly-si is then uncovered from the atomic hydrogen produced by the heated filament for a first hydrogenation time.

  5. Measurements of submicron aerosols at the California-Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Misti E.; Zhang, Renyi; Zheng, Jun; Tan, Haobo; Wang, Yuan; Molina, Luisa T.; Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Li, Guohui

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of submicron aerosols in Tijuana, Mexico during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign. A suite of aerosol instrumentations were deployed, including a hygroscopic-volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (HV-TDMA), aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), condensation particle counter (CPC), cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS), and nephelometer to measure the aerosol size distributions, effective density, hygroscopic growth factors (HGF), volatility growth factors (VGF), and optical properties. The average mass concentration of PM0.6 is 10.39 ± 7.61 μg m-3, and the derived average black carbon (BC) mass concentration is 2.87 ± 2.65 μg m-3. There is little new particle formation or particle growth during the day, and the mass loading is dominated by organic aerosols and BC, which on average are 37% and 27% of PM1.0, respectively. For four particle sizes of 46, 81, 151, and 240 nm, the measured particle effective density, HGFs, and VGFs exhibit distinct diurnal trends and size-dependence. For smaller particles (46 and 81 nm), the effective density distribution is unimodal during the day and night, signifying an internally mixed aerosol composition. In contrast, larger particles (151 and 240 nm) exhibit a bi-modal effective density distribution during the daytime, indicating an external mixture of fresh BC and organic aerosols, but a unimodal distribution during the night, corresponding to an internal mixture of BC and organic aerosols. The smaller particles show a noticeable diurnal trend in the effective density distribution, with the highest effective density (1.70 g cm-3) occurring shortly after midnight and the lowest value (0.90 g cm-3) occurring during the afternoon, corresponding most likely to primary organic aerosols and BC, respectively. Both HGFs and VGFs measured are strongly size-dependent. HGFs increase with increasing particle size, indicating that the largest particles are more hygroscopic. VGFs decrease with increasing

  6. Biobased poly(lactides)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends: A perfect association for durable and smart applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Cédric; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Biobased poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) undoubtedly represents an interesting alternative to petro-based polymers, but still remains excluded from most of high-value and durable applications. The introduction of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in poly(lactides)-based materials is thereby exposed to develop miscible polymer blends with new functionalities and superior thermomechanical properties. The miscibility between PLLA and PMMA was first evaluated and only miscible blends were recovered using melt-processes. Interestingly, these miscible binary blends are marked by a high transparency with tunable, enhanced and promising thermomechanical and barrier performances. PMMA was also found to be miscible with stereocomplexable poly(lactides) and, surprisingly, the amount of PLA stereocomplexes formed during high-speed cooling is significantly enhanced by PMMA. Consequently, highly-crystalline ternary PLLA/PDLA /PMMA blends can be easily produced with impressive and complex thermomechanical behavior. Shape-memory properties of miscible PLLA / PMMA blends were also investigated and triple-shape memory effects were demonstrated. Under appropriate stretching conditions, multiple shapes could be stored and recover. The symmetric formulation was found to be particularly suitable for advanced triple-shape memory applications.

  7. Magnetic parameters and their palaeoclimatic implications—the sediment record of the last 15 500 cal. BP from Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irurzun, M. A.; Orgeira, M. J.; Gogorza, C. S. G.; Sinito, A. M.; Compagnucci, R.; Zolitschka, B.

    2014-08-01

    Lake sediments are excellent sources of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information because they provide continuous and high-resolution records. South America is of particular interest because it is the only landmass that stretches southward into the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans towards Antarctica. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship of magnetic parameters with elemental and palaeobiological data of Laguna Potrok Aike to develop a model of lake-level changes and related hydrological and climatic fluctuations. Magnetic measurements were performed on subsamples from 15 500 cal. BP to the present, and associated rock magnetic parameters were calculated to infer magnetic mineralogy, concentration and grain size. According to the model, parameters dependent on magnetic concentration and grain size are directly related to lake-level changes. During dry periods, the remanent coercivity displays high values, whereas the proportion of magnetite is relatively low. Low percentages of greigite are observed, indicating that the water of the lake was stratified at least four times during the studied period, at approximately 10 300, 8900, 8500 and 8300 cal. BP. The preservation of greigite by inhibiting its complete transformation into pyrite is associated with a rapid burial that occurs with high sedimentation rates. Thermal stratification could be caused by a slight cooling in the area triggered by a weakening of the Westerlies and/or low activity of the sun, sum to the effect of a flood of melt water in the North Atlantic.

  8. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts in California: Evidence From a Statewide Environmental Justice Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1)

    PubMed Central

    Faust, John; August, Laura Meehan; Cendak, Rose; Wieland, Walker; Alexeeff, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used an environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1) to compare the distribution of environmental hazards and vulnerable populations across California communities. Methods. CalEnviroScreen 1.1 combines 17 indicators created from 2004 to 2013 publicly available data into a relative cumulative impact score. We compared cumulative impact scores across California zip codes on the basis of their location, urban or rural character, and racial/ethnic makeup. We used a concentration index to evaluate which indicators were most unequally distributed with respect to race/ethnicity and poverty. Results. The unadjusted odds of living in one of the 10% most affected zip codes were 6.2, 5.8, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 times greater for Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and other or multiracial individuals, respectively, than for non-Hispanic Whites. Environmental hazards were more regressively distributed with respect to race/ethnicity than poverty, with pesticide use and toxic chemical releases being the most unequal. Conclusions. Environmental health hazards disproportionately burden communities of color in California. Efforts to reduce disparities in pollution burden can use simple screening tools to prioritize areas for action. PMID:26378826

  9. The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first defused to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local production. This copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

  10. Chemistry of bottom sediments from the Cal-Sag channel and the Des Plaines and Illinois Rivers between Joliet and Havana, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Kucera, E.T.; Tome, C.; Van Loon, L.S.; Van Luik, A.

    1981-02-01

    Cores were taken in 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging areas. Sixty-one core samples were analyzed to provide a data base for subsequent studies of the suitability of the potential dredged material for reclamation of abandoned surface-mined land bordering the Illinois Waterway. Samples were composited over 2-ft depth increments, up to a maximum 8-ft depth where possible. Parameters determined for each sample were: volatile solids, flash point, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), base/neutral organic compounds, pH, total phosphorus, total phenols, oil and grease, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, silver, nickel, selenium, and sulfide. Results showed PCBs to be higher in the Cal-Sag Channel sediments (..mu..=7.0 mg/kg) than in the Des Plaines River (..mu..=1.6 mg/kg), or Illinois River (..mu..=0.5 mg/kg) sediments. Concentrations of metals including arsenic, barium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and silver were higher in the Des Plaines River samples than in the Cal-Sag Channel or Illinois River samples. Illinois River sediments were, generally, the least contaminated in terms of the measured parameters. Leach tests for arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc indicated low leachate-metal concentrations relative to total metal concentrations; thus, these metals exist in relatively insoluble solid states in the sediments.

  11. The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

  12. Production of octaketide polyenes by the calicheamicin polyketide synthase CalE8: implications for the biosynthesis of enediyne core structures.

    PubMed

    Belecki, Katherine; Crawford, Jason M; Townsend, Craig A

    2009-09-01

    Enediyne antibiotics are categorized according to the presence of either a 9- or 10-membered ring within their polyketide-derived core structures. Recent literature reports have favored the notion that biosynthetic divergence of the two structural families is determined by the enediyne polyketide synthases (PKSs) alone. We now disclose the simultaneous in vitro production of three octaketide polyenes by biosynthetic enzymes for the 10-membered enediyne calicheamicin gamma(1)(I), including the elusive beta-keto acid precursor to a previously described C15 methyl hexaenone. Alongside these two polyene products, we have additionally detected a hydrocarbon heptaene previously isolated only from 9-membered enediyne systems. The discovery of the heptaene in the calicheamicin system promotes a more convergent model for the early steps of enediyne biosynthesis. Furthermore, the synthesis of this set of octaketides by the enediyne PKS CalE8 and thioesterase CalE7 suggests, in contrast to recent biosynthetic proposals, that accessory enzymes may be necessary to initiate differentiation to 9- or 10-membered enediyne precursors, either by modulation of enediyne PKS activity or by interception and modification of polyketide chain-extension intermediates. PMID:19689130

  13. Temperature-Switchable Control of Ligand Display on Adlayers of Mixed Poly(lysine)-g-(PEO) and Poly(lysine)-g-(ligand-modified poly-N-isopropylacrylamide).

    PubMed

    Dalier, F; Eghiaian, F; Scheuring, S; Marie, E; Tribet, C

    2016-05-01

    Adlayers of poly(lysine)-g-PEG comblike copolymer are extensively used to prepare cell-repellant and protein-repellent surfaces by a straightforward coulomb-driven adsorption that is compatible with diverse substrates (glass, Petri dish, etc.). To endow surfaces with functional properties, namely, controlled ligand-protein binding, comblike poly(lysine) derivatives were used to deposit temperature-responsive poly(NIPAM) macrografts mixed with PEG ones on glass surfaces. Simple surface immersion in mixed solutions of biotin-modified poly(lysine)-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(lysine)-g-poly(ethylene oxide) yielded robust adlayers whose composition reflected the ratio between the two polymers in solution. We show by fluorescence imaging, and comparison with repellent 100% PEGylated patterns, that specific binding of model avidin/particle conjugates (diameters of ca. 10 or 200 nm) was controlled by temperature switch. The biotin ligand was displayed and accessible at low T, or hidden at T > LCST. Topography and mechanical mapping measurements by AFM confirmed the swelling/collapse status of PNIPAM macrografts in the adlayer at low/high T, respectively. Temperature-responsive comblike PLL derivative that can spontaneously cover anionic interfaces is a promising platform enabling good control on the deposition and accessibility of biofunctional groups on various solid surfaces. PMID:27011022

  14. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  15. Poly(vinylpyridine oxides) in pneumoconiosis research

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P. F.

    1971-01-01

    Holt, P. F. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 72-77. Poly(vinylpyridine oxides) in pneumoconiosis research. Schlipköter and Brockhaus of the Institut für Lufthygiene Düsseldorf found that poly(2-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) can inhibit the fibrosis normally produced by quartz dust in the lungs or other tissues of animals. Later research in Germany and elsewhere has confirmed the earlier observations. The polymer is active when the quartz is administered by intratracheal, intraperitoneal or intravenous injection or by inhalation. It is effective if given in aqueous solution by intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection or if it is inhaled as an aerosol. The polymer also counteracts the cytotoxic effects of finely divided quartz in cultures of alveolar or peritoneal macrophages and a rapid method for comparing the activity is based on this observation. Although some solutions of this and other polymers which show activity against quartz in cultures are less active against quartz in the whole animal, a polymer which proves inactive against quartz in cultures is invariably inactive in the whole animal. The degree of activity of this polymer depends on the molecular weight, low molecular weight being associated with low activity. Methyl groups substituted in the pyridine ring may reduce the activity or may have no effect, depending on the position of the group in the ring. The isotactic and syndiotactic forms of the polymer do not have identical effects. Poly(2-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) is not unique; poly(dimethylaminostyrene N-oxide) is almost equally effective. Several theories seek to explain the activity of this polymer against quartz but there is uncertainty, particularly because the mechanism by which silica damages cells and produces fibrosis is still in doubt. Damage to the membrane of the cell or its ultrastructures by silica has been suggested as a possible cause of cytotoxicity; it has been suggested that the polymer may shield these structures. Other suggestions

  16. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(hydroxybutyrate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Renata F. S.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Ferreira, Carlas R. C.; Ribeiro, Abene S.

    2009-02-01

    Stabilization against gamma irradiation effects on Brazilian poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) films was investigated by using commercial additives. With the most effective additive the G value of main chain scissions decreased from 8.6 to 1.5 scissions/100 eV in the absorbed dose range up to 35 kGy. Irradiation increased the biodegradability of the samples, whereas the additives-induced reduction in biodegradability. Irradiation treatment did not influence the degree of crystallinity. Protonic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR- 1H) analysis revealed formation of hydroxyl-terminal groups upon irradiation.

  17. PolyApps - Version 1.0

    2010-08-05

    The polyApps software is an Umbra add-on C++ library that provides a polyhedral mesh library. Geometric shapes are defined by vertices, planes, edges, and faces. The library has a number of unique features that are useful for working with live scanners such as the SwissRanger. It includes a PolvApps multiple image texture casting capability that is compatible with the Umbra "Camera", and Umbra "lmageApps" class image connectors. The meshes are designed to be dynamic, allowingmore » constant changing of their characteristics. Using these objects, live robot camera data can be cast onto arbitrary polygon meshes.« less

  18. PolyApps - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-05

    The polyApps software is an Umbra add-on C++ library that provides a polyhedral mesh library. Geometric shapes are defined by vertices, planes, edges, and faces. The library has a number of unique features that are useful for working with live scanners such as the SwissRanger. It includes a PolvApps multiple image texture casting capability that is compatible with the Umbra "Camera", and Umbra "lmageApps" class image connectors. The meshes are designed to be dynamic, allowing constant changing of their characteristics. Using these objects, live robot camera data can be cast onto arbitrary polygon meshes.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  3. pH-Sensitive Micelles Based on Double-Hydrophilic Poly(methylacrylic acid)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(methylacrylic acid) Triblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Youhua; Liu, Ren; Liu, Xiaoya; Chen, Mingqing; Yang, Cheng; Ni, Zhongbin

    2009-04-01

    pH-sensitive micelles with hydrophilic core and hydrophilic corona were fabricated by self-assembling of triblock copolymer of poly(methylacrylic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(methylacrylic acid) at lower solution pH. Transmission electron microscopy and laser light scattering studies showed micelles were in nano-scale with narrow size distribution. Solution pH value and the micelles concentration strongly influenced the hydrodynamic radius of the spherical micelles (48-310 nm). A possible mechanism for the formation of micelles was proposed. The obtained polymeric micelle should be useful for biomedical materials such as carrier of hydrophilic drug.

  4. Azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) and method of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Qin, Yang; Grubbs, Robert B; Park, Young Suk

    2014-03-25

    The invention relates azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene)s. Various azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene)s and intermediates are disclosed and described, as well as method for making novel monomers that are synthesized and transformed into P3HT-N.sub.mp for use as organic conducting polymers in organic photovoltaic devices.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1660 Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate). Poly(tetramethylene... part. (c) Specifications. (1) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the polymer in...

  6. New nucleic acid triple helix, Poly(AAU)

    SciTech Connect

    Broitman, S.L.; Im, D.D.; Fresco, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    A polynucleotide helical structure containing two strands of poly(A) and one of poly(U) has been discovered. The stoichiometry of the complex was determined by continuous variation titrations and isosbestic wavelength analysis. Thermal denaturation profiles were used to examine complex stability over a wide range of conditions. The complex forms only when the poly(A) strands are of molecular weight between 9000-50,000 Daltons (dp approx. 28-150), whereas the size of the poly(U) strand has no effect. This limitation may explain why poly(AAU) was not observed in previous investigations. The complex shows inverse dependence of stability on ionic strength, but is not favored by decreasing pH. This behavior, together with the intermediate poly(A) size requirement suggest that the conformational entropy of the poly(A) strands is a critical determinant of the stability of this complex. The potential of the poly(A) tails of mRNA for formation of this triple helix, and of AAU/T triplet formation to contribute to the binding of unique sequence RNA strands to gene-encoding nucleic acid double helices are noted.

  7. The geochemical and sedimentary imprint on the continental margin of the NW Gulf of Mexico during the last 20 cal ka: glacial melt-water floods and geochemical proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgis, A. P.; Tripsanas, E. K.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Koutsopoulou, E.; Panagiotopoulos, I.; Bryant, W. R.; Slowey, N. C.

    2012-04-01

    The sedimentary stratigraphy of the last 21 cal ka of the NW continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is recorded in detail in six cores; it is characterized by the widespread occurrence of discrete sedimentary beds (turbidites, nepheloid-layer deposits). They are interpreted as the depositional effect of six melt-water floods (MWFs) that were routed during the last deglaciation through the Mississippi River to the GOM. Geochemical, oxygen isotope analyses, and radiocarbon datings have been performed in core JPC-26 from to identify the geochemical signature of these MWFs. The history of JPC-26 may be portrayed in three distinct sedimentary units. Unit 3: Early deglaciation episode (16-21 cal ka). It is characterized by two series of red and green mud turbidites, with the red turbidites being the product MWF-1/a. Both mud turbidites display major peaks in the distributions of the terrigenous elements Si, Zr, Fe, Mg, as well as in P, and Mn ratios to Al. Exclusive occurrence of peaks of Ti, K, and Mg ratios to Al characterize the red turbidites. Subunits 2b, 2c, and subunit 2e: Melt-water floods during 10-16 cal ka. They are characterized by two successive, negative δ18O excursions indicating that they represent MWFs 2-4 of the Mississippi R. Distinct peaks in the ratios to Al profiles of the terrigenous elements Si, K, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni in subunits 2e and 2b indicate that enormous amounts of river-sourced sediment was delivered and dispersed throughout the NW continental slope of the GOM. Barium ratio to Al shows marked peaks in subunits 2e (15.3-15.9 cal ka), 2c (13.7-14.6 cal ka) and marginally in 2b, suggesting increasing flux of Ba during the MWFs (palaeoproductivity proxy). A sudden increase is observed from the uppermost section of subunit 2b in the Mn to Al ratio (125x10-4 at 13.26 cal ka to 254x10-4 at 11.46 cal ka). Calcium to Al ratio exhibits similar behavior, thus the Mn enrichment is probably related to the formation of manganese carbonates. The

  8. Lake ecosystem dynamics and links to climate change inferred from a stable isotope and organic palaeorecord from a mountain lake in southwestern China (ca. 22.6-10.5 cal ka BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Charlotte G.; Leng, Melanie J.; Jones, Richard T.; Langdon, Peter G.; Zhang, Enlou

    2012-01-01

    A detailed understanding of long-term climatic and environmental change in southwestern China is hampered by a lack of long-term regional palaeorecords. Organic analysis (%TOC, %TN, C/N ratios and δ13C values) of a sediment sequence from Lake Shudu, Yunnan Province (ca. 22.6-10.5 cal ka BP) indicates generally low aquatic palaeoproductivity rates over millennial timescales in response to cold, dry climatic conditions. However, the record is punctuated by two marked phases of increased aquatic productivity from ca. 17.7 to 17.1 cal ka BP and from ca. 11.9 to 10.5 cal ka BP. We hypothesise that these shifts reflect a marked, stepwise lacustrine response to Asian summer monsoon strengthening during the last deglaciation.

  9. Phase behavior of a mixture of poly(isoprene)-poly(oxyethylene) diblock copolymer and poly(oxyethylene) surfactant in water.

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masaya; López-Quintela, M Arturo; Tsukahara, Masahiko

    2004-03-16

    The phase behavior of a mixture of poly(isoprene)-poly(oxyethylene) diblock copolymer (PI-PEO or C250EO70) and poly(oxyethylene) surfactant (C12EO3, C12EO5, C12EO6, C12EO7, and C12EO9) in water was investigated by phase study, small-angle X-ray scattering, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The copolymer is not soluble in surfactant micellar cubic (I1), hexagonal (H1), and lamellar (Lalpha) liquid crystals, whereas an isotropic copolymer fluid phase coexists with these liquid crystals. Although the PI-PEO is relatively lipophilic, it increases the cloud temperatures of C12EO3-9 aqueous solutions at a relatively high PI-PEO content in the mixture. Most probably, in the copolymer-rich region, PI-PEO and C12EOn form a spherical composite micelle in which surfactant molecules are located at the interface and the PI chains form an oil pool inside. In the C12EO5/ and C12EO6/PI-PEO systems, one kind of micelles is produced in the wide range of mixing fraction, although macroscopic phase separation was observed within a few days after the sample preparation. On the other hand, small surfactant micelles coexist with copolymer giant micelles in C12EO7/ and C12EO9/PI-PEO aqueous solutions in the surfactant-rich region. The micellar shape and size are calculated using simple geometrical relations and compared with DLS data. Consequently, a large PI-PEO molecule is not soluble in surfactant bilayers (Lalpha phase), infinitely long rod micelles (H1 phase), and spherical micelles (I1 phase or hydrophilic spherical micelles) as a result of the packing constraint of the large PI chain. However, the copolymer is soluble in surfactant rod micelles (C12EO5 and C12EO6) because a rod-sphere transition of the surfactant micelles takes place and the long PI chains are incorporated inside the large spherical micelles. PMID:15835666

  10. Studies on synthetic chromatins containing poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC).

    PubMed

    Prevelige, P E; Fasman, G D

    1983-01-20

    Core histones (H2A,H2B,H3,H4)2, were reconstituted with the synthetic polynucleotides poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC) to yield synthetic chromatins containing 200 basepairs per octamer. These synthetic chromatins displayed a 36% decrease in the circular dichroism (CD) peak ellipticity from the value of the polynucleotide free in solution; the poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)/chromatin showed an increase in the complexity of the thermal denaturation profile compared to that of the polynucleotide. Both the temperature of maximum dh/dT for each transition (Tm) and the relative amount of poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) in the synthetic chromatin melting in each of the four thermal transitions is a function of the ionic strength over the 0-5 mM sodium phosphate range (0.25 mM EDTA, pH 7.0); a shift of material toward higher melting transitions was observed with increasing ionic strength. The CD peak ellipticity value for both synthetic chromatins was ionic strength-independent over the 0-5 mM sodium phosphate range. These results are in contrast to those observed with H1/H5 stripped chicken erythrocyte chromatin (Fulmer, A. and Fasman, G.D. (1979) Biopolymers 18, 2875-2891), where an ionic strength dependence was found. Differences in the CD spectra between poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)/chromatin, poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC)/chromatin and H1/H5 stripped chicken erythrocyte chromatin suggest subtle differences in assembly. Finally, the temperature dependence of the CD spectra of poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)-containing synthetic chromatin, which is similar to that for the polynucleotide, suggests the core histone bound polynucleotide has a large degree of conformational flexibility allowing it to undergo the premelt transition. PMID:6830804

  11. Hierarchical Porous Polystyrene Monoliths from PolyHIPE.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinjia; Tan, Liangxiao; Xia, Lingling; Wood, Colin D; Tan, Bien

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical porous polystyrene monoliths (HCP-PolyHIPE) are obtained by hypercrosslinking poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared by polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (PolyHIPEs). The hypercrosslinking is achieved using an approach known as knitting which employs formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (FDA) as an external crosslinker. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the macroporous structure in the original monolith is retained during the knitting process. By increasing the amount of divinylbenzene (DVB) in PolyHIPE, the BET surface area and pore volume of the HCP-PolyHIPE decrease, while the micropore size increases. BET surface areas of 196-595 m(2) g(-1) are obtained. The presence of micropores, mesopores, and macropores is confirmed from the pore size distribution. With a hierarchical porous structure, the monoliths reveal comparable gas sorption properties and potential applications in oil spill clean-up. PMID:26178423

  12. Cross-backbone templating; ribodinucleotides made on poly(C)

    PubMed Central

    Majerfeld, Irene; Puthenvedu, Deepa; Yarus, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G5′pp5′G synthesis from pG and chemically activated 2MeImpG is accelerated by the addition of complementary poly(C), but affected only slightly by poly(G) and not at all by poly(U) and poly(A). This suggests that 3′–5′ poly(C) is a template for uncatalyzed synthesis of 5′–5′ GppG, as was poly(U) for AppA synthesis, previously. The reaction occurs at 50 mM mono- and divalent ion concentrations, at moderate temperatures, and near pH 7. The reactive complex at the site of enhanced synthesis of 5′–5′ GppG seems to contain a single pG, a single phosphate-activated nucleotide 2MeImpG, and a single strand of poly(C). Most likely this structure is base-paired, as the poly(C)-enhanced reaction is completely disrupted between 30 and 37°C, whereas slower, untemplated synthesis of GppG accelerates. More specifically, the reactive center acts as would be expected for short, isolated G nucleotide stacks expanded and ordered by added poly(C). For example, poly(C)-mediated GppG production is very nonlinear in overall nucleotide concentration. Uncatalyzed NppN synthesis is now known for two polymers and their complementary free nucleotides. These data suggest that varied, simple, primordial 3′–5′ RNA sequences could express a specific chemical phenotype by encoding synthesis of complementary, reactive, coenzyme-like 5′–5′ ribodinucleotides. PMID:26759450

  13. Molecular Basis of the Receptor Interactions of Polysialic Acid (polySia), polySia Mimetics, and Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiyan; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta; Boelens, Rolf; Wienk, Hans; Siebert, Simone; Eckert, Thomas; Kraan, Stefan; Rojas-Macias, Miguel A; Lütteke, Thomas; Galuska, Sebastian P; Scheidig, Axel; Petridis, Athanasios K; Liang, Songping; Billeter, Martin; Schauer, Roland; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Siebert, Hans-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) and polySia glycomimetic molecules support nerve cell regeneration, differentiation, and neuronal plasticity. With a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, as well as data mining and molecular modeling techniques, it is possible to correlate specific ligand-receptor interactions with biochemical processes and in vivo studies that focus on the potential therapeutic impact of polySia, polySia glycomimetics, and sulfated polysaccharides in neuronal diseases. With this strategy, the receptor interactions of polySia and polySia mimetics can be understood on a submolecular level. As the HNK-1 glycan also enhances neuronal functions, we tested whether similar sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides from seaweed could be suitable, in addition to polySia, for finding potential new routes into patient care focusing on an improved cure for various neuronal diseases. The knowledge obtained here on the structural interplay between polySia or sulfated polysaccharides and their receptors can be exploited to develop new drugs and application routes for the treatment of neurological diseases and dysfunctions. PMID:27136597

  14. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). 177.1635 Section 177.1635 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). 177.1635 Section 177.1635 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). 177.1635 Section 177.1635 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic...

  17. Taxonomic implications of synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and other poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by aerobic pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Kessler, B; Palleroni, N J

    2000-03-01

    Whereas poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Pseudomonas species is rare, synthesis of medium-chain-length poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) other than PHB, has been observed in fluorescent and non-fluorescent species. Contrary to original reports, Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas ficuserectae accumulate mcl-PHAs and not PHB. The taxonomic implications of these characteristics are discussed. PMID:10758879

  18. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  19. Poly(ester urethane)s consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(ethylene glycol) as candidate biomaterials: characterization and mechanical property study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Loh, Xian Jun; Wang, Ke; He, Chaobin; Li, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Poly(ester urethane)s with poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) as the hard and hydrophobic segment and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the soft and hydrophilic segment were synthesized from telechelic hydroxylated PHB (PHB-diol) and PEG using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as a nontoxic coupling reagent. Their chemical structures and molecular characteristics were studied by gel permeation chromatography, 1H NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicated that the PHB segment and PEG segment in the poly(ester urethane)s formed separate crystalline phases with lower crystallinity and a lower melting point than those of their corresponding precursors, except no PHB crystalline phase was observed in those with a relatively low PHB fraction. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the poly(ester urethane)s had better thermal stability than their precursors. The segment compositions were calculated from the two-step thermal decomposition profiles, which were in good agreement with those obtained from 1H NMR. Water contact angle measurement and water swelling analysis revealed that both surface hydrophilicity and bulk hydrophilicity of the poly(ester urethane)s were enhanced by incorporating the PEG segment into PHB polymer chains. The mechanical properties of the poly(ester urethane)s were also assessed by tensile strength measurement. It was found that the poly(ester urethane)s were ductile, while natural source PHB is brittle. Young's modulus and the stress at break increased with increasing PHB segment length or PEG segment length, whereas the strain at break increased with increasing PEG segment length or decreasing PHB segment length. PMID:16153114

  20. Ostracods and sediment geochemistry as indicators of hydrologic and climatic variability in the central part of the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert over the last 27 ka cal BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez Lara, C. M.; Roy, P. D.; Lozano Santa Cruz, R.; López Balbiaux, N.

    2013-12-01

    The paleolake Santiaguillo (Durango State) is located in the central part of the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico). The lacustrine basin covers an area of approximately 1,964 km2 and is surrounded by mountains up to ca. 2,700 masl. This basin was formed by tectonic processes and the basement is formed by volcanic felsic rocks of Tertiary age. Four sediment cores were obtained from central and western part of the basin to reconstruct hydrologic and climate variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. In this work, we present paleo-ecology of ostracods and sedimentary geochemistry from two sediment cores (300 cm and 200 cm long) collected from the western basin margin. The age model was constructed from 8 AMS radiocarbon dates and the longest profile represents the last 27 cal ka BP. The ostracode faunal content consists of 4 different species: Limnocythere bradburyi, Cadona patzcuaro, Cypridopsis vidua and Limnocythere ceriotuberosa (listed from highest to lowest abundance) and total abundance varies between 0 and 125 valves/g. Paleo-environmental conditions were reconstructed from the Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC), Carbon/Nitrogen ratios (C/N), Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and concentrations of Ti, Ca, Si and Al. The results were divided into two zones for interpretation. Zone 1 covers ca. 27-17 cal ka BP (300-191 cm) and is characterized by higher Ti concentrations and above average CIA values. This suggests greater interaction between water and sediment, lower evaporation and relatively higher lake level in the basin. During this interval of higher lakestand, the deposited organic matter was autochthonous (lacustrine origin) and ostracodes suggest presence of a warm and dilute water column (>13 °C and >100 ppm). Sediments of the last 17 cal ka BP (191-0 cm) (Zone 2) are characterized by below average water-sediment interaction, higher carbonate precipitation and deposition of allochthonous organic matter (terrestrial origin

  1. Poly(A) RNA and Paip2 act as allosteric regulators of poly(A)-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Oh, Jungsic; Park, Jonghyun; Paek, Ki Young; Rho, Sangchul; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2014-02-01

    When bound to the 3' poly(A) tail of mRNA, poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) modulates mRNA translation and stability through its association with various proteins. By visualizing individual PABP molecules in real time, we found that PABP, containing four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), adopts a conformation on poly(A) binding in which RRM1 is in proximity to RRM4. This conformational change is due to the bending of the region between RRM2 and RRM3. PABP-interacting protein 2 actively disrupts the bent structure of PABP to the extended structure, resulting in the inhibition of PABP-poly(A) binding. These results suggest that the changes in the configuration of PABP induced by interactions with various effector molecules, such as poly(A) and PABP-interacting protein 2, play pivotal roles in its function. PMID:24293655

  2. The adhesion of oxygen-plasma treated poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene terephthlate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, S.L.; Kinloch, A.J.; Watts, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The effects of low-pressure oxygen-plasma treatment on the surfaces of poly(ethylene) (PE) and poly(ethylene terephthlate) (PET) films and its influence on the adhesion of PE/PET laminates were assessed. The 90{degree} peel test was used to estimate the adhesive fracture energy, G{sub c} for the laminates. XPS, SEM and AFM were used to analyse the treated films and fracture surfaces. Significant improvements in bond strength occurred within very short treatment times (5s at 50W) with the maximum adhesion occurring after 300s. For longer treatment times the bond strengths decrease slightly. G{sub c} values were found to be low when PET was the peel arm. When PE was the peel arm, the G{sub c} values were substantially larger using the current analysis.

  3. Tensile behaviour of blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) with poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Chung, Shirley Y.

    1990-01-01

    Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared over a wide concentration range and tested in tension at the same relative temperature below the glass transition. In nearly all blends, under conditions favoring disentanglement, (decrease in strain rate, or increase in test temperature), the yield stress and drawing stress decreased while the breaking strain increased. For materials with about the same degree of crystallinity, those with a higher proportion of amorphous PVF2 exhibited brittle-like behavior as a result of interlamellar tie molecules. In the semicrystalline blends, yield stress remains high as the test temperature approaches Tg, whereas in the amorphous blends the yield stress falls to zero near Tg. Results of physical aging support the role of interlamellar ties which cause semicrystalline blends to exhibit aging at temperatures above Tg.

  4. Structure of a pleiomeric form of poly d(AT):poly d(AT).

    PubMed Central

    Millane, R P; Walker, J K; Arnott, S; Chandrasekaran, R; Birdsall, D L; Ratliff, R L

    1984-01-01

    A chemically simple polynucleotide duplex, poly d(AT):poly d(AT), has been trapped in a fibrous form with a complex helical secondary structure with a large (7.4 nm) axial repeat 24 nucleotides long. The motif which is repeated by the symmetry elements is a hexanucleotide in which two residues (both TpA) have the less common gauche minus conformation at C3'-O3' and consequently distinctive phosphate orientations. This reinforces earlier conclusions that PypPu nucleotides tend to have different shapes from PupPy nucleotides and that DNA surfaces may signal what base sequences lie beneath them. The morphological differences between this pleiomeric DNA polymer and closely-related, but more symmetrical allomorphs are just as great as those observed in short DNA fragments in crystals. Images PMID:6462912

  5. Biodegradation and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Poly(butylene succinate) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Satomi

    Polymer blends were fabricated with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with better mechanical properties and poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) with better biodegradable properties to clarify the effect of the blending ratio on the biodegradable and mechanical properties of the blends. The specimens were heat treated to improve the reduction in stiffness due to blending. Hydrolysis and soil burial tests up to 16 weeks were conducted to investigate the biodegradation properties. Young's modulus increased with increasing contents of PLA, whereas tensile strength is lowest in the PLA/PBSU (50/50) polymer blend before biodegradation because of the immiscibility of PLA and PBSU. Young's modulus kept constant up 16 weeks both in the hydrolysis and the soil burial tests. On the other hand, tensile strength decreased remarkably in the hydrolysis tests. The observation results of the specimen surface and the fracture surface indicate that the surface and bulk degradation occur in hydrolysis and soil burial tests, respectively

  6. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl chloride) composite polymer membranes for secondary zinc electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Yang, Jen Ming; Wu, Cheng-Yeou

    A microporous composite polymer membrane composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), was prepared by a solution casting method and a partial dissolution process. The characteristic properties of microporous PVA/PVC composite polymer membranes containing 2.5-10 wt.% PVC polymers as fillers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), capillary flow porometry (CFP), micro-Raman spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and the AC impedance method. The electrochemical properties of a secondary Zn electrode with the PVA/PVC composite polymer membrane were studied using the galvanostatic charge/discharge method. The PVA/PVC composite polymer membrane showed good thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. As a result, the PVA/PVC composite polymer membrane appears to be a good candidate for use on the secondary Zn electrodes.

  7. Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomers as anti-biofouling materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoqiang; Tong, Weifang; Jiang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanwei; Chen, Hong

    2012-08-01

    A new method for the modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer surfaces with hydrophilic poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) has been developed. PVP chains were grafted from the PDMS surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements. It was shown that the modified surfaces were strongly hydrophilic, indicating that the PVP grafts dominate the surface and define its properties. The anti-fouling properties of the grafted surfaces were demonstrated in protein adsorption and cell adhesion experiments. Both protein adsorption and cell adhesion were inhibited significantly on the PVP-modified PDMS surfaces compared to unmodified controls. It is concluded that modification by SI-ATRP grafting of PVP is an effective method for the preparation of anti-biofouling PDMS materials. PMID:22510455

  8. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces an ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.

  9. Phase Behavior of a Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(ethylethylene)/Water/Dodecane System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossuth, M. B.; Bates, F. S.

    1998-03-01

    Recently, we investigated the phase behavior of a series of low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ethylethylene) (PEO-PEE) block copolymers in the presence of water (D.A. Hajduk, M.B. Kossuth, M.A. Hillmyer, and F.S. Bates, submitted to J. Phys. Chem. B). These molecules are chemically similar to the C_nEOm surfactants but have molecular weights roughly an order of magnitude greater. PEO is hydrophilic, while PEE is strongly hydrophobic. Current work involves the addition of a third component, dodecane, to create a ternary surfactant/water/oil system. The phase behavior of this system will be discussed and compared to that of chemically similar small molecule surfactants. Noteworthy results include the appearance of a bicontinuous cubic phase, which was not seen in the aqueous solutions, and the relative sizes of the phase windows.

  10. Synthesis and Properties of Poly(l-lactide)-b-poly (l-phenylalanine) Hybrid Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Planellas, Marc; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid materials constituted by peptides and synthetic polymers have nowadays a great interest since they can combine the properties and functions of each constitutive block, being also possible to modify the final characteristics by using different topologies. Poly(l-lactide-b-l-phenylalanine) copolymers with various block lengths were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide and the N-carboxyanhydride of l-phenylalanine. The resulting block copolymers were characterized by NMR spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, MALDI-TOF and UV-vis, revealing the successful incorporation of the polyphenylalanine (PPhe) peptide into the previously formed poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) polymer chain. X-ray diffraction and DSC data also suggested that the copolymers were phase-separated in domains containing either crystalline PLLA or PPhe phases. A peculiar thermal behavior was also found by thermogravimetric analysis when polyphenylalanine blocks were incorporated into polylactide. PMID:25075980

  11. Fabrication of Poly (methyl methacrylate) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Thin Film Capacitors on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Bindu; Meenaa Pria KNJ, Jaisree; Alagappan, M.; Kandaswamy, A.

    2015-11-01

    Flexible electronics is becoming more popular with introduction of more and more organic conducting materials and processes for making thin films. The use of polymers as gate dielectric has over ruled the usage of conventional inorganic oxides in Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) on account of its solution process ability and ease of making highly insulating thin film. In this work Capacitance is fabricated with polymeric dielectrics namely poly (methyl methacrylate) - PMMA and poly (vinyl alcohol) - PVA. The electrodes used for these capacitors are Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Aluminium. Capacitance value of 9.5nF/cm2 and 33.12nF/cm2 is achieved for thickness of 510 nm of PMMA and 80 nm of PVA respectively. This study on capacitance can be used for assessing the suitability of these polymers as gate insulators in OTFTs.

  12. Modulated calorimetry of poly(1,4-oxybenzoate), poly(2,6-oxynaphthoate), and their copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J; Habenschuss, A; Wunderlich, B

    2008-01-01

    Poly(1,4-oxybenzoate) (POB) and poly(2,6-oxynaphthoate) (PON) and their copolymers which have a well-established phase diagram have been studied with temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). All the analyzed polymers have more than one disordering transition between the glass transition (from 400 to 430 K) and decomposition (starting at 700 K). Above the glass transition, the reversible heat capacity, Cp, increases beyond that calculated from the crystallinity and the known Cp of the solid and melt. This is likely due to an increase of mobility within the crystals and/or a possible rigid-amorphous fraction (mainly for the copolymers). The disordering transitions are largely irreversible, supporting the observation that semicrystalline, linear macromolecules show decreasing amounts of locally reversible melting with increasing rigidity and crystal perfection.

  13. The effect of UV ozone treatment on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Greiner, M. T.; Liu, Z. W.; Lian, K.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-10-01

    The interface between ultraviolet (UV) ozone treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-1-1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (α-NPD) was investigated using single carrier hole-only devices and in situ ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate the implications for device applications. It is found that although the work function of PEDOT:PSS is increased by UV ozone treatment, the injection barrier to α-NPD is in fact increased, resulting in lower current density in devices. The apparent increase in work function is attributed to a metastable surface dipole as a result of UV ozone treatment, which does not significantly influence the energy-level alignment.

  14. Release behaviors of porous poly(butylene succinate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microcapsules containing indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Yun-Mok; Hong, Sung-Kwon

    2006-02-01

    The biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PBS/PCL) microcapsules containing indomethacin were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The morphologies, thermal properties, and release behaviors of PBS/PCL microcapsules were investigated. As a result, the microcapsules exhibited porous and spherical form in the presence of gelatin as a surfactant. From the DSC result, the PBS/PCL microcapsules showed the two exothermic peaks meaning the melting points of PCL and PBS. The results of FT-IR and DSC proved that the PBS and PCL were mixed so that the PBS/PCL microcapsules were composed of two wall-forming materials. And the release rate of indomethacin from the microcapsules was decreased with increasing the PCL content. It was noted that an addition of PCL on the PBS led to the decrease of pore size in the PBS/PCL microcapsules. PMID:16413177

  15. Chitosan/poly (vinyl pyrollidone) coatings improve the antibacterial properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bai-liang; Wang, Jin-lei; Li, Dan-dan; Ren, Ke-feng; Ji, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan/poly (vinyl pyrollidone) (CHI/PVP) coatings were prepared to improve the antibacterial properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by a simple dip-coating method. The binding capability of CHI/PVP coatings was enhanced by successively pretreatment of PET by polyetherimide and polyacrylic acid and crosslinking. Measurements of water contact angle and atomic force microscope revealed that the coatings created a highly hydrophilic surface with low roughness. Adherences of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) on PET with CHI/PVP coating were significantly reduced. Bactericidal activity of CHI/PVP coatings was good against E. coli and S. aureus and the adding of PVP obviously increased its antiadhesion property. In vitro cytotoxicity tests, cell morphology and activity evaluation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that CHI/PVP coatings had good biocompatibility.

  16. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces anmore » ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.« less

  17. PolyQ 2.0: an improved version of PolyQ, a database of human polyglutamine proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Nagel, Jeremy; Androulakis, Steve; Song, Jiangning; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats are involved in human neurodegenerative diseases, via a gain-of-function mechanism of neuronal toxicity involving protein conformational changes that result in the formation and deposition of β-sheet-rich aggregates. Aggregation is dependent on the context and properties of the host protein, such as domain context and location of the repeat tract. In order to explore this relationship in greater detail, here we describe PolyQ 2.0, an updated database that provides a comprehensive knowledgebase for human polyQ proteins. Compared with the previous PolyQ database, our new database provides a variety of substantial updates including detailed biological annotations and search options. Biological annotations in terms of domain context information, protein structural and functional annotation, single point mutations, predicted disordered regions, protein–protein interaction partners, metabolic/signaling pathways, post-translational modification sites and evolutionary information are made available. Several new database functionalities have also been provided, including search using multiple/combinatory keywords, and submission of new data entries. Also, several third-party plug-ins are employed to enhance data visualization in PolyQ 2.0. In PolyQ 2.0 the proteins are reclassified into 3 new categories and contain 9 reviewed disease-associated polyQ proteins, 105 reviewed non-disease polyQ proteins and 146 un-reviewed polyQ proteins (reviewed by UniProt curators). We envisage that this updated database will be a useful resource for functional and structural investigation of human polyQ proteins. Database URL: http://lightning.med.monash.edu/polyq2/ PMID:26980520

  18. PolyQ 2.0: an improved version of PolyQ, a database of human polyglutamine proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Nagel, Jeremy; Androulakis, Steve; Song, Jiangning; Buckle, Ashley M

    2016-01-01

    Proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats are involved in human neurodegenerative diseases, via a gain-of-function mechanism of neuronal toxicity involving protein conformational changes that result in the formation and deposition of β-sheet-rich aggregates. Aggregation is dependent on the context and properties of the host protein, such as domain context and location of the repeat tract. In order to explore this relationship in greater detail, here we describe PolyQ 2.0, an updated database that provides a comprehensive knowledgebase for human polyQ proteins. Compared with the previous PolyQ database, our new database provides a variety of substantial updates including detailed biological annotations and search options. Biological annotations in terms of domain context information, protein structural and functional annotation, single point mutations, predicted disordered regions, protein-protein interaction partners, metabolic/signaling pathways, post-translational modification sites and evolutionary information are made available. Several new database functionalities have also been provided, including search using multiple/combinatory keywords, and submission of new data entries. Also, several third-party plug-ins are employed to enhance data visualization in PolyQ 2.0. In PolyQ 2.0 the proteins are reclassified into 3 new categories and contain 9 reviewed disease-associated polyQ proteins, 105 reviewed non-disease polyQ proteins and 146 un-reviewed polyQ proteins (reviewed by UniProt curators). We envisage that this updated database will be a useful resource for functional and structural investigation of human polyQ proteins. Database URL: http://lightning.med.monash.edu/polyq2/. PMID:26980520

  19. Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome: An Updated Overview

    PubMed Central

    El Hayek, Samer; Bitar, Lynn; Hamdar, Layal H.; Mirza, Fadi G.; Daoud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common metabolic and reproductive disorders among women of reproductive age. Women suffering from PCOS present with a constellation of symptoms associated with menstrual dysfunction and androgen excess, which significantly impacts their quality of life. They may be at increased risk of multiple morbidities, including obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infertility, cancer, and psychological disorders. This review summarizes what the literature has so far provided from guidelines to diagnosis of PCOS. It will also present a general overview about the morbidities associated with this disease, specifically with its more severe classic form. Finally, the review will stress on the various aspects of treatment and screening recommendations currently used in the management of this condition. PMID:27092084

  20. Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome: An Updated Overview.

    PubMed

    El Hayek, Samer; Bitar, Lynn; Hamdar, Layal H; Mirza, Fadi G; Daoud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common metabolic and reproductive disorders among women of reproductive age. Women suffering from PCOS present with a constellation of symptoms associated with menstrual dysfunction and androgen excess, which significantly impacts their quality of life. They may be at increased risk of multiple morbidities, including obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infertility, cancer, and psychological disorders. This review summarizes what the literature has so far provided from guidelines to diagnosis of PCOS. It will also present a general overview about the morbidities associated with this disease, specifically with its more severe classic form. Finally, the review will stress on the various aspects of treatment and screening recommendations currently used in the management of this condition. PMID:27092084

  1. Bistable electronic switching in poly(arylenephthalides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebov, A. Yu.; Lachinov, A. N.; Genoe, J.; Tameev, A. R.; Vannikov, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical data show that the phenomenon of bistable switching in thin films of poly(arylenephthalides) (PAPs), which was reported previously, has an electronic nature and is related to the unique properties of PAP molecules. This phenomenon has been studied in metal-PAP-metal and ITO-PAP-ITO structures (ITO = indium tin oxide) with various thicknesses of the polymer film. First results are reported that demonstrate the principal possibility of using thin PAP films as a basis for resistive nonvolatile electronic memory cells. These data show that the bistable switching is related primarily to the electronic properties of the polymer film and is not influenced by the oxidation of electrodes and/or the growth of metal filaments from the electrodes.

  2. Poly(phenylene)-based anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Cornelius, Christopher J.; Fujimoto, Cy H.

    2011-02-15

    A poly(phenylene) compound of copolymers that can be prepared with either random or multiblock structures where a first polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 2 pendant phenyl groups and 4 pendant tolyl groups and the second polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 6 pendant phenyl groups. The second polymer has chemical groups attached to some of the pendant phenyl groups selected from CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2Br, and CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br groups. When at least one group is CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br, the material functions as an anion exchange membrane.

  3. Poly(vinyl chloride) processes and products.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, R N

    1981-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) resins are produced by four basic processes: suspension, emulsion, bulk and solution polymerization. PVC suspensions resins are usually relatively dust-free and granular with varying degrees of particle porosity. PVC emulsion resins are small particle powders containing very little free monomer. Bulk PVC resins are similar to suspension PVC resins, though the particles tend to be more porous. Solution PVC resins are smaller in particle size than suspension PVC with high porosity particles containing essentially no free monomer. The variety of PVC resin products does not lend itself to broad generalizations concerning health hazards. In studying occupational hazards the particular PVC process and the product must be considered and identified in the study. PMID:7333230

  4. Mechanical properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(2-methyloxazoline) polymersomes probed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaskiewicz, Karmena; Makowski, Marcin; Kappl, Michael; Landfester, Katharina; Kroeger, Anja

    2012-08-28

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(2-methyloxazoline) (PDMS-b-PMOXA) vesicles were characterized by a combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy (AFM). From DLS data, a hydrodynamic radius of ~150 nm was determined, and cryo-TEM micrographs revealed a bilayer thickness of ~16 nm. In AFM experiments on a silicon wafer substrate, adsorption led to a stable spherical caplike conformation of the polymersomes, whereas on mica, adsorption resulted also in vesicle fusion and formation of bilayer patches or multilayer stacks. This indicates a delicate balance between the mechanical stability of PDMS-b-PMOXA polymersomes on one hand and the driving forces for spreading on the other. A Young's modulus of 17 ± 11 MPa and a bending modulus of 7 ± 5 × 10(-18) J were derived from AFM force spectroscopy measurements. Therefore, the elastic response of the PDMS-b-PMOXA polymersomes to external stimuli is much closer to that of lipid vesicles compared to other types of polymersomes, such as polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA). PMID:22860888

  5. Microviscosity in Pluronic and Tetronic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymer micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Nivaggioli, T.; Tsao, B.; Alexandridis, P.; Hatton, T.A. )

    1995-01-01

    The micellar microviscosity afforded by Pluronic and Tetronic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymer aqueous solutions has been investigated by fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Comparison is made with bulk poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) samples of different molecular weights. The microviscosity in Pluronic PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer micelles is much larger than that observed in conventional surfactant micelles and depends strongly on the size of the hydrophobic PPO block: the larger this block, the higher the viscosity. Above the critical micellar temperature (CMT), as temperature increases, the microviscosity decreases. However, this decrease is not as important as that observed in bulk PPO. Hence, the relative microviscosity, defined as the ratio of the two observed phenomena, increases. This suggests structural transformation of the micelles resulting in a core becoming more and more compact as temperature increases. Such results have been confirmed by NMR studies that showed broadening of the PPO peak and relatively constant spin-lattice relaxation time, T[sub i], with increasing temperature while the PEO signal remained relatively sharp with an exponential increase in T[sub 1]. 30 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Study of stiffness effects of poly(amidoamine)-poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogel on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shixuan; Shi, Junbin; Xu, Xiaolin; Ding, Jianyang; Zhong, Wen; Zhang, Lu; Xing, Malcolm; Zhang, Lin

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical miss-match between the host and an implanted foreign body is one of the primary causes for implantation failure. To enhance the efficacy in wound repair, we developed stiffness-tunable temperature-sensitive hydrogels composed of poly(amidoamine) (PAA)-based poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). PNIPAM-PAA hydrogels with three different stiffness fabricated by varying the concentrations of poly(amidoamine) were chosen for morphology and rheology tests. The degradation rate and cell compatibility of gels were also characterized. The PAA-PNIPAM hydrogels were then tested in a wound healing model of mice with full-thickness skin loss. We found that the stiffness of hydrogels has an impact on the wound healing process mainly by regulating the cell activities in the proliferation phase. PNIPAM-PAA hydrogels with appropriate stiffness reduce scar formation and improve wound healing by promoting myofibroblast transformation, keratinocytes proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling. Moreover, the stiffness of hydrogels impact on the secretion of TGF-β1 and bFGF, which play an important role in skin wound healing. These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of hydrogels in skin wound healing can by regulated by hydrogels' stiffness. PMID:26628331

  7. Controlled release of anti-diabetic drug Gliclazide from poly(caprolactone)/poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Chand, Navin; Soni, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Drug Gliclazide (Glz) has limited solubility and low bioavailability. In order to obtain a controlled release of this drug and to improve its bioavailability, the drug has been loaded into poly(caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogels, prepared by free radical polymerization of acrylic acid in the presence of poly(caprolactone) in acetone medium using azo-isobutyronitrile as initiator and N,N' methylene bisacrylamide as cross-linking agent. The swelling behaviour of these hydrogels has been investigated in the physiological gastric and intestinal fluids to obtain an optimum composition suitable for delivery of a biologically active compound. The gels were loaded with anti-diabetic drug Glz and a detailed investigation of release of drug has been carried out. Various kinetic models have been applied on the release data. Finally, the Albino wistar rats were treated for Streptozotocin plus nicotinamide - induced diabetes using a Glz-loaded PCL/PAAc hydrogel. The results indicated a fair reduction in the glucose level of rats. PMID:26135033

  8. Solubilization of docetaxel in poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(butylene/styrene oxide) micelles.

    PubMed

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Perron, Marie-Eve; Bertrand, Nicolas; Yu, Ga-Er; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-07-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene oxide) (PEO-b-PSO) and PEO-b-poly(butylene oxide) (PEO-b-PBO) of different chain lengths were synthesized and characterized for their self-assembling properties in water by dynamic/static light scattering, spectrofluorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting polymeric micelles were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and protect the anticancer drug docetaxel (DCTX) from degradation. The drug release kinetics as well as the cytotoxicity of the loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. All polymers formed micelles with a highly viscous core at low critical association concentrations (<10 mg/L). Micelle morphology depended on the nature of the hydrophobic block, with PBO- and PSO-based micelles yielding monodisperse spherical and cylindrical nanosized aggregates, respectively. The maximum solubilization capacity for DCTX ranged from 0.7 to 4.2% and was the highest for PSO micelles exhibiting the longest hydrophobic segment. Despite their high affinity for DCTX, PEO-b-PSO micelles were not able to efficiently protect DCTX against hydrolysis under accelerated stability testing conditions. Only PEO-b-PBO bearing 24 BO units afforded significant protection against degradation. In vitro, DCTX was released slower from the latter micelles, but all formulations possessed a similar cytotoxic effect against PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that PEO-b-P(SO/BO) micelles could be used as alternatives to conventional surfactants for the solubilization of taxanes. PMID:17579476

  9. Superabsorbent biphasic system based on poly(lactic acid) and poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Pandini, Stefano; Baldi, Francesco; Bignotti, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    In this research work, biocomposites based on crosslinked particles of poly(acrylic acid), commonly used as superabsorbent polymer (SAP), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were developed to elucidate the role of the filler (i.e., polymeric crosslinked particles) on the overall physico-mechanical behavior and to obtain superabsorbent thermoplastic products. Samples prepared by melt-blending of components in different ratios showed a biphasic system with a regular distribution of particles, with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 μm, within the PLLA polymeric matrix. The polymeric biphasic system, coded PLASA i.e. superabsorbent poly(lactic acid), showed excellent swelling properties, demonstrating that cross-linked particles retain their superabsorbent ability, as in their free counterparts, even if distributed in a thermoplastic polymeric matrix. The thermal characteristics of the biocomposites evidence enhanced thermal stability in comparison with neat PLLA and also mechanical properties are markedly modified by addition of crosslinked particles which induce regular stiffening effect. Furthermore, in aqueous environments the particles swell and are leached from PLLA matrix generating very high porosity. These new open-pore PLLA foams, produced in absence of organic solvents and chemical foaming agents, with good physico-mechanical properties appear very promising for several applications, for instance in tissue engineering for scaffold production.

  10. The effect of soxhlet extraction on morphology and mechanical properties of Poly(DVB)polyHIPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakeyangkoon, Pornsri; Nithitanakul, Manit

    2007-03-01

    PolyHIPE (Polymerized High Internal Phase Emulsion) is a novel porous polymer, which is microporous materials and produce by polymerization of the continuous phase of system. Poly(DVB)PolyHIPE using two different system of three-component surfactant (S20M and S80M) with various porogenic solvents including T, CB, CB/T and PE has been successfully prepared. The phase morphology, mechanical properties and surface area measurement were investigated. After polymerization of continuous phase, the porous materials with interconnected were obtained. The cell size and surface area were found to improve by using various solvent, this is due to the ability of porogenic solvent and mixture of surfactant which prevent the Ostwald ripening (coalescence) of system. Moreover, the surface area and mechanical properties of the resulting materials were found to be depended on the soxhlet time. It can be concluded that the suitable soxhlet time for extraction was 6-12 hours and at this condition, high surface area with highest mechanical properties was obtained as compare to others conditions.

  11. Plasticization of poly(L-lactide) with poly(propylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Kulinski, Z; Piorkowska, E; Gadzinowska, K; Stasiak, M

    2006-07-01

    A new plasticizer for poly(L-lactide) (PLA)-poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) is proposed. The advantage of using PPG is that it does not crystallize, has low glass transition temperature, and is miscible with PLA. PLA was plasticized with PPGs with nominal Mw of 425 and 1000 g/mol. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), long known as a plasticizer for PLA, with nominal Mw of 600 g/mol, was also used to plasticize PLA for comparison. The thermal and tensile properties of PLA and PLA with 5-12.5 wt % of the plasticizers were studied. In blends of PLA with PPGs the glass transition temperature was lower than that of neat PLA. Both PPGs enhanced the crystallizability of PLA albeit less than PEG. All of the plasticizers increased also the ability of PLA to plastic deformation which was reflected in a decrease of yield stress and in an increase of elongation at break. The effect was enhanced by the higher PPG content and also by lower molecular weight of PPG. A phase separation occurred only in the blend containing 12.5 wt % of PPG with higher molecular weight. The evidences of crazing were found in deformed samples of PLA with low plasticizer content, whereas the samples with higher content of plasticizers crystallized due to deformation. PMID:16827579

  12. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Algorithm and Cal/Val Activities and Synergies with SMOS and Other L-Band Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Jackson, Tom; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    applicable to soil moisture measurement, such as Aquarius, SAO COM, and ALOS-2. The algorithms and data products for SMAP are being developed in the SMAP Science Data System (SDS) Testbed. The algorithms are developed and evaluated in the SDS Testbed using simulated SMAP observations as well as observational data from current airborne and spaceborne L-band sensors including SMOS. The SMAP project is developing a Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) Plan that is designed to support algorithm development (pre-launch) and data product validation (post-launch). A key component of the Cal/Val Plan is the identification, characterization, and instrumentation of sites that can be used to calibrate and validate the sensor data (Level I) and derived geophysical products (Level 2 and higher). In this presentation we report on the development status of the SMAP data product algorithms, and the planning and implementation of the SMAP Cal/Val program. Several components of the SMAP algorithm development and Cal/Val plans have commonality with those of SMOS, and for this reason there are shared activities and resources that can be utilized between the missions, including in situ networks, ancillary data sets, and long-term monitoring sites.

  13. Morphologies of poly(cyclohexadiene) diblock copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Mays, Jimmy; Sides, Scott; Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Hong, Kunlun; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Russell, Thomas P; Gido, Samuel; Tsoukatos, Thodoris; Beyer, Fredrick

    2012-01-01

    Concerted experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out to understand the micro-phase separation in diblock copolymer melts containing poly (1,3-cyclohexadiene), PCHD, as one of the constituents. In particular, we have studied diblock copolymer melts containing polystyrene (PS), polybutadiene (PB), and polyisoprene (PI) as the second block. We have systematically varied the ratio of 1,2- /1,4-microstructures of poly (1,3-cyclohexadiene) to tune the conformational asymmetry between the two blocks and characterized the effects of these changes on the morphologies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our experimental investigations reveal that the melts of PCHD-b-PB, PCHD-b-PS and PCHD-b-PI containing nearly equal fractions of each component and high percentage of 1,4-microstructures in the PCHD block form cylindrical rather than lamellar morphologies as expected in symmetric diblock copolymers. In contrast, the morphologies of PCHD-b-PB, PCHD-b-PS and PCHD-b-PI containing PCHD block with higher 1,2-microstructure are found to be disordered at 110 C. The change in the morphological behavior is in good agreement with our numerical calculations using the random phase approximation and self-consistent field theory for conformationally asymmetric diblock copolymer melts. Also, the effects of composition fluctuations are studied by extending the Brazovskii-Leibler-Fredrickson-Helfand (J. Chem. Phys. 87, 697 (1987)) theory to conformationally asymmetric diblock copolymer melts. These results allow the understanding of the underlying self-assembly process that highlights the importance of the conformational asymmetry in tuning the morphologies in block copolymers.

  14. Analysis of Circadian Regulation of Poly(A) Tail Length

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Shihoko; Green, Carla B.

    2015-01-01

    The poly(A) tail is found on the 3’-end of most eukaryotic mRNAs, and its length significantly contributes to the mRNAs half-life and translational competence. Circadian regulation of poly(A) tail length is a powerful mechanism to confer rhythmicity in gene expression post-transcriptionally, and provides a means to regulate protein levels independent of rhythmic transcription in the nucleus. Therefore, analysis of circadian poly(A) tail length regulation is important for a complete understanding of rhythmic physiology, since rhythmically expressed proteins are the ultimate mediators of rhythmic function. Nevertheless, it has previously been challenging to measure changes in poly(A) tail length, especially at a global level, due to technical constraints. However, new methodology based on differential fractionation of mRNAs based on the length of their tails has recently been developed. In this chapter, we will describe these methods as used for examining the circadian regulation of poly(A) tail length and will provide detailed experimental procedures to measure poly(A) tail length both at a the single mRNA level and the global level. Although this chapter concentrates on methods we used for analyzing poly(A) tail length in the mammalian circadian system, the methods described here can be applicable to any organisms and any biological processes. PMID:25662466

  15. Structural properties of poly C-scleroglucan complexes.

    PubMed

    Sletmoen, Marit; Stokke, Bjørn T

    2005-10-15

    Successive changes of solvent conditions can be used to dissociate and reassociate the triple-helical structure of (1,3)-beta-D-glucans. Ultramicroscopic techniques have revealed a blend of circular and other structures following renaturation. When this solvent exchange process is carried out in the presence of certain polynucleotides, the process creates a novel macromolecular complex. Here, we use size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to study such (1,3)-beta-D-glucan-polynucleotide complexes. Online multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index (RI) detectors allowed determination of molecular weight and radius of gyration of the molecules. An ultraviolet (UV) detector allowed specific detection of the polynucleotide. The poly-cytidylic acid (poly C) shifted to coelution with the linear fraction of the scleroglucan following the renaturation of poly C-scleroglucan blends, indicating that poly C is incorporated in linear, but not in circular, structures of scleroglucan. This conclusion was consistent with AFM topographs that revealed a decreased fraction of circular structures upon addition of poly C during the renaturation process. The combined information about radius of gyration (R(g)) and molecular weight (M(w)) allowed us to conclude that the poly C-scleroglucan complexes are more dense and have a higher persistence length than linear scleroglucan triple helixes. The experimentally determined mass per unit length was used as a basis for elucidating possible molecular arrangements within the poly C-scleroglucan complex. PMID:16013056

  16. Osteoinductive PolyHIPE Foams as Injectable Bone Grafts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; McEnery, Madison A P; Pearce, Hannah; Whitely, Michael E; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Hahn, Mariah S; Li, Huinan; Sears, Nicholas A; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    We have recently fabricated biodegradable polyHIPEs as injectable bone grafts and characterized the mechanical properties, pore architecture, and cure rates. In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles were incorporated into injectable polyHIPE foams to promote osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Upon incorporation of each type of particle, stable monoliths were formed with compressive properties comparable to control polyHIPEs. Pore size quantification indicated a negligible effect of all particles on emulsion stability and resulting pore architecture. Alizarin red calcium staining illustrated the incorporation of calcium phosphate particles at the pore surface, while picrosirius red collagen staining illustrated collagen-rich DBM particles within the monoliths. Osteoinductive particles had a negligible effect on the compressive modulus (∼30 MPa), which remained comparable to human cancellous bone values. All polyHIPE compositions promoted human MSC viability (∼90%) through 2 weeks. Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated the ability of all polyHIPE compositions to promote osteogenic differentiation through the upregulation of bone-specific markers compared to a time zero control. These findings illustrate the potential for these osteoinductive polyHIPEs to promote osteogenesis and validate future in vivo evaluation. Overall, this work demonstrates the ability to incorporate a range of bioactive components into propylene fumarate dimethacrylate-based injectable polyHIPEs to increase cellular interactions and direct specific behavior without compromising scaffold architecture and resulting properties for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26739120

  17. Atmospheric River impacts in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest on 22-24 January 2015 during the CalWater 2015 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggini, N. G.; Spackman, J. R.; Neiman, P. J.; White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.; Barnet, C.; Gambacorta, A.; Hughes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over 30 dropsonde transects were performed across atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the eastern Pacific during CalWater 2015. An event in late January allowed first-of-its-kind coordinated dropsonde transects of an AR using the NOAA G-IV aircraft in tandem with the NOAA Ronald H. Brown (RHB), which observed the marine boundary layer during the passage of this major AR. Dropsonde data collected on 22 January 2015 sampled the early stages of the AR, when the AR began making landfall near Vancouver Island, British Columbia. At the same time the RHB collected precipitation and oceanic moisture flux measurements on the warm side of the AR. A second flight on 24 January 2015 sampled the later stages of the AR, again passing over the RHB stationed beneath the AR. During this later period, the AR axis of moisture shifted north-northeast and fanned out along the coast, affecting regions from Northern Washington to Southern Alaska. Multi-day landfalling AR conditions led to flooding in British Columbia and northern Washington. The influence of the coastal orography combined with the shift in AR orientation is examined to understand the orographic control of precipitation that triggered the flooding. In addition, cross section analysis of the AR using dropsonde and reanalysis data are used to better understand the synoptic influences, water vapor transport, and moisture evolution during the lifecycle of the AR. To gain greater insight into AR development and prolonged AR conditions that led to enhanced flooding, a comparison of aircraft and ship data from CalWater 2015 and NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) retrievals (integrated water vapor, vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and an experimental ATMS-only rain rate product) will be compared for the 22-24 January period.

  18. The 3D model of the lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis, a tool for the elucidation of structural determinants in CAL-A lipase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Subileau, Maeva; Jan, Anne-Hélène; Nozac'h, Hervé; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Perrier, Véronique; Dubreucq, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Because lipids are hydrophobic, the development of efficient bioconversions in aqueous media free of organic solvents is particularly challenging for green oleochemistry. Within this aim, enzymes exhibiting various abilities to catalyze acyltransfer reaction in water/lipid systems have been identified. Among these, CpLIP2 from Candida parapsilosis has been characterized as a lipase/acyltransferase, able to catalyze acyltransfer reactions preferentially to hydrolysis in the presence of particularly low acyl acceptor concentration and high thermodynamic activity of water (aw>0.9). Lipase/acyltransferases are thus of great interest, being able to produce new esters at concentrations above the thermodynamic equilibrium of hydrolysis/esterification with limited to no release of free fatty acids. Here, we present a 3D model of CpLIP2 based on homologies with crystallographic structures of Pseudozyma antarctica lipase A. Indeed, the two enzymes have 31% of identity in their primary sequence, yielding a same general structure, but different catalytic properties. The quality of the calculated CpLIP2 model was confirmed by several methods. Limited proteolysis confirmed the location of some loops at the surface of the protein 3D model. Directed mutagenesis also supported the structural model constructed on CAL-A template: the functional properties of various mutants were consistent with their structure-based putative involvement in the oxyanion hole, substrate specificity, acyltransfer or hydrolysis catalysis and structural stability. The CpLIP2 3D model, in comparison with CAL-A 3D structure, brings insights for the elucidation and improvement of the structural determinants involved in the exceptional acyltransferase properties of this promising biocatalyst and of homologous enzymes of the same family. PMID:26123263

  19. The data acquisition system for a fixed target experiment at NICA complex at JINR and its connection to the ATLAS TileCal readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiwa, K. G.; Slepnev, I.; Bazylev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Today's large-scale science projects have always encountered challenges in processing large data flow from the experiments, the ATLAS detector records proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN every 50 ns which results in a total data flow of 10 Pb/s. These data must be reduced to the science data product for further analysis, thus a very fast decisions need to be executed, to modify this large amounts of data at high rates. The capabilities required to support this scale of data movement is development and improvement of high-throughput electronics. The upgraded LHC will provide collisions at rates that will be at least 10 times higher than those of today due to it's luminosity by 2022. This will require a complete redesign of the read-out electronics and Processing Units (PU) in the Tile-calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment. A general purpose, high-throughput PU has been developed for the TileCal at CERN, by using several ARM-processors in cluster configuration. The PU is capable of handling large data throughput and apply advanced operations at high rates. This system has been proposed for the fixed target experiment at NICA complex to handle the first level processes and event building. The aim of this work is to have a look at the architecture of the data acquisition system (DAQ) of the fixed target experiment at the NICA complex at JINR, by compiling the data-flow requirements of all the subcomponents. Furthermore, the VME DAQ modules characteristics to control, triggering and data acquisition will be described in order to define the DAQ with maximum readout efficiency, no dead time and data selection and compression.

  20. Behavior of adsorbed Poly-A onto sodium montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino-Aquino, Nayeli; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia

    2015-07-01

    The adsorption of Poly-A (a polynucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose and a phosphate group), onto a clay mineral, was studied to investigate the extent of adsorption, the site of binding, and the capacity of the clay to protect Poly-A, while it is adsorbed onto the clay, from external sources of energy. The results showed that Poly-A presented a high percentage of adsorption at the edges of the clay and that the survival of the polynucleotide was superior to irradiating the polymer in the absence of the clay.

  1. Functionalized poly(arylene ethers) as toughness modifiers for bismaleimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.; Roemer, W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B.; Breitigam, W.

    1990-01-01

    A family of novel, low molecular weight functionalized poly(arylene ether) resins has been investigated to ascertain its members' toughness-imparting contribution to neat bismaleimide (BMI) resin and BMI-matrix laminate composite properties. Attention is given to the contribution of the reactive poly(arylene ether)'s backbone chemistry to fracture toughness, as well as to the comparative influence of high and low molecular weight reactive poly(arylene ether) types on the modified BMI resin systems. The modified BMIs possess a polyphase morphology, with good adhesion between the thermoplastic nodules and the host thermoset systems.

  2. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed. PMID:16346972

  3. Behavior of adsorbed Poly-A onto sodium montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Palomino-Aquino, Nayeli; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia

    2015-07-23

    The adsorption of Poly-A (a polynucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose and a phosphate group), onto a clay mineral, was studied to investigate the extent of adsorption, the site of binding, and the capacity of the clay to protect Poly-A, while it is adsorbed onto the clay, from external sources of energy. The results showed that Poly-A presented a high percentage of adsorption at the edges of the clay and that the survival of the polynucleotide was superior to irradiating the polymer in the absence of the clay.

  4. Biocompatible Bacterial Cellulose-Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Andrea G. P. R.; Figueiredo, Ana R. P.; Alonso-Varona, Ana; Fernandes, Susana C. M.; Palomares, Teodoro; Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Freire, Carmen S. R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of bacterial cellulose-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films was prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), using variable amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker. Thin films were obtained, and their physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties were evaluated. The films showed improved translucency compared to BC and enhanced thermal stability and mechanical performance when compared to poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Finally, BC/PHEMA nanocomposites proved to be nontoxic to human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and thus are pointed as potential dry dressings for biomedical applications. PMID:24093101

  5. Corrigendum to Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81–101, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, A.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-05-01

    In the paper “Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust” by J. Fan et al., wrong versions of Fig. 8 and Fig. 12 were published. Please find the correct figures below.

  6. Redox-labelled poly(ethylene glycol) used as a diffusion probe in poly(ethylene glycol) melts

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, O.; Velasquez, C.; Porat, Z.

    1995-12-01

    Ferrocene labelled monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol) MPEG with molecular weights of 1900 and 750 was prepared and used as an electrochemical diffusion probe in poly(ethylene glycol) melts. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used in connection with microdisk electrodes to measure the diffusion coefficient of redox tagged molecules using melted poly(ethylene glycol) as a solvent. The molecular weight of the solvent polymer was 750, 2000 and 20000. Results from the temperature dependency of the diffusion process and of the viscosity and conductivity of the polymer electrolyte are presented and discussed.

  7. Poly(ionic liquid) superabsorbent for polar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Horne, W Jeffrey; Andrews, Mary A; Terrill, Kelsey L; Hayward, Spenser S; Marshall, Jeannie; Belmore, Kenneth A; Shannon, Matthew S; Bara, Jason E

    2015-05-01

    A simple, polymerized ionic liquid (poly(IL)) based on methylimidazolium cations tethered to a polystyrene backbone exhibits superabsorbent behavior toward polar organic solvents, most notably propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), wherein the poly(IL) was observed to swell more than 390 and 200 times (w/w) its original mass, yet absorbs negligible quantities of water, hexanes, and other solvents, many of which were miscible with the IL monomer. Although solubility parameters and dielectric constants are typically used to rationalize such behaviors, we find that poly(IL)-solvent compatibility is most clearly correlated to solvent dipole moment. Poly(IL) superabsorbency is not reliant upon the addition of a cross-linking agent. PMID:25893981

  8. Conductimetric immunosensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Mandakini; Srivastava, Divesh N; Kumar, Anil; Contractor, A Q

    2002-04-01

    A conductimetric reagentless immunosensor using the biospecific binding pair of goat antirabbit IgG and rabbit IgG has been designed and fabricated using poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the immobilization matrix-cumtransducer. PMID:12119672

  9. Poly(silyl silane)homo and copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Poly(silyl silanes) have been prepared. They have high photosensitivity and excellent resistance to oxygen-reactive ion etching processes. They are useful as photodepolymerizable photoresists, barrier layers, etc.

  10. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials. PMID:26939357

  11. Poly(silyl silane)homo and copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, J.M.

    1989-04-11

    Poly(silyl silanes) have been prepared. They have high photosensitivity and show excellent resistance to oxygen-reactive ion etching processes. They are useful as photodepolymerizable photoresists, barrier layers, etc.

  12. Poly(oxyalkylene) aminoether carbamates as deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Plavac, F.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes deposit control additives to maintain cleanliness in internal combustion engines which are provided. The additives are hydrocarbyl-terminated poly(oxyalkylene) aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl carbamates, also referred to as polyether aminoether carbamates.

  13. Nanomechanics of Poly(catecholamine) Coatings in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chanoong; Huang, Jun; Kim, Sunjin; Lee, Haeshin; Zeng, Hongbo; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2016-03-01

    Mussel-inspired self-polymerized catecholamine coatings have been widely utilized as a versatile coating strategy that can be applied to a variety of substrates. For the first time, nanomechanical measurements and an evaluation of the contribution of primary amine groups to poly(catecholamine) coatings have been conducted using a surface-forces apparatus. The adhesive strength between the poly(catecholamine) layers is 30-times higher than that of a poly(catechol) coating. The origin of the strong attraction between the poly(catecholamine) layers is probably due to surface salt displacement by the primary amine, π-π stacking (the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction of indolic crosslinks), and cation-π interactions (the monopole-quadrupole interaction between positively charged amine groups and the indolic crosslinks). The contribution of the primary amine group to the catecholamine coating is vital for the design and development of mussel-inspired catechol-based coating materials. PMID:26833974

  14. Poly(arylene)-based anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Bae, Chulsung

    2015-06-09

    Poly(arylene) electrolytes including copolymers lacking ether groups in the polymer may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  15. Tough poly(arylene ether) thermoplastics as modifiers for bismaleimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.; Roemer, W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    Several aspects of research on thermoplastics as toughness modifiers are discussed, including the contribution of the backbone chemistry and the concentration of the poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic to fracture toughness, influence of the molecular weight of the poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic on neat resin fracture toughness, and the morphology of the thermoplastic modified networks. The results show that fracture toughness of brittle bismaleimide resins can be improved significantly with poly(arylene ether) thermoplastic levels of 20 percent by weight, and that high molecular weight poly(arylene ether) based on bisphenol A provides the highest degree of toughening. Preliminary composite evaluation shows that improvements in neat resin toughness translate into carbon fabric composite.

  16. Study of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) through InSAR and 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bignami, Christian; Bonafede, Maurizio; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Campi Flegrei is a nested caldera in Italy, at the western edge of the Bay of Naples. Together with Vesuvius and Mt Etna, it is one of the Italian GeoHazard Supersites. The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard in the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km2), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m (~1 m/yr). Minor uplifts of few cm, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In the present work we consider InSAR time series of the recent activity (2010-2013) detected by COSMO SkyMed satellite. In particular, the time series show a progressive velocity increase of ground deformation during 2012, while it slowed down in 2013 approaching zero. The cumulative displacement from COSMO SkyMed descending orbit (March 2011 - March 2013) show a semicircular pattern centered in Pozzuoli with a maximum LoS (Line of Sight) displacement of 11 cm and maximum velocity 9 cm/yr reached along the coastline. The spatial distribution of the cumulative displacement from COSMO SkyMed ascending orbit show a similar behavior, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least inside the inner rim of the caldera. The cumulative ascending LoS displacement between March 2013 - September 2013 is 1-2 cm, confirming the stall of the unrest after the first few months of 2013 as observed by GPS. Initially, several source geometries are adopted (sphere, spheroid, sill) to model the cumulative deformation between 2011 and 2013. All the sources are located offshore Pozzuoli at a depth of about 2 km. The sphere and spheroid result to dilate at an annual volume variation rate of the order of 106 m3/yr. All the models show a general good agreement with geodetic data but systematic overestimates are found for the enhanced negative horizontal and vertical deformation across the South-West rim of Campi Flegrei. This suggests that an additional deformation mechanism may be active in that area. Numerical models including the structural characteristics of Campi Flegrei are also attempted in order to model the complete deformation pattern and to better define the source parameters. A deeper understanding of these characteristics, together with microgravity and geochemical data, may help to discern between magmatic (e.g., the large uplift episode during 1982-84, most probably due to deep magmatic source) and hydrothermal (e.g., mini-uplifts of 2000 and 2004-06 most probably due to pressure variations in the shallow aquifer) origin of the source responsible of the recent deformation. Source definition may have important implications in terms of civil protection.

  17. Patients' satisfaction with inpatient services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Jalil; Larijani, Bagher; Joodaki, Kobra; Ghaderi, Sahar; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Mohammadpoor, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013.Using the Satisfaction Survey tool, information of patient's demographic characteristics were collected and patient satisfaction with 15 areas of hospital services and the intent to return the same hospitals were assessed. The mean score of overall satisfaction with hospital services was 16.86 ± 2.72 out of 20. It was found that 58% of participants were highly satisfied with the services provided. Comparison of mean scores showed physician and medical services (17.75 ± 4.02), laboratory and radiology services (17.67 ± 3.66), and privacy and religious issues (17.55 ± 4.32) had the highest satisfaction. The patients were the most dissatisfied with the food services (15.50 ± 5.54). It was also found that 83.7% of the participants intended to return to the same hospital in case of need, which supported the measured satisfaction level. Patient satisfaction in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was high. It seems that the present study, with its large sample size, has sufficient reliability to express the patient satisfaction status. Moreover, appropriate measures should be taken in some areas (food, cost, and etc.) to increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27471589

  18. Genotyping and strain distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolated from humans and pigs in Belgium, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Vluggen, Christelle; Soetaert, Karine; Duytschaever, Lucille; Denoël, Joseph; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Smeets, François; Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Huygen, Kris; Fretin, David; Rigouts, Leen; Saegerman, Claude; Mathys, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium represents a health concern for both humans and pigs. The characterisation of its subspecies is an important step improving the understanding of the epidemiology and the control of this pathogen. Ninety-two human M. avium strains were selected for a retrospective study. Subspecies determination by rpoB sequencing and IS1245/IS901 analysis showed that 98.9% of Belgian human M. avium strains belong to the subspecies hominissuis (MAH). Some of these MAH strains present particular IS1245/IS901 profiles (absence of IS1245 and false IS901 detection provoked by the presence of ISMav6). In addition, 54 MAH strains isolated from submandibular lymph nodes of Belgian pigs with lymphadenitis were included in this study. Genotyping of human and porcine isolates was performed using multispacer sequence typing (MST). In total, 49 different MST types were identified among pig (n = 11) and human (n = 43) MA isolates, with only five shared by both hosts. Among these MST types, 34 were newly identified. Our findings demonstrate the extensive genetic diversity among MAH isolates. Some genotypes were more prevalent in human or pigs but no correlation was observed between MST type and place of residence or the farm of origin for human and porcine isolates respectively, suggesting an environmental source of infection. PMID:26835872

  19. 78 FR 55679 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China; Rescission of the 2011-2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Administrative Review, 78 FR 33061 (June 3, 2013) (``Opportunity Notice''). \\2\\ June 30, 2013, is the deadline... well as an approved DOT type marking of DOT 3A, 3AX, 3AA, 3AAX, 3B, 3E, 3HT, 3T, or DOT-E (followed...

  20. Patients' satisfaction with inpatient services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Jalil; Larijani, Bagher; Joodaki, Kobra; Ghaderi, Sahar; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Mohammadpoor, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013.Using the Satisfaction Survey tool, information of patient's demographic characteristics were collected and patient satisfaction with 15 areas of hospital services and the intent to return the same hospitals were assessed. The mean score of overall satisfaction with hospital services was 16.86 ± 2.72 out of 20. It was found that 58% of participants were highly satisfied with the services provided. Comparison of mean scores showed physician and medical services (17.75 ± 4.02), laboratory and radiology services (17.67 ± 3.66), and privacy and religious issues (17.55 ± 4.32) had the highest satisfaction. The patients were the most dissatisfied with the food services (15.50 ± 5.54). It was also found that 83.7% of the participants intended to return to the same hospital in case of need, which supported the measured satisfaction level. Patient satisfaction in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was high. It seems that the present study, with its large sample size, has sufficient reliability to express the patient satisfaction status. Moreover, appropriate measures should be taken in some areas (food, cost, and etc.) to increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27471589

  1. Results of an Academic, Health Care Worksite Weight Loss Contest for Southeastern Americans: Scale Back Alabama 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Whitt, Lauren; Oster, Robert A; Lewis, Dwight; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Calhoun, David A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of competitive incentivized worksite weight loss programs. Scale Back Alabama (SBA) is a free, state-supported program designed to promote weight loss among overweight and obese citizens. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the design and preliminary findings of SBA as a worksite intervention among employees at a collegiate institution and university hospital. In teams of 4 employees, SBA participants volunteered to engage in a 10-week competitive weight loss contest; both teams and individuals who lost significant weight were eligible for randomly drawn cash incentives. Trained staff objectively measured participants' weight before and at the conclusion of the contest. Preliminary analyses suggest that SBA as a worksite program can promote weight loss among employees, but future analyses are warranted to understand the context of these findings and determine if current results are confounded by unmeasured factors. PMID:26081473

  2. Circulation of Dirofilaria repens, Setaria tundra, and Onchocercidae species in Hungary during the period 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Kemenesi, Gábor; Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Dallos, Bianka; Oldal, Miklós; Herczeg, Róbert; Vajdovics, Péter; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2015-11-30

    Dirofilaria repens and recently Dirofilaria immitis are known to be endemic in Hungary. Since there is no related research on Dirofilaria carrier mosquito species from Hungary, we conducted a three-year mosquito surveillance study between 2011 and 2013. During the study period we examined 23,139 female mosquitoes with a generic filaria-specific TaqMan PCR assay, and characterized them by sequencing a 500 bp segment of 12S rRNA. An important result of our study was the detection of Setaria tundra and D. repens along with an unidentified Onchocercidae nematode. D. repens is known to be endemic in Hungary, however, the detection of S. tundra in all sampling sites throughout the study period indicates for the first time the endemicity of this parasite in Hungary. The Onchocercidae sp. nematode showed 95% nucleotide identity with previously detected unidentified nematodes from Germany, indicating a broader geographical distribution of this nematode in Europe. D. immitis specific DNA was not detected among the screened mosquitoes in this study. Here we report 11 mosquito species as potential vector organisms for local filarial infections, including Aedes vexans, Ochlerotatus annulipes, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Anopheles hyrcanus and Ochlerotatus rusticus. Dirofilaria development unit was calculated and the potential transmission period was estimated, which ranged between 65 and 113 days between sampling seasons. A relatively high infection rate (36.8%) was identified, which is a notable finding for veterinary and human health professionals. Moreover, the results of our study widen the group of possible mosquito vector species for D. repens and S. tundra in Central Europe. PMID:26412142

  3. Nanosponge formation from organocatalytically-synthesized poly(carbonate) copoplymers

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, David M.; Tempelaar, Sarah; Dove, Andrew P.; Harth, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Advanced organocatalytic synthesis methods were employed to prepare linear poly(carbonate)s with control over functional group incorporation and molecular weight. Pendant allyl or epoxide groups served as reaction partners in thiol-ene click or epoxide–amine reactions with ethylene oxide-containing crosslinking groups to form a panel of six novel poly(carbonate) nanosponges with crosslinking densities ranging from 5%, 10% and 20% via an intermolecular chain-crosslinking approach. PMID:24724044

  4. Tracing Poly(ethylene-oxide) Crystallization using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldi, Xavier; Amanuel, Samuel

    The early stages of nucleation and crystallization of Poly(ethylene-oxide) have been studied using Atomic Force Microscopy equipped with a heating and cooling stage. Effects of molecular weight and sample preparation techniques were studied using amplitude and frequency modulation. Mapping the viscoelastic behavior at different temperatures and has enabled the development of a relatively new technique for following the evolution of crystallization and melting of a semi-crystalline polymer. Tracing Poly(ethylene-oxide) Crystallization using Atomic Force Microscopy.

  5. Novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based antistaphylococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C; Mond, James J; Snapper, Clifford M

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4(+) T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  6. Novel Synthetic (Poly)Glycerolphosphate-Based Antistaphylococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C.; Mond, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4+ T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  7. Poly-Tobacco Use among High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem. PMID:26580636

  8. Nanohydroxyapatite/poly(ester urethane) scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Boissard, C I R; Bourban, P-E; Tami, A E; Alini, M; Eglin, D

    2009-11-01

    Biodegradable viscoelastic poly(ester urethane)-based scaffolds show great promise for tissue engineering. In this study, the preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA)/poly(ester urethane) composite scaffolds using a salt-leaching-phase inverse process is reported. The dispersion of nHA microaggregates in the polymer matrix were imaged by microcomputed X-ray tomography, allowing a study of the effect of the nHA mass fraction and process parameters on the inorganic phase dispersion, and ultimately the optimization of the preparation method. How the composite scaffold's geometry and mechanical properties change with the nHA mass fraction and the process parameters were assessed. Increasing the amount of nHA particles in the composite scaffold decreased the porosity, increased the wall thickness and consequently decreased the pore size. The Young's modulus of the poly(ester urethane) scaffold was improved by 50% by addition of 10 wt.% nHA (from 0.95+/-0.5 to 1.26+/-0.4 MPa), while conserving poly(ester urethane) viscoelastic properties and without significant changes in the scaffold macrostructure. Moreover, the process permitted the inclusion of nHA particles not only in the poly(ester urethane) matrix, but also at the surface of the scaffold pores, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. nHA/poly(ester urethane) composite scaffolds have great potential as osteoconductive constructs for bone tissue engineering. PMID:19442765

  9. Poly(trimethylene carbonate)/Poly(malic acid) Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers as Biocompatible Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barouti, Ghislaine; Khalil, Ali; Orione, Clement; Jarnouen, Kathleen; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine; Loyer, Pascal; Guillaume, Sophie M

    2016-02-18

    Amphiphilic polycarbonate-poly(hydroxyalkanoate) diblock copolymers, namely, poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC)-b-poly(β-malic acid) (PMLA), are reported for the first time. The synthetic strategy relies on commercially available catalysts and initiator. The controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) catalyzed by the organic guanidine base 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD), associated with iPrOH as an initiator, provided iPrO-PTMC-OH, which served as a macroinitiator in the controlled ROP of benzyl β-malolactonate (MLABe) catalyzed by the neodymium triflate salt (Nd(OTf)3). The resulting hydrophobic iPrO-PTMC-b-PMLABe-OH copolymers were then hydrogenolyzed into the parent iPrO-PTMC-b-PMLA-OH copolymers. A range of well-defined copolymers, featuring different sizes of segments (Mn,NMR up to 9300 g mol(-1) ; ÐM =1.28-1.40), were thus isolated in gram quantities, as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, PTMC-b-PMLA copolymers with different hydrophilic weight fractions (11-75 %) self-assembled in phosphate-buffered saline upon nanoprecipitation into well-defined nano-objects with Dh =61-176 nm, a polydispersity index <0.25, and a negative surface charge, as characterized by dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential analyses. In addition, these nanoparticles demonstrated no significant effect on cell viability at low concentrations, and a very low cytotoxicity at high concentrations only for PTMC-b-PMLA copolymers exhibiting hydrophilic fractions over 47 %, thus illustrating the potential of these copolymers as promising nanoparticles. PMID:26791328

  10. Preparation of curcumin loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers and their in vitro antitumor activity against Glioma 9L cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Gang; Fu, Shaozhi; Zhou, Liangxue; Liang, Hang; Fan, Min; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop implantable curcumin-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) nanofibers, which might have potential application in cancer therapy. Curcumin was incorporated into biodegradable PCEC nanofibers by electrospinning method. The surface morphology of the composite nanofibers was characterized on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The average diameter of the nanofibers was 2.3-4.5μm. In vitro release behavior of curcumin from the fiber mats was also studied in detail. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the PCEC fibers themselves did not affect the growth of rat Glioma 9L cells. Antitumor activity of the curcumin-loaded fibers against the cells was kept over the whole experiment process, while the antitumor activity of pure curcumin disappeared within 48 h. These results strongly suggested that the curcumin/PCEC composite nanofibers might have potential application for postoperative chemotherapy of brain cancers.

  11. Preparation and characterization of reactive blends of poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Warangkhana, Phromma; Rathanawan, Magaraphan; Jana Sadhan, C.

    2015-05-22

    The ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (EGMA) were prepared. The role of EGMA as a compatibilizer was evaluated. The weight ratio of PLA:EVOH was 80:20 and the EGMA loadings were varied from 5-20 phr. The blends were characterized as follows: thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties by pendulum impact tester, and universal testing machine. The glass transition temperature of PLA blends did not change much when compared with that of PLA. The blends of PLA/EGMA and EVOH/EGMA showed EGMA dispersed droplets where the latter led to poor impact properties. However, the tensile elongation at break and tensile toughness substantially increased upon addition of EGMA to blends of PLA and EVOH. It was noted in tensile test samples that both PLA and EVOH domains fibrillated significantly to produce toughness.

  12. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Allen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  13. Preparation and characterization of reactive blends of poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warangkhana, Phromma; Jana Sadhan, C.; Rathanawan, Magaraphan

    2015-05-01

    The ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (EGMA) were prepared. The role of EGMA as a compatibilizer was evaluated. The weight ratio of PLA:EVOH was 80:20 and the EGMA loadings were varied from 5-20 phr. The blends were characterized as follows: thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties by pendulum impact tester, and universal testing machine. The glass transition temperature of PLA blends did not change much when compared with that of PLA. The blends of PLA/EGMA and EVOH/EGMA showed EGMA dispersed droplets where the latter led to poor impact properties. However, the tensile elongation at break and tensile toughness substantially increased upon addition of EGMA to blends of PLA and EVOH. It was noted in tensile test samples that both PLA and EVOH domains fibrillated significantly to produce toughness.

  14. Ac conduction in conducting poly pyrrole-poly vinyl methyl ether polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.K.; Mandal, T.K.; Mandal, B.M.; Chakravorty, D.

    1997-03-01

    Composite materials containing conducting polypyrrole and insulating poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) have been synthesized by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in ethanol using FeCl{sub 3} oxidant in the presence of PVME. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range of 110 to 350 K. The frequency dependent conductivity has been explained on the basis of a small polaron tunnelling mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) based micelles loaded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Kyulavska, Mariya; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Debuigne, Antoine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2010-04-15

    A new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVOH-b-PAN) copolymer obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) copolymer synthesized by cobalt mediated radical polymerization was used for the preparation of PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles. The successful formation of silver loaded micelles has been confirmed by UV-vis, DLS and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and spore solution of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has been studied. PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles showed a strong bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and the minimum bactericidal concentration for each system (MBC) has been determined. PMID:20074742

  16. Block poly(ester-urethane)s based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifei; Cheng, Shaoting; Xu, Kaitian

    2009-04-01

    A series of block poly(ester-urethane) poly(3/4HB-HHxHO) urethanes (abbreviated as PUHO) based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3/4HB-diol) and poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHHxHO-diol) segments were synthesized by a facile way of melting polymerization using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the coupling agent, with different 3HB, 4HB, HHxHO compositions and segment lengths. The chemical structure, molecular weight and distribution were systematically characterized by (1)H, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (NMR), two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (COSY ((1)H, (13)C) NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The thermal property was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hydrophilicity was investigated by static contact angle of water and CH(2)I(2). DSC revealed that the poly(3/4HB-HHxHO) urethanes are almost amorphous with a little crystallinity (less than 6%) and T(g) from -23 degrees C to -3 degrees C. The polyurethanes are more hydrophobic (water contact angle 88 degrees -117 degrees ) than the P3/4HB and PHHxHO raw materials. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and platelet adhesion determination showed that the obtained polyurethanes have much higher platelet adhesion property than raw materials and common biodegradable polymers polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Hydrophobicity and crystallinity degree are important factors to affect the platelet adhesion. All the properties can be tailored by changing the composition and segment length of prepolymers P3/4HB-diol and PHHxHO-diol. PMID:19167751

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization of poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Woszidlo, S; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization in subcritical water at 180-260 °C. Dehydrochlorination increased with increasing reaction temperature. The release of chlorine was almost quantitative above ∼235 °C. The fraction of organic carbon (OC) recovered in the hydrochar decreased with increasing operating temperature from 93% at 180 °C to 75% at 250 °C. A wide array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be detected in the aqueous phase, but their combined concentration amounted to only ∼140 μg g(-1) PVC-substrate at 240 °C. A pathway for the formation of cyclic hydrocarbons and O-functionalized organics was proposed. Chlorinated hydrocarbons including chlorophenols could only be identified at trace levels (low ppb). Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) could not be detected. The sorption potential of the hydrochar turned out to be very low, in particular for polar organic pollutants. Our results provide strong evidence that hydrothermal carbonization of household organic wastes which can be tied to co-discarded PVC-plastic residues is environmentally sound regarding the formation of toxic organic products. Following these findings, hydrothermal treatment of PVC-waste beyond operating temperatures of ∼235 °C to allow complete release of organic chlorine should be further pursued. PMID:25150971

  18. Heat resistance poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K.; Darwis, D.; Iriawan, T.; Razzak, M. T.; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    1995-08-01

    Six methods were used to evaluate the heat resistance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel prepared by a combination of electron beam irradiation and acetalization of PVA. The physical properties of the hydrogel depended on the degree of acetilization which was affected by content of water in PVA sheet of acetalization in formaldehyde solution at 60°C. It was found that the optimum water content was 20-30%. The acetalized PVA sheet gave maximum tensile strength in electron beams irradiation at 100 kGy. The tensile strength of the hydrogel film increased to 20 MPa from 14 MPa by the irradiation. Heat resistance of the hydrogel was evaluated by measuring the mechanical properties after sterilization in a steam autoclave at 121°C for 90 min. The tensile strength decreased to 10 MPa whereas the elongation at break increased to 300%. The tackiness of the hydrogel was improved by radiation grafting of acrylic acid. Wholesomeness of the hydrogel as a wound dressing was evaluated by attaching to a burn or wound of the back skin of marmots. Advantages of the hydrogel over a gauze dressing were homogeneous adhesion to the affected parts, easy removal without damage to renewed skin and slightly faster rate of reconstruction of the injured skin.

  19. Dynamics of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2008-03-01

    Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) has been used in KrF excimer laser (248 nm) lithography as a backbone polymer, and is also a promising material for EUV or electron beam lithography. Analysis of the intermediate species is important for the control of reactions in resist materials. Since the size of integrated circuits fabricated for mass production will decrease below 30 nm and the size error must also be decreased to the molecular level, the elucidation of proton dynamics at the molecular level is also important for reducing the deviation of the resist pattern size. In this study, the dynamics of PHS radical cations were studied, because PHS radical cation is main source of proton. The transient absorption of PHS was observed in the near-infrared region (NIR) in p-dioxane solutions by pulse radiolysis. The intramolecular PHS dimer radical cation (M2 +.) were observed, whereas p-cresol shows no distinct CR band. Although the radical cations of phenol derivatives are known to be easily deprotonated, it was found that M2 +. formation prevents deprotonation by its charge resonance stabilization.

  20. Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Sehwan; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2010-09-28

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films were patterned by a soft lithography technique using a nanopatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to generate one-dimensional (1D) grating and two-dimensional (2D) crossed line pillar patterns. The redox currents (i(p)) were significantly increased due to the facilitated diffusion of ClO4(-) counterions associated with redox processes at the P3HT electrode as analyzing cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed at different scan rates (ν). It was found that the diffusion coefficient (D(f), cm(2) s(-1)) for ion diffusion in the patterned electrode was much larger than that of the pristine P3HT electrode. Furthermore, the value of D(f) in the 2D electrode was three times higher than that in a pristine film. As a result of such facilitated charge transport, the electrochromic (EC) properties of the patterned P3HT electrode were greatly enhanced and dependent on the dimension of the pattern. Thus, the electrochromic efficiency (E(e)), including the coloration (E(c)) and bleaching efficiencies (E(b)), was higher as the dimension of the pattern was increased; E(e) was maximized in the 2D patterned P3HT film. In a patterned cell, electrochromic diffraction was reversibly observed with a switching efficiency (R(DE)) of 2 and 2.5 for the 1D and 2D patterned cells, respectively. PMID:20731367