Science.gov

Sample records for 2012-01-01 false insect

  1. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding....

  2. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel....

  3. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of...

  4. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  5. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  6. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  7. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  8. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  9. 13 CFR 108.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 108.507 Section 108.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of...

  10. 13 CFR 107.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with SBA. 107.507 Section 107.507 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a...

  11. 15 CFR 30.71 - False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. 30.71 Section 30.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... REGULATIONS Penalties § 30.71 False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System....

  12. 7 CFR 319.8-7 - Processed lint, linters, and waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed lint, linters, and waste. 319.8-7 Section 319.8-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... insect life....

  13. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    PubMed

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.

  14. 7 CFR 319.69-2 - Freedom from pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freedom from pests. 319.69-2 Section 319.69-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... injurious insects and plant diseases....

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... subpart, to examine any such products that are found for insect infestation, and to notify the...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  17. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  18. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel....

  19. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture....2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of insect feeding. Metric Conversion Table...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture....2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of insect feeding. Metric Conversion Table...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel....

  2. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding....

  3. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding....

  4. Observing Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbel, Ilil

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

  5. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of...

  7. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  8. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  9. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of...

  11. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of...

  13. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence...

  16. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis.

  17. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis. PMID:27545732

  18. Insect Keepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  19. Incredible Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes an Insect an Insect?," including…

  20. Insect phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Behura, S K

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study the evolution and systematics of species. Recently, several studies employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into insect evolution. Next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. These data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale multigene phylogenies of diverse lineages of insects. Phy-logenomic investigations help us to better understand systematic and evolutionary relationships of insect species that play important roles as herbivores, predators, detritivores, pollinators and disease vectors. It is important that we critically assess the prospects and limitations of phylogenomic methods. In this review, I describe the current status, outline the major challenges and remark on potential future applications of phylogenomic tools in studying insect systematics and evolution.

  1. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be maintained free of infestation by flies, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, and other insects known to be vectors...

  2. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be maintained free of infestation by flies, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, and other insects known to be vectors...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be maintained free of infestation by flies, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, and other insects known to be vectors...

  4. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  5. Insect Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing methods, phylogenetics has taken a new turn in the recent years. Phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study systematics and evolution of species. Recently, breakthrough researches employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into the timing and pattern of insect evolution. The next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. These data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale multigene phylogenies of diverse lineages of insects. Phylogenomic investigations help us better understand systematic and evolutionary relationships of insect species that play important roles as herbivores, predators, detritivores, pollinators, or disease vectors. It is important that we critically assess the prospects and limitations of phylogenomic methods. In this review, I describe the current status, outline the major challenges, and remark on potential future applications of phylogenomic tools in studying insect systematics and evolution. PMID:25963452

  6. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  7. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  8. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology. PMID:26439349

  9. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology.

  10. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  11. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  12. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    ... The smell of food attracts these insects.  Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...

  13. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  14. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  15. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  16. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  17. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  18. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  19. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  20. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  1. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  2. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  3. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  4. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  5. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  6. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  7. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  8. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  9. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  10. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  11. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  12. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  13. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  14. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  15. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  16. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  17. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  18. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  19. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  20. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  1. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  2. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  3. Insect transgenesis and the sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of broadly applicable insect transgenesis systems will enable the analyses of gene function in diverse insect species. This will greatly increase our understanding of diverse aspects of biology so far not functionally addressable. Moreover, insect transgenesis will provide novel st...

  4. What Makes an Insect an Insect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information on characteristics common to all insects, activities, and student materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes) which describe: how insects are classified; how they are different from other animals; and the main insect characteristics. Activities include recommended age levels,…

  5. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  6. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  7. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  8. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  9. Insect-ual Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, David

    1991-01-01

    Explains how insects can be used to stimulate student writing. Describes how students can create their own systems to classify and differentiate insects. Discusses insect morphology and includes three detailed diagrams. The author provides an extension activity where students hypothesize about the niche of an insect based on its anatomy. (PR)

  10. Book Review: Insect Virology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses that infect insects have long been of interest both as a means for controlling insect pest populations in an environmentally safe manner, and also as significant threats to beneficial insects of great value, such as honey bees and silkworms. Insect viruses also have been of intrinsic intere...

  11. Insects and Scorpions

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Insects & Scorpions Bees, Wasps, and Hornets Fire Ants Scorpions Additional Resources ... to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects ...

  12. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  13. Ecophysiology and insect herbivory

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, K.M.; Wagner, M.R.; Reich, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    The relationship of insect herbivory to conifer physiology is examined. Aspects of nutrient assimilation, nutrient distribution, water stress, and climatic change are correlated to defoliation by insects. Other factors examined include plant age, density, structure, soils, and plant genotype.

  14. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  15. Insects and Spiders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on insects and spiders. The bulletins have these titles: What Good Are Insects, How Insects Benefit Man, Life of the Honey Bee, Ants and Their Fascinating Ways, Mosquitoes and Other Flies, Caterpillars, Spiders and Silk,…

  16. Sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like other annual crops, sunflowers are fed upon by a variety of insect pests capable of reducing yields. Though there are a few insects which are considered consistent or severe (e.g., sunflower moth, banded sunflower moth, red sunflower seed weevil), many more insects are capable of causing proble...

  17. Exploring Sound with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  18. Insects and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Several ideas for observing insects and soil animals in the classroom are provided. Also provided are: (1) procedures for making insect cages with milk cartons; (2) suggestions for collecting and feeding insects; and (3) techniques for collecting and identifying soil animals. (BC)

  19. InsectBase: a resource for insect genomes and transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuanlin; Shen, Gengyu; Guo, Dianhao; Wang, Shuping; Ma, Xingzhou; Xiao, Huamei; Liu, Jinding; Zhang, Zan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Yu, Kaixiang; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The genomes and transcriptomes of hundreds of insects have been sequenced. However, insect community lacks an integrated, up-to-date collection of insect gene data. Here, we introduce the first release of InsectBase, available online at http://www.insect-genome.com. The database encompasses 138 insect genomes, 116 insect transcriptomes, 61 insect gene sets, 36 gene families of 60 insects, 7544 miRNAs of 69 insects, 96 925 piRNAs of Drosophila melanogaster and Chilo suppressalis, 2439 lncRNA of Nilaparvata lugens, 22 536 pathways of 78 insects, 678 881 untranslated regions (UTR) of 84 insects and 160 905 coding sequences (CDS) of 70 insects. This release contains over 12 million sequences and provides search functionality, a BLAST server, GBrowse, insect pathway construction, a Facebook-like network for the insect community (iFacebook), and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes. PMID:26578584

  20. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  1. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  2. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  3. 14 CFR 415.15 - Rights not conferred by launch license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... facilities, airspace, or outer space. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rights not conferred by launch license. 415.15 Section 415.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  4. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  5. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  6. 41 CFR 109-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchase of new motor vehicles. 109-26.501 Section 109-26.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... motor vehicles....

  7. 5 CFR 412.201 - Management succession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to 5 CFR 410.202. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management succession. 412.201 Section 412.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  8. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  9. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false C Appendix C to Part 2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Appendix C to Part 2...

  11. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 5 CFR 319.301 - Qualifications standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualifications standards. 319.301 Section 319.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... are required in the ST position....

  13. 7 CFR 1709.203 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 1709.203 Section 1709.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... transportation by road, rail or pipeline....

  14. 5 CFR 734.410 - Participation in political fundraising; prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... political office or of a political party, or partisan political group. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation in political fundraising... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain...

  15. 5 CFR 733.103 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... political office and who represents a political party; (4) Solicit, accept, or receive uncompensated... local partisan political office and who represents a political party. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permitted political...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  1. 7 CFR 1214.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, or...

  2. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  3. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  4. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  5. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  6. 12 CFR - Unknown Title

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Section Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.29 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1260.29 Section 1260.29 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.29...

  8. 14 CFR 1204.502 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1204.502 Section 1204.502 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Delegations and Designations § 1204.502...

  9. 14 CFR 1204.507 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1204.507 Section 1204.507 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Delegations and Designations § 1204.507...

  10. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  11. 41 CFR 105-54.203-2 - Active charters file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Active charters file... Administration 54-ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT 54.2-Establishment of Advisory Committees § 105-54.203-2 Active... active charters....

  12. 14 CFR 1212.202 - Identification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification procedures. 1212.202 Section 1212.202 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA... medical or otherwise sensitive....

  13. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 8 CFR 335.8 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 335.8 Section 335.8 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EXAMINATION ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.8...

  15. 8 CFR 334.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 334.3 Section 334.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 334.3...

  16. 8 CFR 316.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 316.3 Section 316.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.3...

  17. 8 CFR 316.13 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 316.13 Section 316.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.13...

  18. 10 CFR 9.95 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 9.95 Section 9.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS Privacy Act Regulations Exemptions § 9.95 Specific exemptions....gov....

  19. 12 CFR 1010.2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1010.2 Section 1010.2 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.2...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 1022 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false J Appendix J to Part 1022 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Appendix J to Part 1022...

  1. 10 CFR 611.104 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 611.104 Section 611.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.104...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  3. 14 CFR 93.51 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.51... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability. 93.51 Section 93.51..., Terminal Area....

  4. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act....

  5. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  6. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  7. 10 CFR 52.169 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.169 Section 52.169 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.169...

  8. 10 CFR 52.161 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.161 Section 52.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.161...

  9. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  10. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  11. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 417 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false H Appendix H to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Appendix H to Part...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 417 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false F Appendix F to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Appendix F to Part...

  13. 5 CFR 7301.102 - Prior approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or Federal regulation, including 5 CFR part 2635. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior approval for outside teaching... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage....

  15. 12 CFR 347.214 - Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (12 CFR 211). ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act. 347.214 Section 347.214 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE...

  16. 5 CFR 511.614 - Review by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review by the Director. 511.614 Section... CLASSIFICATION UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Classification Appeals § 511.614 Review by the Director. The Director... Director....

  17. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens....

  18. Cellulolytic systems in insects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirofumi; Tokuda, Gaku

    2010-01-01

    Despite the presence of many carbohydrolytic activities in insects, their cellulolytic mechanisms are poorly understood. Whereas cellulase genes are absent from the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster or Bombyx mori, other insects such as termites produce their own cellulases. Recent studies using molecular biological techniques have brought new insights into the mechanisms by which the insects and their microbial symbionts digest cellulose in the small intestine. DNA sequences of cellulase and associated genes, as well as physiological and morphological information about the digestive systems of cellulase-producing insects, may allow the efficient use of cellulosic biomass as a sustainable energy source.

  19. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  20. Insect bites and stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to cause itching than pain. Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... are harmless. If possible, bring the insect or spider that bit you with you when you go for medical treatment so it can be identified.

  1. Insects and Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  2. Corazonin in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corazonin is a peptidergic neurohormone of insects which is expressed in neurosecretory neurons of the pars lateralis of the protocerebrum and transported via nervi corpus cardiaci in the storage lobes of the corpora cardiaca. This peptide occurs with a single isofomr in all insects studied so far,...

  3. Sterile Insect Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses the history of the development of quality control tchnology, the principles and philosophy of assessing insect quality, and the relative importance of the various parameters used to assess insect quality in the context of mass-rearing for the SIT. Quality control is most devel...

  4. Sugarcane insect update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect are an important group of pests affecting sugarcane production. Agricultural consultants play an important role is assisting sugarcane farmers to choose the most appropriated means of managing damaging infestations of insects in their crop. In this presentation, information will be presented ...

  5. Insects: Bugged Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  6. Principal Areas of Insect Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carroll M.

    1973-01-01

    Research for insect control has been quite complex. However, recent knowledge of using insect hormones against them has opened new vistas for producing insecticides which may be harmless to human population. Current areas of insect research are outlined. (PS)

  7. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  8. 46 CFR 32.40-55 - Insect screens-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insect screens-T/ALL. 32.40-55 Section 32.40-55 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-55 Insect screens—T/ALL. Provisions shall be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  9. 46 CFR 32.40-55 - Insect screens-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insect screens-T/ALL. 32.40-55 Section 32.40-55 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-55 Insect screens—T/ALL. Provisions shall be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  10. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  12. 46 CFR 32.40-55 - Insect screens-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insect screens-T/ALL. 32.40-55 Section 32.40-55 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-55 Insect screens—T/ALL. Provisions shall be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  13. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  14. 46 CFR 32.40-55 - Insect screens-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insect screens-T/ALL. 32.40-55 Section 32.40-55 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-55 Insect screens—T/ALL. Provisions shall be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  15. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  16. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  17. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  18. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  19. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  20. Feeding the insect industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  1. Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and ... have severe allergic reactions to insect bites and stings (such as anaphylaxis), carry an emergency epinephrine kit

  2. Insects and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, S.A. )

    1991-09-01

    In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

  3. Insect hemolymph clotting.

    PubMed

    Dushay, Mitchell S

    2009-08-01

    The clot's appearance in different large-bodied insects has been described, but until recently, little was known about any insect clot's molecular makeup, and few experiments could directly test its function. Techniques have been developed in Drosophila (fruit fly) larvae to identify clotting factors that can then be tested for effects on hemostasis, healing, and immunity. This has revealed unanticipated complexity in the hemostatic mechanisms in these larvae. While the clot's molecular structure is not yet fully understood, progress is being made, and the loss of clotting factors has been shown to cause subtle immune defects. The few similarities between coagulation in different insect species and life stages, and the current state of knowledge about coagulation in insects are discussed. PMID:19418022

  4. Evolution of the Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  5. Exploring Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    A fly is buzzing around in the kitchen. You sneak up on it with a flyswatter, but just as you get close to it, it flies away. What makes flies and other insects so good at escaping from danger? The fact that insects have eyesight that can easily detect moving objects is one of the things that help them survive. In this month's Science Shorts,…

  6. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  7. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  8. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  9. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  10. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  11. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations.

  12. Transformation systems in insects.

    PubMed

    O'Brochta, David A; Atkinson, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technology that provides unique opportunities to find, isolate, and analyze genes, as well as to create organisms with unique functional characteristics. Insect biologists have been developing genetic transformation technologies that rely extensively on transposable elements. A number of class II transposable elements isolated originally from insects have been converted into broad host range insect gene vectors. Class II transposable elements are particularly amenable to gene vector development, although they suffer from some limitations such as low rates of recombination. Use of these gene vectors requires the physical introduction of the vectors into developing insect embryos by microinjection. Microinjection methods vary to accommodate the unique physical and developmental characteristics of the target insects. All methods rely on the use of fine glass needles in conjunction with micromanipulators and a microscope. A serious constraint on the use of existing systems can be the inefficiency of successfully delivering the gene vectors to the germ cells of the developing embryo. The general method for vector delivery to insect germ cells is described, as well as variations that are useful under some conditions.

  13. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations. PMID:6559112

  14. Photoreceptor twist: a solution to the false-color problem.

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, R; Bernard, G D

    1993-01-01

    In bees and many other insects the majority of photoreceptors are twisted like a corkscrew. Here we show that this structural feature of insect eyes-whose very existence was a source of dispute for several years-is necessary for reliable encoding of information about color. Light reflected from waxy plant surfaces is partially linearly polarized. Moreover, insect photoreceptor membranes are dichroic and thus sensitive to the polarized glare originating from plant surfaces. Taken together, these two phenomena create a serious false-color problem: in the bee's trichromatic color vision system, the color values of a particular part of a plant could be affected not only by the spectral but also by the polarization properties of the reflecting surface. As demonstrated by spectroscopic measurements and optical analyses, the hue of color of a given surface of a plant would change dramatically with the direction of illumination and the bee's line of sight, if the bee possessed straight and thus highly "polarization-sensitive" photoreceptors. However, this false-color problem is overcome completely in photoreceptors that are twisted by exactly the amount we have found to occur in the worker-bee's eye. PMID:11607379

  15. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  16. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  17. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  19. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  20. Insect bite reactions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK) disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr) as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some serious adverse effects

  1. Enterococci in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jonathan D.; Mundt, J. Orvin

    1972-01-01

    Enterococci were obtained from 213 of 403 insects cultured during a 14-month period, in numbers from 103 to 3 × 107/g of insect. Insects were taken only from nonurban, wild, and cultivated fields and woods. In species of insects carrying them, enterococci were not always present in every individual cultured, and often more than one species of enterococcus occurred within a species. Enterococci were obtained from certain insects taken in the field during the dormant season, suggesting their role as overwintering agents. They were generally present in species feeding on nectar, succulent plant parts, and on and ir forest litter, but not from insects feeding on less succulent leaves and stems. Streptococcus faecalis was recovered from 32%, Streptococcus faecium from 22.4%, and Streptococcus faecium var. casseliflavus from 43.5% of members of the 37 taxa of insects. S. faecalis and S. faecium var. casseliflavus exhibit a high percent of conformity to the properties published for them. The heterogeneity in properties of S. faecium is similar to that found for the species taken from plants. Many fail to grow in broth at 45 C or in broth containing 6.5% NaCl; 50% of the cultures ferment both melezitose and melibiose, and a few ferment neither sugar. The remainder ferment melibiose only. Failure to reduce methylene blue in milk by S. faecalis and S. faecium is correlated with the inability to ferment lactose. More than 93% of the cultures of S. faecalis digest casein in milk from the top downward, following the production of a soft, flowing curd. Because this property is not characteristic of S. faecalis taken from humans, the reaction in litmus milk is suggested as a means of differentiation between cultures of remote and innocent origin in nature and recent, human pollution. PMID:4628796

  2. Insect bite reactions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK) disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr) as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some serious adverse effects

  3. Migration strategies of insects.

    PubMed

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  4. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  5. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  6. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    PubMed Central

    de Roode, Jacobus C.; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied. PMID:26466629

  7. Cognition in insects

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    A traditional view of cognition is that it involves an internal process that represents, tracks or predicts an external process. This is not a general characteristic of all complex neural processing or feedback control, but rather implies specific forms of processing giving rise to specific behavioural capabilities. In this paper, I will review the evidence for such capabilities in insect navigation and learning. Do insects know where they are, or do they only know what to do? Do they learn what stimuli mean, or do they only learn how to behave? PMID:22927570

  8. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Article Body Mosquitoes , ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is having ...

  9. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  10. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  11. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  12. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  13. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While most ... by several stinging insects, run to get away. (Bees release a chemical when they sting, which attracts ...

  14. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  15. Investigation--Insects!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  16. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  17. Insect mass production technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects provide a very promising alternative for the future production of animal protein. Their nutritional value in conjunction with their food conversion efficiency and low water requirements, make them a more sustainable choice for the production of food and animal origin. However, to realize the...

  18. Olfactory signaling in insects.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The detection of volatile chemical information in insects is performed by three types of olfactory receptors, odorant receptors (ORs), specific gustatory receptor (GR) proteins for carbon dioxide perception, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) which are related to ionotropic glutamate receptors. All receptors form heteromeric assemblies; an OR complex is composed of an odor-specific OrX protein and a coreceptor (Orco). ORs and GRs have a 7-transmembrane topology as for G protein-coupled receptors, but they are inversely inserted into the membrane. Ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) and ORs operate as IRs activated by volatile chemical cues. ORs are evolutionarily young receptors, and they first appear in winged insects and seem to be evolved to allow an insect to follow sparse odor tracks during flight. In contrast to IRs, the ORs can be sensitized by repeated subthreshold odor stimulation. This process involves metabotropic signaling. Pheromone receptors are especially sensitive and require an accessory protein to detect the lipid-derived pheromone molecules. Signaling cascades involved in pheromone detection depend on intensity and duration of stimuli and underlie a circadian control. Taken together, detection and processing of volatile information in insects involve ionotropic as well as metabotropic mechanisms. Here, I review the cellular signaling events associated with detection of cognate ligands by the different types of odorant receptors.

  19. Corn insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  20. Insects. Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Kathee

    This book is a captivating whole-language thematic unit about the study of insects, relating it to our understanding of the past and our hopes for using our knowledge in the present to balance the ecosystem in the future. It contains a wide variety of lesson ideas and reproducible pages designed for use with intermediate students. At its core,…

  1. Colour constancy in insects.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  2. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  3. Fluorescence in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

  4. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  5. Insect endosymbionts: manipulators of insect herbivore trophic interactions?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emily L; Karley, Alison J; Hubbard, Stephen F

    2010-08-01

    Throughout their evolutionary history, insects have formed multiple relationships with bacteria. Although many of these bacteria are pathogenic, with deleterious effects on the fitness of infected insects, there are also numerous examples of symbiotic bacteria that are harmless or even beneficial to their insect host. Symbiotic bacteria that form obligate or facultative associations with insects and that are located intracellularly in the host insect are known as endosymbionts. Endosymbiosis can be a strong driving force for evolution when the acquisition and maintenance of a microorganism by the insect host results in the formation of novel structures or changes in physiology and metabolism. The complex evolutionary dynamics of vertically transmitted symbiotic bacteria have led to distinctive symbiont genome characteristics that have profound effects on the phenotype of the host insect. Symbiotic bacteria are key players in insect-plant interactions influencing many aspects of insect ecology and playing a key role in shaping the diversification of many insect groups. In this review, we discuss the role of endosymbionts in manipulating insect herbivore trophic interactions focussing on their impact on plant utilisation patterns and parasitoid biology.

  6. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  7. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  8. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  9. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  10. Meniscus-climbing insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Kreider, Tim; Bush, John W. M.; Mit Department Of Mathematics Team

    2003-11-01

    Many millimetric water-walking insects are unable to climb the meniscii that border land and emerging vegetation using their traditional means of propulsion. We explore the novel means by which some insects succeed in so doing through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation. The grub Collembola ascends by distorting the free surface in order to generate a net horizontal surface tension force. The water treader Mesovelia climbs the meniscus by exploiting the Coulomb-like attraction between like-signed menisci: by lifting the free surface with its front and rear pairs of feet, it generates a tangential force that draws it up the slope. We examine the required force and torque balances on the body in order to calculate optimal leg configurations for meniscus climbers that are consistent with those observed.

  11. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  12. Insect maintenance and transmission.

    PubMed

    Kingdom, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogens of huge economic importance due to responsibility for crop yield losses worldwide. Institutions around the world are trying to understand and control this yield loss at a time when food security is high on government agendas. In order to fully understand the mechanisms of phytoplasma infection and spread, more insect vector and phytoplasma colonies will need to be established for research worldwide. Rearing and study of these colonies is essential in the research and development of phytoplasma control measures. This chapter highlights general materials and methods for raising insect vector colonies and maintenance of phytoplasmas. Specific methods of rearing the maize leafhopper and maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and the aster leafhopper and aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom are also included. PMID:22987405

  13. Fatigue of insect cuticle.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Parle, Eoin; Taylor, David

    2013-05-15

    Many parts of the insect exoskeleton experience repeated cyclic loading. Although the cuticle of insects and other arthropods is the second most common natural composite material in the world, so far nothing is known about its fatigue properties, despite the fact that fatigue undoubtedly limits the durability of body parts in vivo. For the first time, we here present experimental fatigue data of insect cuticle. Using force-controlled cyclic loading, we determined the number of cycles to failure for hind legs (tibiae) and hind wings of the locust Schistocerca gregaria, as a function of the applied cyclic stress. Our results show that, although both are made from cuticle, these two body parts behave very differently. Wing samples showed a large fatigue range, failing after 100,000 cycles when we applied 46% of the stress needed for instantaneous failure [the ultimate tensile strength (UTS)]. Legs, in contrast, were able to sustain a stress of 76% of the UTS for the same number of cycles to failure. This can be explained by the difference in the composition and structure of the material, two factors that, amongst others, also affect the well-known behaviour of engineering composites. Final failure of the tibiae occurred via one of two different failure modes--propagation in tension or buckling in compression--indicating that the tibia is 'optimized' by evolution to resist both failure modes equally. These results are further discussed in relation to the evolution and normal use of these two body parts.

  14. Edible insects are the future?

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  15. Edible insects are the future?

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy. PMID:26908196

  16. Anaphylaxis to insect stings.

    PubMed

    Golden, David B K

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis to insect stings has occurred in 3% of adults and can be fatal even on the first reaction. Large local reactions are more frequent but rarely dangerous. The chance of a systemic reaction to a sting is 5% to 10% in large local reactors and in children with mild (cutaneous) systemic reactions, and varies between 30% and 65% in adults with previous systemic reactions, depending on the severity of previous sting reactions. Baseline serum tryptase level is increased in many patients with sting anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy is 75% to 98% effective in preventing sting anaphylaxis.

  17. 46 CFR 32.40-55 - Insect screens-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens-T/ALL. 32.40-55 Section 32.40-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-55 Insect screens—T/ALL. Provisions shall be made...

  18. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat...

  19. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  20. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  1. 1977 Kansas Field Crop Insect Control Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Leroy; Gates, Dell E.

    This publication is prepared to aid producers in selecting methods of insect population management that have proved effective under Kansas conditions. Topics covered include insect control on alfalfa, soil insects attacking corn, insects attacking above-ground parts of corn, and sorghum, wheat, and soybean insect control. The insecticides…

  2. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  3. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. PMID:25802407

  4. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects

    PubMed Central

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B. Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C.; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E.; Kerstetter, Randy A.; McNulty, Brian C.; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. PMID:25802407

  5. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism.

  6. Eicosanoids mediate insect hemocyte migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemocyte chemotaxis toward infection and wound sites is an essential component of insect defense reactions, although the biochemical signal mechanisms responsible for mediating chemotaxis in insect cells are not well understood. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test the hyp...

  7. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  8. Chapter 21: Microsporidia in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The science of microsporidiology encompasses a diverse assemblage of pathogens from a large and varied group of hosts. Microsporidia, pathogenic protists related to the Fungi, are considered to be primary pathogens of many aquatic and terrestrial insect species and have important roles in insect po...

  9. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  10. Mosquitoes feeding on insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Harris, P; Riordan, D F; Cooke, D

    1969-04-11

    Caged Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis are attracted to insect larvae, engorge on their body fluids, and produce viable eggs. Attractiveness of the larvae is related to their size, shape, and color but not to their movement. The possibility that wild mosquitoes substitute insect hemolymph for vertebrate blood is discussed. PMID:5774191

  11. Reader Survey for INSECT ALERTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mason E.; Sauer, Richard J.

    To determine what might be done to improve "Insect Alerts," which is a newsletter that carries "information on insect biology, abundance, activity and interpretation of control need," put out through the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service 26 weeks a year, a survey was conducted. A mail questionnaire was sent to all 120 county extension…

  12. Population fluctuation in phytophagous insects

    SciTech Connect

    Redfearn, A.; Pimm, S.L. )

    1994-06-01

    We examined how community interactions affect year-to-year population variability in three groups of phytophagous insects: British aphids and moths, and Canadian moths. We first examined how the number of host plant species on which a given phytophagous insect species feeds affects its population variability. Specialist insect species showed a weak tendency to be more variable than generalist species. We then examined how the number of species of parasitoids from which a given phytophagous insects species suffers affects its population variability. Species that are host to few parasitoid species showed a weak tendency to be more variable than species with many parsitoid species. These relationships also depend on other aspects of the life histories of the phytophagous insect species.

  13. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution.

  14. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2003-12-01

    The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well

  15. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  16. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  17. 43 CFR 3000.2 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT: GENERAL General § 3000.2 False statements. Under the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1001, it is a crime punishable by 5 years imprisonment or a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False statements. 3000.2 Section...

  18. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  19. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  20. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  1. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  2. An association account of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A

    2012-05-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding.

  3. Peripheral olfactory signaling in insects

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Bohbot, Jonathan; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory signaling is a crucial component in the life history of insects. The development of precise and parallel mechanisms to analyze the tremendous amount of chemical information from the environment and other sources has been essential to their evolutionary success. Considerable progress has been made in the study of insect olfaction fueled by bioinformatics- based utilization of genomics along with rapid advances in functional analyses. Here we review recent progress in our rapidly emerging understanding of insect peripheral sensory reception and signal transduction. These studies reveal that the nearly unlimited chemical space insects encounter is covered by distinct chemosensory receptor repertoires that are generally derived by species-specific, rapid gene gain and loss, reflecting the evolutionary consequences of adaptation to meet their specific biological needs. While diverse molecular mechanisms have been put forth, often in the context of controversial models, the characterization of the ubiquitous, highly conserved and insect-specific Orco odorant receptor co-receptor has opened the door to the design and development of novel insect control methods to target agricultural pests, disease vectors and even nuisance insects. PMID:25584200

  4. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  5. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  6. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  7. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  8. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  9. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.

    PubMed

    Leo, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial. PMID:19767498

  10. Regeneration in insects.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J L; Theisen, H

    1999-08-01

    @9cIntroduction@21T issues exhibit an impressive ability to respond to a myriad of insults by repairing and regenerating complex structures. The elegant and orderly process of regeneration provides clues to the mechanisms of pattern formation but also offers the hope that the process might one day be manipulated to replace damaged body parts. To manipulate the process, it will be necessary to understand the genetic basis of the process. In the case of the insect leg, we are coming close to such a level of understanding and many of the lessons learned are relevant to vertebrate systems. A dynamic web of gene regulatory networks appears to create a robust self-organizing system that is at once extremely intricate but also perhaps simple in its reliance on a few key signaling pathways and a few simple processes, e.g. autoactivation and lateral inhibition. Here we will summarize what has been learned about the networks of gene regulation present in the Drosophila leg discs and then we will explore how the regenerative responses to different insults can be understood as predictable responses to these networks. Each of the regulatory networks could themselves serve as the subject of a detailed review and that is beyond the scope of this discussion. Here we will focus on the interplay between the regulatory networks in patterning the tissue.

  11. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime. PMID:25589599

  12. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  13. Insect symbionts in food webs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  14. Insect symbionts in food webs.

    PubMed

    McLean, Ailsa H C; Parker, Benjamin J; Hrček, Jan; Henry, Lee M; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'.

  15. Freshwater Biodiversity and Insect Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.; Monaghan, Michael T.; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than one percent of Earth’s surface, but harbor more than six percent of all insect species: nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are exceptionally susceptible to environmental change, and exhibit marked ecological gradients. The amphibiotic lifestyles of aquatic insects result in complex contributions of extinction and allopatric and non-allopatric speciation in species diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bio-indicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification. PMID:24160433

  16. Insect symbionts in food webs.

    PubMed

    McLean, Ailsa H C; Parker, Benjamin J; Hrček, Jan; Henry, Lee M; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481779

  17. Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, and Neosteinernema) are used as bioinsecticides. The nematodes are ubiquitous and have been isolated in soil of every continent except Antarctica. The nematodes kill insects through a mutualism with a bacterium (Photorhabdus spp. or ...

  18. Learning and cognition in insects.

    PubMed

    Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Insects possess small brains but exhibit sophisticated behavioral performances. Recent works have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species, which go beyond the traditional studied framework of simple associative learning. In this study, I focus on capabilities such as attention, social learning, individual recognition, concept learning, and metacognition, and discuss their presence and mechanistic bases in insects. I analyze whether these behaviors can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning or, on the contrary, require higher-order explanations. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering l architectures underlying cognitive processing.

  19. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  20. Flight of the smallest insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Hedrick, Tyson; Robinson, Alice

    2009-11-01

    A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Over this range of scales, flight aerodynamics as well as the relative lift and drag forces generated are surprisingly similar. The smallest flying insects (Re˜10) have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, we have used a three-pronged approach that consists of measurements of flight kinematics in the tiny insect Thysanoptera (thrips), measurements of flow velocities using physical models, and direct numerical simulations to compute lift and drag forces. We find that drag forces can be an order of magnitude larger than lift forces, particularly during the clap and fling motion used by all tiny insects recorded to date.

  1. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  2. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  3. Spatial memory in insect navigation.

    PubMed

    Collett, Matthew; Chittka, Lars; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    A wide variety of insects use spatial memories in behaviours like holding a position in air or flowing water, in returning to a place of safety, and in foraging. The Hymenoptera, in particular, have evolved life-histories requiring reliable spatial memories to support the task of provisioning their young. Behavioural experiments, primarily on social bees and ants, reveal the mechanisms by which these memories are employed for guidance to spatial goals and suggest how the memories, and the processing streams that use them, may be organized. We discuss three types of memory-based guidance which, together, can explain a large part of observed insect spatial behaviour. Two of these, alignment image-matching and positional image-matching, are based on an insect's remembered views of its surroundings: The first uses views to keep to a familiar heading and the second to head towards a familiar place. The third type of guidance is based on a process of path integration by which an insect monitors its distance and direction from its nest through odometric and compass information. To a large degree, these guidance mechanisms appear to involve modular computational systems. We discuss the lack of evidence for cognitive maps in insects, and in particular the evidence against a map based on path integration, in which view-based and path integration memories might be combined. We suggest instead that insects have a collective of separate guidance systems, which cooperate and train each other, and together provide reliable guidance over a range of conditions.

  4. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  5. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  6. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  7. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  8. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  9. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General §...

  10. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  11. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  12. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  13. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  14. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  15. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  16. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  17. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  18. Controlling false discoveries in genetic studies.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2008-07-01

    A false discovery occurs when a researcher concludes that a marker is involved in the etiology of the disease whereas in reality it is not. In genetic studies the risk of false discoveries is very high because only few among the many markers that can be tested will have an effect on the disease. In this article, we argue that it may be best to use methods for controlling false discoveries that would introduce the same ratio of false discoveries divided by all rejected tests into the literature regardless of systematic differences between studies. After a brief discussion of traditional "multiple testing" methods, we show that methods that control the false discovery rate (FDR) may be more suitable to achieve this goal. These FDR methods are therefore discussed in more detail. Instead of merely testing for main effects, it may be important to search for gene-environment/covariate interactions, gene-gene interactions or genetic variants affecting disease subtypes. In the second section, we point out the challenges involved in controlling false discoveries in such searches. The final section discusses the role of replication studies for eliminating false discoveries and the complexities associated with the definition of what constitutes a replication and the design of these studies.

  19. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  20. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  1. Molecular characteristics of insect vitellogenins.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2008-12-01

    Vitellogenins (Vgs) are precursors of the major egg storage protein, vitellin (Vn), in many oviparous animals. Insects Vgs are large molecules ( approximately 200-kD) synthesized in the fat body in a process that involves substantial structural modifications (e.g., glycosylation, lipidation, phosphorylation, and proteolytic cleavage, etc.) of the nascent protein prior to its secretion and transport to the ovaries. However, the extent to which Vgs are processed in the fat body varies greatly among different insect groups. We provide evidence by cloning and peptide mapping of four Vg molecules from two cockroach species (Periplaneta americana and Leucophaea maderae) that, in hemimetabolous insects, the pro-Vg is cleaved into several polypeptides (ranging from 50-to 180-kD), unlike the holometabolans where the Vg precursor is cleaved into two polypeptides (one large and one small). An exception is the Vg of Apocrita (higher Hymenoptera) where the Vg gene product remains uncleaved. The yolk proteins (YPs) of higher Diptera (such as Drosophila) form a different family of proteins and are also not cleaved. So far, Vgs have been sequenced from 25 insect species; 9 of them belong to Hemimetabola and 16 to Holometabola. Alignment of the coding sequences revealed that some features, like the GL/ICG motif, cysteine residues, and a DGXR motif upstream of the GLI/CG motif, were highly conserved near the carboxy terminal of all insect Vgs. Moreover, a consensus RXXR cleavage sequence motif exists at the N-terminus of all sequences outside the Apocrita except for Lymantria dispar where it exists at the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis using 31 Vg sequences from 25 insect species reflects, in general, the current phylogenies of insects, suggesting that Vgs are still phylogenetically bound, although a divergence exists among them.

  2. The False Claims Act and clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R L

    1993-01-01

    In its efforts to fight fraud, the government has turned increasingly to the civil False Claims Act. The Act imposes triple damages plus monetary penalties against those who defraud the federal government. The Act also encourages whistleblowers to report fraud by offering the prospect of large bounties. This article describes the False Claims Act, its qui tam provision dealing with whistleblowers, and the application of the Act to clinical laboratories.

  3. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  4. False Discovery Rate Estimation in Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Yadav, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement in proteomics separation techniques and improvements in mass analyzers, the data generated in a mass-spectrometry based proteomics experiment is rising exponentially. Such voluminous datasets necessitate automated computational tools for high-throughput data analysis and appropriate statistical control. The data is searched using one or more of the several popular database search algorithms. The matches assigned by these tools can have false positives and statistical validation of these false matches is necessary before making any biological interpretations. Without such procedures, the biological inferences do not hold true and may be outright misleading. There is a considerable overlap between true and false positives. To control the false positives amongst a set of accepted matches, there is a need for some statistical estimate that can reflect the amount of false positives present in the data processed. False discovery rate (FDR) is the metric for global confidence assessment of a large-scale proteomics dataset. This chapter covers the basics of FDR, its application in proteomics, and methods to estimate FDR.

  5. Drosophila's view on insect vision.

    PubMed

    Borst, Alexander

    2009-01-13

    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  6. Insects as unidentified flying objects.

    PubMed

    Callahan, P S; Mankin, R W

    1978-11-01

    Five species of insects were subjected to a large electric field. Each of the insects stimulated in this manner emitted visible glows of various colors and blacklight (uv). It is postulated that the Uintah Basin, Utah, nocturnal UFO display (1965-1968) was partially due to mass swarms of spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), stimulated to emit this type of St. Elmo's fire by flying into high electric fields caused by thunderheads and high density particulate matter in the air. There was excellent time and spatial correlation between the 1965-1968 UFO nocturnal sightings and spruce budworm infestation. It is suggested that a correlation of nocturnal UFO sightings throughout the U.S. and Canada with spruce budworm infestations might give some insight into nocturnal insect flight patterns.

  7. Neurosecretion: peptidergic systems in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predel, R.; Eckert, Manfred

    Insect neuropeptides are produced in less than 1% of the cells of the central nervous system. Despite this, they are important messenger molecules which influence nearly all physiological processes, including behaviour. They can act as transmitters, modulators and classical hormones, and often exhibit pleiotropic functions when released into the haemolymph. The large number of neuropeptides that has been identified from some of the model organisms among insects underlines the complexity of the neurosecretory system; studies about the coordinated actions of these substances are in their preliminary stages. Recent advances in insect neuropeptide research will be reviewed here, concentrating on the distribution of multiple peptide forms in the central nervous system and adjacent neurohaemal organs, and the role of neuropeptides in eclosion behaviour.

  8. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  9. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  10. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

  11. Unsteady aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Ellington, C P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, the importance of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms for flapping insect flight has become widely recognised. Even at the fastest flight speeds, the old quasi-steady aerodynamic interpretation seems inadequate to explain the extra lift produced by the wings. Recent experiments on rigid model wings have confirmed the effectiveness of several postulated high-lift mechanisms. Delayed stall can produce extra lift for several chords of travel during the translational phases of the wingbeat. Lift can also be enhanced by circulation created during pronation and supination by rotational mechanisms: the fling/peel, the near fling/peel and isolated rotation. These studies have revealed large leading-edge vortices which contribute to the circulation around the wing, augmenting the lift. The mechanisms show distinctive patterns of vortex shedding from leading and trailing edges. The results of flow visualization experiments on tethered insects are reviewed in an attempt to identify the high-lift mechanisms actually employed. The fling/peel mechanism is clearly used by some insects. The near fling/peel is the wing motion most commonly observed, but evidence for the production of high lift remains indirect. For many insects, lift on the upstroke probably results from delayed stall instead of the flex mechanism of isolated rotation. The large leading-edge vortices from experiments on rigid model wings are greatly reduced or missing around the real insect wings, often making the identification of aerodynamic mechanisms inconclusive. A substantial spanwise flow component has been detected over the aerodynamic upper wing surface, which should transport leading-edge vorticity towards the wingtip before it has much time to roll up. This spanwise transport, arising from centrifugal acceleration, is probably a general phenomenon for flapping insect flight. It should reduce and stabilise any leading-edge vortices that are present, which is essential for preventing

  12. The evolution of insect societies.

    PubMed

    Page, R E

    1997-01-01

    The organization and evolution of insect societies has amazed natural historians since Aristotle. Charles Darwin considered social insects to be a major difficulty for his theory of evolution by natural selection because they demonstrate a rich diversity of adaptation among sterile workers leading to a complex division of labour, something that should not occur if variation in individual reproductive success is the grist for the mill of natural selection. This article shows how division of labour can self-organize from groups of cohabiting individuals without the necessity of a past history of natural selection for co-operative behaviour. It then explores how more complex social systems may evolve.

  13. Insect growth regulators and insect control: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, J B

    1976-01-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) of the juvenile hormone type alter physiological processes essential to insect development and appear to act specifically on insects. Three natural juvenile hormones have been found in insects but not in other organisms. Future use of antagonists or inhibitors of hormone synthesis may be technically possible as an advantageous extension of pest control by IGRs. A documented survey of the properties, metabolism, toxicology, and uses of the most commercially advanced chemical, methoprene, shows it to be environmentally acceptable and toxicologically innocuous. Derivation of its current use patterns is discussed and limitations on these are noted. Residue levels and their measurement in the ppb region have allowed exemption from the requirement of tolerances in the EPA registered use of methoprene for mosquito control. Tolerances for foods accompany its fully approved use for control of manure breeding flies through a cattle feed supplement. The human health effects of using this chemical appear to be purely beneficial, but further advances through new IGR chemicals appear unlikely without major changes in regulatory and legislative policy. PMID:976222

  14. False lock performance of quadriphase receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Quadriphase receivers, like biphase receivers, have the ability to false lock on a sideband on the data modulation. The theory associated with this phenomenon for receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), using Costas loop demodulation, has recently been documented in the literature. This paper considers the corresponding theory for receivers of balanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) employing a quadriphase Costas loop (or equivalent fourth-power loop) for demodulation. Specific closed form expressions for false lock performance are developed and numerically evaluated for the particular case of single pole arm filters and an NRZ data format for each of the two statistically independent quadrature modulations.

  15. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Behie, Scott W.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  16. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  17. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-07-31

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  18. Interrogation and false confessions: vulnerability factors.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    This paper reviews the psychological factors that make some individuals susceptible to making a false confession of having committed a criminal offence. A number of 'vulnerability factors' are highlighted and it is emphasized that these need to be interpreted within the context of all circumstances surrounding the case. PMID:1591561

  19. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  20. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Response to Reports... false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing... crossing by taking the following actions: (a) Prior to a train's arrival at the crossing, notify the...

  1. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Response to Reports... false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing... crossing by taking the following actions: (a) Prior to a train's arrival at the crossing, notify the...

  2. 30 CFR 581.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER... provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1001, it is a crime punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment or a fine of $10,000, or... States any false or fraudulent statement(s) to any matters within the Agency's jurisdiction....

  3. What Makes Language Learners False Beginners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Tomoko

    A study in Japan investigated second language skill loss and maintenance in three groups of English-as-a-Second-Language learners: (1) ninth graders studying basic vocabulary and sentence structures (true beginners); (2) students in the lowest level English class at a technical college, but with some English language skills (false beginners); and…

  4. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  5. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  6. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  7. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  8. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  9. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  10. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Protect My Family From Ticks? Are Insect Repellents With DEET Safe for Kids? Bug Bites and Stings Can I Use Bug Killers and Repellents During Pregnancy? Insect Sting Allergy How Do I Watch for Lyme ...

  11. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  12. Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Roger F.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

  13. Palaeontology: Chinese amber insects bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-07-21

    n the study of fossil insects, Chinese amber from Fushun has been largely overlooked. A new study now reveals a highly diverse biota and provides a wealth of new information on the past Asian insect fauna.

  14. Insects--How To Study Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an approach to the study of entomology directed at people with no special knowledge of insects. The aim of this approach is to reveal some biological principles by studying insects from an ecological point of view. (GS)

  15. False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people's thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in "false belief" and "false photograph" (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true ("reality" questions) or false beliefs ("representation" questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants' working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and "false photo" control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

  16. The Seat of Insect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Fred C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the role of mushroom bodies--cup-shaped structures perched atop the brain of an insect--in learning. Mushroom bodies may help fruit flies in learning meaningful odors, cockroaches in spatial learning, and honeybees both in locating pollen and nectar and in navigating back to the colony. (PVD)

  17. Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

    The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

  18. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  19. Plant defense against insect herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage to maize crops by insect herbivores such as beet and fall army worm causes significant impact in the Southern United States in terms of both yield loss and insecticide use. Enhanced understanding of how maize can defend itself against such attacks at a molecular level will enable development ...

  20. The insect SNMP gene family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SNMPs are membrane proteins that have been shown to associate with chemosensory neurons in insects; in Drosophila melanogaster, SNMP1 has been shown to be essential for the detection of the pheromone cis vaccenyl acetate (Benton et al., 2001; Jin et al., 2008). To extend these observations to other ...

  1. Nontoxic Antifreeze for Insect Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Propylene glycol in water is a safe and effective alternative to ethylene glycol as a capture liquid in insect traps (pitfalls, flight intercepts, pan traps). Propylene glycol formulations are readily available because it is the primary (95%) ingredient in certain automotive antifreeze formulations...

  2. Evolution of insect olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Christine; Dweck, Hany KM; Vogel, Heiko; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory sense detects a plethora of behaviorally relevant odor molecules; gene families involved in olfaction exhibit high diversity in different animal phyla. Insects detect volatile molecules using olfactory (OR) or ionotropic receptors (IR) and in some cases gustatory receptors (GRs). While IRs are expressed in olfactory organs across Protostomia, ORs have been hypothesized to be an adaptation to a terrestrial insect lifestyle. We investigated the olfactory system of the primary wingless bristletail Lepismachilis y-signata (Archaeognatha), the firebrat Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma) and the neopteran leaf insect Phyllium siccifolium (Phasmatodea). ORs and the olfactory coreceptor (Orco) are with very high probability lacking in Lepismachilis; in Thermobia we have identified three Orco candidates, and in Phyllium a fully developed OR/Orco-based system. We suggest that ORs did not arise as an adaptation to a terrestrial lifestyle, but evolved later in insect evolution, with Orco being present before the appearance of ORs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02115.001 PMID:24670956

  3. Transposable elements for insect transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germ-line of more than 35 species from five orders of insects have been genetically transformed, using vectors derived from Class II transposable elements. Initially the P and hobo vector systems developed for D. melanogaster were not applicable to other species, but four transposons found in ot...

  4. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  5. Making Connections with Insect Royalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbie, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Describes a one-month sixth grade class activity with monarch butterflies called Monarch in the Classroom. Students learn about insects, especially the class material butterflies, including their life cycle, eating habits, migration, and how they overwinter. The lesson plan covers sorting animals, focusing on features, analyzing the community for…

  6. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    PubMed

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  7. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2016-02-01

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  8. Antibacterial peptides isolated from insects.

    PubMed

    Otvos, L

    2000-10-01

    Insects are amazingly resistant to bacterial infections. To combat pathogens, insects rely on cellular and humoral mechanisms, innate immunity being dominant in the latter category. Upon detection of bacteria, a complex genetic cascade is activated, which ultimately results in the synthesis of a battery of antibacterial peptides and their release into the haemolymph. The peptides are usually basic in character and are composed of 20-40 amino acid residues, although some smaller proteins are also included in the antimicrobial repertoire. While the proline-rich peptides and the glycine-rich peptides are predominantly active against Gram-negative strains, the defensins selectively kill Gram-positive bacteria and the cecropins are active against both types. The insect antibacterial peptides are very potent: their IC50 (50% of the bacterial growth inhibition) hovers in the submicromolar or low micromolar range. The majority of the peptides act through disintegrating the bacterial membrane or interfering with membrane assembly, with the exception of drosocin, apidaecin and pyrrhocoricin which appear to deactivate a bacterial protein in a stereospecific manner. In accordance with their biological function, the membrane-active peptides form ordered structures, e.g. alpha-helices or beta-pleated sheets and often cast permeable ion-pores. Their cytotoxic properties were exploited in in vivo studies targeting tumour progression. Although the native peptides degrade quickly in biological fluids other than insect haemolymph, structural modifications render the peptides resistant against proteases without sacrificing biological activity. Indeed, a pyrrhocoricin analogue shows lack of toxicity in vitro and in vivo and protects mice against experimental Escherichia coli infection. Careful selection of lead molecules based on the insect antibacterial peptides may extend their utility and produce viable alternatives to the conventional antimicrobial compounds for mammalian therapy.

  9. Using new technology and insect behavior in novel terrestrial and flying insect traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect traps are commonly used for both population sampling and insect control, the former as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. We developed traps for two insects, one as part of a pesticide based IPM system and the other for population control. Our IPM trap is for crawling insect...

  10. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  11. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  12. Applications of acoustics in insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

  13. Insect biomass to enhance food production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have established that insects are as good source of protein as conventional animal food (between 15 and 67% dry weight content). Insects are a good source of essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Insect fat has a higher content of polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids and a lowe...

  14. Insect-machine interface based neurocybernetics.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Alper; Gilmour, Robert F; Sinha, Ayesa; Stern, David; Lal, Amit

    2009-06-01

    We present details of a novel bioelectric interface formed by placing microfabricated probes into insect during metamorphic growth cycles. The inserted microprobes emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during the pupal development allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable structures coupled to the insect. Remarkably, the insects do not react adversely or otherwise to the inserted electronics in the pupae stage, as is true when the electrodes are inserted in adult stages. We report on the electrical and mechanical characteristics of this novel bioelectronic interface, which we believe would be adopted by many investigators trying to investigate biological behavior in insects with negligible or minimal traumatic effect encountered when probes are inserted in adult stages. This novel insect-machine interface also allows for hybrid insect-machine platforms for further studies. As an application, we demonstrate our first results toward navigation of flight in moths. When instrumented with equipment to gather information for environmental sensing, such insects potentially can assist man to monitor the ecosystems that we share with them for sustainability. The simplicity of the optimized surgical procedure we invented allows for batch insertions to the insect for automatic and mass production of such hybrid insect-machine platforms. Therefore, our bioelectronic interface and hybrid insect-machine platform enables multidisciplinary scientific and engineering studies not only to investigate the details of insect behavioral physiology but also to control it.

  15. 6 CFR 13.4 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investigation. 13.4 Section 13.4 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.4... discretion to refer allegations directly to the Department of Justice for suit under the False Claims Act...

  16. 10 CFR 216.9 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 216.9 Section 216.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MATERIALS ALLOCATION AND PRIORITY PERFORMANCE UNDER CONTRACTS OR ORDERS TO MAXIMIZE DOMESTIC ENERGY SUPPLIES § 216.9 Violations. Any person who willfully furnishes false information or conceals...

  17. 41 CFR 105-55.003 - Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency claims, and claims over $100,000 excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust, fraud, tax... § 105-55.003 Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency claims, and claims over $100,000 excluded. (a) The... involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the part of the debtor or...

  18. 4 CFR 202.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions against misuse of seal. 202.3 Section 202.3 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD OFFICIAL SEAL § 202.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Falsely making, forging, counterfeiting, mutilating, or altering the Board seal...

  19. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  20. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  1. False beats in coupled piano string unisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as ``false beating'' in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how ``mistunings'' between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. ``False beats'' in a single string partial can be ``inherited'' by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance.

  2. [False memory syndrome: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Nemets, Boris; Witztum, Eliezer; Kotler, Moshe

    2002-08-01

    The review describes the heated dispute on the present state of recovered traumatic memories. There are two main schools concerning the status of recovered memories of child abuse. One school believes in their authenticity unconditionally. Those who oppose the authenticity claim False Memory Syndrome's existence. They describe it as "a serious form of psychopathology characterized by strongly believed pseudomemories of childhood sexual abuse" and "condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes". This review presents the allegations of both sides involved in the dispute, with updates of scientific and judicial references and relevant recommendations to care takers.

  3. False beats in coupled piano string unisons.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as "false beating" in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how "mistunings" between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. "False beats" in a single string partial can be "inherited" by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance. PMID:15000199

  4. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  5. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  6. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  7. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area. PMID:20542936

  8. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  9. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  10. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  11. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  12. Insect diversity in the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, C C; Sepkoski, J J

    1993-07-16

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  13. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Insects as alternative hosts for phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nadarasah, Geetanchaly; Stavrinides, John

    2011-05-01

    Phytopathogens have evolved specialized pathogenicity determinants that enable them to colonize their specific plant hosts and cause disease, but their intimate associations with plants also predispose them to frequent encounters with herbivorous insects, providing these phytopathogens with ample opportunity to colonize and eventually evolve alternative associations with insects. Decades of research have revealed that these associations have resulted in the formation of bacterial-vector relationships, in which the insect mediates dissemination of the plant pathogen. Emerging research, however, has highlighted the ability of plant pathogenic bacteria to use insects as alternative hosts, exploiting them as they would their primary plant host. The identification of specific bacterial genetic determinants that mediate the interaction between bacterium and insect suggests that these interactions are not incidental, but have likely arisen following the repeated association of microorganisms with particular insects over evolutionary time. This review will address the biology and ecology of phytopathogenic bacteria that interact with insects, including the traditional role of insects as vectors, as well as the newly emerging paradigm of insects serving as alternative primary hosts. Also discussed is one case where an insect serves as both host and vector, which may represent a transitionary stage in the evolution of insect-phytopathogen associations.

  15. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  16. Insects as alternative hosts for phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nadarasah, Geetanchaly; Stavrinides, John

    2011-05-01

    Phytopathogens have evolved specialized pathogenicity determinants that enable them to colonize their specific plant hosts and cause disease, but their intimate associations with plants also predispose them to frequent encounters with herbivorous insects, providing these phytopathogens with ample opportunity to colonize and eventually evolve alternative associations with insects. Decades of research have revealed that these associations have resulted in the formation of bacterial-vector relationships, in which the insect mediates dissemination of the plant pathogen. Emerging research, however, has highlighted the ability of plant pathogenic bacteria to use insects as alternative hosts, exploiting them as they would their primary plant host. The identification of specific bacterial genetic determinants that mediate the interaction between bacterium and insect suggests that these interactions are not incidental, but have likely arisen following the repeated association of microorganisms with particular insects over evolutionary time. This review will address the biology and ecology of phytopathogenic bacteria that interact with insects, including the traditional role of insects as vectors, as well as the newly emerging paradigm of insects serving as alternative primary hosts. Also discussed is one case where an insect serves as both host and vector, which may represent a transitionary stage in the evolution of insect-phytopathogen associations. PMID:21251027

  17. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  18. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  19. Conflict resolution in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Ratnieks, Francis L W; Foster, Kevin R; Wenseleers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.

  20. Corpse Management in Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-01-01

    Undertaking behavior is an essential adaptation to social life that is critical for colony hygiene in enclosed nests. Social insects dispose of dead individuals in various fashions to prevent further contact between corpses and living members in a colony. Focusing on three groups of eusocial insects (bees, ants, and termites) in two phylogenetically distant orders (Hymenoptera and Isoptera), we review mechanisms of death recognition, convergent and divergent behavioral responses toward dead individuals, and undertaking task allocation from the perspective of division of labor. Distinctly different solutions (e.g., corpse removal, burial and cannibalism) have evolved, independently, in the holometabolous hymenopterans and hemimetabolous isopterans toward the same problem of corpse management. In addition, issues which can lead to a better understanding of the roles that undertaking behavior has played in the evolution of eusociality are discussed. PMID:23569436

  1. Visual homing: an insect perspective.

    PubMed

    Zeil, Jochen

    2012-04-01

    The ability to learn the location of places in the world and to revisit them repeatedly is crucial for all aspects of animal life on earth. It underpins animal foraging, predator avoidance, territoriality, mating, nest construction and parental care. Much theoretical and experimental progress has recently been made in identifying the sensory cues and the computational mechanisms that allow insects (and robots) to find their way back to places, while the neurobiological mechanisms underlying navigational abilities are beginning to be unravelled in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Studying visual homing in insects is interesting, because they allow experimentation and view-reconstruction under natural conditions, because they are likely to have evolved parsimonious, yet robust solutions to the homing problem and because they force us to consider the viewpoint of navigating animals, including their sensory and computational capacities. PMID:22221863

  2. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2000-03-01

    The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.

  3. Benzoquinolinediones: activity as insect teratogens

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.; Ho, C.H.; Ma, C.Y.; O'Neill, E.G.; Kao, G.L.

    1983-10-28

    Morphological abnormalities including extra compound eyes, extra heads, and distally duplicated legs were generated in cricket embryos by treating eggs with single doses of either benz(g)isoquinoline-5,10-dione or benzo(h)quinoline-5,6-dione. Slight structural modifications of the molecules resulted in a loss of teratogenic activity, although embryotoxicity occurred. These potent insect teratogens can be used for analysis of developmental events during embryogenesis. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Visual Navigation in Nocturnal Insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to visually navigate at night. Whereas some use moonlight or the stars as celestial compass cues to maintain a straight-line course, others use visual landmarks to navigate to and from their nest. These impressive abilities rely on highly sensitive compound eyes and specialized visual processing strategies in the brain. PMID:27053732

  5. False belief in infancy: a fresh look.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Can infants appreciate that others have false beliefs? Do they have a theory of mind? In this article I provide a detailed review of more than 20 experiments that have addressed these questions, and offered an affirmative answer, using nonverbal 'violation of expectation' and 'anticipatory looking' procedures. Although many of these experiments are both elegant and ingenious, I argue that their results can be explained by the operation of domain-general processes and in terms of 'low-level novelty'. This hypothesis suggests that the infants' looking behaviour is a function of the degree to which the observed (perceptual novelty) and remembered or expected (imaginal novelty) low-level properties of the test stimuli - their colours, shapes and movements - are novel with respect to events encoded by the infants earlier in the experiment. If the low-level novelty hypothesis is correct, research on false belief in infancy currently falls short of demonstrating that infants have even an implicit theory of mind. However, I suggest that the use of two experimental strategies - inanimate control procedures, and self-informed belief induction - could be used in combination with existing methods to bring us much closer to understanding the evolutionary and developmental origins of theory of mind. PMID:24666559

  6. False belief understanding in maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Maughan, Angeline; Toth, Sheree L; Bruce, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    False belief understanding was investigated in maltreated (N = 203), low socioeconomic status (SES) nonmaltreated (N = 143), and middle SES nonmaltreated (N = 172) 3- to 8-year-old children. Contrasts among the three groups provided an opportunity to examine the impact of family contextual influences on theory of mind development. Specifically, child maltreatment served as an "experiment of nature" in order to elucidate theory of mind abilities. Two false belief tasks and language assessments were administered. Among children with a verbal mental age of 49 months or greater, maltreatment was related to delays in the development of theory of mind, beyond the influence of chronological age and SES. The occurrence of maltreatment during the toddler period, onset during the toddler years, and physical abuse were features of maltreatment associated with delay in the development of theory of mind. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of harsh caregiving on the development of theory of mind. Implications for the understanding of normal developmental processes are highlighted. PMID:14984138

  7. Macroecology of local insect communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Oliver; McGavin, George C.

    2000-01-01

    The inter-relationships between animal body weight, range size, species richness and abundance are currently the basis of macroecology. Using 41 099 insects sampled from 31 Acacia tree canopies in north-east Tanzania, we first documented the basic macroecological patterns. The relationship between body weight and both species richness and abundance was polygonal with the highest insect species richness and abundance occurring at intermediate body weights. Across individual tree communities, the most statistically robust relationships were found between range size, abundance and species richness and they were all linear. In a second part, we focused on the positive abundance-range size relationship and we could test predictions of six of the eight proposed hypotheses to explain this widely documented pattern of community structure. The relationship is most likely explained by the metapopulation hypothesis stating that with more patches being occupied, local abundance in a given patch increases due to a higher rate of immigration from nearby patches. In addition, we found high slopes for the species-area relationship, typical of island systems and thus it seems reasonable to characterise Acacia trees in the savannah as habitat islands for insects.

  8. [The false equivalent Galeazzi in children].

    PubMed

    Marzouki, A; Elibrahimi, A; Elmrini, A; Boutayeb, F

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a false Galeazzi equivalent in children. This injury is characterised by an epiphyseal detachment of the distal extremity of the ulna rather than a distal radio-ulnar dislocation. A 16-year-old patient was injured in a fall from a bike. Radiographs showed a fracture of the radial shaft with anterior angulation, together with a type II Salter-Harris epiphyseal injury at the level of the distal ulna. We were unable to perform a closed reduction under general anesthesia due to interposition of periosteum at the fracture site. Thus surgical management was the only option, which consisted of removing the offending periosteum and performing osteosynthesis of the radial shaft fracture with a plate, and the epiphyseal detachment with pins. After 10 months, we noted no bone growth disturbance, or any reduced mobility of the wrist. We will continue the follow-up to monitor bone growth disturbance of the distal extremity of the ulna.

  9. Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

    Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  10. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  11. Layered Outcrops in Gusev Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the ways scientists collect mineralogical data about rocks on Mars is to view them through filters that allow only specific wavelengths of light to pass through the lens of the panoramic camera. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this false-color image of the rock nicknamed 'Tetl' at 1:05 p.m. martian time on its 270th martian day, or sol (Oct. 5, 2004) using the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Darker red hues in the image correspond to greater concentrations of oxidized soil and dust. Bluer hues correspond to portions of rock that are not as heavily coated with soils or are not as highly oxidized.

  12. Right ventricular false tendons, a cadaveric approach.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Wartmann, Christopher T; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Louis, Robert G; Black, Brandie; Jordan, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Left ventricular false tendons (LFTs) have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, there is very little information available regarding right ventricular false tendons (RFTs). The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography and morphometry of the RFTs, and provide a comprehensive picture of their anatomy across a broad range of specimens. We identified 35/100 heart specimens containing right ventricular RFTs and classified them into five types. In Type I (21, 47.7%) the RFTs, was located between the ventricular septum and the anterior papillary muscle; in Type II (11, 22.9%) between ventricular septum and the posterior papillary muscle; in Type III (7, 14.5%) between the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and the right ventricular free wall; in Type IV (5, 10.4%) between the posterior papillary muscle and the ventricular free wall; and lastly, in Type V (4, 8.3%) between the anterior papillary muscle and ventricular free wall. The mean length of the RFTs was 18 +/- 7 mm with a mean diameter of 1.4 +/- 05 mm. Histologic examination with Masson trichrome and PAS revealed that 20 (41.6%) of the 48 RFTs carried conduction tissue fibers. The presence of conduction tissue fibers within the RFTs was limited to Types I, III, and IV. In Types II and V the RFTs resembled fibrous structures in contrast with Type I, II and IV, which were composed more of muscular fibers, including conduction tissue fibers. RFTs containing conduction tissue fibers were identified, which may implicate them in the appearance of arrhythmias.

  13. Constraining Oxygen False Positives in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. E.; Schottelkotte, J. C.; Kasting, J. F.

    2014-03-01

    Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) in the present Earth's atmosphere are byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis coupled with organic carbon burial. On Earth, no known abiotic surface process would be able to generate such an atmosphere, and by extension, lifeless exoplanets are expected to be devoid of O2. As a result, molecular oxygen and ozone are often seen as convincing signposts for life. Recently, however, a number of authors have demonstrated the abiotic generation of molecular oxygen in a planetary atmosphere, either under oxidizing conditions (Hu et al., 2013) or around an M star (Tian et al., 2013). This èfalse positive', if verified, would remove oxygen and ozone from an already short list of easily detectable biosignatures. We explore oxygen false positives with our 1-D photochemical model, updated from Segura et al. (2007). Preliminary results show that if water vapor photolysis longward of ~200 nm is neglected, substantial amounts of CO and O2 can build up in the lower part of the atmosphere. Additionally, the ultimate fate of CO and O2 produced in such atmospheres is strongly dependent on the imposed lower boundary condition, with low depositional velocities corresponding to higher mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The deposition velocity of a gas depends on it dissolved concentration, however, and so one needs to consider the chemistry of these gases in solution. Ongoing work seeks to test the conclusions of Tian et al., (2013) by exploring this dependence on ocean chemistry and by including spectra from AD Leo (an active M-dwarf, used by Domagal-Goldman et al., (2011)) to compare with the M-dwarf spectra used by Tian et al.

  14. Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

  15. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

  16. Possible and False Biomarkers from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.

    2004-01-01

    The Search for life in the Solar System is one of NASA's main goals for the coming decade. We may never observe alien life directly; we or our robotic craft may always be removed from it by many years, or meters of crust. If we do find evidence of Life elsewhere in the Solar System it will probably be in form of chemical biomarkers, quintessentially biological molecules that indicate the presence of micro-organisms. What molecules would be truly indicative of alien life? Chlorophyll fragments, which are often used by geochemists are probably far too specific. Simpler molecules, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleo-bases might seem to be biomarkers, but they can form non-biotically in space. Alkyl substituted aromatics in ALH 84001 have been invoked as biomarkers, but they are not strong evidence in and of themselves. Understanding the range of nonbiological organic molecules which could act as false biomarkers in space is a prerequisite for any reasonable search for true biomarkers on other worlds. When simple organics arrive at the surface of a body like Europa, either from below or from space, how long do they survive and what do they make? How can we distinguish these from real biomarkers? In this talk I will present some ideas about what might be useful qualities to consider in a potential biomarker, and will ask for advice from the attendant geochemists.

  17. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  18. Deep Hole in 'Clovis' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This false color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches).

  19. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  20. Interfacing insect brain for space applications.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Seidl, Tobias; Benvenuto, Antonella; Sergi, Fabrizio; Campolo, Domenico; Accoto, Dino; Maria Rossini, Paolo; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Insects exhibit remarkable navigation capabilities that current control architectures are still far from successfully mimic and reproduce. In this chapter, we present the results of a study on conceptualizing insect/machine hybrid controllers for improving autonomy of exploratory vehicles. First, the different principally possible levels of interfacing between insect and machine are examined followed by a review of current approaches towards hybridity and enabling technologies. Based on the insights of this activity, we propose a double hybrid control architecture which hinges around the concept of "insect-in-a-cockpit." It integrates both biological/artificial (insect/robot) modules and deliberative/reactive behavior. The basic assumption is that "low-level" tasks are managed by the robot, while the "insect intelligence" is exploited whenever high-level problem solving and decision making is required. Both neural and natural interfacing have been considered to achieve robustness and redundancy of exchanged information.

  1. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J.; Lapoint, Richard T.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life. PMID:26399434

  2. Raindrops push and splash flying insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Shankles, Peter G.; Hu, David L.

    2014-02-01

    In their daily lives, flying insects face a gauntlet of environmental challenges, from wind gusts to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed videography to film raindrop collisions upon both flying insects and dynamically scaled spherical mimics. We identify three outcomes of the collision based upon the insect's mass and characteristic size: drops push the insect while remaining intact, coat the insect, and splash. We present a mathematical model that predicts impact force and outcome consistent with those found in experiments. Small insects such as gnats and flies are pushed by raindrops that remain intact upon impact; conversely, large flyers such as locusts and micro-aerial vehicles cause drops to splash. We identify a critical mass of 0.3 g for which flyers achieve both peak acceleration (100 g) and applied force (104 dyn) from incoming raindrops; designs of similarly massed flying robots should be avoided.

  3. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision - has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, "anaglyph" filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception. PMID:26740144

  4. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema

    PubMed Central

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision – has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, “anaglyph” filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception. PMID:26740144

  5. 11 CFR 100.26 - Public communication (2 U.S.C. 431(22)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) General Definitions § 100.26 Public communication (2 U.S.C. 431(22)). Public communication means a communication by means of any broadcast, cable, or satellite communication, newspaper, magazine, outdoor... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public communication (2 U.S.C. 431(22))....

  6. 10 CFR 205.321 - Time of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time of filing. 205.321 Section 205.321 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports... Construction, Connection, Operation, and Maintenance of Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy...

  7. 10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disconnection of temporary facilities. 205.378 Section 205.378 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System... Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric...

  8. 10 CFR 205.301 - Time of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time of filing. 205.301 Section 205.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports; Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Application for Authorization to Transmit Electric...

  9. 10 CFR 205.352 - Information to be reported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information to be reported. 205.352 Section 205.352 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports; Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Report of Major Electric Utility System Emergencies §...

  10. 10 CFR 205.323 - Transferability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transferability. 205.323 Section 205.323 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports... Construction, Connection, Operation, and Maintenance of Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy...

  11. 10 CFR 205.324 - Form and style; number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form and style; number of copies. 205.324 Section 205.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and... Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.324 Form and style; number of copies. All...

  12. 10 CFR 205.327 - Other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other information. 205.327 Section 205.327 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports... Construction, Connection, Operation, and Maintenance of Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy...

  13. 10 CFR 205.307 - Form and style; number of copies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form and style; number of copies 205.307 Section 205.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and... Electric Energy to A Foreign Country § 205.307 Form and style; number of copies An original and...

  14. 14 CFR 25.117 - Climb: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Climb: general. 25.117 Section 25.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.117 Climb: general. Compliance with...

  15. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-operating. In the landing configuration, the steady gradient of climb may not be less...

  16. 14 CFR 31.17 - Performance: Climb.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance: Climb. 31.17 Section 31.17... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.17 Performance: Climb. (a) Each balloon must be capable of climbing at least 300 feet in the first minute after takeoff with a steady rate of...

  17. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  18. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and...

  19. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Textile fiber products containing... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.23 Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a textile...

  20. 12 CFR 308.161 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 308.161 Section 308.161 Banks and... Where a Felony ls Charged § 308.161 Scope. The rules and procedures set forth in this subpart shall...: (1) A judgment of conviction or an agreement to enter a pre-trial diversion or other similar...

  1. 12 CFR 509.300 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Exemptions under Section 19(e) of the FDIA § 509.300 Scope. The procedures in this subpart D govern hearings on denials of applications for case-by-case exemptions under 12 CFR part 585... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 509.300 Section 509.300 Banks...

  2. 12 CFR 1070.30 - Purpose and scope; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope; definitions. 1070.30 Section... Disclosure of CFPB Information in Connection With Legal Proceedings § 1070.30 Purpose and scope; definitions... proceeding. (2) Legal proceeding encompasses all pre-trial, trial, and post-trial stages of all judicial...

  3. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) What limitations apply? Pursuant to...

  4. 12 CFR 502.5 - Who must pay assessments and fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must pay assessments and fees? 502.5 Section 502.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES § 502.5 Who must pay assessments and fees? (a) Authority. Section 9 of the HOLA, 12 U.S.C....

  5. 12 CFR 160.40 - Commercial paper and corporate debt securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper and corporate debt securities. 160.40 Section 160.40 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.40 Commercial paper and corporate debt securities. Pursuant to HOLA section...

  6. 12 CFR 160.60 - Suretyship and guaranty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suretyship and guaranty. 160.60 Section 160.60 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.60 Suretyship and guaranty. Pursuant to section 5(b)(2) of the HOLA, a Federal savings...

  7. 12 CFR 160.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign assistance investments. 160.43 Section 160.43 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal...

  8. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  9. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.37 Narcotics and other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs...

  10. 14 CFR 16.5 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 16.5 Section 16.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 16.5 Separation...

  11. 5 CFR 831.1608 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.1608 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1608 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply...

  12. 5 CFR 185.115 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 185.115 Section 185.115 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.115 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the...

  13. 5 CFR 831.808 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.808 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.808 Mandatory separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all nuclear...

  14. 5 CFR 842.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.908 Section 842... separation. (a) Effective on and after October 17, 1999, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to all nuclear materials couriers including those in secondary positions. A mandatory...

  15. 14 CFR 1264.113 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 1264.113 Section 1264.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.113 Separation of functions. (a) The...

  16. 10 CFR 1013.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 1013.14 Section 1013.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and any employee or agent of...

  17. 9 CFR 381.26 - Separation of establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of establishments. 381.26... Establishment Numbers; Separation of Establishments and Other Requirements; Withdrawal of Inspection § 381.26 Separation of establishments. Each official establishment shall be separate and distinct from any...

  18. 5 CFR 842.1006 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.1006 Section....1006 Mandatory separation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8425 apply to customs and border protection officers, including those...

  19. 9 CFR 305.2 - Separation of official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of official establishments. 305.2 Section 305.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.2 Separation of official establishments. (a) Each official establishment shall...

  20. 10 CFR 820.3 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 820.3 Section 820.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.3 Separation of functions. (a) Separation of functions. After a respondent requests an on-the-record adjudication of an assessment of...

  1. 14 CFR 13.203 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 13.203 Section 13.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL... Separation of functions. (a) Civil penalty proceedings, including hearings, shall be prosecuted by an...

  2. 10 CFR 13.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 13.14 Section 13.14 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and any employee or agent of the authority who takes part...

  3. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 831.908 Section 831... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and...

  4. 7 CFR 1.315 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 1.315 Section 1.315 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.315 Separation of functions....

  5. 5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory separation. 842.806 Section 842... Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory separation provisions of 5 U.S.C.... 2109(1)(B) (i.e., a second-level supervisor). A mandatory separation under 5 U.S.C. 8425 is not...

  6. 12 CFR 308.513 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 308.513 Section 308.513 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.513 Separation of functions....

  7. 10 CFR 2.348 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (iii) A matter which a presiding officer seeks to be referred to the Commission under 10 CFR 2.340(a... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 2.348 Section 2.348 Energy... Adjudicatory Hearings § 2.348 Separation of functions. (a) In any proceeding under this part, any NRC...

  8. 9 CFR 381.523 - Separation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of operations. 381.523... Program for Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products § 381.523 Separation of operations. A selected... establishment implements and maintains written procedures for complete physical separation of product...

  9. 15 CFR 25.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 25.14 Section 25.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  10. 41 CFR 105-70.014 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions. 105-70.014 Section 105-70.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 70-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.014 Separation...

  11. 5 CFR 351.807 - Certification of Expected Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of Expected Separation. 351... REDUCTION IN FORCE Notice to Employee § 351.807 Certification of Expected Separation. (a) For the purpose of... may issue a Certificate of Expected Separation to a competing employee who the agency believes, with...

  12. 9 CFR 332.13 - Separation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of operations. 332.13... CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.13 Separation of operations. A selected... implements and maintains written procedures for complete physical separation of product and process for...

  13. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  14. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  15. 10 CFR 473.30 - Standards and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standards and criteria. 473.30 Section 473.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and... transfer to mass production in a shorter time period than would otherwise occur; (e) Is not...

  16. 10 CFR 473.10 - Required information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required information from applicant. 473.10 Section 473.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and... activities on an advanced automobile propulsion system abandoned by any person because of a lack of...

  17. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  18. 7 CFR 613.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 613.1 Section 613.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.1 Purpose. This part provides NRCS policy on the operation of PMCs. The Centers...

  19. 10 CFR 1048.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 1048.1 Section 1048.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.1... Petroleum Reserve (SPR), its storage or related facilities, and real property subject to the jurisdiction...

  20. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  1. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  3. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  4. 10 CFR 625.4 - Publication of the Standard Sales Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication of the Standard Sales Provisions. 625.4 Section 625.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.4 Publication of the Standard Sales Provisions. (a) Publication....

  5. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an...

  6. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real...

  7. 10 CFR 1048.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 1048.2 Section 1048.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.2 Scope. The regulations in this part apply to entry into or upon all SPR storage or related...

  8. 16 CFR 1632.61-1632.62 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1632.61-1632.62 Section 1632.61-1632.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF MATTRESSES AND MATTRESS PADS (FF 4-72, AMENDED) Interpretations and Policies §§ 1632.61-1632.62...

  9. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9 Section 423.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  11. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... transition plan shall: (1) State the name, address, and Federal Interagency Committee on Education Code of... estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each...

  12. 10 CFR 4.124 - Employment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment criteria. 4.124 Section 4.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... handicapped persons or any class of handicapped persons unless: (1) The test score or other...

  13. 10 CFR 13.27 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of time. 13.27 Section 13.27 Energy NUCLEAR... time is added to the prescribed period except in the following circumstances: (1) If a notice or document is served upon a participant, by first-class mail only, three (3) calendar days will be added...

  14. 10 CFR 50.41 - Additional standards for class 104 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional standards for class 104 licenses. 50.41 Section 50.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 104 licenses. In determining that a class 104 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  15. 10 CFR 72.84 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 72.84 Section 72.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records, Reports, Inspections,...

  16. 10 CFR 171.11 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemptions. 171.11 Section 171.11 Energy NUCLEAR... for: (1) A construction permit or license applied for by, or issued to, a nonprofit educational... use of byproduct material, source material, or special nuclear material. This exemption does not...

  17. 10 CFR 72.46 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public hearings. 72.46 Section 72.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Issuance and Conditions...

  18. 10 CFR 50.20 - Two classes of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Two classes of licenses. 50.20 Section 50.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Classification... applying to the Commission therefor, and will be either class 104 or class 103....

  19. 10 CFR 15.20 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 15.20 Section 15.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15... collection actions. This requirement does not apply to any debt that— (1) Is in litigation or foreclosure;...

  20. 10 CFR 72.86 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 72.86 Section 72.86 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records,...

  1. 10 CFR 13.23 - Subpoenas for attendance at hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. 13.23 Section 13.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.23 Subpoenas for attendance at... under the control of a party may be served by first class mail. (f) A party or the individual to...

  2. 10 CFR 4.121 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 4.121 Section 4.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR... program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance. (b)(1) A recipient, in providing any...

  3. 10 CFR 72.50 - Transfer of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of license. 72.50 Section 72.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Issuance and Conditions...

  4. 10 CFR 70.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 70.1 Section 70.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Provisions § 70.1 Purpose. (a..., possess, use, and transfer special nuclear material; and establish and provide for the terms...

  5. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents; methods; proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) First-class mail: Office of the Secretary, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service of documents; methods; proof. 2.305 Section 2.305 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE...

  6. 10 CFR 50.22 - Class 103 licenses; for commercial and industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class 103 licenses; for commercial and industrial facilities. 50.22 Section 50.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Classification and Description of Licenses § 50.22 Class 103 licenses; for...

  7. 10 CFR 4.42 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Complaints. 4.42 Section 4.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL... believes himself or any specific class of individuals to be subjected to discrimination prohibited by...

  8. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. 50.21 Section 50.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Classification and Description of Licenses § 50.21 Class 104...

  9. 10 CFR 150.15 - Persons not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persons not exempt. 150.15 Section 150.15 Energy NUCLEAR... regulatory requirements with respect to the following activities: (1) The construction and operation of any.... (2) The export from or import into the United States of byproduct, source, or special...

  10. 10 CFR 50.56 - Conversion of construction permit to license; or amendment of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion of construction permit to license; or amendment of license. 50.56 Section 50.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION... will, in the absence of good cause shown to the contrary, issue a license of the class for which...

  11. 10 CFR 2.306 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of time. 2.306 Section 2.306 Energy NUCLEAR... added to the prescribed period except in the following circumstances: (1) If a notice or document is served upon a participant, by first-class mail only, three (3) calendar days will be added to...

  12. 10 CFR 4.332 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Complaints. 4.332 Section 4.332 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... member of a class or on behalf of others, may file a complaint with NRC, alleging discrimination prohibited by the Act or these regulations based on an action occurring on or after July 1, 1979....

  13. 10 CFR 20.1204 - Determination of internal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of internal exposure. 20.1204 Section 20.1204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Occupational Dose... suitable and timely measurements of— (1) Concentrations of radioactive materials in air in work areas;...

  14. 10 CFR 50.42 - Additional standard for class 103 licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional standard for class 103 licenses. 50.42 Section 50.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... class 103 licenses. In determining whether a class 103 license will be issued to an applicant,...

  15. 10 CFR 4.530 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 4.530 Section 4.530 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR... Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission §...

  16. 10 CFR 72.52 - Creditor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material in spent fuel; Provided: (1) That the rights of any creditor so secured may be exercised... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditor regulations. 72.52 Section 72.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR...

  17. 10 CFR 501.52 - Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants. 501.52 Section 501.52 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Prohibition Rules and Orders § 501.52 Prohibitions by order—certifying powerplants. (a) OFE may prohibit by order the use of petroleum...

  18. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be...

  19. 14 CFR 125.125 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 125.125... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION... Requirements § 125.125 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass...

  20. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must...