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Sample records for 2012-04-01 false effect

  1. 23 CFR 635.205 - Finding of cost effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finding of cost effectiveness. 635.205 Section 635.205... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Force Account Construction § 635.205 Finding of cost effectiveness. (a) It may be found cost effective for a State transportation department or county to undertake a federally...

  2. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a) Effect of ruling letters generally. A...

  3. 21 CFR 3.9 - Effect of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of letter of designation. 3.9 Section 3.9... JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.9 Effect of letter of... designated agency component with the written consent of the sponsor, or without its consent to protect...

  4. 24 CFR 84.3 - Effect on other issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on other issuances. 84.3 Section 84.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 84.3 Effect on other issuances....

  5. 21 CFR 1314.10 - Effect on State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on State laws. 1314.10 Section 1314.10 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS General § 1314.10 Effect on State laws. Nothing in this part preempts State law on the same subject matter unless there is a positive conflict between this part and a State law so that...

  6. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid election with respect to a taxable year under the provisions of section 853(a) is, for such year,...

  7. 26 CFR 1.243-5 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.243-5 Section 1.243-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.243-5 Effect of election. (a) General—(1) Corporations subject to restrictions and limitations. If an election by an affiliated group under section...

  8. 18 CFR 154.107 - Currently effective rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Currently effective rates. 154.107 Section 154.107 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Composition of Tariff § 154.107 Currently effective rates. (a) This section of the tariff must present...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.5 - Effect on other issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on other issuances. 1403.5 Section 1403.5 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 1403.5 Effect on other...

  10. 20 CFR 349.6 - Effect of revised decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of revised decision. 349.6 Section 349.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT FINALITY OF DECISIONS REGARDING UNEMPLOYMENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE BENEFITS § 349.6 Effect...

  11. 21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.05 Effective dates of labeling requirements....

  12. 26 CFR 1.346-3 - Effect of certain sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of certain sales. 1.346-3 Section 1.346-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Definition § 1.346-3 Effect of certain sales. The determination of...

  13. 27 CFR 19.613 - Average effective tax rate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Average effective tax rate records. 19.613 Section 19.613 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Tax Records § 19.613 Average effective tax rate...

  14. 26 CFR 1.996-6 - Effectively connected income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effectively connected income. 1.996-6 Section 1.996-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-6 Effectively connected income. In the case of a...

  15. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a..., flower pots, and kindred products manufactured from the clay and shale described in paragraph (b) of §...

  16. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective bactericidal treatment. 1240.10 Section... DISEASES General Provisions § 1240.10 Effective bactericidal treatment. Whenever, under the provisions of this part, bactericidal treatment is required, it shall be accomplished by one or more of the...

  17. 17 CFR 230.461 - Acceleration of effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., readable, and in compliance with the plain English requirements of Rule 421(d) of Regulation C (17 CFR 230... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceleration of effective date... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.461 Acceleration...

  18. 23 CFR 750.705 - Effective control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... standards contained in subpart B, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR; (d) Remove illegal signs expeditiously; (e..., part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR, sets forth policies for the acquisition and compensation for such signs... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective control. 750.705 Section 750.705...

  19. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3 Section 154.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... gas company must not directly or indirectly, demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge for, or...

  20. 24 CFR 35.105 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates. 35.105 Section 35.105 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(v)(2)-2 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates and transition rules. 31.3121(v)(2)-2 Section 31.3121(v)(2)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Provisions § 31.3121(v)(2)-2 Effective dates and transition rules. (a) General statutory effective...

  2. 19 CFR 148.6 - Entry of unaccompanied shipments of effects subject to personal exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry of unaccompanied shipments of effects... General Provisions § 148.6 Entry of unaccompanied shipments of effects subject to personal exemptions. (a) Declaration to support free entry. When effects claimed to be free of duty under subheadings 9804.00.10,...

  3. 18 CFR 1302.12 - Effect on other regulations; supervision and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1302.12 Effect on other regulations; supervision and coordination... with the effectuation of the purposes of Title VI of the Act and this part (other than responsibility... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on...

  4. 19 CFR 10.781 - Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non-originating fabric or apparel goods. 10.781 Section 10.781 Customs... transshipment of non-originating fabric or apparel goods. (a) Effect of noncompliance. If an importer of a...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2055-3 - Effect of death taxes and administration expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of death taxes and administration... § 20.2055-3 Effect of death taxes and administration expenses. (a) Death taxes—(1) If under the terms... uses, that is, the amount of the fund remaining after the payment of all death taxes. Thus, if...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2037-1 - Transfers taking effect at death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfers taking effect at death. 20.2037-1... Transfers taking effect at death. (a) In general. A decedent's gross estate includes under section 2037 the... disposition by him, and (3) The value of the reversionary interest immediately before the decedent's...

  7. 20 CFR 411.470 - When does an IWP become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When does an IWP become effective? 411.470 Section 411.470 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Requirements For Individual Work Plans § 411.470 When does an IWP become effective? (a) An...

  8. 19 CFR 10.588 - Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... § 10.588 Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment. (a)...

  9. 20 CFR 220.15 - Effects of work on occupational disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effects of work on occupational disability... Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.15 Effects of work on occupational disability. (a) Disability onset when... annuity will be payable, however, until after the last date worked. (b) Occupational disability...

  10. 21 CFR 868.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 868.3 Section 868.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.3 Effective dates...

  11. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  12. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  13. 21 CFR 1003.5 - Effect of regulations on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liability at common law or under statutory law. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of regulations on other laws. 1003.5... Effect of regulations on other laws. The remedies provided for in this subchapter shall be in addition...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1851 - Effects of being considered a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1851 Effects of being considered a child. If we consider you to be a child for SSI purposes, the rules in this section apply when we... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effects of being considered a child....

  15. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  16. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  17. 20 CFR 416.1802 - Effects of marriage on eligibility and amount of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effects of marriage on eligibility and amount....1802 Effects of marriage on eligibility and amount of benefits. (a) If you have an ineligible spouse—(1... marriage ends, even on the first day of a month, we will treat you as married until the next month....

  18. 21 CFR 892.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 892.3 Section 892.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 892.3 Effective dates...

  19. 26 CFR 1.615-7 - Effect of transfer of mineral property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of transfer of mineral property. 1.615-7... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-7 Effect of transfer of mineral property. (a) Transfer before election by transferor. (1) If mineral property is transferred in...

  20. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(2)-1 - Effective period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective period of agreement. 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Effective period of agreement. (a) In general. An agreement entered into...

  1. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-3 - Effect of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-3 Effect of agreement. (a) Liability for amounts equivalent to tax—(1) In...

  2. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(5)-1 - Effect of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of termination. 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Effect of termination. (a) Termination of entire agreement. (1) If the...

  3. 19 CFR 133.34 - Effective date, term, and cancellation of recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... copyright and protection thereunder shall be effective on the date an application for recordation is... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date, term, and cancellation of... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Recordation of...

  4. 21 CFR 601.34 - Evaluation of effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of effectiveness. 601.34 Section 601.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... locate anatomical structures and to characterize their anatomy. (2) The claim of...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4965-9 - Effective/applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective/applicability dates. 53.4965-9 Section 53.4965-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes §...

  6. 26 CFR 1.860-5 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date. 1.860-5 Section 1.860-5 Internal.... (Sec. 7805, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 7805; sec. 860(e) (92 Stat. 2849, 26 U.S.C. 860(e)); sec. 860(g) (92 Stat. 2850, 26 U.S.C. 860(g)))...

  7. 24 CFR 3.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of other requirements. 3.125 Section 3.125 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  8. 24 CFR 3.130 - Effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of employment opportunities. 3.130 Section 3.130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  9. 24 CFR 3.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose and effective date. 3.100 Section 3.100 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1... QSub election. (a) Separate existence ignored—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in... general. If an S corporation makes a valid QSub election with respect to a subsidiary, the subsidiary...

  11. 21 CFR 12.38 - Effective date of an order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date of an order. 12.38 Section 12.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL FORMAL... approval application, or biologics license, in whole or in part, or revoking a device product...

  12. 24 CFR 220.803 - Effect of insurance endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of insurance endorsement. 220.803 Section 220.803 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. 20 CFR 726.5 - Effective date of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date of insurance coverage. 726.5 Section 726.5 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  14. 18 CFR 1314.1 - Applicability and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability and effect. 1314.1 Section 1314.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES FOR TVA POWER SECURITIES ISSUED THROUGH THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS §...

  15. 26 CFR 1.179-6 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.179-6 Section 1.179-6... years ending after January 25, 1993. However, a taxpayer may apply the provisions of §§ 1.179-1 through... ending on or before January 25, 1993. Otherwise, for property placed in service by the taxpayer...

  16. 26 CFR 18.0 - Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982. 18.0 Section 18.0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SUBCHAPTER S REVISION ACT OF 1982 § 18.0 Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter...

  17. 23 CFR 669.13 - Effect of failure to certify or to adequately obtain proof-of-payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of failure to certify or to adequately obtain proof-of-payment. 669.13 Section 669.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF HEAVY VEHICLE USE TAX § 669.13 Effect of...

  18. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects... TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.39 Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable...

  19. 20 CFR 672.535 - What effect do payments to YouthBuild participants have on eligibility for other Federal need...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Administrative Rules, Costs, and Limitations § 672.535 What effect do payments to YouthBuild participants have on eligibility for other Federal need-based benefits? Under 20 CFR 667.272(c... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What effect do payments to...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  1. 24 CFR 3.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 3.535 Section 3.535 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 862.3 Section 862.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES General...

  3. 20 CFR 802.206 - Effect of motion for reconsideration on time for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of motion for reconsideration on time for appeal. 802.206 Section 802.206 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... administrative law judge or deputy commissioner shall suspend the running of the time for filing a notice...

  4. 20 CFR 702.205 - Employer's report; effect of failure to report upon time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employer's report; effect of failure to report upon time limitations. 702.205 Section 702.205 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION...) shall not begin to run until such report shall have been furnished as required herein. Notice...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2031-6 - Valuation of household and personal effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Valuation of household and personal effects. 20.2031-6 Section 20.2031-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross...

  6. 24 CFR 599.503 - Effect of Renewal Community designation on an EZ/EC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of Renewal Community designation on an EZ/EC. 599.503 Section 599.503 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES...

  7. 24 CFR 599.501 - Period for which Renewal Community designation is in effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period for which Renewal Community designation is in effect. 599.501 Section 599.501 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 874.3 Section 874.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES General Provisions § 874.3...

  9. 19 CFR 10.610 - Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.610 Section... noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non-originating cotton or...

  10. 19 CFR 10.424 - Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of noncompliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10... documentation regarding transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods....

  11. 21 CFR 866.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 866.3 Section 866.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1071-2 - Nature and effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nature and effect of election. 1.1071-2 Section 1.1071-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-2 Nature...

  13. 21 CFR 878.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 878.3 Section 878.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES General Provisions §...

  14. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  15. 21 CFR 876.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 876.3 Section 876.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 876.3...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460)....

  17. 18 CFR 2.17 - Price discrimination and anticompetitive effect (price squeeze issue).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Price discrimination and anticompetitive effect (price squeeze issue). 2.17 Section 2.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  18. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  19. 21 CFR 25.60 - Environmental effects abroad of major agency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major agency actions. 25.60 Section 25.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... subject to the exemptions, exclusions, and modification in contents, timing, and availability of...

  20. 22 CFR 141.11 - Effect on other regulations; forms and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on other regulations; forms and instructions. 141.11 Section 141.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT...

  1. 19 CFR 10.823 - Effect of non-compliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of non-compliance; failure to provide documentation regarding transshipment of non-originating fabric or apparel goods. 10.823 Section 10.823 Customs... transshipment of non-originating fabric or apparel goods. (a) General. If an importer of a good for which a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.882-2 - Income of foreign corporations treated as effectively connected with U.S. business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Income of foreign corporations treated as... § 1.882-2 Income of foreign corporations treated as effectively connected with U.S. business. (a... such real property, may elect, pursuant to section 882(d) and § 1.871-10, to treat all such income...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1441-4T - Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts (temporary). 1.1441-4T Section 1.1441-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Withholding of Tax on...

  4. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  5. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  6. 26 CFR 53.4943-11 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date. 53.4943-11 Section 53.4943-11... Effective date. (a) In general. Section 4943 and §§ 53.4943-1 through 53.4943-11 shall take effect for...-9) within a period ending 90 days after July 5, 1977 extended (prior to the expiration of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.148-11 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.148-11 Section 1.148-11... before July 8, 1997; and (2) Sections 1.148-1 through 1.148-11 as in effect on July 1, 1993 (see 26 CFR... adjusted as necessary to reflect allocations made between May 18, 1992, and August 15, 1993, if...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1502-99 - Effective/applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective/applicability dates. 1.1502-99...(d)(7), Example 4, § 1.1502-92(b)(1)(iii), § 1.1502-92(b)(2), Example 5, the last two sentences of....1502-92(b)(1)(i)(relating to the determination of an ownership change of a loss group),...

  9. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates and transition rules. 1.860A-1... interests after April 20, 1992. However, § 1.860G-3(a) does not apply to a transfer of a residual interest... REMIC) on or before June 30, 1992, if— (A) The terms of the regular interests and the prices at...

  10. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  11. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  12. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  13. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  14. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  15. 21 CFR 601.25 - Review procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review procedures to determine that licensed... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.25 Review procedures to... category of products. (a) Advisory review panels. The Commissioner of Food and Drugs shall appoint...

  16. False Memory ≠ False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = −.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effectfalse memories’ do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

  17. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance.

  18. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

  19. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  20. The effect of Twitter exposure on false memory formation.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Kimberly M; Griffin, Nicholas R; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Ravizza, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter have increased drastically in popularity. However, information on these sites is not verified and may contain inaccuracies. It is well-established that false information encountered after an event can lead to memory distortion. Therefore, social media may be particularly harmful for autobiographical memory. Here, we tested the effect of Twitter on false memory. We presented participants with a series of images that depicted a story and then presented false information about the images in a scrolling feed that bore either a low or high resemblance to a Twitter feed. Confidence for correct information was similar across the groups, but confidence for suggested information was significantly lower when false information was presented in a Twitter format. We propose that individuals take into account the medium of the message when integrating information into memory.

  1. [False memories and aging: age effects on predictive inferences].

    PubMed

    Gras, Doriane; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2008-12-01

    To study false memories in older adults, a lot of experiments used the DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger et McDermott). Most of the time, the results showed that older adults make more false memories than young adults. To test this hypothesis with a more ecological material, we used a situation of text reading. When we read a text, we activate predictive inferences, which are anticipations of what will happen next. We constructed short texts inducing predictive inferences (represented by a target word not presented) to study false memories in young and older adults. For example, in the text , the target word "sting" is not presented but represents the predictive inference. After the reading of the texts, we propose to the subjects a restitution task consisting in recalling texts with the first sentence as clue. Then, they made a recognition task composed of target words and lures; they had to say if they remembered having read these words in the texts. In these two tasks, the subjects tended to remember not presented target words, creating false memories. This effect was the same for the two age groups showing that, in an ecological situation like text reading, older persons make as many false memories as young adults. PMID:19087911

  2. Effectiveness of false correction strategy on science reading comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Cynthia Anne

    False-correction reading strategy theoretically prompted college students to activate their prior knowledge when provided false statements linked to a portion of their biology textbook. This strategy is based in elaborative interrogation theory, which suggests that prompting readers to answer interrogatives about text students are reading increases their comprehension of that text. These interrogatives always asked "why" statements pulled from a text, one sentence in length, were "true." True statements in this study based on a text were converted by the experimenter into false statements, one sentence in length. Students were requested to rewrite each statement (n=12) on average every 200 words in a text as they were reading, converting each false statement into a true statement. These students outperformed other students requested to reread the same biology text twice (an established placebo-control strategy). These students, in turn, outperformed still other students reading an unrelated control text taken from the same textbook used only to establish a prior knowledge baseline for all students included in this study. Students participating in this study were enrolled students in an undergraduate introductory general biology course designed for non-majors. A three-group, posttest-only, randomized experimental control-group design was used to prevent pretest activation of students' prior knowledge thus increasing chances of producing evidence of false-correction effectiveness and to begin augmenting potential generalizability to science classrooms. Students' (n=357) general biology knowledge, verbal ability, and attempts to use the false correction strategy were collected and analyzed. Eight of the participants were interviewed by the researcher in a first attempt in this domain to collect data on participants' points of view about the strategy. The results of this study are not yet recommended for use in authentic school settings as further research is indicated.

  3. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  4. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  5. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

  6. Context effects and false memory for alcohol words in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2009-03-01

    This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (87 male) 10th grade students, ages 14-16 (M=15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental--Group E, n=92) or only Neutral (Control--Group C, n=79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two's. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

  7. Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

  8. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  9. 26 CFR 1.337(d)-2 - Loss limitation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 1.337(d)-2T as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 in effect on March 2, 2005. ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss limitation rules. 1.337(d)-2 Section 1.337... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.337(d)-2 Loss limitation rules. (a)...

  10. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... features of continuous wave doppler-effect technology with pulsed-echo effect technology and is intended to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1550 Ultrasonic pulsed doppler...

  13. 26 CFR 1.302-2 - Redemptions not taxable as dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beginning before May 30, 2006, see § 1.302-2 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006. ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Redemptions not taxable as dividends. 1.302-2... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Recipients § 1.302-2 Redemptions not taxable...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1561-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1561-0 Section 1.1561-0... members that are members of a consolidated group. (b) No apportionment plan in effect. (c) Apportionment plan in effect. (1) Adoption of plan. (2) Limitation on adopting a plan. (3) Termination of plan....

  15. 26 CFR 514.10 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date. 514.10 Section 514.10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.10 Effective date. The provisions of §§ 514.1 through 517.9 shall...

  16. 25 CFR 900.250 - What shall the second written notice include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What shall the second written notice include? 900.250... ASSISTANCE ACT Retrocession and Reassumption Procedures § 900.250 What shall the second written notice include? The second written notice shall include: (a) The intended effective date of the reassumption;...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

  18. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  19. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6514(b)-1 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit against barred liability. 301.6514(b)-1... Collection § 301.6514(b)-1 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any... of limitations at the time such credit is made. Mitigation of Effect of Period of Limitations...

  1. 22 CFR 62.14 - Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance. 62.14 Section 62.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.14 Insurance. (a) Sponsors shall require each exchange visitor to have insurance in effect...

  2. 22 CFR 62.10 - Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program administration. 62.10 Section 62.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.10 Program administration. Sponsors are responsible for the effective administration of...

  3. 25 CFR 307.10 - Period of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period of license. 307.10 Section 307.10 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO ALL-WOOL WOVEN FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.10 Period of license. Each license shall be in effect from the date...

  4. 20 CFR 411.330 - How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? 411.330 Section 411.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF... periodically review the results of the work of each EN to ensure effective quality assurance in the...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1362 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Veterans Administration pension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Effect of Other Benefits on Payment of...

  6. 20 CFR Appendix Vii to Subpart C... - “Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âOld-Lawâ Contribution and Benefit Base VII... Appendix VII to Subpart C of Part 404—“Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base Explanation: We use these... appendix IV). This is the contribution and benefit base that would have been effective under the...

  7. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  8. 26 CFR 1.355-7 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recognition of gain on certain distributions of...) Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-7 Recognition of gain on certain distributions of... meaningful voice in the governance of the corporation. For purposes of determining whether a person...

  9. 26 CFR 1.367(d)-1T - Transfers of intangible property to foreign corporations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intangible property for a principal purpose of avoiding the effect of section 367(d) if the property is... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfers of intangible property to foreign... § 1.367(d)-1T Transfers of intangible property to foreign corporations (temporary). (a) Purpose...

  10. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  11. 23 CFR 500.110 - PTMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PTMS. 500.110 Section 500.110 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.110 PTMS. An effective PTMS for public transportation facilities...

  12. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6013-6 - Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to treat nonresident alien individual... Statements § 1.6013-6 Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States. (a... the other spouse is a nonresident alien. The effect of the election is that each spouse is treated...

  14. 20 CFR 638.808 - Center financial management and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operations, and will provide sufficient data for effective evaluation of program activities. Fiscal accounts... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Center financial management and reporting... LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative...

  15. 23 CFR 752.8 - Privately operated information centers and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... directive. (b) There shall be no violation of control of access, and no adverse effect on traffic in the... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Privately operated information centers and systems. 752... systems. (a) Subject to the FHWA Regional Administrator's approval of the lease or agreement, the...

  16. 17 CFR 160.17 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relation to state laws. 160.17... FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 160.17 Relation to state laws. (a) In general. This part shall not be construed as...

  17. 24 CFR 8.6 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 8.6 Section 8.6... URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.6 Communications. (a) The recipient shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, beneficiaries, and members of the public....

  18. 24 CFR 9.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 9.160 Section 9.160... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other...

  19. 25 CFR 720.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 720.160 Section 720.160 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  20. 20 CFR 365.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 365.160 Section 365.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES ENFORCEMENT OF... § 365.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective...

  1. 17 CFR 200.660 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 200.660 Section 200.660 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  2. 19 CFR 4.80b - Coastwise transportation of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of merchandise. 4.80b... transportation of merchandise. (a) Effect of manufacturing or processing at intermediate port or place. A coastwise transportation of merchandise takes place, within the meaning of the coastwise laws,...

  3. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... substantial evidence of effectiveness as a result of reports of the National Academy of...

  4. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT... safety and effectiveness with regard to the combination product as a whole. When there are no...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(10)-1 - Payments to certain home workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to the time of payment of wages for services performed as a home worker within the meaning of section...) made prior to January 1, 1978, see § 31.3121(a)(10)-1 in effect at such time (see 26 CFR part 31... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payments to certain home workers....

  6. 26 CFR 44.4901-1 - Payment of special tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment of special tax. 44.4901-1 Section 44... EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Miscellaneous and General Provisions Applicable to Taxes on Wagering General Provisions Relating to Occupational Taxes § 44.4901-1 Payment of...

  7. 26 CFR 40.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 40.7701-1 Section 40.7701... EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this chapter. (b) Effective/applicability...

  8. 26 CFR 44.4401-2 - Person liable for tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Person liable for tax. 44.4401-2 Section 44... EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Tax on Wagers § 44.4401-2 Person liable for tax... event or a contest is liable for the tax on any such wager accepted by him. Every person who operates...

  9. 26 CFR 44.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 44.7701-1 Section 44.7701... EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Administrative Provisions of Special Application to the Taxes on Wagering § 44.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of...

  10. 26 CFR 44.4411-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition of tax. 44.4411-1 Section 44.4411-1... TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Occupational Tax § 44.4411-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. A special tax of $50 per year is required to be paid by each person: (1) Who is...

  11. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form...

  12. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  13. 19 CFR 181.131 - Rules of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in effect prior to October 1, 1995 (see 19 CFR chapter I, 1994 edition, appendix to part 181... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rules of origin. 181.131 Section 181.131 Customs... (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of Origin § 181.131 Rules of origin. (a)...

  14. 24 CFR 200.78 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy conservation. 200.78 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.78 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost effective...

  15. 24 CFR 968.115 - Modernization and energy conservation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modernization and energy... energy conservation standards. All improvements funded under this part shall: (a) Meet the modernization standards as prescribed by HUD; (b) Incorporate cost-effective energy conservation measures, identified...

  16. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  17. 21 CFR 110.80 - Processes and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effected by heating the food to the required temperature, holding it at this temperature for the required... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processes and controls. 110.80 Section 110.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  18. 25 CFR 700.5 - Supersedure of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supersedure of regulations. 700.5 Section 700.5 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES... at 25 CFR part 700 in effect at the time of the acquisition or displacement....

  19. 26 CFR 1.508-3 - Governing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing instruments. 1.508-3 Section 1.508-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.508-3 Governing instruments. (a) General rule. A private... such taxable year its governing instrument includes provisions the effects of which are: (1) To...

  20. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  1. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2 - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business. 1.367(a)-2 Section 1.367(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-2 Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15c1-7 - Discretionary accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discretionary accounts. 240... accounts. (a) The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance, as used in... securities dealer designed to effect with or for any customer's account in respect to which such...

  3. 22 CFR 146.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 146.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...

  4. 22 CFR 229.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 229.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...

  5. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.46 - Control required under international treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control required under international treaty. 1308... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.46 Control required under international treaty. Pursuant to section 201... under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.884-0 - Overview of regulation provisions for section 884.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overview of regulation provisions for section 884. 1.884-0 Section 1.884-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... shall be effective for taxable years ending on or after September 11, 1992, except that, for the...

  8. 20 CFR 226.91 - How an employee annuity rate is recomputed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rate effective January 1, 1992, was based on 26 years (312 months) of service and an average monthly... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How an employee annuity rate is recomputed... on January 1, 1992, returns to railroad service for 10 months in 1992 and 2 months in 1993. He...

  9. 26 CFR 1.62-1 - Adjusted gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 CFR part 1 (§§ 1.61 to 1.169) revised April 1, 1992). (d)-(h) (i) Effective date. Paragraph (c) of... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusted gross income. 1.62-1 Section 1.62-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  10. 26 CFR 1.148-10 - Anti-abuse rules and authority of Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-abuse rules and authority of Commissioner. 1.148-10 Section 1.148-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... documents that were effective prior to November 6, 1992. These advance refunding issues are not...

  11. 19 CFR 207.8 - Questionnaires to have the force of subpoenas; subpoena enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questionnaires to have the force of subpoenas... Questionnaires to have the force of subpoenas; subpoena enforcement. Any questionnaire issued by the Commission... subscribed by a Commissioner, after which it shall have the force and effect of a subpoena authorized by...

  12. 22 CFR 126.12 - Continuation in force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuation in force. 126.12 Section 126.12... PROVISIONS § 126.12 Continuation in force. All determinations, authorizations, licenses, approvals of... previous provisions of this subchapter, continue in full force and effect until or unless modified,...

  13. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail...

  14. 23 CFR 924.13 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation. 924.13 Section 924.13 Highways FEDERAL... § 924.13 Evaluation. (a) The HSIP evaluation process shall include the evaluation of the overall HSIP... overall effectiveness of the HSIP; and (4) For reporting required by § 924.15. (c) The evaluation...

  15. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the...

  16. 23 CFR 1205.4 - Funding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funding requirements. 1205.4 Section 1205.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS; DETERMINATIONS OF EFFECTIVENESS § 1205.4 Funding...

  17. 26 CFR 1.675-1 - Administrative powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative powers. 1.675-1 Section 1.675-1... powers. (a) General rule. Section 675 provides in effect that the grantor is treated as the owner of any... the trust. If a grantor retains a power to amend the administrative provisions of a trust...

  18. 26 CFR 1.305-2 - Distributions in lieu of money.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distributions in lieu of money. 1.305-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Recipients § 1.305-2 Distributions in lieu of money. (a) In... to whether a distribution shall be made either in money or any other property, or in stock or...

  19. 20 CFR 638.534 - Legal services to students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Legal services to students. 638.534 Section... students. (a) The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to afford students effective and competent legal representation in criminal and certain civil cases. This shall include assisting students...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.503 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Materials. 3280.503 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.503 Materials. Materials used for insulation shall be of proven effectiveness and adequate durability to assure...

  1. 21 CFR 1020.20 - Cold-cathode gas discharge tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold-cathode gas discharge tubes. 1020.20 Section... discharge tubes. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to cold-cathode gas discharge tubes designed to demonstrate the effects of a flow of electrons or the production of...

  2. 20 CFR 404.3 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General provisions. 404.3 Section 404.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Introduction, General Provisions and Definitions § 404.3 General provisions. (a) Effect of cross...

  3. 26 CFR 1.884-2T - Special rules for termination or incorporation of a U.S. trade or business or liquidation or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special rules for termination or incorporation... amount of such stock sold, exchanged or otherwise disposed of exceeds 25 percent of the value of the... effectively connected earnings and profits for 1990. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section,...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1124 - Unearned income we do not count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unearned income we do not count. 416.1124... October 1, 1985: met the 25-year residency requirement for receipt of such payments in effect prior to... accrued on or after April 1, 1990; (16) The value of any commercial transportation ticket, for travel...

  5. 26 CFR 1.269-5 - Time of acquisition of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reorganization on March 23, 1990, and the plan is put into effect on May 25, 1990. For purposes of section 269, the creditors acquired control of Corporation L than March 23, 1990. Similarly, the determination of... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time of acquisition of control. 1.269-5...

  6. 26 CFR 1.338-5 - Adjusted grossed-up basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusted grossed-up basis. 1.338-5 Section 1.338... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-5 Adjusted grossed-up basis. (a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 338(b) to determine the adjusted grossed-up basis (AGUB)...

  7. 17 CFR 149.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 149.160... COMMISSION § 149.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public....

  8. 18 CFR 1313.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications. 1313... VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members...

  9. 18 CFR 707.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Background. 707.1 Section 707.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE... required to give appropriate consideration to the environmental effects of their proposed actions in...

  10. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  11. The effect of articulatory suppression on implicit and explicit false memory in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Ilse; Menten, Jan; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have shown that reliable implicit false memory can be obtained in the DRM paradigm. There has been considerable debate, however, about whether or not conscious activation of critical lures during study is a necessary condition for this. Recent findings have revealed that articulatory suppression prevents subsequent false priming in an anagram task (Lovden & Johansson, 2003). The present experiment sought to replicate and extend these findings to an implicit word stem completion task, and to additionally investigate the effect of articulatory suppression on explicit false memory. Results showed an inhibitory effect of articulatory suppression on veridical memory, as well as on implicit false memory, whereas the level of explicit false memory was heightened. This suggests that articulatory suppression did not merely eliminate conscious lure activation, but had a more general capacity-delimiting effect. The drop in veridical memory can be attributed to diminished encoding of item-specific information. Superficial encoding also limited the spreading of semantic activation during study, which inhibited later false priming. In addition, the lack of item-specific and phenomenological details caused impaired source monitoring at test, resulting in heightened explicit false memory.

  12. False memories and the DRM paradigm: effects of imagery, list, and test type.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Merrin Creath; Bays, Rebecca Brooke; Zabrucky, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Several researchers have reported that instructing participants to imagine items using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm lowers false memory rates (Foley, Wozniak, & Gillum, 2006). However, other researchers have found that imagery does not always lower false memory rates (Robin, 2010), and investigators have examined the effects of imagery manipulation on semantic but not phonological lists. In the present study, we presented 102 participants with semantic and phonological DRM lists, followed by a free recall test and final recognition test. Some participants received instructions to imagine list items during the study phase to facilitate memory, and others were simply told to remember list items. Imagery instructions enhanced correct memories and further suggested a trend for decreased false memories. A test type by list type interaction also emerged, with phonological lists eliciting higher false memories at recall, and semantic lists eliciting higher false memories at recognition. Directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Measurement of the B stretchy="false">¯s0→Ds-Ds+ and B stretchy="false">¯s0→D-Ds+ Effective Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorosz, P.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Martynov, A.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Warrington, N.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; LHCb Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The first measurement of the effective lifetime of the B stretchy="false">¯s0 meson in the decay B stretchy="false">¯s0→Ds-Ds+ is reported using a proton-proton collision data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1, collected by the LHCb experiment. The measured value of the B stretchy="false">¯s0→Ds-Ds+ effective lifetime is 1.379±0.026±0.017 ps, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This lifetime translates into a measurement of the decay width of the light B stretchy="false">¯s0 mass eigenstate of ΓL=0.725±0.014±0.009 ps-1. The B stretchy="false">¯s0 lifetime is also measured using the flavor-specific B stretchy="false">¯s0→D-Ds+ decay to be 1.52±0.15±0.01 ps.

  14. 20 CFR 349.6 - Effect of revised decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of revised decision. 349.6 Section 349.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT FINALITY OF DECISIONS REGARDING UNEMPLOYMENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE BENEFITS § 349.6 Effect...

  15. 20 CFR 349.6 - Effect of revised decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of revised decision. 349.6 Section 349.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT FINALITY OF DECISIONS REGARDING UNEMPLOYMENT AND SICKNESS INSURANCE BENEFITS § 349.6 Effect...

  16. 18 CFR 1314.1 - Applicability and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Applicability and effect. 1314.1 Section 1314.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... TVA Power Securities issued by TVA in book-entry form through the Reserve Banks. (b) Effect. The...

  17. Effects of Deception on Children's Understanding of Second-Order False Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two questions: effects of deception on children's understanding of second-order false belief, and possible effects of number of siblings on second-order performance. Kindergarten children responded to 3 second-order problems that varied in the presence and the nature of deception. Performance was better on the problems…

  18. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  19. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-6 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Effective dates and transition rules. 1.401(l)-6 Section 1.401(l)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...(l)-6 Effective dates and transition rules. (a) Statutory effective date—(1) In general. Except...

  1. The effect of warnings on false memories in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

    2002-10-01

    In the present experiments, we examined adult age differences in the ability to suppress false memories, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Participants studied lists of words (e.g., bed, rest, awake, etc.), each related to a nonpresented critical lure word (e.g., sleep). Typically, recognition tests reveal false alarms to critical lures at rates comparable to those for hits for studied words. In two experiments, separate groups of young and older adults were unwarned about the false memory effect, warned before studying the lists, or warned after study and before test. Lists were presented at either a slow rate (4 sec/word) or a faster rate (2 sec/word). Young adults were better able to discriminate between studied words and critical lures when warned about the DRM effect either before study or after study but before retrieval, and their performance improved with a slower presentation rate. Older adults were able to discriminate between studied words and critical lures when given warnings before study, but not when given warnings after study but before retrieval. Performance on a working memory capacity measure predicted false recognition following study and retrieval warnings. The results suggest that effective use of warnings to reduce false memories is contingent on the quality and type of encoded information, as well as on whether that information is accessed at retrieval. Furthermore, discriminating between similar sources of activation is dependent on working memory capacity, which declines with advancing age. PMID:12507371

  2. Effects of labeling on preschoolers' explicit false belief performance: outcomes of cognitive flexibility or inhibitory control?

    PubMed

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and protagonist-perspective labeled conditions compared to the child-perspective and nondescript labeling conditions. In Experiment 2 with 3-year-olds (N = 53), labeling the nondominant belief only biased attentional inertia. In Experiment 3 testing generalization in 4-year-olds (N = 38), labeling manipulations translated to improved performance on a second label-free explicit false belief task. These outcomes fit a cognitive flexibility account whereby age changes in the effects of labeling turn on formulating sophisticated conceptual representations.

  3. 18 CFR 705.12 - Effect on other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect on other regulations. 705.12 Section 705.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL..., regulation, or instruction which prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, color, or national...

  4. [Effects of specificity of schema on false recall: an analysis from the viewpoint of eyewitness testimony].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hirose, Takehiko; Takaoka, Masako

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two levels of specificity of schema on generation of false recall. One level is widely applied to things and is shared by the general public (less specific schema) and the other is specifically applied to individual things (more specific schema). Sixty female undergraduates watched a video. After two days, they were required to recall the contents of the story. Students were divided into two groups according to whether they have the more specific schema or not. In each group, they were assigned to either free recall task or reality monitoring task. The results showed that (1) the amounts of false recall by the group having the less specific schema only decreased by reality monitoring. (2) The group having the more specific schema had no differential effects on false recall for both tasks. (3) The effect of specificity of schema on false recall was not observed for the scene which did not activate the more specific schema. These results were discussed in terms of the levels of specificity of schema and effectiveness of reality monitoring for eyewitness memory. PMID:15782583

  5. Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements on Gist Based False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on gist based false recognition was investigated. Following exposure to lists of words related to a critical but non-studied word participants were asked to engage in 30s of bilateral vs. vertical vs. no eye movements. Subsequent testing of recognition memory revealed that those who…

  6. Effects of Presentation Format and List Length on Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of list length on children's false memories was investigated using list and story versions of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure. Short (7 items) and long (14 items) sequences of semantic associates were presented to children aged 6, 8, and 10 years old either in lists or embedded within a story that emphasized the list theme.…

  7. Attention to Global Gist Processing Eliminates Age Effects in False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2008-01-01

    Counterintuitive age increases have been reported for the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory illusion. The current theoretical explanation of this effect assumes that it is due to age increases in spontaneous interconnection of DRM list words' meanings. To test this explanation, 11-year-olds and young adults studied DRM lists under…

  8. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  9. 20 CFR 220.15 - Effects of work on occupational disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effects of work on occupational disability... Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.15 Effects of work on occupational disability. (a) Disability onset when... annuity will be payable, however, until after the last date worked. (b) Occupational disability...

  10. 20 CFR 220.15 - Effects of work on occupational disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effects of work on occupational disability... Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.15 Effects of work on occupational disability. (a) Disability onset when... annuity will be payable, however, until after the last date worked. (b) Occupational disability...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of state or local law or other requirements. 1317.535 Section 1317.535 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements....

  12. 25 CFR 36.110 - Must programs provide space for storing personal effects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Must programs provide space for storing personal effects... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Privacy § 36.110 Must programs provide space for storing personal effects? Yes..., or lockable space are the property of the homeliving program and are subject to random...

  13. Effects of Non-Differential Exposure Misclassification on False Conclusions in Hypothesis-Generating Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burstyn, Igor; Yang, Yunwen; Schnatter, A. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Despite the theoretical success of obviating the need for hypothesis-generating studies, they live on in epidemiological practice. Cole asserted that “… there is boundless number of hypotheses that could be generated, nearly all of them wrong” and urged us to focus on evaluating “credibility of hypothesis”. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we put this elegant logic into quantitative terms at the study planning stage for studies where the prior belief in the null hypothesis is high (i.e., “hypothesis-generating” studies). We consider not only type I and II errors (as is customary) but also the probabilities of false positive and negative results, taking into account typical imperfections in the data. We concentrate on a common source of imperfection in the data: non-differential misclassification of binary exposure classifier. In context of an unmatched case-control study, we demonstrate—both theoretically and via simulations—that although non-differential exposure misclassification is expected to attenuate real effect estimates, leading to the loss of ability to detect true effects, there is also a concurrent increase in false positives. Unfortunately, most investigators interpret their findings from such work as being biased towards the null rather than considering that they are no less likely to be false signals. The likelihood of false positives dwarfed the false negative rate under a wide range of studied settings. We suggest that instead of investing energy into understanding credibility of dubious hypotheses, applied disciplines such as epidemiology, should instead focus attention on understanding consequences of pursuing specific hypotheses, while accounting for the probability that the observed “statistically significant” association may be qualitatively spurious. PMID:25337942

  14. 27 CFR 479.92 - Transportation of firearms to effect transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transportation of firearms to effect transfer. 479.92 Section 479.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  15. 27 CFR 479.119 - Transportation of firearms to effect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transportation of firearms to effect exportation. 479.119 Section 479.119 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE...

  16. 27 CFR 478.142 - Effect of pardons and expunctions of convictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effect of pardons and expunctions of convictions. 478.142 Section 478.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  17. 18 CFR 706.411 - Effect of statements on other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect of statements on other requirements. 706.411 Section 706.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... of any similar requirement imposed by law, order, or regulation. The submission of a statement...

  18. 18 CFR 1302.12 - Effect on other regulations; supervision and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Effect on other... race, color, or national origin to which this regulation applies, and which authorize the suspension or..., insofar as they prohibit discrimination on the ground of race, color, or national origin in any program...

  19. 27 CFR 555.33 - Background checks and clearances (effective May 24, 2003).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Background checks and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.33 Background checks and clearances (effective May 24, 2003). (a) Background checks. (1) If the Director receives from a licensee or permittee the names...

  20. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Huff, Mark J.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks. PMID:26393390

  1. Stress and emotional valence effects on children's versus adolescents' true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in understanding how stress influences memory accuracy and errors, particularly in children, methodological limitations have made it difficult to examine the effects of stress independent of the effects of the emotional valence of to-be-remembered information in developmental populations. In this study, we manipulated stress levels in 7-8- and 12-14-year-olds and then exposed them to negative, neutral, and positive word lists. Shortly afterward, we tested their recognition memory for the words and false memory for non-presented but related words. Adolescents in the high-stress condition were more accurate than those in the low-stress condition, while children's accuracy did not differ across stress conditions. Also, among adolescents, accuracy and errors were higher for the negative than positive words, while in children, word valence was unrelated to accuracy. Finally, increases in children's and adolescents' cortisol responses, especially in the high-stress condition, were related to greater accuracy but not false memories and only for positive emotional words. Findings suggest that stress at encoding, as well as the emotional content of to-be-remembered information, may influence memory in different ways across development, highlighting the need for greater complexity in existing models of true and false memory formation.

  2. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  3. Effects of presentation mode on veridical and false memory in individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related foils and related foils. The audio-visual format led to better recognition of old items and lower false-alarm rates for all foil types. Those with intellectual disability had higher false-alarm rates for all foil types and experienced particular difficulty discriminating presented items from those most strongly activated internally during acquisition (i.e., critical foils). Results are consistent with the activation-monitoring framework and fuzzy-trace theory and inform best practices for designing visual supports to maximize performance in educational and work environments. PMID:22716261

  4. Effects of False Tilt Cues on the Training of Manual Roll Control Skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Peter M. T.; Popovici, Alexandru; Zavala, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a transfer-of-training study performed in the NASA Ames Vertica lMotion Simulator. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of false tilt cues on training and transfer of training of manual roll control skills. Of specific interest were the skills needed to control unstable roll dynamics of a mid-size transport aircraft close to the stall point. Nineteen general aviation pilots trained on a roll control task with one of three motion conditions: no motion, roll motion only, or reduced coordinated roll motion. All pilots transferred to full coordinated roll motion in the transfer session. A novel multimodal pilot model identification technique was successfully applied to characterize how pilots' use of visual and motion cues changed over the course of training and after transfer. Pilots who trained with uncoordinated roll motion had significantly higher performance during training and after transfer, even though they experienced the false tilt cues. Furthermore, pilot control behavior significantly changed during the two sessions, as indicated by increasing visual and motion gains, and decreasing lead time constants. Pilots training without motion showed higher learning rates after transfer to the full coordinated roll motion case.

  5. A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.; Voigt, Aiko

    2012-06-10

    Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

  6. Misremembering What You See or Hear: Dissociable Effects of Modality on Short- and Long-Term False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewska, Justyna M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds…

  7. Interpolated task effects on direct and mediated false recognition: effects of initial recall, recognition, and the ironic effect of guessing.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; Coane, Jennifer H; Hutchison, Keith A; Grasser, Elisabeth B; Blais, Jessica E

    2012-11-01

    In two experiments, participants studied two types of word lists. Direct lists were taken from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (e.g., water, bridge, run) and contained words directly related to a nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., river, Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Mediated lists (e.g., faucet, London, jog) contained words related to the CI through a nonpresented mediator. After each study list, participants completed either a recall test, a recall test with a warning about the CI, arithmetic problems, or a recognition test, or they guessed the CI. On a final recognition test, both warning and guessing decreased direct false recognition but increased mediated false recognition, an ironic effect of guessing. An initial recognition test also increased final mediated false recognition. We argue that warning and guessing tasks strengthened associative pathways to the CI, increased the accessibility of associated mediators, and increased monitoring for the CI at test. Increased monitoring was able to reduce CIs from direct, but not mediated, lists.

  8. Perception of arousal in social anxiety: Effects of false feedback during a social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; McManus, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that during social interactions, socially anxious individuals direct their attention to internal cues of arousal and use this information to erroneously infer how they appear to others. High (N=36) and low (N=36) socially anxious adults had a conversation with a stooge, and were led to believe by false feedback that they were experiencing either an increase or decrease in arousal, or evaluating the comfort level of the feedback equipment. Compared to the other groups, participants who believed their arousal had increased, reported greater anxiety, poorer perceived performance, more physical cues of anxiety, and greater underestimation of their performance and overestimation of the visibility of their anxiety. The effects were not specific to participants with high social anxiety. Observers rated the behaviour of participants who believed that their arousal had decreased most favourably. The results have implications for the treatment of social phobia. PMID:17223072

  9. Overcoming the effects of false positives and threshold bias in graph theoretical analyses of neuroimaging data

    PubMed Central

    Drakesmith, M.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Dutt, A.; Lewis, G.; David, A.S.; Jones, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graph theory (GT) is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional and structural networks. However, false positive (FP) connections arise frequently and influence the inferred topology of networks. Thresholding is often used to overcome this problem, but an appropriate threshold often relies on a priori assumptions, which will alter inferred network topologies. Four common network metrics (global efficiency, mean clustering coefficient, mean betweenness and smallworldness) were tested using a model tractography dataset. It was found that all four network metrics were significantly affected even by just one FP. Results also show that thresholding effectively dampens the impact of FPs, but at the expense of adding significant bias to network metrics. In a larger number (n = 248) of tractography datasets, statistics were computed across random group permutations for a range of thresholds, revealing that statistics for network metrics varied significantly more than for non-network metrics (i.e., number of streamlines and number of edges). Varying degrees of network atrophy were introduced artificially to half the datasets, to test sensitivity to genuine group differences. For some network metrics, this atrophy was detected as significant (p < 0.05, determined using permutation testing) only across a limited range of thresholds. We propose a multi-threshold permutation correction (MTPC) method, based on the cluster-enhanced permutation correction approach, to identify sustained significant effects across clusters of thresholds. This approach minimises requirements to determine a single threshold a priori. We demonstrate improved sensitivity of MTPC-corrected metrics to genuine group effects compared to an existing approach and demonstrate the use of MTPC on a previously published network analysis of tractography data derived from a clinical population. In conclusion, we show that there are large biases and instability

  10. Overcoming the effects of false positives and threshold bias in graph theoretical analyses of neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Drakesmith, M; Caeyenberghs, K; Dutt, A; Lewis, G; David, A S; Jones, D K

    2015-09-01

    Graph theory (GT) is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional and structural networks. However, false positive (FP) connections arise frequently and influence the inferred topology of networks. Thresholding is often used to overcome this problem, but an appropriate threshold often relies on a priori assumptions, which will alter inferred network topologies. Four common network metrics (global efficiency, mean clustering coefficient, mean betweenness and smallworldness) were tested using a model tractography dataset. It was found that all four network metrics were significantly affected even by just one FP. Results also show that thresholding effectively dampens the impact of FPs, but at the expense of adding significant bias to network metrics. In a larger number (n=248) of tractography datasets, statistics were computed across random group permutations for a range of thresholds, revealing that statistics for network metrics varied significantly more than for non-network metrics (i.e., number of streamlines and number of edges). Varying degrees of network atrophy were introduced artificially to half the datasets, to test sensitivity to genuine group differences. For some network metrics, this atrophy was detected as significant (p<0.05, determined using permutation testing) only across a limited range of thresholds. We propose a multi-threshold permutation correction (MTPC) method, based on the cluster-enhanced permutation correction approach, to identify sustained significant effects across clusters of thresholds. This approach minimises requirements to determine a single threshold a priori. We demonstrate improved sensitivity of MTPC-corrected metrics to genuine group effects compared to an existing approach and demonstrate the use of MTPC on a previously published network analysis of tractography data derived from a clinical population. In conclusion, we show that there are large biases and instability induced

  11. Acting and planning on the basis of a false belief: its effects on 3-year-old children's reasoning about their own false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M; O'Neill, Daniela K

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial belief and (b) explain their action of getting paper. Children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. Experiments 2 and 3 ruled out several alternative interpretations for these findings. In Experiment 4, children planned and acted on their false belief. Again, children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. PMID:15535750

  12. False Cognates: The Effect of Mismatch in Morphological Complexity on a Backward Lexical Translation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on "false cognates", lexical items that have overlapping orthographic/phonological properties but little or no semantic overlap. False-cognate pairs were created from French (second language or L2) and English (first language or L1) items by manipulating the levels of morphological correspondence between them.…

  13. PMA treatment is an effective means to reduce false positive PCR testing results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional and real time PCR are widely used in detecting bacterial pathogens in various food matrix and environmental samples. Sometimes a positive detection using PCR can not be confirmed by subsequent culture isolation of the targeted pathogen, resulting in a potential “false positive.” False po...

  14. The effect of cognitive load on hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Tat, Michael J; Azuma, Tamiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining hemispheric asymmetries in false memory have shown that the right hemisphere (RH) is more susceptible to false memories compared to the left hemisphere (LH). Theories suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory may be due to differences in representational coding and the use of top-down mechanisms in each hemisphere. In the current study, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm was used in conjunction with divided visual field presentation to examine the role of top-down mechanisms in hemispheric asymmetries of true and false memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of related words while completing secondary cognitive load tasks. In Experiment 2, the secondary tasks were administered during memory retrieval instead of memory encoding. Results revealed that cognitive loads imposed during the study phase influenced veridical memory in the LH more than the RH, but cognitive loads imposed during retrieval did not influence veridical memory in either hemisphere. Surprisingly, false memory rates were not influenced by cognitive loads and were higher in the LH. These data provide evidence that, at least for veridical memory, top-down control mechanisms are used more readily for the encoding of information into memory in the LH compared to the RH.

  15. The effect of cognitive load on hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Tat, Michael J; Azuma, Tamiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining hemispheric asymmetries in false memory have shown that the right hemisphere (RH) is more susceptible to false memories compared to the left hemisphere (LH). Theories suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory may be due to differences in representational coding and the use of top-down mechanisms in each hemisphere. In the current study, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm was used in conjunction with divided visual field presentation to examine the role of top-down mechanisms in hemispheric asymmetries of true and false memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of related words while completing secondary cognitive load tasks. In Experiment 2, the secondary tasks were administered during memory retrieval instead of memory encoding. Results revealed that cognitive loads imposed during the study phase influenced veridical memory in the LH more than the RH, but cognitive loads imposed during retrieval did not influence veridical memory in either hemisphere. Surprisingly, false memory rates were not influenced by cognitive loads and were higher in the LH. These data provide evidence that, at least for veridical memory, top-down control mechanisms are used more readily for the encoding of information into memory in the LH compared to the RH. PMID:26291874

  16. Acting and Planning on the Basis of a False Belief: Its Effects on 3-Year-Old Children's Reasoning About Their Own False Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial…

  17. Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children's False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…

  18. The Effects of Repetition on Children’s True and False Reports

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Angela D.; Brunet, Megan K.; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C.L.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children’s true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic differences in children’s truthful and fabricated statements about an event they had or had not participated in. Results revealed that children’s truthful and fabricated reports differed in linguistic content, and that their language also varied with repetition. Discriminant analyses revealed that with repetition, children’s true and false reports became increasingly difficult to differentiate using linguistic markers, though true reports were consistently classified correctly at higher rates than false reports. The implications of these findings for legal procedures concerning child witnesses are discussed. PMID:24265592

  19. Opportunity for information search and the effect of false heart rate feedback.

    PubMed

    Barefoot, John C; Straub, Ronald B

    2005-01-01

    The role of information search in the attribution of physiological states was investigated by manipulating the subject's opportunity for information search following the presentation of false information about his heart-rate reactions to photographs of female nudes. Consistent with the self-persuasion hypothesis proposed by Valins, the rated attractiveness of the slides was not affected by the false heart-rate feedback for those subjects who were prevented from visually searching the slides. Those subjects who had ample opportunity to view the slides rated those slides accompanied by false information of a heart-rate change as more attractive than those slides which were not paired with a change in heart rate. PMID:17477208

  20. Effects of Post-Encoding Stress on Performance in the DRM False Memory Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…

  1. Effects of Aging on True and False Memory Formation: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Compared to young, older adults are more likely to forget events that occurred in the past as well as remember events that never happened. Previous studies examining false memories and aging have shown that these memories are more likely to occur when new items share perceptual or semantic similarities with those presented during encoding. It is…

  2. Language and False Belief: Evidence for General, Not Specific, Effects in Cantonese-Speaking Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Twila; So, Catherine Wing-Chee; Kaciroti, Niko

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted with Cantonese-speaking preschoolers examining J. de Villiers's (1995) hypothesis that syntactic complements play a unique role in the acquisition of false belief (FB). In Study 1, the authors found a positive correlation between FB and syntactic complements in 72 four- to six-year-old Cantonese-speaking preschoolers.…

  3. A Computational Study of the Effect of False Vocal Folds on Glottal Flow and Vocal Fold Vibration During Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xudong; Bielamowicz, Steve; Luo, Haoxiang; Mittal, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    The false vocal folds are believed to be components of the acoustic filter that is responsible for shaping the voice. However, the effects of false vocal folds on the vocal fold vibration and the glottal aerodynamic during phonation remain unclear. This effect has implications for computational modeling of phonation as well as for understanding laryngeal pathologies such as glottal incompetence resulting from unilateral vocal fold paralysis. In this study, a high fidelity, two-dimensional computational model, which combines an immersed boundary method for the airflow and a continuum, finite-element method for the vocal folds, is used to examine the effect of the false vocal folds on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of the true vocal folds and the dynamics of the glottal jet. The model is notionally based on a laryngeal CT scan and employs realistic flow conditions and tissue properties. Results show that the false vocal folds potentially have a significant impact on phonation. The false vocal folds reduce the glottal flow impedance and increase the amplitude as well as the mean glottal jet velocity. The false vocal folds also enhance the intensity of the monopole acoustic sources in the glottis. A mechanism for reduction in flow impedance due to the false vocal folds is proposed. PMID:19142730

  4. 26 CFR 1.1502-32 - Investment adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investment adjustments. 1.1502-32 Section 1....1502-32T(b)(4)(v) as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 in effect on March 2, 2005. (vi) Special rules in.... For prior periods, see § 1.1502-32T(b)(4)(vii) as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 in effect on March...

  5. Students' estimates of the prevalence of drug use: evidence for a false consensus effect.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, S

    2000-09-01

    False consensus, or the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share one's own attitudes and behaviors, was investigated in a study of 348 university students classified as non-drug users, cannabis-only users, or amphetamine + cannabis users. Participants estimated the prevalence of cannabis and amphetamine use among students. Cannabis and amphetamine users made significantly higher estimates of cannabis use among students than did nonusers, whereas amphetamine users gave significantly higher estimates of amphetamine use than nonusers and cannabis-only users. Correlations between estimates of use among friends and other students were significantly positive for both drugs. The results suggest that students are motivated to overestimate the commonality of their own position on drug use and that their estimates may also be influenced by selective exposure. PMID:10998955

  6. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-1 - Other transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transaction described in § 1.367(b)-5(c) or 1.367(b)-5(d) and that is either— (A) A section 1248 shareholder... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other transfers. 1.367(b)-1 Section 1.367(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(b)-1 Other transfers. (a) Scope. The...

  7. 26 CFR 44.4401-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition of tax. 44.4401-1 Section 44.4401-1... TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Tax on Wagers § 44.4401-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section 4401 imposes a tax on all wagers, as defined in section 4421. See section 4421 and §...

  8. 26 CFR 44.4401-3 - When tax attaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When tax attaches. 44.4401-3 Section 44.4401-3... TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Tax on Wagers § 44.4401-3 When tax attaches. The tax... contribution from a bettor. In the case of a wager on credit, the tax attaches whether or not the amount of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1016-3T - Exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for periods since February...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... December 30, 2003 (§ 1.1016-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2003). (2) For... effect prior to January 1, 2012 (§ 1.1016-3(a)(1)(ii) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhaustion, wear and tear,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.195-1 - Election to amortize start-up expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effect prior to that date (§ 1.195-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2008). ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures. 1... (continued) § 1.195-1 Election to amortize start-up expenditures. (a) In general. Under section 195(b),...

  12. Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children’s False Belief Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children’s emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, three false belief tasks were administered to five-year-old children whose mothers had either met criteria for major depressive disorder within the first 20 months of the child’s life (n = 91) or had never been depressed (n = 50). Significant difficulties in performance were found among the children of depressed mothers, especially those whose mothers had experienced early and recent recurrent depressive disorder. Regardless of diagnostic status, children whose mothers exhibited negativity during problem-solving tasks administered at an earlier developmental period also were less likely to demonstrate false belief understanding. These effects remained even after child verbal ability was controlled. PMID:21244156

  13. Effects of Presentation Mode on Veridical and False Memory in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P.; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related…

  14. Misremembering what you see or hear: Dissociable effects of modality on short- and long-term false recognition.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Justyna M; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A

    2015-09-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds of encoding in either the visual or auditory modality. However, false memories were nearly twice as frequent when study lists were seen than when they were heard, regardless of test modality, although study-test modality mismatch was generally disadvantageous (consistent with encoding specificity). A final experiment that varied study-test modality using a hybrid short- and long-term memory test (Flegal, Atkins & Reuter-Lorenz, 2010) replicated the auditory advantage in the short term but revealed a reversal in the long term: The false memory effect was greater in the auditory study-test condition than in the visual study-test condition. Thus, the same encoding conditions gave rise to an opposite modality advantage depending on whether recognition was tested under short-term or long-term memory conditions. Although demonstrating continuity in associative processing across delay, the results indicate that delay condition affects the availability of modality-dependent features of the memory trace and, thus, distinctiveness, leading to dissociable patterns of short- and long-term memory performance.

  15. Truth Induction in Young Maltreated Children: The Effects of Oath-Taking and Reassurance on True and False Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Dorado, Joyce S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined the effects of the oath or reassurance (''truth induction'') on 5- to 7-year-old maltreated children's true and false reports of a minor transgression. Methods: In both studies an interviewer elicited a promise to tell the truth, reassured children that they would not get in trouble for disclosing the transgression,…

  16. Effects of Different Types of True-False Questions on Memory Awareness and Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaap, Lydia; Verkoeijen, Peter; Schmidt, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two different true-false questions on memory awareness and long-term retention of knowledge. Participants took four subsequent knowledge tests on curriculum learning material that they studied at different retention intervals prior to the start of this study (i.e. prior to the first test). At the first and…

  17. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  18. A reliable method for avoiding false negative results with Luminex single antigen beads; evidence of the prozone effect.

    PubMed

    Carey, B Sean; Boswijk, Kim; Mabrok, Mazen; Rowe, Peter A; Connor, Andrew; Saif, Imran; Poles, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Luminex single antigen bead (SAB) assays have become an essential tool in monitoring the status of antibody to the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) of patients both before and after transplantation. In addition SAB data is used to aid risk stratification to assess immunological risk of humoral rejection in solid organ transplantation (CTAG/BTAG guidelines) [1]. Increasingly laboratories are reporting false negative results at high antibody titre due to a prozone effect. Here we report a case study where the prozone effect led to a false negative antibody result that could have resulted in adverse outcome. We describe a method to reliably remove the prozone effect through heat inactivation and the addition of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the Luminex wash buffer. PMID:27109036

  19. Truth induction in young maltreated children: The effects of oath-taking and reassurance on true and false disclosures*

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Dorado, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Two studies examined the effects of the oath or reassurance (“truth induction”) on 5- to 7-year-old maltreated children’s true and false reports of a minor transgression. Methods In both studies an interviewer elicited a promise to tell the truth, reassured children that they would not get in trouble for disclosing the transgression, or gave no instructions before questioning the child. In Study 1, children were encouraged to play with an attractive toy by a confederate, who then informed them that they might get in trouble for playing. In Study 2, a confederate engaged children in play, but did not play with the attractive toy. Results In Study 1, the oath and reassurance increased disclosure among children who would qualify as competent to take the oath. In Study 2 neither the oath nor reassurance increased false reports among children who would qualify as competent, whether yes/no questions or tag questions were asked. Among non-competent children, reassurance (but not the oath) increased false reports. Children were more likely to accuse the confederate of the transgression than implicate themselves. Conclusions The results suggest that a promise to tell the truth may increase true disclosures without increasing false allegations. Reassurance that specifically mentions the target activity also increases true disclosures, but may increase acquiescence among some children. Practice Implications A child-friendly version of the oath may be a useful addition to child interviews. PMID:18599119

  20. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M...

  1. Mood and the DRM paradigm: An investigation of the effects of valence and arousal on false memory.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies regarding the effect of mood on the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) illusion have not been able to clearly establish yet whether valence or arousal is most critical in determining susceptibility to false memories, nor what the underlying processes are. In three experiments, both the valence and the level of arousal of participants' mood were manipulated. Six conditions were used: positive mood with high/low arousal, negative mood with high/low arousal, neutral mood, and a control condition. Memory was tested by means of immediate and delayed recognition and immediate free recall. The mood induction procedure was effective. For recognition memory, there was an effect of arousal on the endorsement of critical lures. Low-arousal moods elicited more false recognition than high-arousal moods, regardless of valence. Based on signal detection analyses, the effect was attributed to more liberal response criteria with low arousal, in combination with a tendency towards improved item-specific memory with high arousal.

  2. Effects of false feedback on affect, cognition, behavior, and postevent processing: the mediating role of self-focused attention.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Steve R; Grisham, Jessica R

    2013-03-01

    Current social phobia models (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Leary & Kowalski, 1995) postulate that socially anxious individuals negatively appraise their anxiety sensations (e.g., sweating, heart racing, blushing) as evidence of poor social performance, and thus fear these anxiety symptoms will be noticed and judged negatively by others. Consequently, they become self-focused and hypervigilant of these sensations and use them to judge how they appear to others. To test this model, high (N=41) and low (N=38) socially anxious participants were shown false physiological feedback regarding an increase or decrease in heart rate prior to and during an impromptu speech task. Relative to participants who observed a false heart rate decrease, those in the increase condition reported higher levels of negative affect, more negative performance appraisals, and more frequent negative ruminative thoughts, and these effects were mediated by an increase in self-focused attention. The unhelpful effects of the physiological feedback were not specific to high socially anxious participants. The results have implications for current cognitive models as well as the treatment of social phobia. PMID:23312431

  3. Beyond personality impressions: effects of physical and vocal attractiveness on false consensus, social comparison, affiliation, and assumed and perceived similarity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, K; Zuckerman, M

    1993-09-01

    We examined the effects of target persons' physical and vocal attractiveness on judges' responses to five measures: false consensus (the belief that the target shares one's behavior), choice of targets as comparison others, affiliation with targets, assumed similarity (similarity between self-ratings and ratings assigned to targets), and perceived similarity (direct questions about similarity). Higher physical attractiveness and higher vocal attractiveness were both related to higher scores on all variables. The effect of one type of attractiveness was more pronounced for higher levels of the other type of attractiveness. The joint effect of the two types of attractiveness was best described as synergistic, i.e., only targets high on both types of attractiveness elicited higher scores on the dependent variables. The effect of physical attractiveness on most dependent variables was more pronounced for subjects who were themselves physically attractive. The synergistic effect (the advantage of targets high on both types of attractiveness) was more pronounced for judges high in self-monitoring. The contribution of the study to the literature on attractiveness stereotypes is discussed. PMID:8246108

  4. Effect of dietary carotenoids on vitamin A status and skin pigmentation in false tomato frogs (Dyscophus guineti).

    PubMed

    Brenes-Soto, Andrea; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    Several species in captivity develop nutritional diseases including vitamin A deficiency; cases of this disease have been documented in amphibians, which may be linked to an insectivorous diet lacking in vitamin A or carotenoids. Adults and young of Dyscophus guineti were fed three diets over 9 weeks to evaluate effects on carotenoids and vitamin A status and skin pigmentation. Feeder crickets were either supplemented with soy oil (control, CON), soy oil enriched with β-carotene (BC) or mixed carotenoids (MIX) by direct injection of known dosages. Vitamin A from feeder crickets (measured as retinol) was higher in insects supplemented with both BC and MIX; (P=0.0001) and plasma retinol concentrations were significantly higher in frogs fed MIX (P<0.02). Results suggest that both false tomato frogs and feeder crickets could receive some provitamin A activity through consumption of diets supplemented with β-carotene, and xanthophylls like lutein and zeaxanthin. Pigmentation was evaluated weekly through the use of visual color charts, as well as quantitatively using a hand-held spectrophotometer. MIX diets had a significant effect on skin color values (P<0.0001), as well as on lightness (P=0.0005) and hue (P=0.0022). Results indicated that frogs fed with BC changed to yellower colors, and frogs fed with MIX changed to oranger colors. Visual color chart observations also scored significantly different between CON and MIX diets (P<0.05); the animals fed MIX also appeared oranger according to the qualitative observations. Dietary supplements with carotenoids resulted in color changes and higher circulating retinol concentrations in false tomato frogs. These pigments may provide provitamin A activity in diets, thus may support improved nutrition and health of captive-fed insectivorous amphibians.

  5. 23 CFR 140.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 140.501 Section 140.501 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Administrative... performed by a State under Federal-aid procedures....

  6. 23 CFR 646.202 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 646.202 Section 646.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.202...

  7. 20 CFR 10.727 - What is the pay rate of jurors for compensation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the pay rate of jurors for compensation purposes? 10.727 Section 10.727 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS.... Peace Corps Volunteers...

  8. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  9. 20 CFR 625.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 625.20 Section 625.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.20...

  10. 20 CFR 638.307 - Facility surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Facility surveys. 638.307 Section 638.307....307 Facility surveys. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to conduct periodic facility surveys of centers....

  11. 24 CFR 1005.107 - What is eligible collateral?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2 CFR part 2424.) ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is eligible collateral? 1005... URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOAN GUARANTEES FOR INDIAN HOUSING § 1005.107 What is eligible collateral? (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 884.6150 - Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a)...

  14. Age Differences in the Rejection of False Memories: The Effects of Giving Warning Instructions and Slowing the Presentation Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Paula; Fernandez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children of different ages differ in their ability to reject associative false memories with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two different types of manipulations that are thought to facilitate false memory rejection in adults--slowing the presentation rate and issuing explicit…

  15. Effects of Sulpiride on True and False Memories of Thematically Related Pictures and Associated Words in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Regina V.; Ribeiro, Rafaela L.; de Souza, Altay A. Lino; Galduróz, José Carlos F.; Covolan, Luciene; Bueno, Orlando F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory, working memory, emotional memory, and attention are subject to dopaminergic modulation. However, the potential role of dopamine on the generation of false memories is unknown. This study defined the role of the dopamine D2 receptor on true and false recognition memories. Twenty-four young, healthy volunteers ingested a single dose of placebo or 400 mg oral sulpiride, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, just before starting the recognition memory task in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. The sulpiride group presented more false recognitions during visual and verbal processing than the placebo group, although both groups had the same indices of true memory. These findings demonstrate that dopamine D2 receptors blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase the rate of false recognitions. The findings fit well the two-process view of causes of false memories, the activation/monitoring failures model. PMID:27047394

  16. Computational study of false vocal folds effects on unsteady airflows through static models of the human larynx.

    PubMed

    Farbos de Luzan, Charles; Chen, Jie; Mihaescu, Mihai; Khosla, Sid M; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2015-05-01

    Compressible large eddy simulation is employed to numerically investigate the laryngeal flow. Symmetric static models of the human larynx with a divergent glottis are considered, with the presence of false vocal folds (FVFs). The compressible study agrees well with that of the incompressible study. Due to the high enough Reynolds number, the flow is unsteady and develops asymmetric states downstream of the glottis. The glottal jet curvature decreases with the presence of FVFs or the ventricular folds. The gap between the FVFs stretches the flow structure and reduces the jet curvature. The presence of FVFs has a significant effect on the laryngeal flow resistance. The intra-glottal vortex structures are formed on the divergent wall of the glottis, immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices are then convected downstream and characterized by a significant negative static pressure. The FVFs are a main factor in the generation of stronger vortices, and thus on the closure of the TVFs. The direct link between the FVFs geometry and the motion of the TVFs, and by extension to the voice production, is of interest for medical applications as well as future research works. The presence of the FVFs also changes the dominant frequencies in the velocity and pressure spectra. PMID:25835787

  17. Computational study of false vocal folds effects on unsteady airflows through static models of the human larynx.

    PubMed

    Farbos de Luzan, Charles; Chen, Jie; Mihaescu, Mihai; Khosla, Sid M; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2015-05-01

    Compressible large eddy simulation is employed to numerically investigate the laryngeal flow. Symmetric static models of the human larynx with a divergent glottis are considered, with the presence of false vocal folds (FVFs). The compressible study agrees well with that of the incompressible study. Due to the high enough Reynolds number, the flow is unsteady and develops asymmetric states downstream of the glottis. The glottal jet curvature decreases with the presence of FVFs or the ventricular folds. The gap between the FVFs stretches the flow structure and reduces the jet curvature. The presence of FVFs has a significant effect on the laryngeal flow resistance. The intra-glottal vortex structures are formed on the divergent wall of the glottis, immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices are then convected downstream and characterized by a significant negative static pressure. The FVFs are a main factor in the generation of stronger vortices, and thus on the closure of the TVFs. The direct link between the FVFs geometry and the motion of the TVFs, and by extension to the voice production, is of interest for medical applications as well as future research works. The presence of the FVFs also changes the dominant frequencies in the velocity and pressure spectra.

  18. Computational study of false vocal folds effects on unsteady airflows through static models of the human larynx

    PubMed Central

    de Luzan, Charles Farbos; Chen, Jie; Mihaescu, Mihai; Khosla, Sid M.; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    Compressible large eddy simulation is employed to numerically investigate the laryngeal flow. Symmetric static models of the human larynx with a divergent glottis are considered, with the presence of false vocal folds (FVFs). The compressible study agrees well with that of the incompressible study. Due to the high enough Reynolds number, the flow is unsteady and develops asymmetric states downstream of the glottis. The glottal jet curvature decreases with the presence of FVFs or the ventricular folds. The gap between the FVFs stretches the flow structure and reduces the jet curvature. The presence of FVFs has a significant effect on the laryngeal flow resistance. The intra-glottal vortex structures are formed on the divergent wall of the glottis, immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices are then convected downstream and characterized by a significant negative static pressure. The FVFs are a main factor in the generation of stronger vortices, and thus on the closure of the TVFs. The direct link between the FVFs geometry and the motion of the TVFs, and by extension to the voice production, is of interest for medical applications as well as future research works. The presence of the FVFs also changes the dominant frequencies in the velocity and pressure spectra. PMID:25835787

  19. Resolution, target density and labeling effects in colocalization studies - suppression of false positives by nanoscopy and modified algorithms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Rönnlund, Daniel; Aspenström, Pontus; Braun, Laura J; Gad, Annica K B; Widengren, Jerker

    2016-03-01

    Colocalization analyses of fluorescence images are extensively used to quantify molecular interactions in cells. In recent years, fluorescence nanoscopy has approached resolutions close to molecular dimensions. However, the extent to which image resolution influences different colocalization estimates has not been systematically investigated. In this work, we applied simulations and resolution-tunable stimulated emission depletion microscopy to evaluate how the resolution, molecular density and label size of targeted molecules influence estimates of the most commonly used colocalization algorithms (Pearson correlation coefficient, Manders' M1 and M2 coefficients), as well as estimates by the image cross-correlation spectroscopy method. We investigated the practically measureable extents of colocalization for stimulated emission depletion microscopy with positive and negative control samples with an aim to identifying the strengths and weaknesses of nanoscopic techniques for colocalization studies. At a typical optical resolution of a confocal microscope (200-300 nm), our results indicate that the extent of colocalization is typically overestimated by the tested algorithms, especially at high molecular densities. Only minor effects of this kind were observed at higher resolutions (< 60 nm). By contrast, underestimation of colocalization may occur if the resolution is close to the size of the label/affinity molecules themselves. To suppress false positives at confocal resolutions and high molecular densities, we introduce a statistical variant of Costes' threshold searching algorithm, used in combination with correlation-based methods like the Pearson coefficient and the image cross-correlation spectroscopy approach, to set intensity thresholds separating background noise from signals.

  20. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  1. Effects of false-evidence ploys and expert testimony on jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of confession evidence.

    PubMed

    Woody, William Douglas; Forrest, Krista D

    2009-01-01

    During interrogations, police may use false-evidence ploys or fabricated claims to convince suspects to confess. Mock jurors read trial materials containing interrogation transcripts with or without a false-evidence ploy and one of two expert witness conditions (present or absent). We examined jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of the interrogation. Although factual evidence and the defendant's confession remained constant across conditions, false-evidence ploys led to fewer convictions and shorter sentences. Jurors also perceived interrogations with ploys as more deceptive and coercive. Expert testimony reduced convictions and increased interrogation deception and coercion ratings. Across ploy types, participants rated demeanor ploys as less deceptive and recommended longer sentences for confessors. Outcomes reveal important, previously unrecognized consequences of false-evidence ploys. PMID:19405020

  2. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  3. A curious belief-bias effect: reasoning with false premises and inhibition of real-life information.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Schroyens, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that inferential behavior is strongly affected by access to real-life information about premises. However, it is also true that both children and adults can often make logically appropriate inferences that lead to empirically unbelievable conclusions. One way of reconciling these is to suppose that logical instructions allow inhibition of information about premises that would otherwise be retrieved during reasoning. On the basis of this idea, we hypothesized that it should be easier to endorse an empirically false conclusion on the basis of clearly false premises than on the basis of relatively believable premises. Two studies are presented that support this hypothesis.

  4. Effects of 3-aminoglutarate, a "silent" false transmitter for glutamate neurons, on synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng; Foster, Alan C; Staubli, Ursula; Wu, Xia; Sun, Chicheng; Tang, Xin; Li, Yong-Xin; Chen, Gong

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacological tools that interact with the mechanisms that regulate vesicular filling and release of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate would be of enormous value. In this study, we provide physiological evidence that the glutamate analog, 3-aminoglutarate (3-AG), acts as a false transmitter to reduce presynaptic glutamate release. 3-AG inhibits glutamate-mediated neurotransmission both in primary neuronal cultures and in brain slices with more intact neural circuits. When assayed with the low affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-DGG, we demonstrate that 3-AG significantly reduces the synaptic cleft glutamate concentration, suggesting that 3-AG may act as a false transmitter to compete with glutamate during vesicle filling. Furthermore, using three different epileptic models (Mg(2+)-free, 4-AP, and high K(+)), we demonstrate that 3-AG is capable of suppressing epileptiform activity both before and after its induction. Our studies, along with those of the companion paper by Foster et al. (2015) indicate that 3-AG is a "silent" false transmitter for glutamate neurons that is a useful pharmacological tool to probe the mechanisms governing vesicular storage and release of glutamate under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. 3-AG may have potential therapeutic value in conditions where the glutamate neurotransmitter system is pathologically overactive.

  5. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  6. Mycorrhizal symbiosis effects on growth of chalk false-brome (Brachypodium pinnatum) are dependent on the environmental light regime.

    PubMed

    Füzy, Anna; Bothe, Hermann; Molnár, Edit; Biró, Borbála

    2014-03-01

    AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) colonization of the grass chalk false-brome (Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. B.) was studied in selected habitats under spatially different light regimes: (a) shade condition under oak trees, (b) half shade in a shrubby area and (c) full-sun conditions on unshaded grassland. This study assessed the variations in AMF colonization of the grass dependent on the light supply in field habitats. Soil, root and shoot samples were collected four times during the vegetation period (in June, July, September and October). Root colonization, root and shoot biomass as well as soil water content were determined. The highest rate of AMF colonization was detected in June under half-sun and full-sun conditions, where about 50% of the roots were colonized. The average amount of arbuscules was less than 20% in the roots at the three sites, with the highest number of arbuscules in June, under half-sun and full-sun conditions, however, not under the trees. Overall, best mycorrhizal colonization occurred during summer, and its rate decreased in autumn. This tendency inversely correlated with the amount of precipitation, and thus with the water content of soils. The high colonization rate of the examined root samples, and also its seasonal fluctuation, might reflect the importance of the symbiosis where inorganic nutrients and water are the growth-limiting factors. The marginal AMF colonization of chalk false-brome under shade conditions indicates that plants do not use AMF under all stress conditions. When low light limits photosynthesis and thus growth of the plants, they dispense with the colonization of AMF in order to save the expenditure of organic carbon. PMID:24484951

  7. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  8. Whatever Gave You that Idea? False Memories Following Equivalence Training: A Behavioral Account of the Misinformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challies, Danna M.; Hunt, Maree; Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The misinformation effect is a term used in the cognitive psychological literature to describe both experimental and real-world instances in which misleading information is incorporated into an account of an historical event. In many real-world situations, it is not possible to identify a distinct source of misinformation, and it appears that the…

  9. Experimental production of illusory (false) memories in reconstructions of narratives: effect size and potential mediation by right hemispheric stimulation from complex, weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Healey, F; Persinger, M A

    2001-01-01

    This experiment was designed to discern the proportion of false, inferential and verbatim memories that would be included in the reconstruction, one week later, of a 5 min narrative containing ambiguous but emotional content about a little boy. After 48 subjects were administered Spiegel's Hypnosis Induction Profile, they listened to the narrative, were exposed to one of four applications of transcerebral weak, complex magnetic fields for 30 min and then given either an accurate or inaccurate short summary of the story. One week later the group who received the erroneous summary reported more false memories about the original story than did the reference group; this treatment accommodated about 40% of the variance in numbers of false memories. Only an indicator of electrical lability within the temporal lobes (but not hypnotizability) was strongly associated with the numbers of inferential memories but not the numbers of false memories. The group that received transcerebral stimulation over the right hemisphere by a complex magnetic field and the erroneous summary reported three times the numbers of false memories compared to the other groups. Whereas verbatim memories showed a strong primacy effect inferential memories exhibited a strong recency effect (eta(2) =.66).

  10. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  11. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  12. Characterizing the Joint Effect of Diverse Test-Statistic Correlation Structures and Effect Size on False Discovery Rates in a Multiple-Comparison Study of Many Outcome Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2011-01-01

    In their 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report the results of a simulation assessing the robustness of their adaptive step-down procedure (GBS) for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) when normally distributed test statistics are serially correlated. In this study we extend the investigation to the case of multiple comparisons involving correlated non-central t-statistics, in particular when several treatments or time periods are being compared to a control in a repeated-measures design with many dependent outcome measures. In addition, we consider several dependence structures other than serial correlation and illustrate how the FDR depends on the interaction between effect size and the type of correlation structure as indexed by Foerstner s distance metric from an identity. The relationship between the correlation matrix R of the original dependent variables and R, the correlation matrix of associated t-statistics is also studied. In general R depends not only on R, but also on sample size and the signed effect sizes for the multiple comparisons.

  13. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  14. FDR doesn't Tell the Whole Story: Joint Influence of Effect Size and Covariance Structure on the Distribution of the False Discovery Proportions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report results of simulations that estimated the false discovery rate (FDR) for equally correlated test statistics using a well-known multiple-test procedure. In our study we estimate the distribution of the false discovery proportion (FDP) for the same procedure under a variety of correlation structures among multiple dependent variables in a MANOVA context. Specifically, we study the mean (the FDR), skewness, kurtosis, and percentiles of the FDP distribution in the case of multiple comparisons that give rise to correlated non-central t-statistics when results at several time periods are being compared to baseline. Even if the FDR achieves its nominal value, other aspects of the distribution of the FDP depend on the interaction between signed effect sizes and correlations among variables, proportion of true nulls, and number of dependent variables. We show examples where the mean FDP (the FDR) is 10% as designed, yet there is a surprising probability of having 30% or more false discoveries. Thus, in a real experiment, the proportion of false discoveries could be quite different from the stipulated FDR.

  15. Effects of distinctive encoding on correct and false memory: a meta-analytic review of costs and benefits and their origins in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; Bodner, Glen E; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2015-04-01

    We review and meta-analyze how distinctive encoding alters encoding and retrieval processes and, thus, affects correct and false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Reductions in false recognition following distinctive encoding (e.g., generation), relative to a nondistinctive read-only control condition, reflected both impoverished relational encoding and use of a retrieval-based distinctiveness heuristic. Additional analyses evaluated the costs and benefits of distinctive encoding in within-subjects designs relative to between-group designs. Correct recognition was design independent, but in a within design, distinctive encoding was less effective at reducing false recognition for distinctively encoded lists but more effective for nondistinctively encoded lists. Thus, distinctive encoding is not entirely "cost free" in a within design. In addition to delineating the conditions that modulate the effects of distinctive encoding on recognition accuracy, we discuss the utility of using signal detection indices of memory information and memory monitoring at test to separate encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:24853535

  16. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  17. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  18. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  19. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  20. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  2. Role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs. II: Reassessment of LSD false positives.

    PubMed

    Fiorella, D; Rabin, R A; Winter, J C

    1995-10-01

    In the context of animal studies of hallucinogens, an LSD-false positive is defined as a drug known to be devoid of hallucinogenic activity in humans but which nonetheless fully mimics LSD in animals. Quipazine, MK-212, lisuride, and yohimbine have all been reported to be LSD false positives. The present study was designed to determine whether these compounds also substitute for the stimulus effects of the more pharmacologically selective hallucinogen (-)DOM (0.56 mg/kg, 75-min pretreatment time). The LSD and (-)DOM stimuli fully generalized to quipazine (3.0 mg/kg) and lisuride (0.2 mg/kg), but only partially generalized to MK-212 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2-20 mg/kg). In combination tests, pirenpirone (0.08 mg/kg), a compound with both D2 and 5-HT2A affinity, blocked the substitution of quipazine and lisuride for the (-)DOM stimulus. Ketanserin (2.5 mg/kg), an antagonist with greater than 1 order of magnitude higher affinity for 5-HT2A receptors than either 5-HT2C or D2 receptors, also fully blocked the substitution of these compounds for the (-)DOM stimulus, while the selective D2 antagonist thiothixene (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) failed to block the substitution of lisuride for the (-)DOM stimulus. These results suggest that quipazine and lisuride substitute for the stimulus properties of the phenylalkglamine hallucinogen (-)DOM via agonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors. In addition, these results suggest that 5-HT2A agonist activity may be required, but is not in itself sufficient, for indolamine and phenylalkglamine compounds to elicit hallucinations in humans. Finally, it is concluded that MK-212 and yohimbine are neither LSD nor (-)DOM false positives.

  3. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  4. Developmental Differences in the Effects of Repeated Interviews and Interviewer Bias on Young Children’s Event Memory and False Reports

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.; D’Mello, Michelle; Schaaf, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated developmental differences in the effects of repeated interviews and interviewer bias on children’s memory and suggestibility. Three- and 5-year-olds were singly or repeatedly interviewed about a play event by a highly biased or control interviewer. Children interviewed once by the biased interviewer after a long delay made the most errors. Children interviewed repeatedly, regardless of interviewer bias, were more accurate and less likely to falsely claim that they played with a man. In free recall, among children questioned once after a long delay by the biased interviewer, 5-year-olds were more likely than were 3-year-olds to claim falsely that they played with a man. However, in response to direct questions, 3-year-olds were more easily manipulated into implying that they played with him. Findings suggest that interviewer bias is particularly problematic when children’s memory has weakened. In contrast, repeated interviews that occur a short time after a to-be-remembered event do not necessarily increase children’s errors, even when interviews include misleading questions and interviewer bias. Implications for developmental differences in memory and suggestibility are discussed. PMID:17605517

  5. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  6. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    PubMed

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.

  7. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  8. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  9. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite.

  10. The Effects of Theory of Mind Training on the False Belief Understanding of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Stacey L; Easterbrooks, Susan R; Lederberg, Amy R

    2016-07-01

    Data from a growing number of research studies indicate that children with hearing loss are delayed in Theory of Mind (ToM) development when compared to their typically developing, hearing peers. While other researchers have studied the developmental trajectories of ToM in school-age students who are deaf, a limited number have addressed the need for interventions for this population. The present study extends the current research on ToM interventions to the Prekindergarten and Kindergarten levels. This study used a single-case multiple baseline design to examine the effects of a ToM intervention on participants' false belief understanding as well as outcomes on a near generalization measure and a far generalization measure. A ToM thought bubble intervention (i.e., a visual representation of what people are thinking) developed by Wellman and Peterson (2013 Deafness, thought bubbles, and theory-of-mind development. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2357-2367) was modified in key areas. Results from the Single-Case Design portion of the study indicate a functional, or causal, relation between the ToM intervention and the participants' acquisition of the targeted skills in each stage although progress was not uniform. Results from the pre-post assessments indicate that the children did make progress up the scale. These results inform the field in regard to the efficacy and feasibility of a ToM intervention for young deaf children. PMID:27235698

  11. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. PMID:26314033

  12. The Effects of Theory of Mind Training on the False Belief Understanding of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Stacey L; Easterbrooks, Susan R; Lederberg, Amy R

    2016-07-01

    Data from a growing number of research studies indicate that children with hearing loss are delayed in Theory of Mind (ToM) development when compared to their typically developing, hearing peers. While other researchers have studied the developmental trajectories of ToM in school-age students who are deaf, a limited number have addressed the need for interventions for this population. The present study extends the current research on ToM interventions to the Prekindergarten and Kindergarten levels. This study used a single-case multiple baseline design to examine the effects of a ToM intervention on participants' false belief understanding as well as outcomes on a near generalization measure and a far generalization measure. A ToM thought bubble intervention (i.e., a visual representation of what people are thinking) developed by Wellman and Peterson (2013 Deafness, thought bubbles, and theory-of-mind development. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2357-2367) was modified in key areas. Results from the Single-Case Design portion of the study indicate a functional, or causal, relation between the ToM intervention and the participants' acquisition of the targeted skills in each stage although progress was not uniform. Results from the pre-post assessments indicate that the children did make progress up the scale. These results inform the field in regard to the efficacy and feasibility of a ToM intervention for young deaf children.

  13. "If I didn't write it, why would I remember it?" Effects of encoding, attention, and practice on accurate and false memory.

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Dumey, Adam D; Dick, Ester; Aufseeser, Marla S; Strickland, Sarah E; Woulfin, Jeffrey R; Fung, Nicholas S

    2003-04-01

    In two experiments involving recall and recognition, we manipulated encoding strategies, attention, and practice in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott false memory procedure. During the study of auditory word lists, participants listened to the words, wrote the words, wrote the second letter of the words, or counted backward by threes and wrote numbers in time with the words. The results from both experiments showed that, relative to the full-attention hear word condition, the divided-attention write number condition impaired accurate memory, but not false memory. In contrast, the focused-attention write word and write second letter conditions were comparable to the hear word condition in producing accurate memory, yet they were better at reducing false memory. But even after multiple study-test trials, people still falsely recalled or recognized words that they had never written during study. These results are consistent with predictions generated from fuzzy trace theory and the activation/monitoring framework.

  14. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  15. Effect of Divided Attention on the Production of False Memories in the DRM Paradigm: A Study of Dichotic Listening and Shadowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, Eduarda; Albuquerque, Pedro B.

    2013-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm comprises the study of lists in which words (e.g., bed, pillow, etc.) are all associates of a single nonstudied critical item (e.g., sleep). The probability of falsely recalling or recognising nonstudied critical items is often similar to (or sometimes higher than) the probability of correctly recalling…

  16. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  17. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  18. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  19. Familiarity breeds distortion: the effects of media exposure on false reports concerning media coverage of the terrorist attacks in london on 7 July 2005.

    PubMed

    Ost, James; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Udell, Julie; Roos af Hjelmsäter, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether increased media exposure could lead to an increase in memory distortions regarding a traumatic public event: the explosion of the No. 30 bus in Tavistock Square, London on 7 July 2005. A total of 150 Swedish and 150 UK participants completed a series of questionnaires about their memory of either (i) the aftermath of the explosion, (ii) a non-existent computerised reconstruction of the moment of the explosion, or (iii) non-existent closed circuit television footage of the moment of the explosion. In line with the availability heuristic, U.K. participants were more likely than Swedish participants to claim to have seen all three types of footage. Furthermore, a subsample of U.K. participants who appeared to have developed false "memories" of seeing the No. 30 bus explode scored significantly higher on measures of dissociation and fantasy proneness than participants who did not develop false "memories". This experiment provides further support for the role of imaginative processes in the development of false memories.

  20. Controlling false discoveries in genetic studies.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2008-07-01

    A false discovery occurs when a researcher concludes that a marker is involved in the etiology of the disease whereas in reality it is not. In genetic studies the risk of false discoveries is very high because only few among the many markers that can be tested will have an effect on the disease. In this article, we argue that it may be best to use methods for controlling false discoveries that would introduce the same ratio of false discoveries divided by all rejected tests into the literature regardless of systematic differences between studies. After a brief discussion of traditional "multiple testing" methods, we show that methods that control the false discovery rate (FDR) may be more suitable to achieve this goal. These FDR methods are therefore discussed in more detail. Instead of merely testing for main effects, it may be important to search for gene-environment/covariate interactions, gene-gene interactions or genetic variants affecting disease subtypes. In the second section, we point out the challenges involved in controlling false discoveries in such searches. The final section discusses the role of replication studies for eliminating false discoveries and the complexities associated with the definition of what constitutes a replication and the design of these studies.

  1. A transformer of molecular beacon for sensitive and real-time detection of phosphatases with effective inhibition of the false positive signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Su, Xin; Liang, Yuan; Zhu, Xiaocui; Song, Chen; Zhao, Meiping

    2011-10-15

    Molecular beacons (MBs) have shown great potential in measurement of enzyme activities. However, currently available methods for monitoring of phosphatases only use MBs as a signal reporter. Extra substrates for the phosphatases are needed to hybridize to the MB either as a primer or as a template. Moreover, few MB-based methods have been used to detect enzyme activities in real biological samples due to insufficient sensitivity or false positive interference signals caused by nonspecific nucleases. In this work, a novel type of fluorescent probe was designed and synthesized for monitoring of phosphatases by integrating the DNA substrate and the signaling structures into a single molecule. Such a new design not only significantly simplified the probing system and greatly enhanced the sensitivity, but also offered a practical way to guard against the false-positive signal problems in the application to real samples. The unique design of the assay format should be widely applicable to many other enzymatic assays using oligonucleotide fluorescent probes.

  2. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  3. 20 CFR 614.11 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 614.11... for fraud. (a) False statements and representations. Section 8507(a) of the Act provides that if a... under § 614.7. (b) Prosecution for fraud. Section 1919 of title 18, United States Code, provides...

  4. 20 CFR 609.11 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 609.11...; penalties for fraud. (a) False statements and representations. Section 8507(a) of the Act provides that if a... appropriate under § 609.7. (b) Prosecution for fraud. Section 1919 of title 18, United States Code,...

  5. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  6. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  7. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  8. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  9. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  10. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  11. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  12. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  13. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  14. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  15. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  16. 21 CFR 520.2123c - Spectinomycin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (scours) caused by E. coli susceptible to spectinomycin in pigs under 4 weeks of age. (3) Limitations. Do... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectinomycin solution. 520.2123c Section 520.2123c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2990 - Breast lesion documentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breast lesion documentation system. 884.2990... Devices § 884.2990 Breast lesion documentation system. (a) Identification. A breast lesion documentation system is a device for use in producing a surface map of the breast as an aid to document palpable...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150... § 884.5150 Nonpowered breast pump. (a) Identification. A nonpowered breast pump is a manual suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  20. 18 CFR 301.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The regulations in this part apply to the sales of electric power by any Utility to the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) under section 5(c) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability....

  1. 17 CFR 210.12-04 - Condensed financial information of registrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed financial... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-04 Condensed financial information of registrant. (a) Provide condensed financial information as to financial position, cash...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7415...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.5600 - Automated hematocrit instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated hematocrit instrument. 864.5600 Section 864.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7275 - Euglobulin lysis time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Euglobulin lysis time tests. 864.7275 Section 864.7275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7275 Euglobulin...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700 Section 864.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  11. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  13. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent....

  14. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6100 - Bleeding time device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bleeding time device. 864.6100 Section 864.6100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6100 Bleeding time...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  19. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 864.3400 - Device for sealing microsections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Device for sealing microsections. 864.3400 Section 864.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6650 - Platelet adhesion test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Platelet adhesion test. 864.6650 Section 864.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6650 Platelet...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5680 - Automated heparin analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated heparin analyzer. 864.5680 Section 864.5680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7340 - Fibrinogen determination system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fibrinogen determination system. 864.7340 Section 864.7340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  6. 21 CFR 864.5850 - Automated slide spinner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated slide spinner. 864.5850 Section 864.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thromboplastin generation test. 864.7900 Section 864.7900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  10. 21 CFR 864.3300 - Cytocentrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cytocentrifuge. 864.3300 Section 864.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3300 Cytocentrifuge....

  11. 21 CFR 864.7735 - Prothrombin-proconvertin test and thrombotest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prothrombin-proconvertin test and thrombotest. 864.7735 Section 864.7735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8625 - Hematology quality control mixture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hematology quality control mixture. 864.8625... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8625 Hematology quality control mixture. (a) Identification. A hematology quality control mixture is a device used...

  13. 21 CFR 864.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 864.1 Section 864.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND... hematology and pathology devices intended for human use that are in commercial distribution. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. 864.1860 Section 864.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains §...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6675 - Platelet aggregometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Platelet aggregometer. 864.6675 Section 864.6675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6675...

  16. 21 CFR 864.8165 - Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement. 864.8165 Section 864.8165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 864.5800 - Automated sedimentation rate device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated sedimentation rate device. 864.5800 Section 864.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. 864.7440 Section 864.7440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490...

  1. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6600 - Osmotic fragility test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Osmotic fragility test. 864.6600 Section 864.6600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6600 Osmotic...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7695 - Platelet factor 4 radioimmunoassay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Platelet factor 4 radioimmunoassay. 864.7695 Section 864.7695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7695...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  6. 27 CFR 21.103 - Chloroform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloroform. 21.103 Section 21.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.103 Chloroform. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  7. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  8. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  9. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.25 Textile... NAFTA preferential tariff treatment involving non-originating textile or apparel products subject to...

  10. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  11. 19 CFR 10.472 - Verification in the United States of textile and apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification in the United States of textile and... the United States of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures to determine whether a claim of origin... for the purpose of determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate....

  12. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  13. 19 CFR 10.453 - Treatment of textile and apparel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of textile and apparel sets. 10.453... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.453 Treatment of textile and apparel sets. Notwithstanding the specific rules specified in General Note 26(n), HTSUS, textile and apparel goods classifiable...

  14. 19 CFR 102.24 - Entry of textile or apparel products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry of textile or apparel products. 102.24...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.24 Entry of textile or apparel products. (a) General. Separate shipments of textile or apparel products, including samples, which originate from...

  15. 19 CFR 10.874 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.874 Section 10.874... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.874 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. (1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  16. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  17. 22 CFR 172.1 - Purpose and scope; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR, 1982 Comp., p. 166), the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b, the Department's implementing regulations in 22 CFR part 171 or pursuant to congressional subpoena. Nothing in this part... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose and scope; definitions. 172.1...

  18. 26 CFR 1.247-1 - Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock... Corporations § 1.247-1 Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities. (a) Amount of... public utility corporations (see paragraph (b) of this section) on certain preferred stock (see...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 204, Preferred stock issued. 367.2040 Section 367.2040 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2040 Account 204, Preferred...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  1. 18 CFR 1300.107 - Financial interest exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financial interest exemptions. 1300.107 Section 1300.107 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... convertible into shares of preferred or common stock and have no warrants attached entitling the holder...

  2. 18 CFR 367.4370 - Account 437, Dividends declared-preferred stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 437, Dividends declared-preferred stock. 367.4370 Section 367.4370 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4370 Account 437, Dividends declared—preferred stock....

  3. 18 CFR 367.4380 - Account 438, Dividends declared-common stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 438, Dividends declared-common stock. 367.4380 Section 367.4380 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4380 Account 438, Dividends declared—common stock. (a)...

  4. 18 CFR 420.31 - Certificate of entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificate of entitlement. 420.31 Section 420.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Entitlement; Measurement; Billing §...

  5. 18 CFR 367.2110 - Account 211, Miscellaneous paid-in capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 211, Miscellaneous paid-in capital. 367.2110 Section 367.2110 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... expenses incurred in connection with the issuance of capital stock....

  6. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  7. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  9. 19 CFR 162.64 - Custody of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...

  10. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Standard for Claim Determinations-Separation Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard for Claim Determinations-Separation... Part 602—Standard for Claim Determinations—Separation Information Employment Security Manual (Part V... separation was voluntary, and the reason does not constitute good cause,” rather than merely the...

  11. 17 CFR 12.8 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 12.8 Section 12.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.8 Separation of functions....

  12. 22 CFR 224.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 224.14 Section 224.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  13. 20 CFR 355.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 355.14 Section 355.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.14 Separation of...

  14. 24 CFR 180.220 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 180.220 Section 180.220 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Law Judge § 180.220 Separation of functions. No officer, employee, or agent of the Federal...

  15. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  16. 24 CFR 26.37 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 26.37 Section 26.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Separation of functions. No officer, employee, or agent of the Federal Government engaged in the...

  17. 17 CFR 10.9 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 10.9 Section 10.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.9 Separation of functions. (a) An Administrative Law Judge will not be...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  19. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  20. 18 CFR 385.2202 - Separation of functions (Rule 2202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions (Rule 2202). 385.2202 Section 385.2202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Communications; Separation of Functions § 385.2202 Separation of functions (Rule 2202). In any proceeding...

  1. 22 CFR 35.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 35.14 Section 35.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and any employee or agent...

  2. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  3. 17 CFR 201.121 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 201.121 Section 201.121 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.121 Separation of functions. Any Commission...

  4. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  6. 19 CFR 10.179 - Canadian crude petroleum subject to a commercial exchange agreement between United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Customs Regulations (19 CFR part 151, subpart C). Certain Fresh, Chilled, or Frozen Beef ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canadian crude petroleum subject to a commercial... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Canadian Crude Petroleum §...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  8. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  9. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  10. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative....

  11. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit...

  12. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine....

  13. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  14. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  15. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  16. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products... percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from...

  17. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is...

  18. 19 CFR 19.30 - Domestic wheat not to be allowed in bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic wheat not to be allowed in bonded space... THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.30 Domestic wheat not to be allowed in bonded space. The presence of domestic wheat in space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall not...

  19. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans,...

  20. 19 CFR 19.31 - Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to be commingled in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Standards for Grain, see 7 CFR part 810. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.31 Bulk wheat of...

  1. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  2. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  3. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  4. 19 CFR 10.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 10.106 Section 10.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Wheat § 10.106 Rescue and Relief Work...

  5. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  6. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  7. 19 CFR 151.76 - Grading of wool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grading of wool. 151.76 Section 151.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.76 Grading of wool....

  8. 24 CFR 1003.401 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application process. 1003.401... Grants § 1003.401 Application process. (a) Letter to proceed. The Area ONAP may issue the applicant a... activities do not alter environmental conditions and are for temporary or permanent improvements limited...

  9. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  10. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U.S. Customs...

  11. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses. (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  12. 22 CFR 123.12 - Shipments between U.S. possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipments between U.S. possessions. 123.12 Section 123.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.12 Shipments between U.S. possessions. An export license...

  13. 22 CFR 123.24 - Shipments by U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subchapter by clearly marking on the package “This export is subject to the controls of the ITAR, 22 CFR... controls of the ITAR, 22 CFR (identify section for an exemption) or (state license number).” For those... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipments by U.S. Postal Service....

  14. 22 CFR 123.14 - Import certificate/delivery verification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Import certificate/delivery verification procedure. 123.14 Section 123.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.14 Import certificate/delivery...

  15. 21 CFR 123.12 - Special requirements for imported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special requirements for imported products. 123.12 Section 123.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.12...

  16. 21 CFR 123.20 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General. 123.20 Section 123.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS Raw Molluscan Shellfish § 123.20 General. This subpart augments...

  17. 22 CFR 123.2 - Import jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Attorney General (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Import jurisdiction. 123.2 Section 123.2... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.2 Import jurisdiction. The Department of State regulates the temporary import...

  18. 22 CFR 123.10 - Non-transfer and use assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Non-transfer and use assurances. 123.10 Section 123.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.10 Non-transfer and use assurances. (a) A nontransfer and...

  19. 21 CFR 123.15 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General. 123.15 Section 123.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS Smoked and Smoke-Flavored Fishery Products § 123.15 General....

  20. 22 CFR 225.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 225.123 Section 225.123 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.123 Early termination of research support: Evaluation...

  1. 21 CFR 56.123 - Reinstatement of an IRB or an institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinstatement of an IRB or an institution. 56.123 Section 56.123 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS Administrative Actions for Noncompliance § 56.123 Reinstatement of...

  2. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary import licenses. 123.3 Section 123.3... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of... articles, unless exempted from this requirement pursuant to § 123.4. This requirement applies to:...

  3. 22 CFR 123.4 - Temporary import license exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authority of 22 CFR 123.4(a) (identify subsection),” and (ii) Include, on the invoice or other appropriate... Automated Export System (AES), and identify 22 CFR 123.4 as the authority for the export and provide, as... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary import license exemptions....

  4. 18 CFR 401.123 - Waiver of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver of rules. 401.123 Section 401.123 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.123 Waiver of rules....

  5. 22 CFR 123.13 - Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign country. 123.13 Section 123.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.13 Domestic aircraft shipments via a...

  6. 22 CFR 123.26 - Recordkeeping requirement for exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirement for exemptions. 123.26 Section 123.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.26 Recordkeeping requirement for exemptions. When...

  7. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  8. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is regular non-railroad employment. 216.16 Section 216.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.16 What...

  9. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  10. 20 CFR 404.631 - Statements filed with the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statements filed with the Railroad Retirement... Written Statement § 404.631 Statements filed with the Railroad Retirement Board. A written statement filed with the Railroad Retirement Board will be considered a written statement filed with us under the...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  12. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  13. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico shall present...

  14. 20 CFR 227.3 - Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum. 227.3 Section 227.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.3 Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum....

  15. 26 CFR 1.45G-0 - Table of contents for the railroad track maintenance credit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents for the railroad track... § 1.45G-0 Table of contents for the railroad track maintenance credit rules. This section lists the...) Definitions. (1) Class II railroad and Class III railroad. (2) Eligible railroad track. (3) Eligible...

  16. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  17. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  18. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-2 - Returns under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer, pursuant to the provisions of 26 CFR (1939) 410.501(b) (Regulations 100) or of 26 CFR (1939) 411... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns under Railroad Retirement Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-2 Returns under Railroad Retirement...

  19. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity. 216.42 Section 216.42 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Supplemental Annuity § 216.42 How a private...

  20. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  1. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  2. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  3. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  4. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  6. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2270 - Thin-layer chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thin-layer chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2270 Thin-layer chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A thin-layer chromatography (TLC) system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  11. 18 CFR 157.39 - Rate treatment of pipeline expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rate treatment of pipeline expansions. 157.39 Section 157.39 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... treatment of pipeline expansions. There shall be a rebuttable presumption that rates for any expansion of...

  12. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  13. 18 CFR 284.12 - Standards for pipeline business operations and communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... citations affecting § 284.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for...

  14. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  15. 18 CFR 381.207 - Pipeline certificate applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipeline certificate... Related Authorities § 381.207 Pipeline certificate applications. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, “pipeline certificate application” means any application for authorization or exemption,...

  16. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  17. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal by pipeline. 25... Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery, without payment of tax, by pipeline to the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant which is authorized...

  18. 18 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - Nationwide Proceeding Computation of Federal Income Tax Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nationwide Proceeding Computation of Federal Income Tax Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline Affiliates and Pipeline Producers... Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline Affiliates and Pipeline Producers Continental U.S.—1972...

  19. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  20. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...