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Sample records for 2012-01-01 false cheese

  1. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  2. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  3. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  4. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  5. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  6. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  7. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  8. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  9. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  10. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  11. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  12. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  13. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and...

  14. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  15. 7 CFR 28.961 - False and misleading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False and misleading information. 28.961 Section 28.961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  16. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  17. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. 301.34 Section 301.34 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or...

  18. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  19. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  20. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  1. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  2. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  3. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  4. 15 CFR 30.71 - False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. 30.71 Section 30.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... REGULATIONS Penalties § 30.71 False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System....

  5. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. 133.155 Section 133.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products §...

  6. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  7. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  8. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  9. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  10. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  11. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  12. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  13. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  14. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  15. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  16. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese....

  17. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese....

  18. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese....

  19. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese....

  20. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese....

  1. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses....

  2. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  3. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  4. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  5. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  6. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  7. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  8. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  9. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  10. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  11. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  12. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  13. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  14. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  15. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  16. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  17. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  18. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  19. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  1. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  2. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  3. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  4. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  5. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  6. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  7. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  8. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  9. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  10. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  11. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  12. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  13. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  14. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  15. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  16. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  15. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  16. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food... statement of ingredients, prescribed for pasteurized process cheese spread by § 133.179, except that...

  7. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients used as a salt substitute. (d) Low sodium cheddar cheese is subject to § 105.69 of this chapter. ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  8. 7 CFR 6.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General. 6.40 Section 6.40 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic Cheese by Quota Cheeses § 6... of Agriculture as to whether the price at which any article of quota cheese is being offered for...

  9. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food... specified in paragraph (e) of this section may be used. (2) All cheeses used in a cold-pack cheese food...

  10. Artisanal cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  11. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  12. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  13. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  14. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  15. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  16. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  17. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  18. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  19. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  20. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  1. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  2. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134...

  3. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  4. 21 CFR 133.148 - Hard grating cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hard grating cheeses. 133.148 Section 133.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.148 Hard...

  5. 21 CFR 133.165 - Parmesan and reggiano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parmesan and reggiano cheese. 133.165 Section 133.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.165...

  6. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  7. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  8. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  9. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  10. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  11. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack...

  12. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... common name or names of the ingredient or ingredients used as a salt substitute. (f) Low sodium colby... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  14. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  15. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  16. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  17. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  18. 7 CFR 6.44 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delegation of authority. 6.44 Section 6.44 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic Cheese by Quota Cheeses § 6.44 Delegation of authority. The powers vested in the Administrator, FAS, insofar...

  19. 7 CFR 58.444 - Packaging and repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging and repackaging. 58.444 Section 58.444... Procedures § 58.444 Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging rindless cheese or cutting and repackaging all styles of bulk cheese shall be conducted under rigid sanitary conditions. The atmosphere of the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  1. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  3. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  4. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  7. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  9. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  10. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  11. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  12. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  13. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  14. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  15. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  16. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  17. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  18. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  19. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  20. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  1. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  2. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably...

  3. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  4. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  5. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  7. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  8. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  9. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  10. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  11. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  12. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  15. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  16. 21 CFR 133.156 - Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.156 Section 133.156 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products...

  17. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  18. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  19. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  3. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  4. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  5. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  6. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  7. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. 133.102 Section 133.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.123...

  9. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  10. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  11. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  12. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  13. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  14. 7 CFR 58.716 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.716 Section 58.716 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.716 Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk used in cheese products should meet the...

  15. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132...

  16. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.529 - Chemical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical requirements. 58.529 Section 58.529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Cheese Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.529 Chemical requirements. (a) Moisture. See §...

  20. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  1. 7 CFR 58.524 - Packaging and general identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging and general identification. 58.524 Section... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.524 Packaging and general identification. (a) Containers. Containers used for packaging cottage cheese shall be any commercially acceptable multiple use...

  2. 7 CFR 58.726 - Cutting and grinding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutting and grinding. 58.726 Section 58.726... Procedures § 58.726 Cutting and grinding. The trimmed and cleaned cheese should be cut into sections of convenient size to be handled by the grinder or shredder. The grinding and mixing of the blended lots...

  3. Latin American cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  4. The science of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  5. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  6. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  7. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  8. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  9. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  10. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  11. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  12. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  13. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...

  15. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...

  16. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  17. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  18. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and...

  19. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and...

  20. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits. PMID:24999771

  1. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  2. HISPANIC-STYLE CHEESE RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for Hispanic-style cheeses has grown tremendously in the U.S. because of the increasing Hispanic population, the popularity of the Mexican/Latin American cuisine, and the unique quality traits of the cheeses. A few areas of concern for manufacturers of Hispanic-style cheeses include the ...

  3. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  4. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. Lipids in cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  10. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  11. WINE PRODUCTION FROM CHEESE WHEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate commercial feasibility of producing an alcoholic beverage by wine yeast fermentation of supplemented cheese and cottage cheese wheys. Results indicated that the preferred processing route was (1) fractionation of the whey into prot...

  12. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  13. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic cheese making equipment. 58.418 Section 58.418 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  14. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  15. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  16. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  17. Biobutanol from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summarize the natural metabolic pathways for biobutanol production by Clostridia and yeasts, together with the metabolic engineering efforts performed up to date with the aim of either enhancing the yield of the natural producer Clostridia or transferring the butanol production ability to other hosts with better attributes for industrial use and facilities for genetic manipulation. Molasses and starch-based feedstocks are main sources for biobutanol production at industrial scale hitherto. We also review herewith (and for the first time up to our knowledge) the research performed for the use of whey, the subproduct of cheese making, as another sustainable source for biobutanol production. This represents a promising alternative that still needs further research. The use of an abundant waste material like cheese whey, that would otherwise be considered an environmental pollutant, for biobutanol production, makes economy of the process more profitable. PMID:25889728

  18. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  19. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-03-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  20. Turning cheese wastes into energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    In a project sponsored by New York State, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor system - developed by Ecolotrol, Inc. of Bethpage, N.Y. - was used to produce biogas from cheese whey and bottling plant residues.

  1. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. Tyramine content of some Cuban cheeses.

    PubMed

    Vidaud, Z E; Chaviano, J; Gonzáles, E; García Roché, M O

    1987-01-01

    The tyramine content of 8 types of cheeses made in Cuba were determined. Values obtained ranged from 0-425 micrograms/g. Highest results were found in Camembert-type cheese and lowest ones in Salami (processed type) cheese. It may be concluded that patients taking monoamine-oxidase inhibiting drugs should better not eat cheese, except processed or short-maturing types. PMID:3614331

  3. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation. PMID:27268116

  4. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and up until a little over a century ago, all types of cheese were made from raw milk. Over the centuries, signature quality traits were established for the many different types, styles, and varieties of cheese found around the world. ...

  5. UTILIZATION OF CHEESE WHEY FOR WINE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wine was successfully produced in the laboratory from cheese whey. The method used involves the deproteinization of either sweet (cheddar cheese) whey or acid (cottage cheese) whey by heat or ultrafiltration, the addition of sulfur dioxide to stabilize the whey by Kruyveromyces f...

  6. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  7. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  8. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  9. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  10. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  11. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Vânia F.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella. PMID:22438717

  12. ''Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, C.; Stela, J.

    1987-11-15

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein--de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ''Swiss cheese'' models.

  13. More South Polar 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the 'swiss cheese' pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap.

    This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2,1999. It is located near 84.8oS, 71.8oW, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  15. Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model queso fresco cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing cheese varieties in the U. S., making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Of these varieties, Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from a number of varieties of Mexican Queso...

  16. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review. PMID:26082126

  17. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  18. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed. PMID:10606538

  19. Detection of milk mixtures in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Recio, I; García-Risco, M R; Amigo, L; Molina, E; Ramos, M; Martín-Alvarez, P J

    2004-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been applied to the detection of illegal addition of milk from goat and/ or cow in Halloumi cheese, traditionally made with sheep milk. The electrophoretic profiles of the casein from Halloumi cheeses have revealed that caprine para-kappa-casein and bovine alphas1-casein peaks point to the presence of low percentages of goat's and/or cow's milk added to Halloumi cheese. Stepwise multiple linear regression has been used to predict these percentages with a standard error of the estimation of 2.14%. The analytical method combined with the statistical application is valid for the prediction of percentages higher than 2% of goat's and percentages of 5% of cow's milk added to the cheese either in fresh or ripened cheese. The standard error of estimation was higher for the prediction of cow's milk than for goat's milk. PMID:15453472

  20. Composition of Ragusano cheese during aging.

    PubMed

    Licitra, G; Campo, P; Manenti, M; Portelli, G; Scuderi, S; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M

    2000-03-01

    Ragusano cheese is a brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Composition changes during 12 mo of aging were determined. Historically, Ragusano cheese has been aged in caves at 14 to 16 degrees C with about 80 to 90% relative humidity. Cheeses (n = 132) included in our study of block-to-block variation were produced by 20 farmhouse cheese makers in the Hyblean plain region of the Province of Ragusa in Sicily. Mean initial cheese block weight was about 14 kg. The freshly formed blocks of cheese before brine salting contained about 45.35% moisture, 25.3% protein, and 25.4% fat, with a pH of 5.25. As result of the brining and aging process, a natural rind forms. After 12 mo of aging, the cheese contained about 33.6% moisture, 29.2% protein, 30.0% fat, and 4.4% salt with a pH of 5.54, but block-to-block variation was large. Both soluble nitrogen content and free fatty acid (FFA) content increased with age. The pH 4.6 acetate buffer and 12% TCA-soluble nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen were 16 and 10.7%, respectively, whereas the FFA content was about 643 mg/100 g of cheese at 180 d. Five blocks of cheese were selected at 180 d for a study of variation within block. Composition variation within block was large; the center had higher moisture and lower salt in moisture content than did the outside. Composition variation within blocks favored more proteolysis and softer texture in the center. PMID:10750095

  1. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (<40°C) and harder at high temperatures (>50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. PMID:23706488

  2. 40 CFR 405.60 - Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory. 405.60 Section 405.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Natural and Processed...

  3. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...

  4. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  5. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products. 58.738 Section 58.738 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  6. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  7. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  8. Schizotypy and false memory.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

  9. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  10. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  11. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  12. [Formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].

    PubMed

    Klein, D; Keshavarz, A; Lafont, P; Hardy, J; Debry, G

    1980-01-01

    Several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. The concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. The results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of Penicillium camemberti, which favors very much the synthesis of nitrosamines. The amount of nitrosodimethylamine formed in this cheese increases from 5 to 20 ppb during ripening. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of formation is outlined. PMID:7258908

  13. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... equivalent thereto in phosphatase destruction. Colby cheese shall be deemed not to have been made...

  14. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rennet paste, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation... phosphatase destruction. A semisoft cheese shall be deemed not to have been made from pasteurized milk if...

  15. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rennet paste, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation... phosphatase destruction. A semisoft cheese shall be deemed not to have been made from pasteurized milk if...

  16. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... equivalent thereto in phosphatase destruction. Colby cheese shall be deemed not to have been made...

  17. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... equivalent thereto in phosphatase destruction. Colby cheese shall be deemed not to have been made...

  18. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rennet paste, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation... phosphatase destruction. A semisoft cheese shall be deemed not to have been made from pasteurized milk if...

  19. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Bone, F J; Bogie, D; Morgan-Jones, S C

    1989-12-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  20. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  1. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  2. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  3. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  4. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  5. Two mathematical programming models of cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Burke, J A

    2006-02-01

    The standardization problem faced by cheese makers is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem using the assumptions of the Van Slyke cheese yield formula. The objective function of the model is to minimize the net cost of producing a given quantity of cheese subject to a set of production constraints. An approximation of the standardization problem formulated as a linear programming problem is also presented. Two different approaches to finding a solution are provided. The model is implemented in Microsoft Excel and solved with the standard add-in solver available in that program. An example is provided to contrast the difference between the nonlinear programming and its linear approximation, and a second example is used to illustrate the yield implications of ultrafiltered milk protein products in Cheddar cheese production. Additionally, a method for pricing inputs using the sensitivity analysis generated by the solver is demonstrated. PMID:16428648

  6. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  7. Callisto False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 on July 7, 1979 at a range of 1,094,666 kilometers (677,000 miles) and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W. This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue component. Because the surface displays regional contrast in UV, variations in surface materials are apparent. Notice in particular the dark blue haloes which surround bright craters in the eastern hemisphere. The surface of Callisto is the most heavily cratered of the Galilean satellites and resembles ancient heavily cratered terrains on the moon, Mercury and Mars. The bright areas are ejecta thrown out by relatively young impact craters. A large ringed structure, probably an impact basin, is shown in the upper left part of the picture. The color version of this picture was constructed by compositing black and white images taken through the ultraviolet, clear and orange filters.

  8. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  9. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  10. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process. PMID:26869115

  11. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories.

    PubMed

    Moosavy, Mir-Hassan; Esmaeili, Saber; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with Listeria monocytogenes. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories). Isolation of L. monocytogenes was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50%) of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The concentration of L. monocytogenes in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers. PMID:25528910

  12. Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Steele, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the manufacture of cheese and for production of bioactive peptides from milk proteins. We present the complete genome sequence for L. helveticus CNRZ 32, a strain particularly recognized for its ability to reduce bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese. PMID:23969047

  13. Neptune in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this false color image of Neptune, objects that are deep in the atmosphere are blue, while those at higher altitudes are white. The image was taken by Voyager 2's wide-angle camera through an orange filter and two different methane filters. Light at methane wavelengths is mostly absorbed in the deeper atmosphere. The bright, white feature is a high altitude cloud just south of the Great Dark Spot. The hard, sharp inner boundary within the bright cloud is an artifact of computer processing on Earth. Other, smaller clouds associated with the Great Dark Spot are white or pink, and are also at high altitudes. Neptune's limb looks reddish because Voyager 2 is viewing it tangentially, and the sunlight is scattered back to space before it can be absorbed by the methane. A long, narrow band of high altitude clouds near the top of the image is located at 25 degrees north latitude, and faint hazes mark the equator and polar regions. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  14. Biogenic Amines in Italian Pecorino Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes’ milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA’s in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100

  15. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific... meat ingredient is pimentos in such quantity that the weight of the solids thereof is not less than...

  16. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section, or by another procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used....

  17. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, or by another procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used....

  18. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section, or by another procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used....

  19. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  20. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  1. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  2. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in

  3. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  4. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  5. Exploratory study of acid-forming potential of commercial cheeses: impact of cheese type.

    PubMed

    Gore, Ecaterina; Mardon, Julie; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Due to their composition, cheeses are suspected to induce an acid load to the body. To better understand this nutritional feature, the acid-forming potential of five cheeses from different cheese-making technologies and two milk was evaluated on the basis of their potential renal acid load (PRAL) index (considering protein, P, Cl, Na, K, Mg and Ca contents) and organic anions contents. PRAL index ranged from -0.8 mEq/100 g edible portion for fresh cheese to 25.3 mEq/100 g for hard cheese Cantal and 28 mEq/100 g for blue-veined cheese Fourme d'Ambert. PRAL values were greatly subjected to interbatch fluctuations. This work emphasized a great imbalance between acidifying elements of PRAL calculation (Cl, P and proteins elements) and alkalinizing ones (Na and Ca). Particularly, Cl followed by P elements had a strong impact on the PRAL value. Hard cheeses were rich in lactate, thus, might be less acidifying than suspected by their PRAL values only. PMID:27050124

  6. Lactate metabolism by pediococci isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T D; McKay, L L; Morris, H A

    1985-04-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus is commonly found among the adventitious microflora of Cheddar cheese. When this organism was incubated with L-(+)-lactate under anaerobic conditions, L-(+)-lactate was rapidly converted to D-(-)-lactate until racemic (DL) lactate was present. Under aerobic conditions this initial reaction was followed by a slower reaction resulting in the use of both lactate isomers and in the production of acetate and CO2. With intact cells the lactate oxidation system had an optimum pH of 5 to 6, depending on the initial lactate concentration. Cells grown anaerobically possessed lactate-oxidizing activity which increased two- to fourfold as sugar was exhausted from the medium. Aerobic growth further increased specific activities. Cheddar cheese was made with the deliberate addition of P. pentosaceus. When the resulting cheese was grated to expose a large surface area to O2, lactate was converted to acetate at a rate which depended on the density of pediococci in the cheese. The lactate oxidation system remained active in cheese which had been ripened for 6 months. PMID:4004222

  7. Test for measuring the stretchability of melted cheese.

    PubMed

    Fife, R L; McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J

    2002-12-01

    A test for measuring the stretchability of cheese was developed by adapting a texture-profile analyzer to pull strands of cheese upwards from a reservoir of melted cheese. Seven different cheeses were analyzed using the Utah State University stretch test. The cheeses were also analyzed for apparent viscosity with a helical viscometer, for meltability using a tube melt test, and for stretch using the pizza-fork test. Cheese was placed into a stainless steel cup and tempered in a water bath at 60, 70, 80, or 90 degrees C for 30 min before analysis. The cup was then placed in a water-jacketed holder mounted on the base of the instrument. A three-pronged hook-shaped probe was lowered into the melted cheese and then pulled vertically until all cheese strands broke or 30 cm was reached. This produced a stretch profile as the probe was lifted through the reservoir of melted cheese and then pulled strands of cheese upwards. Three parameters were defined to characterize the stretchability of the cheese. The maximum load, obtained as the probe was lifted through the cheese, was defined as melt strength (F(M)). The distance to which cheese strands were lifted was defined as stretch length (SL). The load exerted on the probe as the strands of cheese were being stretched was defined as stretch quality (SQ). There was a correlation between F(M) and apparent viscosity. There was also some correlation between SL measured by the fork test and SL when the cheese was tested at 90 degrees C, but no correlation occurred at lower temperatures. PMID:12512629

  8. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained. PMID:18372078

  9. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review. PMID:22029912

  10. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  11. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  12. Low-sodium Cheddar cheese: Effect of fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration retentate and high-hydrostatic pressure treatment of cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2015-10-01

    Low-sodium cheeses often exhibit an acidic flavor due to excessive acid production during the manufacturing and the initial stage of ripening, which is caused by ongoing starter culture activity facilitated by the low salt-in-moisture levels. We proposed that this excessive starter-induced acidity could be prevented by the fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration (UF) retentates (to increase curd buffering), and by decreasing microbial activity using the application of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (that is, to reduce residual starter numbers). Camel chymosin was also used as a coagulant to help reduce bitterness development (a common defect in low-sodium cheeses). Three types of low-Na (0.8% NaCl) Cheddar cheeses were manufactured: non-UF fortified, no HHP applied (L-Na); UF-fortified (cheese milk total solids = 17.2 ± 0.6%), no HHP applied (L-Na-UF); and UF-fortified, HHP-treated (L-Na-UF-HHP; 500 MPa for 3 min applied at 1 d post-cheese manufacture). Regular salt (2% NaCl) non-UF fortified, non-HHP treated (R-Na) cheese was also manufactured for comparison purposes. Analysis was performed at 4 d, 2 wk, and 1, 3, and 6 mo after cheese manufacture. Cheese functionality during ripening was assessed using texture profile analysis and dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology. Sensory Spectrum and quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted with 9 trained panelists to evaluate texture and flavor attributes using a 15-point scale. At 4 d and 2 wk of ripening, L-Na-UF-HHP cheese had ~2 and ~4.5 log lower starter culture numbers, respectively, than all other cheeses. Retentate fortification of cheese milk and HHP treatment resulted in low-Na cheeses having similar insoluble calcium concentrations and pH values compared with R-Na cheese during ripening. The L-Na-UF cheese exhibited significantly higher hardness values (measured by texture profile analysis) compared with L-Na cheese until 1 mo of ripening; however, after 1 mo, all low-Na cheeses

  13. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities in Poro cheese, an artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Aldrete-Tapia, Alejandro; Escobar-Ramírez, Meyli C; Tamplin, Mark L; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and structure of Poro cheese, an artisanal food, was analysed by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) in order to gain insight about changes in bacterial communities associated with the cheese-making process. Dairy samples consisting of milk, fermented whey, curd and ripened cheese (during 7 and 60 d) were collected from three manufacturers located in the state of Tabasco, México during dry (March-June) and rainy (August-November) seasons. Independently of producer and season, raw milk samples displayed the highest diversity in bacterial communities. In raw milk, genera found were Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enhydrobacter. Diversity in whey, curd and cheese was lower, principally containing Streptococcus and Lactobacillus; however, bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were occasionally present. After curdling step, the most dominant and abundant species were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. PMID:25084655

  14. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  15. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  16. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  17. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  18. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  19. MOLECULES TO MOZZARELLA: THE CHEMISTRY OF CHEESE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost ten billion pounds of cheese are produced in the US each year, and chemistry is involved in every step of the manufacturing process. The milk coagulates into a curd when starter culture bacteria digest lactose and rennet enzyme destabilizes casein micelles. Cooking and piling the curd force...

  20. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  1. MEMBRANE PROCESSING OF COTTAGE CHEESE WHEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale whey processing plant using membranes was constructed to process 300,000 pounds per day of cottage cheese whey. The two-step system uses ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) according to a design previously demonstrated in the Phase I portion of this project...

  2. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  3. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the curd. The whey is drained off, and the curd is matted and cut, immersed in hot water, and... water, salted in brine, and dried. It is given some additional curing. Provolone cheese may be smoked... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  4. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the curd. The whey is drained off, and the curd is matted and cut, immersed in hot water, and... water, salted in brine, and dried. It is given some additional curing. Provolone cheese may be smoked... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  5. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  6. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  7. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health

    PubMed Central

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health. Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination “Protected Designation of Origin” is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  8. Detection of milk powder and caseinates in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, L; Cattaneo, S; Masotti, F; Psathas, G

    2010-08-01

    Halloumi cheese is traditionally manufactured from fresh milk. Nevertheless, dried dairy ingredients are sometimes illegally added to increase cheese yield. Lysinoalanine and furosine are newly formed molecules generated by heating and drying milk protein components. The levels of these molecular markers in the finished Halloumi have been investigated to verify their suitability to reveal the addition of skim milk powder and calcium caseinate to cheese milk. Because of the severe heating conditions applied in curd cooking, genuine Halloumi cheeses (n=35), representative of the Cyprus production, were characterized by levels of lysinoalanine (mean value=8.1 mg/100g of protein) and furosine (mean value=123 mg/100g of protein) unusual for natural cheeses. Despite the variability of the values, a good correlation between the 2 parameters (R=0.975) has been found in all cheeses, considering both the fresh and mature cheeses as well as those obtained from curd submitted to a prolonged cooking following a traditional practice adopted by a very small number of manufacturers. Experimental cheeses made by adding as low as 5% of skim milk powder, or calcium caseinate, or both, to cheese milk fell outside the prediction limits at +/-2 standard deviation of the above-reported correlation regardless of curd cooking conditions or ripening length. This correlation may be adopted as a reliable index of Halloumi cheese genuineness. PMID:20655413

  9. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. PMID:24792787

  10. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment. PMID:11324629

  11. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  12. Effect of brine composition and brining temperature on cheese physical properties in Ragusano cheese.

    PubMed

    Fucà, N; McMahon, D J; Caccamo, M; Tuminello, L; La Terra, S; Manenti, M; Licitra, G

    2012-01-01

    Composition and physical properties of cheeses are influenced by temperature, salt, and calcium concentration of brine. This work aimed to examine conditions of brine under which the cheese matrix contracts or expands in absence of restrictions imposed by surface rind development during overnight block formation. Three experimental 4-kg blocks of Ragusano cheese were produced at 3 different stretching temperatures (70, 80, and 90°C) and cut into pieces weighing approximately 40 to 50 g. One piece from each was chemically analyzed at time 0. All other pieces were measured for weight and volume and placed in plastic bags containing 300 mL of different brine solutions (2% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; 10% NaCl with 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% Ca; 18% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; and 26% NaCl with 0.1% Ca) at 3 different temperatures (4, 12, and 20°C). After 24h of brining, the cheeses were analyzed for weight, volume, chemical, and microstructural changes. Salt concentration in brine significantly influenced composition, weight, and volume of the cheeses after brining. Salt concentration was inversely related to cheese volume and weight. Changes in weight caused by altering the brining temperature were sufficient to reach statistical significance, and statistically significant volume changes were induced by brining temperature and its interaction with salt content. The highest volume increase (30%) occurred in the cheese stored in the 2% NaCl brine at the coldest temperature, whereas the greatest volume decrease was recorded in cheeses brined in the 26% NaCl brine. Composition was not affected by brining temperature. Calcium concentration did influence weight, volume, and composition, except on a fat-on-dry-basis. When cheeses were brined without added calcium, cheese volume and weight increased at all temperatures. At high calcium levels (0.4%), syneresis occurred and volume decreased, especially at 20°C (-16.5%). Microstructural investigation with porosity measurement confirmed weight and

  13. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  14. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  15. South-Pole Swiss Cheese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected December 29, 2003 during the southern summer season. This image shows the surface texture that the ice cap develops after long term sun exposure. The central portion of the image has an appearance similar to swiss cheese and represents surface ice loss.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.9, Longitude 356.4 East (3.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  16. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

  17. Growth and adaptation of microorganisms on the cheese surface.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Swennen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities living on cheese surfaces are composed of various bacteria, yeasts and molds that interact together, thus generating the typical sensory properties of a cheese. Physiological and genomic investigations have revealed important functions involved in the ability of microorganisms to establish themselves at the cheese surface. These functions include the ability to use the cheese's main energy sources, to acquire iron, to tolerate low pH at the beginning of ripening and to adapt to high salt concentrations and moisture levels. Horizontal gene transfer events involved in the adaptation to the cheese habitat have been described, both for bacteria and fungi. In the future, in situ microbial gene expression profiling and identification of genes that contribute to strain fitness by massive sequencing of transposon libraries will help us to better understand how cheese surface communities function. PMID:25790503

  18. Structural Quality Control of Swiss-Type Cheese with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2007-03-01

    A study on structural quality control of Swiss-type cheese with ultrasound is presented. We used a longitudinal mode pulse-echo setup using 1-2MHz ultrasonic frequencies to detect cheese-eyes and ripening induced cracks. Results show that the ultrasonic method posses good potential to monitor the cheese structure during the ripening process. Preliminary results indicate that maturation stage could be monitored with ultrasonic velocity measurements. Further studies to verify the method's on-line potential to detect low-structural-quality cheeses are planned.

  19. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses. PMID:16269673

  20. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses. PMID:26396342

  1. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for evaluating cheese quality].

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiang; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; He, Yong

    2011-10-01

    Near infrared spectrocopy, widely used in food industry, is a fast, nondestructive analysis method. Although it has been in the detection of the quality of cheese for many years, related research is few in our country. The principle of near infrared spectroscopy and the characteristics are introduced. Cheese process, shrinkage control, maturation process, shelf life, brand classification and detection of components in the application of near infrared spectroscopy are summarized. There is great potential to apply near infrared spectroscopy in cheese quality analysis. It is an urgent task to promote the application of near infrared spectroscopy and the development of China's cheese industry. PMID:22250544

  2. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    PubMed

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. PMID:26919819

  3. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-06-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper.

  4. Toxic and essential elements in Lebanese cheese.

    PubMed

    Bou Khozam, Rola; Pohl, Pawel; Al Ayoubi, Baydaa; Jaber, Farouk; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 minor, trace and ultratrace elements relevant to human health (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, V) were determined in four different varieties of the most consumed cheese in Lebanon (Halloumi, Double Crème, Baladi, Labneh) sampled at five different provinces (Grand Beirut, South of Lebanon, North of Lebanon, Mount of Lebanon and Beka'a) during the wet and dry seasons. The analyses were carried out by double focussing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to avoid errors due to polyatomic interferences. Levels of toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb) were generally below the WHO permissible levels in dairy products. Concentrations of most elements were considerably affected by the type of cheese, the geographical site and the season of sampling. PMID:24779782

  5. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  6. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaître-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons’ trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  7. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Grenon, Cedric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-15

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  8. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  9. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  10. Cheese cultures: transforming American tastes and traditions.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Although the history of cheesemaking in the United States tells largely a tale of industrialization, there is a submerged yet continuous history of small-batch, hands-on, artisan cheese manufacture. This tradition, carried on in artisan cheese factories across the country, although concentrated in Wisconsin, is often overlooked by a new generation of artisan cheesemakers. Continuities in fabrication methods shared by preindustrial and post-industrial artisan creameries have been obscured by changes in the organization and significance of artisan production over the last one hundred years. Making cheese by hand has morphed from chore to occupation to vocation; from economic trade to expressive endeavor; from a craft to an art. American artisan cheesemaking tradition was invented and reinvented as a tradition of innovation. Indeed, ideological commitment to innovation as modern, progressive, American—and thus a marketable value—further obscures continuities between past and present, artisan factories, and new farmstead production. The social disconnect between the current artisan movement and American's enduring cheesemaking tradition reproduces class hierarchies even as it reflects growing equity in gendered occupational opportunities. PMID:21568042

  11. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life. PMID:24952776

  12. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  13. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  14. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  15. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  16. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  17. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  18. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  19. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  20. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  1. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  2. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  3. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the... and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (f) The name of the food is “Pasteurized process cheese...

  4. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the... and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (f) The name of the food is “Pasteurized process cheese...

  5. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the... and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (f) The name of the food is “Pasteurized process cheese...

  6. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the... and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (f) The name of the food is “Pasteurized process cheese...

  7. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth interior surface and have controls that shall provide uniform pressure and heat equally to all surfaces... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  8. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth interior surface and have controls that shall provide uniform pressure and heat equally to all surfaces... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  9. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth interior surface and have controls that shall provide uniform pressure and heat equally to all surfaces... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  10. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth interior surface and have controls that shall provide uniform pressure and heat equally to all surfaces... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  11. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-01

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  12. PROTEIN & SENSORY ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE MEXICAN CHIHUAHUA CHEESES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been established that native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including Queso Chihuahua, a Mexican cheese variety, contributes to the development of unique flavors through degradation of milk proteins resulting in the release of free amino acids and short peptides that influence the taste and ...

  13. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  14. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  15. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality. PMID:21361941

  16. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  17. VESPA: False positive probabilities calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA) calculates false positive probabilities and statistically validates transiting exoplanets. Written in Python, it uses isochrones [ascl:1503.010] and the package simpledist.

  18. 10 CFR 429.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 429.10 Section 429.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... applicable energy conservation standards....

  19. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 5 CFR 2423.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2423.5 Section 2423.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND... Charges § 2423.5...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.29 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1260.29 Section 1260.29 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.29...

  2. 14 CFR 1204.507 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1204.507 Section 1204.507 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Delegations and Designations § 1204.507...

  3. 14 CFR 1204.502 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1204.502 Section 1204.502 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Delegations and Designations § 1204.502...

  4. 14 CFR 1214.610 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 1214.610 Section 1214.610 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle... Aeronautics and Space Administration....

  5. 12 CFR - Unknown Title

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Section Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION...

  6. 10 CFR 1017.8 - Subject areas eligible to be Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subject areas eligible to be Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. 1017.8 Section 1017.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION... the Atomic Energy Act....

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  8. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  9. 41 CFR 109-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchase of new motor vehicles. 109-26.501 Section 109-26.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... motor vehicles....

  10. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  11. 14 CFR 415.15 - Rights not conferred by launch license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... facilities, airspace, or outer space. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rights not conferred by launch license. 415.15 Section 415.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  12. 5 CFR 412.201 - Management succession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to 5 CFR 410.202. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management succession. 412.201 Section 412.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-7 - Processed lint, linters, and waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed lint, linters, and waste. 319.8-7 Section 319.8-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... insect life....

  14. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false N Appendix N to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Appendix N to Part 121...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 417 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false H Appendix H to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Appendix H to Part 417...

  16. 16 CFR 1018.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 1018.2 Section 1018.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General... the Chairman of the Consumer Product Safety Commission....

  17. 11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage....

  19. 16 CFR 1000.20 - Office of Information and Public Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Information and Public Affairs... spokesperson to the national print and broadcast media, develops and disseminates the Commission's news releases, and organizes Commission news conferences....

  20. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  1. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  2. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  4. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  5. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  6. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1191 - Firewalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Firewalls. 27.1191 Section 27.1191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... fireproof and protected against corrosion....

  8. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  9. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  10. 12 CFR 150.620 - May I receive compensation for acting in exempt fiduciary capacities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I receive compensation for acting in exempt....620 May I receive compensation for acting in exempt fiduciary capacities? You may receive reasonable compensation....

  11. 14 CFR 93.51 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.51... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability. 93.51 Section 93.51..., Terminal Area....

  12. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  13. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  14. 7 CFR 4284.658-4284.666 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 4284.658-4284.666 Section 4284.658-4284.666 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND...-4284.666...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false C Appendix C to Part 2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Appendix C to Part 2...

  16. 41 CFR 109-40.110 - Assistance to economically disadvantaged transportation businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance to... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND...

  17. 10 CFR 431.282 - Test Procedures [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Procedures 431.282 Section 431.282 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL.... Test Procedures Energy Conservation Standards...

  18. 7 CFR 780.17 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Judicial review. 780.17 Section 780.17 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS APPEAL REGULATIONS § 780.17 Judicial review. (a) Decisions of the Administrator in... judicial review....

  19. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  20. 10 CFR 52.161 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.161 Section 52.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.161...

  1. 10 CFR 52.169 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.169 Section 52.169 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.169...

  2. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  3. 3 CFR 101.8 - Office of the United States Trade Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 2004. ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the United States Trade Representative... PROVISIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT § 101.8 Office of the United States Trade...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.306 - Environmental responsibilities within the National Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.306 Environmental responsibilities within the National Office. (a) Administrator. The... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental responsibilities within the...

  5. 5 CFR 319.301 - Qualifications standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualifications standards. 319.301 Section 319.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... are required in the ST position....

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

  7. Thermal diffusivity study of cheese fats by thermal lens detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Pérez, J. L.; Rangel Vargas, E.; Gutiérrez Fuentes, R.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Bautista de León, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we used thermal lens spectrometry to determine the thermal diffusivity of cheese fats. We have used equal concentrations of cheese fats from oaxaca, chihuahua, gouda, manchego and mozzarella cheeses at 42°C temperature. The two lasers mismatched mode experimental configuration was used with a He-Ne laser, as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the cheese fat samples. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the cheese fats quality, which is very important in food industry.

  8. Detection of regulated disinfection by-products in cheeses.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Cabezas, Lourdes; Fernández-Salguero, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Cheese can contain regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly through contact with brine solutions prepared in disinfected water or sanitisers used to clean all contact surfaces, such as processing equipment and tanks. This study has focused on the possible presence of up to 10 trihalomethanes (THMs) and 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a wide range of European cheeses. The study shows that 2 THMs, (in particular trichloromethane) and 3 HAAs (in particular dichloroacetic acid) can be found at μg/kg levels in the 56 cheeses analysed. Of the two types of DBPs, HAAs were generally present at higher concentrations, due to their hydrophilic and non-volatile nature. Despite their different nature (THMs are lipophilic), both of them have an affinity for fatty cheeses, increasing their concentrations as the percentage of water decreased because the DBPs were concentrated in the aqueous phase of the cheeses. PMID:26988506

  9. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    PubMed

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist. PMID:6485557

  10. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  11. An empirical method for prediction of cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Melilli, C; Lynch, J M; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Cappa, A

    2002-10-01

    Theoretical cheese yield can be estimated from the milk fat and casein or protein content of milk using classical formulae, such as the VanSlyke formula. These equations are reliable predictors of theoretical or actual yield based on accurately measured milk fat and casein content. Many cheese makers desire to base payment for milk to dairy farmers on the yield of cheese. In small factories, however, accurate measurement of fat and casein content of milk by either chemical methods or infrared milk analysis is too time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an empirical test to predict cheese yield was developed which uses simple equipment (i.e., clinical centrifuge, analytical balance, and forced air oven) to carry out a miniature cheese making, followed by a gravimetric measurement of dry weight yield. A linear regression of calculated theoretical versus dry weight yields for milks of known fat and casein content was calculated. A regression equation of y = 1.275x + 1.528, where y is theoretical yield and x is measured dry solids yield (r2 = 0.981), for Cheddar cheese was developed using milks with a range of theoretical yield from 7 to 11.8%. The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between theoretical cheese yield and dry solids yield was 0.194 and the coefficient of variation (SDD/mean x 100) was 1.95% upon cross validation. For cheeses without a well-established theoretical cheese yield equation, the measured dry weight yields could be directly correlated to the observed yields in the factory; this would more accurately reflect the expected yield performance. Payments for milk based on these measurements would more accurately reflect quality and composition of the milk and the actual average recovery of fat and casein achieved under practical cheese making conditions. PMID:12416825

  12. Microbial biodiversity in cheese consortia and comparative Listeria growth on surfaces of uncooked pressed cheeses.

    PubMed

    Callon, Cécile; Retureau, Emilie; Didienne, Robert; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-17

    The study set out to determine how changes in the microbial diversity of a complex antilisterial consortium from the surface of St-Nectaire cheese modify its antilisterial activities. On the basis of the microbial composition of a natural complex consortium named TR15 (Truefood consortium 15), three new consortia of different species and strain compositions were defined: TR15-SC (58 isolates from TR15 collection), TR15-M (pools of isolates from selective counting media) and TR15-BHI (pools of isolates from BHI medium). Their antilisterial activities on the surfaces of uncooked pressed cheese made with pasteurised milk were compared with the activity of complex consortium TR15 and a control cheese inoculated only with starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii). The natural consortium TR15 was the most inhibitory, followed by reconstituted consortium TR15-BHI. The dynamics of the cheese rind microbial flora were monitored by counting on media and by isolate identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and direct 16S rDNA Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis. The combination of these methods showed that rind with natural consortium TR15 had greater microbial diversity and different microbial dynamics than cheese rinds with reconstituted consortia. Cheese rind with the natural consortium showed higher citrate consumption and the highest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, connected with high levels of lactic acid bacteria such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Vagococcus fluvialis, Enterococcus gilvus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus lactis, ripening bacteria such as Arthrobacter nicotianae/arilaitensis, and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas psychrophila and Enterobacter spp.). The highest L. monocytogenes count was on rind with TR15-M and was positively associated with the highest pH value, high succinic and citric acid contents, and the highest levels of Marinilactibacillus

  13. Prevention of late blowing defect by reuterin produced in cheese by a Lactobacillus reuteri adjunct.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Gaya, Pilar; Garde, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    In this study, reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572 was added to cheese as an adjunct culture together with 50 or 100 mM glycerol (required for reuterin production), with the aim of controlling Clostridium tyrobutyricum CECT 4011 growth and preventing the late blowing defect (LBD) of cheese caused by this strain. L. reuteri survived cheese manufacture and produced reuterin in situ, detected at 6 and 24 h. However, the produced reuterin was enough to inhibit the growth of Clostridium, showing undetectable spore counts from day 30 onward and, therefore, to prevent cheese LBD during ripening (60 d, 14 °C). The acidification of these cheeses was not affected, although from day 14 they showed significantly lower lactococci counts than cheese made only with the starter (control cheese). Cheeses with LBD showed lower levels of lactic acid than control cheese and the formation of propionic and butyric acids, but cheeses with reuterin showed the same organic acids profile than control cheese. The cheese made with L. reuteri and 100 mM glycerol showed a light pink colour, not observed in the cheese made with L. reuteri and 50 mM glycerol. These results demonstrated a potent anti-clostridial activity of reuterin produced in an actual food product like cheese, and proved to be a novel approach to prevent LBD of cheese. PMID:24929721

  14. Effect of fat reduction on chemical composition, proteolysis, functionality, and yield of Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Rudan, M A; Barbano, D M; Yun, J J; Kindstedt, P S

    1999-04-01

    Mozzarella cheese was made from skim milk standardized with cream (unhomogenized, 40% milk fat) to achieve four different target fat percentages in the cheese (ca. 5, 10, 15, and 25%). No statistically significant differences were detected for cheese manufacturing time, stretching time, concentration of salt in the moisture phase, pH, or calcium as a percentage of the protein in the cheese between treatments. As the fat percentage was reduced, there was an increase in the moisture and protein content of the cheese. However, because the moisture did not replace the fat on an equal basis, there was a significant decrease in the moisture in the nonfat substance in the cheese as the fat percentage was reduced. This decrease in total filler volume (fat plus moisture) was associated with an increase in the hardness of the unmelted cheese. Whiteness and opacity of the unmelted cheese decreased as the fat content decreased. Pizza baking performance, meltability, and free oil release significantly decreased as the fat percentage decreased. The minimum amount of free oil release necessary to obtain proper functionality during pizza baking was between 0.22 and 2.52 g of fat/100 g of cheese. Actual cheese yield was about 30% lower for cheese containing 5% fat than for cheese with 25% fat. Maximizing fat recovery in the cheese becomes less important to maintain high cheese yield, and moisture control and the retention of solids in the water phase become more important as the fat content of the cheese is reduced. PMID:10212453

  15. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  16. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  17. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  18. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  19. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  20. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  1. Physicochemical, textural, volatile, and sensory profiles of traditional Sepet cheese.

    PubMed

    Ercan, D; Korel, F; Yüceer, Y Karagül; Kınık, O

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of traditional cheeses is important for the protection of diversity of tradition and contributing baseline data for further research and quality control. Sepet cheese is a traditional cheese and specific to the Aegean region of Turkey. In this study, 52 Sepet cheese samples were analyzed to characterize the physicochemical, textural, volatile compounds, and sensory profiles. The changes in the physicochemical and volatile compositions were investigated during production and ripening periods. The average dry matter (DM; 55.16%), fat-in-DM (45.80%), protein (29.18%), salt-in-DM (12.88%), water activity (0.83), pH (5.50), titratable acidity (1.69%), ripening and lipolysis indices (11.06 and 6.36), firmness (212.20N), springiness (0.62), cohesiveness (0.57), adhesiveness (0.48 Nmm), and chewiness (66.87N) values of Sepet cheese samples were determined. Hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and butyric acids, which were responsible for the cheesy, waxy, goaty odors, were the most abundant volatile compounds in these cheeses. Most of the volatile compounds increased significantly during production and ripening. Significant changes in most of the physicochemical characteristics were observed up to the third month of ripening. As a result of the descriptive sensory analysis, Sepet cheeses were described with descriptors such as free fatty acid, animal like, sulfurous, creamy, cooked, and whey, and aromatics with high salty basic taste. PMID:21854903

  2. Sources of enterococci in Idiazábal-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, M; Irigoyen, A; Urdin, M; García, S; Ibañez, F C; Torre, P

    2008-07-15

    Enterococci are a ubiquitous group and are natural constituents of the intestinal flora of nearly all animals and humans and can reach high levels in a variety of farmhouse cheeses. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the different enterococcal strains present in cheeses at different stages of ripening by typing the enterococci isolated from the raw milk, the cheeses, the cheesemaking environment, and from the faecal matter of the ewes and humans associated with cheese production. The potential presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) at all stages of the process and in the cheeses was also considered. The study was carried out at two separate cheesemaking dairy plants, and samples of the ewes' faeces, the shepherds' and cheesemakers' stools, teat cups, vat, brine, holding tank milk, vat milk, and the cheeses after brining and after 1, 15, and 60 days of ripening were collected. Cheesemaking procedures at the two plants were similar, yet the enterococcal levels and species observed differed at all the sample collection points, though E. faecalis predominated in all the milk and cheese samples. The traceability study performed for the species E. faecalis present at all the sample collection points suggested that the cheesemaker and the cheesemaking equipment were the source of the enterococci in the cheeses, though other possible non-faecal sources remain to be determined. VanC1 and vanC2/C3 enterococcal strains were isolated from the ovine faeces, teat cup, brine, and vat samples at cheesemaking dairy plant A, while only two vanC2/C3 strains were isolated from ovine faeces samples at dairy plant B. No VRE strains were detected in any of the milk or cheese samples. PMID:18495280

  3. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  4. Partial 'Seminole' Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view from Spirit's panoramic camera is assembled from frames acquired on Martian days, or sols, 672 and 673 (Nov. 23 and 24, 2005) from the rover's position near an outcrop called 'Seminole.' The view is a southward-looking portion of a larger panorama still being completed. This is a false-color version to emphasize geological differences. It is a composite of images shot through three different filters, admitting light of wavelengths 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  5. The influence of the wooden equipment employed for cheese manufacture on the characteristics of a traditional stretched cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Di Grigoli, Antonino; Francesca, Nicola; Gaglio, Raimondo; Guarrasi, Valeria; Moschetti, Marta; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Settanni, Luca; Bonanno, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the wooden equipment used for the traditional cheese manufacturing from raw milk was evaluated on the variations of chemico-physical characteristics and microbial populations during the ripening of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese. Milk from two farms (A, extensive; B, intensive) was processed in traditional and standard conditions. Chemical and physical traits of cheeses were affected by the farming system and the cheese making technology, and changed during ripening. Content in NaCl and N soluble was lower, and paste consistency higher in cheese from the extensive farm and traditional technology, whereas ripening increased the N soluble and the paste yellow and consistency. The ripening time decreased the number of all lactic acid bacteria (LAB) groups, except enterococci detected at approximately constant levels (10(4) and 10(5) cfu g(-1) for standard and traditional cheeses, respectively), till 120 d of ripening. In all productions, at each ripening time, the levels detected for enterococci were lower than those for the other LAB groups. The canonical discriminant analysis of chemical, physical and microbiological data was able to separate cheeses from different productions and ripening time. The dominant LAB were isolated, phenotypically characterised and grouped, genetically differentiated at strain level and identified. Ten species of LAB were found and the strains detected at the highest levels were Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus casei. Ten strains, mainly belonging to Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum showed an antibacterial activity. The comparison of the polymorphic profiles of the LAB strains isolated from the wooden vat with those of the strains collected during maturation, showed the persistence of three enterococci in traditional cheeses, with Enterococcus faecalis found at dominant levels over the Enterococcus population till 120 d; the absence of these strains in the standard productions evidenced the

  6. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  7. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-08-01

    Twelve Caciocavallo cheeses were collected from 6 factories (A, B, C, D, E, F) located in the Monti Dauni Meridionali area (Southern Italy) that adopted different protocols for cheese production. A total of 160 consumers were involved in the sensory evaluation of Caciocavallo cheese after 180 d of ripening. Cheese attributes were used to describe the flavor, texture, and appearance of cheeses. The highest scores for the shiny attribute were assigned to cheeses B, C, and E, whereas color intensity was the highest in cheeses B, D, and F. Strength, salty, and piquant attributes were higher in cheeses F and A because of the use of raw milk (F), rennet paste (A), and percentage of salt in the brine (A, F). Consumers perceived a more granular structure during the second half of chewing of Caciocavallo cheese F, as evidenced by the highest value for the grainy attribute. A positive correlation was found between overall flavor and odor intensity and water-soluble nitrogen, low molecular weight peptides, and free fatty acids and between piquant and butyric and caproic acids. A principal components analysis applied to the sensory attributes accounted for 65% of the total variance. The score plot showed that cheeses F and A were located in a well-defined zone of the plot, with cheeses in this zone displaying higher levels of strength, piquant, and salty attributes. The preference test assigned 40% of the preference to Caciocavallo cheese A, 38% to cheese F, 9% to cheese E, 8% to cheese D, and 7% to cheeses B and C. Sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheeses is a useful analysis to highlight the principal attributes able to influence consumers' liking that are related to biochemical features of the cheese. PMID:22818433

  8. Physicochemical properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese manufactured with different probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Napolitano, F; Sevi, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce functional Scamorza cheese from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk by incorporating probiotic strains into the cheese matrix and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Gentile di Puglia ewe bulk milk was used for Scamorza cheese production. Cheeses were denoted S-CO for control Scamorza cheese, S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotic strain. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 7, and 15 d of ripening. Probiotic cell recovery in cheese was 7.55 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g and 9.09 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g in S-LA and S-BB cheese, respectively; probiotic cheeses also displayed the highest levels of lactic microflora. Reverse-phase HPLC chromatograms of the water-soluble nitrogen fraction showed a more complex profile in S-BB, with distinctive peaks in the early-eluting zone. The matured Scamorza cheese containing the mix of B. longum and B. lactis was characterized by significantly higher levels of Gln, Ser, Arg, Ile, and Leu, whereas cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by higher levels of Tyr and Met. Total FFA content was the highest in S-LA, intermediate in S-BB, and the lowest in S-CO cheese; in particular, Scamorza cheese containing Lb. acidophilus showed the highest level of vaccenic acid, oleic acid, and total conjugated linoleic acid. Probiotic bacteria survived through the technological phases of pasta filata cheese production, maintained their specific metabolic pathways, and conferred functional properties to Scamorza ewe milk cheese. PMID:23522678

  9. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitro characterization and performance in two model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Briggiler-Marcó, M; Capra, M L; Quiberoni, A; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J A; Hynes, E

    2007-10-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are the main uncontrolled factor in today's industrial cheese making and may be the cause of quality inconsistencies and defects in cheeses. In this context, adjunct cultures of selected lactobacilli from nonstarter lactic acid bacteria origin appear as the best alternative to indirectly control cheese biota. The objective of the present work was to study the technological properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese by in vitro and in situ assays. Milk acidification kinetics and proteolytic and acidifying activities were assessed, and peptide mapping of trichloroacetic acid 8% soluble fraction of milk cultures was performed by liquid chromatography. In addition, the tolerance to salts (NaCl and KCl) and the phage-resistance were investigated. Four strains were selected for testing as adjunct cultures in cheese making experiments at pilot plant scale. In in vitro assays, most strains acidified milk slowly and showed weak to moderate proteolytic activity. Fast strains decreased milk pH to 4.5 in 8 h, and continued acidification to 3.5 in 12 h or more. This group consisted mostly of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Approximately one-third of the slow strains, which comprised mainly Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus curvatus, were capable to grow when milk was supplemented with glucose and casein hydrolysate. Peptide maps were similar to those of lactic acid bacteria considered to have a moderate proteolytic activity. Most strains showed salt tolerance and resistance to specific phages. The Lactobacillus strains selected as adjunct cultures for cheese making experiments reached 10(8) cfu/g in soft cheeses at 7 d of ripening, whereas they reached 10(9) cfu/g in semihard cheeses after 15 d of ripening. In both cheese varieties, the adjunct culture population remained at high counts during all ripening, in some cases overcoming or equaling primary starter. Overall

  10. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  11. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  12. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    PubMed

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  13. Microsatellite loci to recognize species for the cheese starter and contaminating strains associated with cheese manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Frédéric; Giraud, Tatiana; Aguileta, Gabriela; Fournier, Elisabeth; Samson, Robert; Cruaud, Corine; Lacoste, Sandrine; Ropars, Jeanne; Tellier, Aurélien; Dupont, Joëlle

    2010-02-28

    We report the development of 17 microsatellite markers in the cheese fungi Penicillium camemberti and P. roqueforti, using an enrichment protocol. Polymorphism and cross-amplification were explored using 23 isolates of P. camemberti, 26 isolates of P. roqueforti, and 2 isolates of each of the P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense species, used to produce meat fermented products. The markers appeared useful for differentiating species, both using their amplification sizes and the sequences of their flanking regions. The microsatellite locus PC4 was particularly suitable for distinguishing contaminant species closely related to P. camemberti and for clarifying the phylogenetic relationship of this species with its supposed ancestral form, P. commune. We analyzed 22 isolates from different culture collections assigned to the morphospecies P. commune, most of them occurring as food spoilers, mainly from the cheese environment. None of them exhibited identical sequences with the ex-type isolate of the species P. commune. They were instead distributed into two other distinct lineages, corresponding to the old species P. fuscoglaucum and P. biforme, previously synonymized respectively with P. commune and P. camemberti. The ex-type isolate of P. commune was strictly identical to P. camemberti at all the loci examined. P. caseifulvum, a non toxinogenic species described as a new candidate for cheese fermentation, also exhibited sequences identical to P. camemberti. The microsatellite locus PC4 may therefore be considered as a useful candidate for the barcode of these economically important species. PMID:20031244

  14. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-07-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually.

  15. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for not less than 30 seconds at a temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not...

  16. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for not less than 30 seconds at a temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not...

  17. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for not less than 30 seconds at a temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not...

  18. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for not less than 30 seconds at a temperature of not less than 150 °F. When tested for phosphatase by...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not...

  19. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels. PMID:26041199

  20. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  1. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... form. Salt, or a solution of salt in water, is added to the surface of the cheese at some time during... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  2. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  3. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  4. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  5. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  6. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  7. Characteristics of food using Queso Fresco cheese as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing and aging affect food characteristics, such as rheology, functional properties, microstructure, and sensory traits. These effects are discussed using Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety, as an example. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data indicated that lipolysis occurr...

  8. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic. PMID:19244916

  9. Decontamination of hard cheeses by pulsed UV light.

    PubMed

    Can, Fidan O; Demirci, Ali; Puri, Virendra M; Gourama, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cheese is a ready-to-eat food that may be contaminated on the surface by undesirable spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms during production, packaging, and postpackaging processes. Penicillium roqueforti is commonly found on cheese surfaces at refrigeration temperatures and is one of the most common spoilage fungal species. Consumption of cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes can result in foodborne listeriosis. Therefore, cheese should be decontaminated at postprocessing stages. Pulsed UV light is a nonthermal method for food preservation that involves the use of intense short pulses to ensure microbial decontamination on the surface of foods or packaging materials. In this study, the efficacy of pulsed UV light for inactivation of P. roqueforti and L. monocytogenes inoculated onto packaged and unpackaged hard cheeses was investigated. Treatment times and the distance from the UV strobe were evaluated to determine optimum treatment conditions. Packaged and unpackaged cheeses were treated at distances of 5, 8, and 13 cm for up to 60 s. For P. roqueforti, maximum reduction after 40 s at 5 cm was 1.32 log CFU/cm(2) on unpackaged cheese and 1.24 log CFU/cm(2) on packaged cheese. Reductions of L. monocytogenes under the same treatment conditions were about 2.9 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) on packaged and unpackaged cheeses, respectively. The temperature changes and total energy increases were directly proportional to treatment time and inversely proportional to distance between the UV lamp and the samples. The changes in color and lipid oxidation were determined at mild (5 s at 13 cm), moderate (30 s at 8 cm), and extreme (40 s at 5 cm) treatments. The color and chemical quality of cheeses were not significantly different after mild treatments (P > 0.05). The mechanical properties of the plastic packaging material (polypropylene) also were evaluated after mild, moderate, and extreme treatments. A decreasing trend was noted for elastic modulus; however, no

  10. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  11. Light refraction in the Swiss-cheese model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csapó, Adelinda; Bene, Gyula

    2012-08-01

    We investigate light propagation in the Swiss-cheese model. On both sides of Swiss-cheese sphere surfaces, observers resting in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space and the Schwarzschild space respectively, see the same light ray enclosing different angles with the normal. We examine light refraction at each crossing of the boundary surfaces, showing that the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence for both directions of the light.

  12. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1–5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6–11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making—P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13–15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  13. Short communication: peptide profiling in cheeses packed using different technologies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rivera, Laura; Recio, Isidra; Ramos, Mercedes; Gómez-Ruiz, José Ángel

    2013-06-01

    Peptides released during the shelf life of cheeses packaged using 2 different technologies, vacuum packaging (VP) and modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP), were identified by on-line reverse phase-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 22 peptides from the N-terminal domain of αS1-casein (CN) and 26 from β-CN were identified, the latter more evenly distributed over the whole sequence. Peptides were monitored during the shelf life of these cheeses when stored at 4°C, revealing that the peptide profile changed significantly with the storage time. Qualitative differences between VP and MAP cheeses were only found for 3 αS1-CN peptides, which were absent in MAP cheeses. Semiquantitative analysis of peptides revealed some differences between cheeses packaged using different technologies. However, evolution of peptides during storage followed a common trend in both types of cheeses. In addition, the presence of certain peptides, which had been previously described because of their potential bioactivity, is illustrated. For instance, some of the identified peptides had been previously reported as antihypertensive peptides, such as peptide αS1-CN (1-9) or β-CN f(201-209). PMID:23548291

  14. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  15. Technological optimization of manufacture of probiotic whey cheese matrices.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana R; Brandão, Teresa; Gomes, Ana M; Pintado, Manuela E; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-03-01

    In attempts to optimize their manufacture, whey cheese matrices obtained via thermal processing of whey (leading to protein precipitation) and inoculated with probiotic cultures were tested. A central composite, face-centered design was followed, so a total of 16 experiments were run using fractional addition of bovine milk to feedstock whey, homogenization time, and storage time of whey cheese as processing parameters. Probiotic whey cheese matrices were inoculated with Lactobacillus casei LAFTIL26 at 10% (v/v), whereas control whey cheese matrices were added with skim milk previously acidified with lactic acid to the same level. All whey cheeses were stored at 7 °C up to 14 d. Chemical and sensory analyses were carried out for all samples, as well as rheological characterization by oscillatory viscometry and textural profiling. As expected, differences were found between control and probiotic matrices: fractional addition of milk and storage time were the factors accounting for the most important effects. Estimation of the best operating parameters was via response surface analysis: milk addition at a rate of 10% to 15% (v/v), and homogenization for 5 min led to the best probiotic whey cheeses in terms of texture and organoleptic properties, whereas the best time for consumption was found to be by 9 d of storage following manufacture. PMID:21535760

  16. Pecorino Crotonese cheese: study of bacterial population and flavour compounds.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, C L; Pitino, I; Ribbera, A; Caggia, C

    2010-05-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the dominant bacterial population during the manufacture and the ripening of two artisanal Pecorino Crotonese cheeses, provided by different farms, were investigated by the combination of culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Three hundred and thirty-three strains were isolated from selective culture media, clustered using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results indicate a decrease in biodiversity during ripening, revealing the presence of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus species in the curd and in aged cheese samples and the occurrence of several lactobacilli throughout cheese ripening, with the dominance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus species. Bacterial dynamics determined by Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis provided a more precise description of the distribution of bacteria, highlighting differences in the bacterial community among cheese samples, and allowed to detect Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, which were not isolated. Moreover, the concentration of flavour compounds produced throughout cheese ripening was investigated and related to lactic acid bacteria presence. Fifty-seven compounds were identified in the volatile fraction of Pecorino Crotonese cheeses by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Esters, alcohols and free fatty acids were the most abundant compounds, while aldehydes and hydrocarbons were present at low levels. PMID:20227601

  17. Fate of aflatoxin M1 in Iranian white cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, A; Karim, G; Aliabadi, F Shojaee; Khaksar, R

    2008-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important mycotoxin frequently found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is a major metabolic product of Aflatoxin B1 and is usually excreted in the milk and urine of dairy cattle that have consumed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the AFM1 concentration in curd and whey of Iranian white cheese. The cheese milk samples were artificially contaminated with AFM1 in six levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.75microgL(-1)). Cheese was produced according to Iranian traditional recipe. AFM1 distribution between curd, whey and cheese was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using immunoaffinity column clean up and florescence detection. AFM1 was recovered in whey, curd and cheese in the concentrations of 0.43, 1.47 and 1.57microgL(-1),respectively. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in curd and cheese obtained 3.12- and 3.65-fold more than that in whey that shows the affinity of Aflatoxin M1 to the protein fraction of milk. PMID:18433973

  18. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. PMID:26519972

  19. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different. PMID:17297085

  20. Influence of microfiltration and adjunct culture on quality of Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    Awad, S; Ahmed, N; El Soda, M

    2010-05-01

    The effects of microfiltration and pasteurization processes on proteolysis, lipolysis, and flavor development in Domiati cheese during 2 mo of pickling were studied. Cultures of starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Egyptian dairy products were evaluated in experimental Domiati cheese for flavor development capabilities. In the first trial, raw skim milk was microfiltered and then the protein:fat ratio was standardized using pasteurized cream. Pasteurized milk with same protein:fat ratio was also used in the second trial. The chemical composition of cheeses seemed to be affected by milk treatment-microfiltration or pasteurization-rather than by the culture types. The moisture content was higher and the pH was lower in pasteurized milk cheeses than in microfiltered milk cheeses at d 1 of manufacture. Chemical composition of experimental cheeses was within the legal limits for Domiati cheese in Egypt. Proteolysis and lipolysis during cheese pickling were lower in microfiltered milk cheeses compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Highly significant variations in free amino acids, free fatty acids, and sensory evaluation were found among the cultures used in Domiati cheesemaking. The cheese made using adjunct culture containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium received high scores in flavor acceptability. Cheeses made from microfiltered milk received a higher score in body and texture compared with cheeses made from pasteurized milk. PMID:20412894

  1. A potent probiotic strain from cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Shobharani, P; Agrawal, Renu

    2011-07-01

    A lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc paramesenteroides was isolated and characterized from cheddar cheese and was adapted to grow at low pH (2.0) and high bile salt concentration (2%) by sequential sub-culturing so that it can survive the extreme environmental condition of gut. Cell hydrophobicity assay shows the maximum adherence of the culture to toluene (46.11%). Adhesion ability was confirmed by in vitro assay using rat intestinal epithelial layer. The culture has an antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens and is vancomycin sensitive. The culture shows a β-galactosidase activity of 3.42 μM/mg protein, which indicates the ability of the culture to hydrolyze lactose for easy absorption. All these properties determine the ability of the culture to be used as a probiotic. PMID:22753999

  2. On Issues in Swiss Cheese Compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    We give a brief review of our previous works.1,2 We discuss two sets of issues. The first has to do with the possibility of getting a non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of /line{D3}-branes as in KKLT, and axionic slow-roll inflation, in type II flux compactifications. The second has to do with the "Inverse Problem"3 and "Fake Superpotentials"4 for extremal (non)supersymmetric black holes in type II compactifications. We use (orientifold of) a "Swiss Cheese" Calabi-Yau5 expressed as a degree-18 hypersurface in WCP4[1, 1, 1, 6, 9] in the "large-volume-scenario" limit6 for the former.

  3. Time delay in Swiss cheese gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.

    2010-08-15

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat {Lambda} dominated cold dark matter Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with {Lambda}) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is nonlinear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach {approx}4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  4. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  5. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  6. Antibacterial activity of Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese against Listeria monocytogenes in probiotic ultra-filtrated cheese

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Ehsani, Ali; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria in food during maintenance and time of consuming in food has become a challenge in food hygiene and technology and is important for representing their beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of probiotic Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese added to industrial Iranian ultra-filtrated (UF) cheese and screening for antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium against Listeria monocytogenes during two months of cheese ripening. Physiochemical and standard microbial methods were used for isolation of Enterococcus strains in cheese samples. The initial number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture was 6 Log g-1 in control samples. The counts started to decrease slightly after day seven (p < 0.05) and dropped to 5 Log g-1 at the end of 60 days. The count of LAB in the test groups decreased to 11 Log g-1 on the day 60 of ripening. The number of Enterococcus faecium was 6 Log g-1 on the day 60. The count of Listeria monocytogenes after 60 days of ripening in blank sample decreased 1 Log but in test samples with protective strain decreased 3 Log in 30 days and reached to zero at 45 days. There were not significant (p < 0.05) changes in chemical parameters such as fat, protein and total solid of UF cheese treatment groups. The results showed that Enterococcus faecium of Koopeh cheese was suitable for development of an acceptable probiotic UF cheese and could be adapted to industrial production of UF cheese. PMID:25568714

  7. Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during the Ripening Process of Different Croatian Cheese Types Derived from Raw Ewe's Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  8. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  9. High-throughput sequencing for detection of subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for the first time, detected the presence of Arthrobacter and Brachybacterium in goats' milk cheese. Our analysis confirmed many previously observed patterns, such as the dominance of typical cheese bacteria, the fact that the microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses differ, and that the level of cheese maturation has a significant influence on Lactobacillus populations. It was also noted that cheeses containing adjunct ingredients had lower proportions of Lactococcus species. It is thus apparent that high-throughput sequencing-based investigations can provide valuable insights into the microbial populations of artisanal foods. PMID:22685131

  10. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  11. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  12. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  13. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  14. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  15. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  16. 40 CFR 405.60 - Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... natural and processed cheese subcategory. 405.60 Section 405.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Natural and Processed Cheese Subcategory § 405.60 Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  17. Cheese. What is its contribution to the sodium intake of Brazilians?

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Nogueira, L C; Raices, R S L; Deliza, R; Bolini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R

    2013-07-01

    The heightened intake of sodium from processed foods is of great public health concern throughout the world. This study evaluated the sodium contents of cheeses available in Brazil and the contribution of cheese to the daily intake of this micronutrient. The labels of 156 commercial samples of various types of Brazilian cheese (Minas, Prato, mozarella, and requeijão cheese, as well as padrão cheese) were evaluated with respect to the reported sodium content. A high variability in the sodium contents of cheeses within each category was observed, although no significant difference was observed in the sodium content present in one serving (30 g) of cheese versus that present in 100 g of product (p > 0.05). With the exception of Minas cheese, more than 70% of the other cheeses examined in this study could be classified as high-sodium cheeses, with sodium contents exceeding 400 mg Na/100 g of product. These results suggest that cheese manufacturers need to reformulate their products and that public health authorities need to take additional measures to curb sodium intake from cheese consumption, including demand-specific labeling and implementing educational campaigns to inform the public about the dangers associated with high sodium intake. PMID:23500416

  18. 40 CFR 405.60 - Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... natural and processed cheese subcategory. 405.60 Section 405.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Natural and Processed Cheese Subcategory § 405.60 Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  19. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

  20. Rheology and texture of Queso Fresco cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Frescos made in Mexico from raw milk (RM) were compared with cheeses made in Mexico and the US from pasteurized milk (PM) to determine textural and rheological differences. RM cheese, considered the ideal Queso Fresco, contained more moisture than PM cheeses, displayed higher cohesiveness and...