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Sample records for 2012-01-01 false potatoes

  1. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  3. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  4. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  5. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  6. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  7. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  8. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  9. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  10. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  12. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  13. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  14. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  15. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations...

  16. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  17. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  18. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  19. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  20. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  2. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  3. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  4. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  5. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  6. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. Debarments under 5 U.S.C....

  7. 15 CFR 30.71 - False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False or fraudulent reporting on or misuse of the Automated Export System. 30.71 Section 30.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN...

  8. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  9. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  10. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  12. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  13. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  17. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  18. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  19. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  20. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  2. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  3. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  4. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  5. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  6. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.320 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 1207.320 Section 1207... Establishment and membership. (a) There is hereby established a National Potato Promotion Board, hereinafter... membership upon the Board shall be determined on the basis of the potato production reported in the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1556 - Well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well shaped. 51.1556 Section 51.1556 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1556 Well shaped. Well shaped means that the potato...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1557 - Fairly well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly well shaped. 51.1557 Section 51.1557... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1557 Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means that the potato is not materially pointed, dumbbell-shaped or otherwise...

  11. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  12. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  13. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  14. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  15. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  16. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  17. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  18. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  19. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  20. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  1. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  2. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  3. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  4. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  5. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  6. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  7. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  8. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  9. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  10. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  12. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  14. 7 CFR 945.1 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secretary. 945.1 Section 945.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.343 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1207.343 Section 1207.343 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN...

  16. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 945.17 Section 945.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 945.3 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Person. 945.3 Section 945.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1577 - Size range requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Size range requirements. 51.1577 Section 51.1577... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Size § 51.1577 Size range requirements. In addition... size within its size range requirements, except that it is not permissible to specify a lot as...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings...

  1. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.546 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1207.546 Section 1207.546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  3. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  6. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 946.122 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 946.122 Section 946.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 953.50 - Inspection and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and certification. 953.50 Section 953.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 947.35 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual report. 947.35 Section 947.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3412 - Unusable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3412 Unusable material. “Unusable Material” consists... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unusable material. 51.3412 Section 51.3412...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3411 - Usable piece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3411 Usable piece. “Usable Piece” means that portion... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Usable piece. 51.3411 Section 51.3411...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3413 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3413 Size. (a) The minimum size, maximum size or... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Size. 51.3413 Section 51.3413 Agriculture...

  14. 7 CFR 953.41 - Recommendations for regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendations for regulations. 953.41 Section 953.41... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.41 Recommendations for regulations. (a) It... effect at the time of recommendation. (b) In determining the grades, sizes, and qualities of potatoes...

  15. 7 CFR 945.51 - Recommendation for regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation for regulations. 945.51 Section 945.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Recommendation for regulations. Whenever the committee deems it advisable that the handling of potatoes...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  1. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  2. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  3. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  7. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with §...

  10. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1541 - U.S. No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 1. 51.1541 Section 51.1541 Agriculture... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Grades § 51.1541 U.S. No. 1. “U.S. No. 1” consists of potatoes which...

  12. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations...

  13. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  14. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  15. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  16. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section 948.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  17. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  18. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  19. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  20. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  1. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  2. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  3. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  4. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  5. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  6. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  7. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  8. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  10. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  13. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  14. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  15. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  16. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  17. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  18. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  19. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  20. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  1. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  2. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  3. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  4. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  5. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  6. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  7. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  8. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop...

  9. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality...

  10. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  11. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  12. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  13. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  20. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  1. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and... imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable institutions or distribution...

  2. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  3. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  4. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  5. 40 CFR 174.512 - Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.512 Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y are exempt...

  6. 40 CFR 174.512 - Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.512 Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y are exempt...

  7. 40 CFR 174.512 - Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.512 Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y are exempt...

  8. 40 CFR 174.512 - Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.512 Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y are exempt...

  9. 40 CFR 174.512 - Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.512 Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Potato Virus Y are exempt...

  10. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  11. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  12. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  13. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  14. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  15. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  16. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  17. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  18. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  19. [Teratogenic effect of potato glycoalkaloids].

    PubMed

    Wang, X G

    1993-02-01

    Potato glycoalkaloids were extracted from potato sprout and then analyzed to determine their purity by using TLC and HPLC methods and compare with pure alpha-Solanine and alpha-Chaconine of Sigma. The result indicated that the purity of potato glycoalkaloids is 78. 31%, which contains 73.64% alpha-Solanine and 4.67% alpha-Chaconine. The LD50 of mice was 44.721 +/- 5.860 4 mg/kg. In order to determine the toxicity and teratogenicity of potato glycoalkaloids, the effect of potato glycoalkaloids on Kunming pregnant mice were studied. The results showed that: (1) potato glycoalkaloids have teratogenic effects on embryos of mice. It could induce neural tube defects (NTDs), and may be an important teratogen of NTDs. (2) potato glycoalkaloids have embryo toxicity. It could cause the death of embryos and result in absorbed and dead fetuses. (3) potato glycoalkaloids could evidently affect the development of embryos and lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). An interesting phenomena which just like the clinical manifestation of miscarriage in human being was noticed. If potato glycoalkaloids were given to the pregnant mice on the 5th or 6th day of gestation intraabdominally, vaginal bleeding and abortion would occur, and this has not been reported yet. The animal model of NTDs in this experiments supported our hypothesis that sprouted potato could be a teratogen of NTDs.

  20. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the sharing features ... Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ...

  1. The mysterious potato.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D

    1994-08-01

    Even though it comes from a potentially toxic family and may contain solanine-type alkaloids, the potato has risen from a wild food stuff of South American Indians to one of the world's most useful plants and important food source. Toxicity of the tuber commonly seen today is low, with the sprouts and green skin most often involved in toxic exposures. New cultivars may bring about more disease resistance, new tastes, and possibly a smaller solanine content.

  2. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  3. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  4. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  5. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  6. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  7. Russet Burbank, no ordinary potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russet Burbank potato variety currently occupies first place in acreage planted in North America and is worth in the United States 1.4 billion dollars annually. It is a sport of the Burbank potato which was selected by Luther Burbank in 1873. The ancestry of Burbank stems from a plant introduc...

  8. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  9. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  10. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  11. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  13. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  14. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. North Polar False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  17. Potato Tuber Callus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

  18. Genetic fingerprinting of potato varieties from the Northwest Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Northwest Potato Variety Development Program using conventional breeding has successfully released more than 40 improved varieties of potato since its inception in 1983. Potato breeders rely primarily on morphological and phenotypic data for selection and breeding of potato cultivars. With the a...

  19. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  20. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  1. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  2. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  3. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  4. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  5. Liberibacter transmission efficiency among potato psyllid haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known on the mechanisms by which the potato psyllid transmits Lso t...

  6. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  7. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  8. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop, for which breeding methodologies have not changed substantially in 100 years. Current methods for creating new potato cul...

  9. Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  10. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  11. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR 52.169 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.169 Section 52.169 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.169...

  14. 10 CFR 52.161 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.161 Section 52.161 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.161...

  15. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false N Appendix N to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Appendix N to Part 121...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  18. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  19. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  3. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  5. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  6. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... distribution worldwide....

  7. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  8. 12 CFR - Unknown Title

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Section Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA)...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1005 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false B Appendix B to Part 1005 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) Appendix B to Part 1005...

  10. 12 CFR Appendixes A-B - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Appendixes A-B Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements Appendixes A-B...

  11. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 14 CFR 437.91 - For-hire prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false For-hire prohibition. 437.91 Section 437.91 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... suborbital rocket....

  13. 7 CFR 1944.664 - Housing preservation and replacement housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing preservation and replacement housing...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.41 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1032.41 Section 1032.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk... § 1032.41...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.74 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1032.74 Section 1032.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk... § 1032.74...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 417 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false F Appendix F to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Appendix F to Part 417...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 417 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false H Appendix H to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Appendix H to Part 417...

  19. 14 CFR 406.105 - Separation of functions for prosecuting civil penalties and advising the FAA decisionmaker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of functions for...

  20. 5 CFR Appendix I to Part 1201 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false I Appendix I to Part 1201 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Appendix I to Part 1201...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2539 - Order (case).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order (case). 29.2539 Section 29.2539 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... respect to its moisture content....

  2. 7 CFR 29.6005 - Case (order).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Case (order). 29.6005 Section 29.6005 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... content....

  3. 8 CFR 204.8 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 204.8 Section 204.8 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.8...

  4. 8 CFR 204.10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 204.10 Section 204.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.10...

  5. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  6. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  7. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  8. Potato in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Ewen; Milbourne, Dan; Petti, Carlo; Doyle-Prestwich, Barbara M; Meade, Conor

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology-based tools are now widely used to enhance and expand the traditional remit of potato in food production. By modifying its functionality, the capacity of the potato to produce, for example, therapeutic or industrial compounds is now a reality, and its ability to resist disease can also be radically improved. Two developments have been crucial to expanding the role of potato: the recent advances in the fields of structural and functional potato genomics and the ability to integrate genes of interest into the potato genome. In this review we discuss how both developments have diversified the remit of this crop.

  9. 40 CFR 174.513 - Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene... Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... protectant Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene) in or on all...

  10. 40 CFR 174.513 - Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene... Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... protectant Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene) in or on all...

  11. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  12. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  13. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  14. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

  15. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  16. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  17. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee...

  18. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  19. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  20. The role of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties of potato and sweet potato starches.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Juanjuan; Du, Xianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic properties of potato starch and sweet potato starch in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were studied using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope, and steady shear rheological measurements. The results indicated that the potato starch solutions showed a linear shape of the ηred versus c curves. The sweet potato starch solutions presented a non-linear shape with a downturn in dilute solutions, or the concentrations were lower than entanglement concentration (ce). The ce values of the potato and sweet potato starch solutions were 0.43% and 0.54%, respectively. These findings indicated that the impact of the ce value on the network formation of the potato starch solutions was much more significant compared with the impact on the sweet potato starch solutions. The potato and sweet potato starch solutions showed shear thinning behaviour hardly occurs when the concentrations were less than ce, while shear thinning behaviour approached when the concentrations were equal to or greater than ce. Similarly, the potato and sweet potato starch solutions rarely resembled a pseudoplastic state when the concentrations were lower than or equal to ce, while the pseudoplastic behaviour developed when the concentrations were higher than ce.

  1. What is the source of potato psyllids colonizing Washington, Oregon, and Idaho potato fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

  2. Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

  3. An unexpected cause of anaphylaxis: potato.

    PubMed

    Eke Gungor, H; Uytun, S; Murat Sahiner, U; Altuner Torun, Y

    2016-07-01

    Immediate reactions against contact to raw potato has been reported in adults with generally being in the form of an oral contact dermatitis or contact urticaria, but it may also manifest as rhinitis symptoms, wheezing or even anaphylaxis. Cooked or raw potato allergy has been rarely reported in children as some is being immediate and others being late reactions, and it usually results from ingestion. Herein, we report two cases with a background of allergic diseases developed anaphylaxis one with cooked potato and the other one with raw potato.

  4. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively.

  5. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  6. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  7. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  8. The Danger of False Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBoskey, Vicky Kubler

    1998-01-01

    Responds to an article that examined 10 dichotomies in teacher education (SP 527 128), suggesting that too much time and energy are spent debating false dichotomies and addressing two specific dichotomies (preservice versus inservice and campus versus school site). Recommends that professional educators pool their energy and collaborate (rather…

  9. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  10. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  11. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  12. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  13. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  14. Developing the Nutritional Potential of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the developed world and consumption is increasing in the developing world. Consequently, the phytonutrient content of potato can have a large impact on public health. Moreover, because of the high consumption even modest increases in tuber phytonutrient co...

  15. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  16. Molecular characterization of potato leafroll virus, potato virus A, and potato virus X isolates from potatoes in Alaskan cities and villages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialized potatoes in Alaska are mainly grown in the Matanuska Valley, Tanana Valley and Delta Junction, and are routinely monitored for viruses and pests. In contrast, non-commercial potato production sites occurring throughout Alaska are rarely scrutinized for diseases. In addition, virtually...

  17. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

  18. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  19. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  20. [The inhibition of potato tubers wound reparation].

    PubMed

    Chalenko, G I; Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O l

    2009-01-01

    The multiple washing of the wound surface of potato tubers by water adversely affected the protective properties of wound periderm. Immune inhibitor beta-1,3-beta-1,6 glucan had a property of local effect and inhibited the process of wound healing. The pentasaccharide of xyloglucan caused necrosis of potato tuber tissue and prevented the wound reparation process.

  1. Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

  2. Improved genetic disease resistance solutions for potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Halterman Lab research program is focused on understanding the genetic basis of disease resistance in potato. Several diseases, such as late blight, early blight, potato virus Y, and verticillium wilt, are particularly problematic in Wisconsin. With the exception of early blight, major genes hav...

  3. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  4. Glycoalkaloids and calystegine alkaloids in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes contain two classes of alkaloids: the glycoalkaloids and the calystegines. The presence of glycoalkaloids in potatoes and their toxicity has been known for more than a century and much has been written about them. Discovery of the nortropane calystegine alkaloids is more recent, and the k...

  5. Does sleep promote false memories?

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  6. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  7. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  8. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  9. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  10. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  11. Fate of toxic potato glycoalkaloids in a potato field.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2009-04-08

    The toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field to investigate their distribution and fate during the season. The amount of glycoalkaloids in the plants was up to 25 kg/ha during maturity and decreased to below 0.63 kg/ha during plant senescence. The glycoalkaloids were detected in the upper soil (up to 0.6 kg/ha); this amount accounted only for a minor fraction of the amount present in the plants. Maximum glycoalkaloid concentration of 2.8 mg/kg dry weight soil was detected in September. Dissipation during winter appeared to be slow because glycoalkaloids were still present in the soil in March. No traces of glycoalkaloids were detected in the groundwater (detection limit 0.2 microg/L). From these results, the leaching potential of the glycoalkaloids is evaluated to be small.

  12. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  13. Non-potato host plants of potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a year-round complication?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  14. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  15. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  16. Dusty Crater In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This false color image of a crater rim illustrates just how complete the dust cover can be. The small white/blue regions on the rim are of areas where the dust cover has been removed - due to heating on sun facing slopes or by gravitational effects.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 352.8 East (7.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction.

  18. Characterization of potato leaf starch.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Stalin; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-07

    The starch accumulation-degradation process as well as the structure of leaf starch are not completely understood. To study this, starch was isolated from potato leaves collected in the early morning and late afternoon in July and August, representing different starch accumulation rates. The starch content of potato leaves varied between 2.9 and 12.9% (dry matter basis) over the night and day in the middle of July and between 0.6 and 1.5% in August. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the four isolated starch samples showed that the granules had either an oval or a round shape and did not exceed 5 microm in size. Starch was extracted by successive washing steps with dimethyl sulfoxide and precipitated with ethanol. An elution profile on Sepharose CL-6B of debranched starch showed the presence of a material with a chain length distribution between that generally found for amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin unit chains of low molecular size were present in a higher amount in the afternoon than in the morning samples. What remains at the end of the night is depleted in specific chain lengths, mainly between DP 15 and 24 and above DP 35, relative to the end of the day.

  19. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  20. Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M.

    PubMed

    Marczewski, W; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D; Hennig, J; Witek, K; Gebhardt, C

    2006-05-01

    Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and Rm, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and available potato molecular maps were instrumental for mapping the resistance loci. The novel locus Gm was mapped to a central region on potato chromosome IX. The locus Rm was placed on the short arm of chromosome XI, close to the marker loci GP250 and GP283, where a hotspot for monogenic and polygenic resistance to diverse pathogens is located in the potato and tomato genome.

  1. Race nonspecific resistance for potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Staples, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    The late blight fungus (Phytophthora infestans) rots susceptible species of potato plants. None of the major varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in the USA is resistant to US-8, the most prevalent genotype of the fungus. Now, Junqi Song, James Bradeen and colleagues have cloned the RB gene from the wild diploid potato species, Solanum bulbocastanum, using a map-based approach in combination with long-range PCR. Transgenic plants containing the gene, normally fully susceptible, displayed broad-spectrum late blight resistance.

  2. Lesions of potato sprout and extracted potato sprout alkaloid toxicity in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Keeler, R; Gaffield, W

    1987-01-01

    Hamsters were gavaged either dried potato sprout material, alkaloid extract of potato sprouts, or the marc from which the alkaloid fraction was extracted and then were examined for gross and microscopic lesions. Nine of 10 hamsters receiving dried potato sprout material and 3 of 5 hamsters receiving alkaloid extract had severe gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis which was most severe in the glandular stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. All control hamsters gavaged with water and all hamsters gavaged with the potato sprout marc survived to the time of euthanasia and did not have gross or microscopic lesions.

  3. Ice Surfaces In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image shows a marked difference in the 'blueness' of the ice surfaces. The lower (presumably older) surface is oranger and the top (presumably younger) surface is blue. This may represent the fresher ice of the upper surface which has not yet covered with as much dust as the lower surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.8, Longitude 302.1 East (57.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Polar Layers in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image again illustrates the oranger/bluer nature of the polar layers.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6, Longitude 70.2 East (289.8 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Climate risks on potato yield in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-04-01

    The yield of potatoes is affected by water and temperature during the growing season. We study the impact of a suite of climate variables on potato yield at country level. More than ten climate variables related to the growth of potato are considered, including the seasonal rainfall and temperature, but also extreme conditions at different averaging periods from daily to monthly. A Bayesian hierarchical model is developed to jointly consider the risk of heat stress, cold stress, wet and drought. Future climate risks are investigated through the projection of future climate data. This study contributes to assess the risks of present and future climate risks on potatoes yield, especially the risks of extreme events, which could be used to guide better sourcing strategy and ensure food security in the future.

  7. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  8. "Hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Mahmood F; Worley, George A; Harries, Meredydd L

    2006-12-01

    The "hot potato voice" is widely recognized as a symptom of peritonsillar cellulitis or abscess; yet there have been no studies assessing the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract in peritonsillitis. Analysis was undertaken of formant frequencies in the articulation of the vowels /i:/. /a:/ and /u:/ in six subjects with peritonsillitis and compared with articulation once the peritonsillitis had settled. Significant variation was found in F1 when articulating /i:/ and in F2 when articulating /a:/, which are explainable by dyskinesis of the peritonsillar musculature. These findings were compared with six subjects articulating the same vowels with and without a hot potato in their mouth. Variation was found in both F1 and F2 when articulating /i:/, which can be related to interference of the potato with movement of the anterior tongue. The changes in the vocal tract differ in these two cases and the title "hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis is a misnomer.

  9. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  10. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  11. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  12. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  13. Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

  14. Salt release from potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Fisk, Ian D

    2012-04-01

    The rate of salt release in-mouth from salted potato crisps was evaluated. It was hypothesised that a slow steady release of sodium would occur on chewing and hydration; to test this a crisp was chewed and held in the oral cavity without swallowing for 60 s. Sodium release was measured over the entire holding period, after 20-30 s a peak in salivary sodium levels was recorded. A similar trend was observed with sensory perceived saltiness by trained panellists. The results suggest that a significant proportion of the crisp's salt flavouring is released in a pulse-type mechanism which would not be encountered when the crisp is exposed to normal eating patterns and would result in the consumption of a large proportion of unperceived sodium.

  15. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production.

  16. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  17. COSII-Based Mapping and Diversity in Potato, Tomato, Sweet Potato and Carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This poster presentation reports progress on a USDA NRI grant to enhance understanding of and access to the genetic diversity in wild and landrace relatives of tomato, potato, sweet potato, and carrot, and contribute to the same for other euasterid plant species. This is being done with Conserved Or...

  18. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  19. Use and costs of insecticdes to control potato psyllids and zebra chip on potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip disease in potatoes has become a serious problem in North America. Researchers in Texas developed a sampling and reporting program for cooperating growers in three states. Data from this project enabled us to document insecticide use and costs for ZC control in commercial potato fields...

  20. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  1. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  2. First report of potato mop top virus on potatoes in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is the type member of genus Pomovirus. PMTV is an important pathogen of potato, causing serious economic losses in Northern Europe, North and South America, and Asia. PMTV in the United States was first reported in Maine (2). PMTV is vectored by plasmodiophoromycete Sp...

  3. Biotech potatoes in the 21st century: 20 years since the first biotech potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the world's most important vegetable crop, with nearly 400 million tons produced worldwide every year, lending to stability in food supply and socioeconomics. In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in orde...

  4. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  5. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled,...

  6. White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

  7. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  8. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  9. Genomic origins of potato polyploids: GBSSI gene sequencing data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, has a rich genepool of about 190 wild and cultivated species (Solanum section Petota) that are of great importance in potato improvement. About 70% of the wild potato species are diploid at 2n = 2x = 24, and the rest form a polyploid series of ...

  10. 75 FR 22707 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated as a mixed or specialty... inserting language into the standard to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated as a... proposed standard to allow for mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated as a mixed...

  11. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately three to one ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potatoes. There is also interest in marketing “baby” potatoes, which are har...

  12. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

  13. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  14. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  15. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  16. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:26237427

  17. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  18. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  19. Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  20. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  1. Protein synthesis inhibitor from potato tuber

    SciTech Connect

    Romaen, R. )

    1989-04-01

    A protein fraction capable of inhibit in vitro protein synthesis was found in potato tubers in fresh and wounded tissue. Inhibitor activity from fresh tissue decays with wounding. Inhibition activity was detected absorbed to ribsomal fraction and cytosol of potato tuber tissue by a partially reconstituted in vitro system from potato tuber and wheat germ. Adsorbed ribosomal fraction was more suitable of purification. This fraction was washed from ribosomes with 0.3M KCl, concentrated with ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified through sephadex G100 and sephadex G-75 columns chromatography. After 61 fold purification adsorbed protein fraction can inhibit germination of maize, wheat and sesame seeds, as well as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into protein by imbibed maize embryos. Inhibition activity was lost by temperature, alkali and protease-K hydrolysis. Preliminar analysis could not show presence of reductor sugars. Physiological role of this inhibitor in relation to rest and active tissue remains to be studied.

  2. Studies on potato irradiation in the G.D.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Th.; Hübner, G.; Grahn, Ch.; Döllstädt, R.

    The studies of potato irradiation have been conducted in the framework of the National Food Irradiation Research Project for 4 years. Although in the G.D.R. the use of chemical sprout inhibitors is allowed, potato irradiation can be an alternative technique for potato processing. Before irradiation a wound healing period of approx. 2 weeks is absolutely necessary to protect the potatoes from Fusarium. The method that presents the minimum risk of damage is irradiation in containers. Economic evaluations for the irradiation of potatoes are also made.

  3. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  4. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    PubMed

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  5. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  6. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  7. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  8. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  9. Influence of fertilization on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in organic potato production.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Lynch, D H; Martin, R C

    2008-04-01

    The abundance of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in organically grown potato did not change significantly in response to increasing rates of dehydrated poultry manure. However, peaks of abundance of larvae were shifted forward in time in response to the high rate of organic fertilizer. Tests using excised foliage showed that the shift was not caused by differential larval mortality or longer developmental times. Time allocation to resting, walking, and feeding by adults was similar regardless of fertilizer rate. Adult foliage consumption was unaffected by organic fertilizer rates in no choice tests and significantly affected in few choice tests. A 22% longer larval development time on plants treated with low fertilizer rate than on plants with high rate was the most significant effect. Even though maximum plant height, canopy, biomass, and yield were significantly smaller in the organic than in conventional plots, the suitability of the plants was not affected except for reduced feeding by summer beetles. Summer adults spent less time feeding and consumed two to five times less foliage on organic potato than on inorganically fertilized and conventionally produced plants. The overall influence of fertilizer on Colorado potato beetle populations was limited and therefore can only play a secondary role in management strategies for organic potato. Avoidance of excessive organic fertilizer that promotes short larval development time and extension of the period over which large Colorado potato beetle larvae are present should be recommended.

  10. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits.

  11. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  12. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  13. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  14. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  15. Potato Response to Tillage and Nitrogen Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato responses to different rates of pre-plant and in-season N management are evaluated under reduced and conventional tillage under center pivot irrigation. Tuber yield, tuber size distribution, and tuber specific gravity were largely similar across different tillage and N management practices. P...

  16. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  17. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  18. Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

  19. Grower price effects of Innate™ potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The revival of biotechnology applications for potato raises interesting economic questions that we examine here. Technologies of this sort increase supply by decreasing waste and reducing percentage of off-grade product. Increased supply leads, eventually, to reductions in the market price, so that ...

  20. Potato Processing from Low Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Everyone who grows or stores potatoes for chips or fries knows how challenging it is to deliver tubers that consistently produce light-colored fried products that meet processor and consumer expectations. Many factors contribute to dark color formation, including heat and water stress during tuber d...

  1. Yellow Nutsedge control in Potato with Imazosulfuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge control in potato with imazosulfuron was evaluated in trials conducted on a sandy loam soil near Pasco, WA and on a silt loam soil near Ontario, OR in 2007. Imazosulfuron was tested at 0.34, 0.45, and 0.56 kg ai/ha applied preemergence (PRE), PRE followed by postemergence (POST), and...

  2. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  3. False discoveries and models for gene discovery.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2003-10-01

    In the search for genes underlying complex traits, there is a tendency to impose increasingly stringent criteria to avoid false discoveries. These stringent criteria make it hard to find true effects, and we argue that it might be better to optimize our procedures for eliminating and controlling false discoveries. Focusing on achieving an acceptable ratio of true- and false-positives, we show that false discoveries could be eliminated much more efficiently using a stepwise approach. To avoid a relatively high false discovery rate, corrections for 'multiple testing' might also be needed in candidate gene studies. If the appropriate methods are used, detecting the proportion of true effects appears to be a more important determinant of the genotyping burden than the desired false discovery rate. This raises the question of whether current models for gene discovery are shaped excessively by a fear of false discoveries.

  4. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  5. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content.

  6. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  7. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  8. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  9. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  10. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  11. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  12. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterizaiton of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3’-poly(A) tail in this study. Their genomic organization is typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cl...

  14. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing.

  15. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  16. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

  17. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  18. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  19. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  20. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  1. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  2. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  3. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  4. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General §...

  5. Item method directed forgetting diminishes false memory.

    PubMed

    Marche, Tammy A; Brainerd, Charles J; Lane, David G; Loehr, Janeen D

    2005-10-01

    Directed forgetting may reduce DRM false memory illusion by interfering with meaning processing. Participants were presented with a list composed of six 10-word semantically associated sub-lists, and they were either (a) asked to remember all list items of (b) asked to remember all associates from sub-lists and to forget all associates from other sub-lists. All participants were requested to recall and recognise list items. Although directed forgetting effects have been previously reported only for true responses in the DRM paradigm with the list method, we also found directed forgetting for false responses with the item method. Such forgetting instructions reduced both verbatim and meaning processing, decreasing both the intrusion and the false alarm rate. These results are consistent with two-process explanations of DRM false memories, such as fuzzy-trace theory, and add to our understanding of false memory editing.

  6. Emotional content of true and false memories.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants' pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood events were planted using a suggestive manipulation and then compared, along several subjective dimensions, with other participants' true memories. On most emotional dimensions (e.g., how emotional was this event for you?), true and false memories were indistinguishable. On a few measures (e.g., intensity of feelings at the time of the event), true memories were more emotional than false memories in the aggregate, yet true and false memories were equally likely to be rated as uniformly emotional. These results suggest that even substantial emotional content may not reliably indicate memory accuracy.

  7. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  8. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  9. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-03-09

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts.

  10. Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement.

    PubMed

    Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time.

  11. New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Kasama, Kikuko; Toyota, Akie; Nouno, Masanori; Saita, Ayako; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Kubo, Misao

    2004-09-01

    In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study.

  12. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  13. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  14. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  15. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition.

  16. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Potato growth in response to relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

  18. Justifying all the fuss about false belief.

    PubMed

    Russell, James

    2005-07-01

    The classic study by Wimmer and Perner showed that children below the age of about 4 years of age fail to appreciate others' false beliefs. This opened the floodgates to the theory-of-mind research programme. Recently, a study by Riggs and Simpson has called the central challenge of false belief into question, reporting similar difficulties with true belief. I would argue, however, that not only should the acquisition of false belief remain a central concern but that we should think harder about it and its earlier manifestations.

  19. A human dietary risk assessment associated with glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Courtney L Pariera; Peterson, Robert K D

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative human dietary risk assessment was conducted using the glycoalkaloid concentrations measured from tubers of plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles and undefoliated (control). There was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids for defoliated plants compared to control plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers. The dietary risk posed to different human subgroups associated with the consumption of potatoes was estimated for the 50th, 95th, and 99.9th percentile US national consumption values. Exposures were compared to a toxic threshold of 1.0mg/kg body weight. Defoliation by Colorado potato beetles increased dietary risk by approximately 48%. Glycoalkaloid concentrations within the inner tissue of tubers, including undefoliated controls, exceeded the toxic threshold for all human subgroups at less than the 99.9th percentile of exposure, but not the 95th percentile.

  20. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  1. Resistance in Potato to Pratylenchus penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, B. B.; Plaisted, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Potato clones from five different breeding populations were evaluated for their relative resistance and susceptibility to Pratylenchus penetrans. Resistance and susceptibility were distinguished by an index of susceptibility (SI) calculated from the numbers of P. penetrans (including eggs) per g of root of individual clones in relation to that of a susceptible control at 30 or 70 days after inoculation. Evaluations were carried out using 7.5-cm clay pots in a growth chamber at 24 C with 15-hour day length. In the initial evaluation, 70 days after inoculation, the SI of individual clones ranged from 0.01 to 0.75. Clones that supported the least P. penetrans were from a breeding population derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena that was originally selected for its resistance to the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. In succeeding tests, these clones had a significantly low SI than did susceptible controls or cultivars that were previously reported to possess resistance to P. penetrans, except cv. Hudson. Resistance to P. penetrans from the Pallida-resistant breeding population was incorporated into potato germplasm better adapted to North American growing conditions. PMID:19279796

  2. Subtilisin protein inhibitor from potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Speranskaya, A S; Kladnitskaya, G V; Shevelev, A B; Valueva, T A

    2004-10-01

    A protein with molecular weight of 21 kD denoted as PKSI has been isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Istrinskii). The isolation procedure includes precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose CL-6B. The protein effectively inhibits the activity of subtilisin Carlsberg (Ki = 1.67 +/- 0.2 nM) by stoichiometric complexing with the enzyme at the molar ratio of 1 : 1. The inhibitor has no effect on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and the cysteine proteinase papain. The N-terminal sequence of the protein consists of 19 amino acid residues and is highly homologous to sequences of the known inhibitors from group C of the subfamily of potato Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors (PKPIs-C). By cloning PCR products from the genomic DNA of potato, a gene denoted as PKPI-C2 was isolated and sequenced. The N-terminal sequence (residues from 15 to 33) of the protein encoded by the PKPI-C2 gene is identical to the N-terminal sequence (residues from 1 to 19) of the isolated protein PKSI. Thus, the inhibitor PKSI is very likely encoded by this gene.

  3. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  4. The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2014-09-01

    Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and α-amylase StAmy23, β-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both α-amylase and β-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers.

  5. Induction mechanism of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in potato tuber and sweet potato root tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Katsuyoshi; Uritani, Ikuzo; Oba, Kazuko

    2003-05-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, EC1.1.1.34), the key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, was purified from microsomes of potato tuber tissue, and a polyclonal antibody and two monoclonal antibodies against the purified enzyme were prepared. HMGR protein content was measured by immunotitration and radioimmunoassay using these antibodies. HMGR activity was very low in the fresh tissues of both potato tuber and sweet potato root. The activity in potato tuber was increased by cutting and further by additional fungal infection of the cut tissues. In sweet potato root tissue, the activity was scarcely increased after cutting alone, but was markedly increased by additional fungal infection or chemical treatment. The HMGR protein contents in both fresh potato tuber and sweet potato root tissues were also very low, and increased markedly in response to cutting and fungal infection. From these results, we proposed a hypothesis on the induction mechanism of HMGR after cutting and fungal infection in potato tuber and sweet potato root tissues.

  6. 40 CFR 174.513 - Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.513 Section 174.513... Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance....

  7. 40 CFR 174.513 - Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.513 Section 174.513... Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance....

  8. 40 CFR 174.513 - Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potato Leaf Roll Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.513 Section 174.513... Virus Resistance Gene (also known as orf1/orf2 gene); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance....

  9. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory.

  10. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes.

    PubMed

    Bub, Achim; Möseneder, Jutta; Wenzel, Gerhard; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Briviba, Karlis

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However, zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether zeaxanthin from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes is bioavailable in humans. Three men participated in this randomized, controlled double-blinded, crossover pilot study. All subjects consumed 1,100 g of mashed potatoes, either genetically modified (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica GM47/18; 3 mg zeaxanthin) or wild-type control potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica; 0.14 mg zeaxanthin). A second treatment was followed after a 7-day wash-out period. The concentration of zeaxanthin was significantly increased in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified potatoes and 0.27 mg of the 3 mg zeaxanthin dose could be detected in chylomicrons. Consumption of control potatoes had no effect on concentrations of zeaxanthin in chylomicrons. After normalization of chylomicron zeaxanthin for plasma triacylglycerol, the time course of zeaxanthin concentrations peaked at 7 h after consumption of genetically modified potatoes. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other major potato carotenoids such as lutein and beta-carotene in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified and wild type control potatoes. Thus, consumption of zeaxanthin-rich potatoes significantly increases chylomicron zeaxanthin concentrations suggesting that potentially such potatoes could be used as an important dietary source of zeaxanthin.

  11. The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and 'jacket' potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Wilkinson, K; Reynolds, S L

    1998-07-01

    Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through of residues. Results demonstrated that ca 56% of the maleic hydrazide residue in a potato could be carried through into the potato crisps, irrespective of which type of crisp was being manufactured. Results from a similarly constructed study investigating the fate of pesticides applied post-harvest showed that carry-through was less than 10%. This difference is explained in terms of the different modes of action of the two classes of pesticides being investigated. It is known that, as maleic hydrazide is a systemic pesticide, it will be located within the flesh of the potato tuber and is therefore likely to be protected from the various stages of the crisping process. However, the post-harvest non-systemic pesticides are applied to the exterior surface of the tuber and are therefore not likely to be protected in the same way. The results also showed that, due to the concentration effect caused by the loss of moisture during crisp manufacture, the levels of maleic hydrazide residues in crisps (on a mg/kg product basis) were approximately twice those measured in the original potatoes.

  12. False Positive Mammograms and Detection Controlled Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kleit, Andrew N; Ruiz, James F

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of false positive in mammograms. Data Sources Secondary data collected from extracts from computerized medical records from 1999 from five thousand patients at a single hospital in a medium-sized Southern city. Study Design Retrospective analysis of electronic medical data on screening and diagnostic mammograms. Detection-controlled estimation (DCE) was used to compare the efficacy of alternative readers of mammogram films. Analysis was also conducted on follow-up exams of women who tested positive in the first stage of investigation. Key variables included whether the patient had had a prior mammogram, age of the patient, and identifiers for the individual physicians. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Hospital maintains electronic medical records (EMR) on all patients. Extracts were performed on this EMR system under the guidance of clinical expertise. Data were collected for all women who had mammograms in 1999. Random samples were employed for screening mammograms, and all data was used for diagnostic mammograms. Principal Findings Study results imply that access to a previous mammogram greatly reduces the incidence of false positives readings. This has important consequences for benefit-cost, and cost-effectiveness analysis of mammography. Were previous mammograms always available, the results imply the number of false positives would decrease by at least half. The results here also indicate that there is no reason to believe this decrease in false positive would be accompanied by an increase in the number of false negatives. Other attributes also affected the number of false positives. Mondays and Wednesdays appear to be more prone to false positives than the other days in the week. There is also some disparity in false positive outcomes among the five physicians studied. With respect to detection-controlled estimation, the results are mixed. With follow-up data, the DCE estimator appears to generate reasonable, robust

  13. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A.; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p < 0.05) when remembering episodes with positive or negative outcomes. The effect of valence was apparent in the patient group. For example, it did not affect the production causal false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved. PMID:27965600

  14. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p < 0.05) when remembering episodes with positive or negative outcomes. The effect of valence was apparent in the patient group. For example, it did not affect the production causal false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  15. Storage and processing evaluation of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease p...

  16. Advanced potato breeding clones: Storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease p...

  17. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Potato Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is the starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch in the tuber, approximately 75%, is amylopectin and 25% amylose, but can vary depending on the cultivar. A total of 162 American (85) and foreign (77) potato ...

  18. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains about 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many syste...

  19. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many systemic pa...

  20. Genetic diversity of wild potato of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato of commerce has two wild relatives in the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). The authors have collected samples at the natural habitats since 1992 (new), greatly increasing the geographic coverage and number of populations compared to what was in the US Potato Genebank avai...

  1. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-05-27

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  2. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  3. Progress toward the development of recombinant inbred lines in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complexities due to tetraploid genetics limit breeding progress in potato. Diploids offer more simple genetics. Homozygous populations such as recombinant inbred lines are powerful resources for genetic mapping and the subsequent development of markers for marker-assisted selection. Most potato dipl...

  4. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  5. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  6. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  7. Effect of irrigation system uniformity and method on potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and water uniformity is important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menof...

  8. Removing potatoes from children's diets may compromise potassium intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 200...

  9. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  10. Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  12. Fatty Acids and Bioactive Lipids of Potato Cultivars: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Oraby, Hesahm Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Potato tuber is a highly nutritious, wherein genotype and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size and nutritional value of potatoes. Owing to its high consumption, potato could be an ideal carrier of health-promoting phytochemicals. Potato cultivars contain many bioactive lipidic compounds such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, sterols, tocols and carotenoids, which are highly desirable in diet because of their health-promoting effects. In the scientific literature, information on the content and profile of bioactive lipidic compounds in potato cultivars are few. The concentration and stability of bioactive lipids are affected by many factors such as genotype, agronomic factors, postharvest storage, cooking and processing conditions. In this review levels and composition of bioactive lipids in terms of lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and caroteinoids distribution in different potato cultivars including genetically modified potato (GMP) were highlighted and discussed. In addition, factors affecting bioactive lipids levels, stability and health benefits are reviewed. In consideration of potential nutritional value, detailed knowledge on lipids of potato cultivars is of major importance.

  13. Potato stem density effects on canopy development and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled environment studies with potato frequently assume responses from single-stem potato plants can be extrapolated to the field where multiple-stem plants are common. Two controlled environment studies were conducted in order to characterize differences in canopy growth, development, and dry...

  14. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... this document. Rosellinia bunodes (Berk. & Broome) Sacc., a pathogenic fungus. R. pepo Pat., a pathogenic fungus. Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Percival, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato wart disease. Thecaphora solani (Thirum. & M. O'Brien) Mordue, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato smut....

  15. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff...: Deborah Simmons, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs,...

  16. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  17. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.

  18. Potato development and skin set in fresh market red varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bright, attractive, uniformly pigmented skin is critically important for fresh market red-skinned potatoes. We will summarize what is known about the potato skin development, with an emphasis on pigment accumulation and loss. We will provide some insight into what may be responsible for changes in...

  19. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  20. Accumulation of genetic diversity in the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient management of ex-situ collections includes understanding how conservation technologies impact the genetic diversity and integrity of these collections. For over 60 years, research at the US Potato Genebank has produced helpful scientific insights on diverse aspects of potato conservation. ...

  1. Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

  2. Learning words from speakers with false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2016-06-21

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative contexts relates to their ability to track someone's belief in non-communicative contexts. Here, we study young children's ability to successfully acquire a word from a speaker with a false belief; we also assess the same children's success on a traditional false belief attribution task. We show that the ability to consult the epistemic state of a speaker during word learning develops between the ages of three and five. We also show that false belief understanding in word-learning contexts proceeds similarly to standard belief-attribution contexts when the tasks are equated. Our data offer evidence for the development of mind-reading abilities during language acquisition.

  3. The Effects of High Temperature on Infection by Potato virus Y, Potato virus A, and Potato leafroll virus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bong Nam; Canto, Tomas; Tenllado, Francisco; Choi, Kyung San; Joa, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Kim, Chun Hwan; Do, Ki Seck

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on acquisition of Potato virus Y-O (PVY-O), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae by performing transmission tests with aphids that acquired each virus at different temperatures. Infection by PVY-O/PVA and PLRV increased with increasing plant temperature in Nicotiana benthamiana and Physalis floridana, respectively, after being transmitted by aphids that acquired them within a temperature range of 10–20°C. However, infection rates subsequently decreased. Direct qRT-PCR of RNA extracted from a single aphid showed that PLRV infection increased in the 10–20°C range, but this trend also declined shortly thereafter. We examined the effect of temperature on establishment of virus infection. The greatest number of plants became infected when N. benthamiana was held at 20°C after inoculation with PVY-O or PVA. The largest number of P. floridana plants became infected with PLRV when the plants were maintained at 25°C. PLRV levels were highest in P. floridana kept at 20–25°C. These results indicate that the optimum temperatures for proliferation of PVY-O/PVA and PLRV differed. Western blot analysis showed that accumulations of PVY-O and PVA coat proteins (CPs) were lower at 10°C or 15°C than at 20°C during early infection. However, accumulation increased over time. At 25°C or 30°C, the CPs of both viruses accumulated during early infection but disappeared as time passed. Our results suggest that symptom attenuation and reduction of PVY-O and PVA CP accumulation at higher temperatures appear to be attributable to increased RNA silencing. PMID:27493607

  4. FALSE MEMORY AND OBSESSIVE–COMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Heide; Amir, Nader; Garfinkel, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The memory deficit hypothesis has been used to explain the maintenance of repetitive behavior in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder, yet the majority of studies focusing on verbal memory show mixed results. These studies primarily evaluated memory accuracy via the inclusion or omission of previously encountered material, as opposed to false recognition (i.e., the inclusion of erroneous material). We evaluated false memories and memory processes in individuals with obsessive–compulsive washing symptoms (OC), individuals matched on depression and anxiety without OC symptoms (D/A), and in nonanxious individuals (NAC). Methods Twenty-eight OC, 28 D/A, and 29 NAC individuals read OC-threat relevant, positive, and neutral scenarios and then performed a recognition test. Erroneous recognition of words associated to encoded, but not previously viewed, scenarios were classified as false memories. To evaluate processes underlying memory, participants completed a modified remember/know task to examine whether the OC individuals differed from the other individuals in recollective clarity for false memories of OC-relevant (e.g., germs), positive (e.g., lottery), and neutral (e.g., bread) material. Results The OC individuals used “know” more than the D/A and NAC individuals for false memories of threat. For veridical memories, the OC individuals used “know” more than the NAC, but not, D/A individuals. Conclusions The greater reliance on “know” (i.e., feelings of familiarity) in general and false threat memories in particular in individuals with OC symptoms may add to feelings of uncertainty for threat-relevant material, which may contribute to compulsive behavior. PMID:18839404

  5. Transmission of potato purple top phytoplasma to potato tubers and daughter plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, 2007, and 2008, Alturas, Russet Burbank, FL1867, FL1879, Russet Norkotah, Ranger Russet, Shepody, and Umatilla Russet potatoes were planted at a research farm near Moxee, WA. Plants were allowed to become infested with native populations of the beet leafhopper which are known vectors of t...

  6. A Model to Explain Temperature Dependent Systemic Infection of Potato Plants by Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung San; del Toro, Francisco; Tenllado, Francisco; Canto, Tomas; Chung, Bong Nam

    2017-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the rate of systemic infection of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Chu-Baek) by Potato virus Y (PVY) was studied in growth chambers. Systemic infection of PVY was observed only within the temperature range of 16°C to 32°C. Within this temperature range, the time required for a plant to become infected systemically decreased from 14 days at 20°C to 5.7 days at 28°C. The estimated lower thermal threshold was 15.6°C and the thermal constant was 65.6 degree days. A systemic infection model was constructed based on experimental data, using the infection rate (Lactin-2 model) and the infection distribution (three-parameter Weibull function) models, which accurately described the completion rate curves to systemic infection and the cumulative distributions obtained in the PVY-potato system, respectively. Therefore, this model was useful to predict the progress of systemic infections by PVY in potato plants, and to construct the epidemic models. PMID:28381967

  7. Physical properties of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A R; Guha, M; Reddy, S Y; Tharanathan, R N; Ramteke, R S

    2007-06-01

    Textural profile, pasting behavior, gelatinization characteristics, sedimentation volume, and gel consistency of acetylated (Ac) and enzyme (glucoamylase)-modified (EM) potato and sweet potato flours have been investigated to determine their suitability in products such as baked goods, soup, and pudding. Dough hardness of Ac and EM samples was significantly higher than their native samples (P < 0.01). Dough cohesiveness of modified potato did not change, while it decreased in modified sweet potato. With increase in moisture, textural properties of modified samples, in general, showed reduced values. Rapid Visco Analyser showed least pasting viscosities of Ac flours due to restricted swelling of starch granules while EM flours exhibited high viscosities. Acetylated samples showed reduced gelatinization temperature (GT), and enthalpy (DeltaH) compared to native samples, whereas enzyme-treated samples showed no significant changes in GT, indicating their comparable crystallinity values with those of native samples. Modified flour samples had lower sediment volumes and gel consistency, and the gel consistency of EM flour correlated with its cold paste viscosity.

  8. Dynamics of Responses in Compatible Potato - Potato virus Y Interaction Are Modulated by Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Baebler, Špela; Stare, Katja; Kovač, Maja; Blejec, Andrej; Prezelj, Nina; Stare, Tjaša; Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Rosahl, Sabine; Ravnikar, Maja; Gruden, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of the potatoPotato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid - controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVYNTN, the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom development was confirmed by pronounced symptom development in NahG-Désirée, depleted in salicylic acid, and reversion of the effect after spraying with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (a salicylic acid - analogue). We have employed quantitative PCR for monitoring virus multiplication, as well as plant responses through expression of selected marker genes of photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate metabolism and the defence response. Viral multiplication was the slowest in inoculated potato of cv. Désirée, the only asymptomatic genotype in the study. The intensity of defence-related gene expression was much stronger in both sensitive genotypes (NahG-Désirée and cv. Igor) at the site of inoculation than in asymptomatic plants (cv. Désirée). Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism gene expression differed between the symptomatic and asymptomatic phenotypes. The differential gene expression pattern of the two sensitive genotypes indicates that the outcome of the interaction does not rely simply on one regulatory component, but similar phenotypical features can result from distinct responses at the molecular level. PMID:22194976

  9. Properties of starch from potatoes differing in glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Lin Ek, Kai; Wang, Shujun; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Copeland, Les

    2014-10-01

    Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p < 0.05) pasting temperature and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) gelatinization onset, peak and conclusion temperatures, compared to the other cultivars. Differences between the potatoes in the other properties measured did not align with the GI ranking. Thermal analysis and starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI.

  10. Cloning and expression of the potato alternative oxidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, C.; McIntosh, L. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing )

    1990-05-01

    Mitochondria from 24-hour-aged potato slices possess an alternative path capacity and a 36kD protein not present in fresh potato mitochondria. This 36kD protein was identified by a monoclonal antibody against the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase. These results suggest de novo synthesis of the 36kD protein during the aging process. To investigate this phenomenon, a clone containing a potato alternative oxidase gene was isolated from a cDNA library using the S. guttatum gene as a probe. This clone shows areas of high homology to the S. guttatum gene. Norther blots of RNA from fresh and 24-hour-aged potato slices are being probed with the potato gene to examine its expression in relation to the appearance of the 36kD protein.

  11. 12 CFR 308.502 - Basis for civil penalties and assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis for civil penalties and assessments. 308... civil penalties and assessments. (a) Claims. (1) A person who makes a false, fictitious, or fraudulent... a civil penalty under paragraph (a)(1) of this section will also be subject to an assessment of...

  12. 4 CFR 202.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions against misuse of seal. 202.3 Section 202.3 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD OFFICIAL SEAL § 202.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Falsely making, forging, counterfeiting, mutilating, or altering the Board seal...

  13. 16 CFR 300.30 - Deceptive labeling in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive labeling in general. 300.30... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.30 Deceptive labeling... stamp, tag, label, mark or representation which is false, misleading or deceptive in any...

  14. 41 CFR 105-55.003 - Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency claims, and claims over $100,000 excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust, fraud, tax... § 105-55.003 Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency claims, and claims over $100,000 excluded. (a) The... involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the part of the debtor or...

  15. 5 CFR 845.408 - Special processing for fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special processing for fraud claims. 845... Recovery of a Debt From the Civil Service Retirement Fund § 845.408 Special processing for fraud claims. When an agency sends a claim indicating fraud, presentation of a false claim, misrepresentation by...

  16. 5 CFR 831.1808 - Special processing for fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special processing for fraud claims. 831... Retirement and Disability Fund § 831.1808 Special processing for fraud claims. When an agency sends a claim indicating fraud, presentation of a false claim, misrepresentation by the debtor or any other...

  17. 9 CFR 362.4 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 362.4 Section 362.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., assaults, abuse, or any other improper means; (iv) has knowingly falsely made, issued, altered, forged,...

  18. 6 CFR 13.1 - Basis, purpose, scope and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis, purpose, scope and effect. 13.1 Section... REMEDIES § 13.1 Basis, purpose, scope and effect. (a) Basis. This part implements the Program Fraud Civil... Persons who Make, submit, or present, or cause to be Made, submitted, or presented, false, fictitious,...

  19. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... decreased the assessment rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the... potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown...

  20. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  1. Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

  2. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of Spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root galls possibly caused by Spongospora subterranea were observed on hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides; HNS). HNS galls and galls from potato were used to artificially inoculate potato and HNS. Eighty-three and 52% potato and HNS plants inoculated with potato inoculum had root galls, respecti...

  3. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  4. Matrimony vine and potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a worrisome marriage?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  5. Epitope mapping for monoclonal antibodies recognizing tuber necrotic isolates of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important viral pathogen of potato responsible for reducing tuber yield and quality across the globe. The PVYN and PVYNTN strains, the latter of which induces potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), are regulated for international potato trade, and have been routin...

  6. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  7. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  8. False Accusations of Nosocomial Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…

  9. Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstein, I.

    1983-08-29

    A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

  10. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  11. Memory distrust syndrome, confabulation and false confession.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, Gisli

    2017-02-01

    There are three types of false confessions: 'voluntary', 'pressured-compliant' and 'pressured-internalized'. On the basis of case studies, in the early 1980s Gudjonsson and MacKeith coined the term 'memory distrust syndrome (MDS)' to describe a condition where people develop profound distrust of their memory and become susceptible to relying on external cues and suggestions from others. Memory distrust can, under certain circumstances, lead to a false confession, particularly of the pressured-internalized type, described as 'confabulation'. This article reviews the evidence for the condition and the psychological mechanism and processes involved. A heuristic model is then presented of a 32 year old man who falsely confessed to murder whilst in police custody. The key elements of the model involve the impact of 'contextual risk factors' (i.e., isolation, long and persistent guilt presumptive interrogation, and high emotional intensity) on 'enduring' vulnerability and 'acute state' factors. The detainee had kept a detailed diary whilst in solitary confinement that provided a unique insight into the gradual development of a MDS, his mental state, and thinking process. This type of false confession is apparently quite rare, but it can occur in intellectually able and educated individuals and involves 'delayed' rather than 'immediate' suggestibility.

  12. Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

  13. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition.

  14. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  15. Identification and definitions of Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) waveforms for the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, on susceptible potato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is the vector of Ca. Liberibacter psyllaurous/solanacearum, a bacterium associated with a lethal potato disease with tuber-striping symptoms, termed Zebra Chip (ZC). Presently, there are no effective management tactics for ZC, although research to aid de...

  16. Impact of potato planting timing on potato zebra chip disease incidence in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra Chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand has caused losses of millions of dollars to the potato industry. The disease is associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) transmitted to...

  17. Palisade Russet and Teton Russet: Two New Potato Cultivars from the Northwest (Tri-State) Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tri-State Potato Variety Development Program released two potato cultivars in 2011: Palisade Russet and Teton Russet. Palisade Russet (PR) is notable for having resistance to foliar and tuber late blight. PR is also resistant to Verticillium wilt, black dot, and pink rot, and has a moderate re...

  18. Comparative BAC end sequence analysis of tomato and potato reveals overrepresentation of specific gene families in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato genome has a higher repeat content than the potato genome, which is primarily the result of a higher amount of retrotransposons in the tomato genome. Potato has a higher abundance of simple sequence repeats than tomato, and the distribution of motifs also differs between these species. Fu...

  19. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  20. Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella. PMID:25373189

  1. First report of association of potato virus X and potato virus Y and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' in brinjal in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Katiyar, Akshay; Madhupriya; Rao, G P

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of little leaf, leaf chlorosis and leaf malformations with mosaic mottling symptoms were observed in two brinjal varieties (Pusa Shyamla and Pusa Purple Cluster) in fields of IARI, New Delhi, India during 2014-2015. Electron microscopy, PCR and sequence analysis first time provided evidence of association of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii with potato virus X and potato virus Y in brinjal in India.

  2. Potato field colonization by low-density populations of Colorado potato beetle as a function of crop rotation distance.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Picka, J D; Watmough, James

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring of 10 and 12 commercial potato, Solanum tuberosum L., fields in 2004 and 2005, respectively, confirmed for a low-density population of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), that potato fields nearest to the previous year's potato fields are significantly more colonized by this beetle than more distant fields. This pattern is partially explained by the presence of a reservoir of colonizers estimated at 35% of the season-long colonizing population in 2004 and 2005. These beetles, which emerged before potato plants broke the ground, were ready to establish themselves on nearby potato plants. The colonizing Colorado potato beetles dispersed within the maximum range of 1.5 km over a season, and the colonization risk for the new crop decreased with distance from the previous year's crop. There was no evidence that rotation distance delayed colonization. In terms of pest management, although the findings confirm that only long 1.5-km rotations can prevent Colorado potato beetle colonization, they also demonstrate that short rotations of 100 m or more can make substantial contributions to pest management programs for low-density beetle populations.

  3. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  4. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge.

  5. False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people's thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in "false belief" and "false photograph" (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true ("reality" questions) or false beliefs ("representation" questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants' working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and "false photo" control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

  6. Trade-off between false positives and false negatives in the linkage analysis of complex traits.

    PubMed

    Todorov, A A; Rao, D C

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the issue of false positives in genomic scans for detecting complex trait loci using subpair linkage methods and investigates the trade-off between the rate of false positives and the rate of false negatives. It highlights the tremendous cost in terms of power brought about by an excessive control of type I error and, at the same time, confirms that a larger number of false positives can occur otherwise in the course of a genomic scan. Finally, it compares the power and rate of false positives obtained in preplanned replicated studies conducted using a liberal significance level to those for single-step studies that use the same total sample size but stricter levels of significance. For the models considered here, replicate studies were found more attractive as long as one is willing to accept a trade-off, exchanging a much lower rate of false negatives for a slight increase in the rate of false positives.

  7. Squeezed potato orbits in a magnetic well

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2001-09-01

    It is shown that potato orbits in the near-axis region of a high beta tokamak are squeezed in a magnetic well. The squeezing factor is the same as that for the banana orbits derived in an earlier work [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2843 (1996)]. It depends on the energy of the particle. For high-energy particles, the size of the squeezed orbits is independent of their energy. This implies improved confinement for high-energy particles and for high beta tokamaks with advanced fuels.

  8. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  9. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  10. Alkyl ferulates in wound healing potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Lewis, N G

    1992-10-01

    Seven ferulic acid esters of 1-alkanols ranging in carbon length from C16 to C28 were synthesized and an HPLC protocol for their separation developed. Extracts prepared from wound healing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and analysed by HPLC indicated that alkyl ferulate esters begin to accumulate 3-7 days after wound treatment. Of the nine esters identified by EIMS, (including two esters of odd chain length alkanols) hexadecyl and octadecyl ferulates were predominant. Alkyl ferulate esters were restricted to the wound periderm.

  11. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  12. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  13. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    PubMed

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life.

  14. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  15. Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2011-02-01

    A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented.

  16. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  17. False memories in Lewy-body disease.

    PubMed

    Algarabel, Salvador; Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Escudero, Joaquín

    2015-12-01

    Recently, de Boysson, Belleville, Phillips et al. (2011) found that patients with Lewy-body disease (LBD) showed significantly lower rates of false memories than healthy controls, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) experimental procedure. Given that this result could be explained by the practically null rate of true recognition in the LBD group (0.09), we decided to replicate the study by de Boysson et al. (2011), but including a new condition that would maximize the true recognition rate (and analyze its effect on the rate of false memories). Specifically, in a DRM experiment, we manipulated (within subjects) two study and recognition conditions: in the "immediate" condition, both the LBD patients and the control group of healthy older people received a different recognition test after each study list (containing twelve words associated with a non-presented critical word), while in the "delayed" condition (similar to the one in de Boysson et al., 2011), the participants received the entire series of study lists and then took only one recognition test. The results showed that, in both samples, the "immediate" condition produced higher corrected rates of both true and false recognition than the "delayed" condition, although they were both lower in the LBD patients, which shows that these patients are capable of encoding and recognizing the general similitude underlying information (gist memory) in the right conditions.

  18. Infants’ Reasoning About Others’ False Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object’s misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an agent faced a stuffed skunk and a doll with blue pigtails; the agent consistently reached for the doll, suggesting that she preferred it over the skunk. Next, while the agent was absent, the doll was hidden in a plain box, and the skunk was hidden in a box with a tuft of blue hair protruding from under its lid. Infants expected the agent to be misled by the tuft’s resemblance to the doll’s hair and to falsely perceive it as belonging to the doll. These and other results indicate that 14.5-month-old infants can already reason about agents’ false perceptions. PMID:18999340

  19. False Beliefs in Unreliable Knowledge Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Evangelos; Varsakelis, Nikos; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this work are: (1) to extend knowledge dynamics analysis in order to assess the influence of false beliefs and unreliable communication channels, (2) to investigate the impact of selection rule-policy for knowledge acquisition, (3) to investigate the impact of targeted link attacks ("breaks" or "infections") of certain "healthy" communication channels. We examine the knowledge dynamics analytically, as well as by simulations on both artificial and real organizational knowledge networks. The main findings are: (1) False beliefs have no significant influence on knowledge dynamics, while unreliable communication channels result in non-monotonic knowledge updates ("wild" knowledge fluctuations may appear) and in significant elongation of knowledge attainment. Moreover, false beliefs may emerge during knowledge evolution, due to the presence of unreliable communication channels, even if they were not present initially, (2) Changing the selection rule-policy, by raising the awareness of agents to avoid the selection of unreliable communication channels, results in monotonic knowledge upgrade and in faster knowledge attainment, (3) "Infecting" links is more harmful than "breaking" links, due to "wild" knowledge fluctuations and due to the elongation of knowledge attainment. Moreover, attacking even a "small" percentage of links (≤5%) with high knowledge transfer, may result in dramatic elongation of knowledge attainment (over 100%), as well as in delays of the onset of knowledge attainment. Hence, links of high knowledge transfer should be protected, because in Information Warfare and Disinformation, these links are the "best targets".

  20. A closer look at self-reported suicide attempts: false positives and false negatives.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-02-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing false positives decreased the rate of suicide attempters from 4.3% to 2.7%. Probing questions also revealed 0.8% false negatives. We recommend using probing questions with both those who report a suicide attempt and those who do not report a suicide attempt to increase the validity of self-reported suicide-related information.