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Sample records for 2012-04-01 false pasteurized

  1. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  2. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  3. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  4. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  5. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.15 Pasteurization; equipment and methods... into the United States shall employ adequate pasteurization machinery of a type easily cleaned and...

  6. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  7. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain...

  8. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or...

  9. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or...

  10. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  11. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  12. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or...

  13. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... predominance by weight. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  14. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  15. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  16. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  17. 7 CFR 58.144 - Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. 58.144 Section... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.144 Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. When pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization is intended or required, or when a product is designated “pasteurized”...

  18. 7 CFR 58.144 - Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. 58.144 Section... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.144 Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. When pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization is intended or required, or when a product is designated “pasteurized”...

  19. 7 CFR 58.334 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization. 58.334 Section 58.334 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.334 Pasteurization. The milk or cream shall be pasteurized at the plant where the milk or... adequate pasteurization. Additional heat treatment above the minimum pasteurization requirement...

  20. 7 CFR 58.334 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization. 58.334 Section 58.334 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.334 Pasteurization. The milk or cream shall be pasteurized at the plant where the milk or... adequate pasteurization. Additional heat treatment above the minimum pasteurization requirement...

  1. 7 CFR 58.334 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization. 58.334 Section 58.334 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.334 Pasteurization. The milk or cream shall be pasteurized at the plant where the milk or... adequate pasteurization. Additional heat treatment above the minimum pasteurization requirement...

  2. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  3. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  4. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that...

  5. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that...

  6. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that...

  7. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that...

  8. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that...

  9. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  10. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  11. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  12. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  13. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  14. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  15. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  17. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  18. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  19. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  1. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  2. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  3. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  4. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  5. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  6. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  7. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  9. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  11. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  12. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  13. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  14. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  15. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  16. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  17. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The temperature of the heated liquid egg product shall be continuously and automatically recorded... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  18. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The temperature of the heated liquid egg product shall be continuously and automatically recorded... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  19. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The temperature of the heated liquid egg product shall be continuously and automatically recorded... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  20. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  1. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  2. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635... Procedures § 58.635 Pasteurization of the mix. Every particle of the mix, except added flavoring ingredients... will assure adequate pasteurization....

  3. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.15 Pasteurization; equipment and methods... into the United States shall employ adequate pasteurization machinery of a type easily cleaned and...

  4. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635... Procedures § 58.635 Pasteurization of the mix. Every particle of the mix, except added flavoring ingredients... will assure adequate pasteurization....

  5. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  6. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635... Procedures § 58.635 Pasteurization of the mix. Every particle of the mix, except added flavoring ingredients... will assure adequate pasteurization....

  7. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  8. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  9. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  10. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food...

  12. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities... liquid egg product shall include a holding tube, an automatic flow diversion valve, thermal controls,...

  13. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities... liquid egg product shall include a holding tube, an automatic flow diversion valve, thermal controls,...

  14. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  15. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  16. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  17. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  18. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  19. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized,...

  20. [The Pasteur network].

    PubMed

    Durosoir, J L

    1995-01-14

    Inspired by Louis Pasteur, the international network of Pasteur Institutes forms an original body of research institutes whose vitality has grown steadily since Albert Calmette first created the Saigon Institute in 1891. The dynamic development of the 23 Pasteur Institutes currently implanted throughout the world was made possible by three driving forces. First of all, Pasteur's own teaching--"Advance only what you can prove experimentally"--the founding principle of modern research. Secondly, the international missions headed by leading collaborators including Thuillier who worked on cholera in Egypt, Loir who initiated antirabies research in Australia and Russia, Calmette in Saigon, and others in Rio de Janeiro, Dalat, Tunis and Alger. And finally Pasteur's own personal renown. Today the Pasteur Institutes fill a vital need in their respective countries developing and producing vaccines locally, serving often as the only competent medical laboratory in developing countries and helping improve standards of hygiene adapted to local situations. Fundamental research has always been at the heart of Pasteur Institutes, coupled with essential training for technicians and researchers alike. Despite political incertitudes and turmoil, the international network of Pasteur Institutes has held its place as the leader in scientific progress for over a century, setting the place for modern international research. The Cantacuzene Institute in Bucarest and the Pasteur Institute in Saint-Petersburg which joined the network in 1991 and 1993 are the most recent examples of the fundamental principle of exchange and cooperation so important for further development.

  1. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... temperature of 161 °F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction. (b) Heat treatment—(1)...

  2. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... temperature of 161 °F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction. (b) Heat treatment—(1)...

  3. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... temperature of 161 °F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction. (b) Heat treatment—(1)...

  4. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... temperature of 161 °F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction. (b) Heat treatment—( 1)...

  5. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  6. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  7. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  8. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  9. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  10. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products... and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Finished Products § 58.738 Pasteurized process cheese... of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH...

  11. Pasteur: Student and Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Nicholas

    1983-01-01

    Louis Pasteur's career as a scientist and as a teacher of science is traced. The discovery of his ability and interest, his choice of teaching as a profession, the controversy over teaching versus research, and his methods of teaching science are included. (MNS)

  12. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain...

  13. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or...

  14. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or...

  15. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or...

  16. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  17. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or...

  18. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or...

  19. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or...

  20. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or...

  1. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  2. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or...

  3. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  4. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  5. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or...

  6. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  7. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  8. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or...

  9. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or...

  10. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  11. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or...

  12. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  13. Enhancement of Solar Water Pasteurization with Reflectors

    PubMed Central

    Safapour, Negar; Metcalf, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached. PMID:9925631

  14. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  15. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  16. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  17. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  18. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  19. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  20. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15 Section 1210.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  1. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15 Section 1210.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  2. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15 Section 1210.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  3. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for...

  4. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for...

  5. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  6. Energy conservation for pasteurizer apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Huling, J.K.

    1981-07-21

    In the pasteurizing of beverages in closed containers, the containers arrive generally in a chilled state and are progressively raised in temperature approaching the pasteurizing temperature and, after being pasteurized for an appropriate time, are progressively cooled down. Apparatus of this type is provided with a source of chilled water which is available for use when skips occur in the supply of the containers, the chilled water being accumulated from the incoming containers and from common outside sources. The accumulated water in its chilled state saves substantial amounts of energy by eliminating mechanical or other means to produce the chill effect, and such source of water is constantly available under control which senses the presence of a skip in the supply of containers.

  7. Louis Pasteur's beer of revenge.

    PubMed

    Baxter, A G

    2001-12-01

    Although by the mid-nineteenth century evidence existed for an association between micoorganisms and disease, it was the combined efforts of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch that created the germ theory of disease--the theory that specific microbes cause specific diseases. Surprisingly, the relationship between the two founders of microbiology and immunology was far from friendly.

  8. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    PubMed

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  9. The Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Kamp, G

    1996-05-15

    The existence and the regulatory mechanisms of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa are discussed. There are three reasons for the controversy surrounding this phenomenon. 1) The different definitions of the Pasteur effect, 2) the antagonistic effect of metabolic depression and its species specific response to hypoxia, as well as 3) the laboratory-specific differences in the experimental procedures for analyzing the Pasteur effect and its regulation. This review aims to clarify the confusion about the existence of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa and to offer possible molecular mechanisms.

  10. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

    PubMed

    Bordenave, Guy

    2003-05-01

    In Louis Pasteur's scientific career it is striking to note the exponential character of the research he introduced in all the fields he opened up. He offered fabulous opportunities to stereochemistry. He is acknowledged as one of the founders of microbiology. He established the possibility of anaerobic life. He pointed the way to epidemiology, public health, and the bacteriologic fight. He struggled against the idea of spontaneous generation of life. He irrevocably substantiated the microbial theory of infectious diseases. He demonstrated that bacterial virulence could be attenuated, he evidenced immunity and generalised the vaccination principle. He also was an incomparable experimenter.

  11. Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy has been viewed by the author in two locations in the world: Klamath Falls, Oregon and Oradea, Romania. The former is not longer in operation; but, the latter has been operating since 1981. A third dairy using geothermal energy has been reported in Iceland which was established in 1930 to pasteurize milk and evaporate whey to produce brown whey cheese. This dairy merged with another co-op dairy in 1938 and was shut down. A description of the first two of these installations is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation in other geothermal locations. These two reported savings in energy costs by using geothermal heat; the Klamath Falls installation producing 7,600 L/day (2,000 gals/day) for a savings of $12,000 per year and the Oradea plant producing 70,000 L/day (18,500 gals/day) (winter) and 200,000 L/day (52,800 gals/day) (summer) for savings of $120,000 per year (savings 800 TOE - tonnes of oil equivalent).

  12. Pasteurizing water with solar box cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the development of solar cookers that can be used to pasteurize water in developing countries. After a new test was developed for testing coliforms it became possible to test the efficiency of the pasteurization process. Secondly, a safety device was developed that indicates when pasteurization temperatures are reached. The author cautions that having an effective safety indicator will not insure a safe water supply. Further steps are needed to insure that water will not be recontaminated by improper handling after removal from the solar box.

  13. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  14. Louis pasteur, the father of immunology?

    PubMed

    Smith, Kendall A

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur's presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur's remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  15. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... predominance by weight. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... predominance by weight. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  17. 7 CFR 58.521 - Pasteurization and product flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... well as microorganisms which may cause spoilage of cottage cheese. Skim milk separated from pasteurized... cheese shall be pasteurized not more than 24 hours prior to the time of setting by heating every particle... and held at 45 °F. or lower until set. (b) Cream or cheese dressing shall be pasteurized at not...

  18. Models and microbiology: Pasteur and the body.

    PubMed

    Hanley, James G

    2003-01-01

    Louis Pasteur developed a model of the body as a culture vessel in the late 1870s as an explanation of both natural and acquired immunity, and other investigators quickly applied the model in the explanation of other microbiological phenomena, principally the tissue tropism seen in the normal and the pathological flora. This paper will argue that although Pasteur quickly abandoned the model, it persisted as an explanation of tissue tropism for nearly 70 years, structuring the interpretation of data by and guiding the research of a diverse group of microbiological researchers.

  19. 7 CFR 58.809 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating... drying operations for dry whey take place at the same plant, the pasteurization may be located at...

  20. 7 CFR 58.809 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating... drying operations for dry whey take place at the same plant, the pasteurization may be located at...

  1. 7 CFR 58.809 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating... drying operations for dry whey take place at the same plant, the pasteurization may be located at...

  2. 7 CFR 58.809 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating... drying operations for dry whey take place at the same plant, the pasteurization may be located at...

  3. 7 CFR 58.809 - Pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., modified whey products, and lactose shall be pasteurized prior to condensing. When the condensing and... transported to another plant for further processing into dry whey, dry whey products or lactose without... procedure unpasteurized ingredients are added (except those necessary for lactose crystallization),...

  4. Louis Pasteur, the Father of Immunology?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kendall A.

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine. PMID:22566949

  5. An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451 bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7 logs (10(7) cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25 U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ≥1 colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22 ml within 7.5 h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1 CFU/2.22 ml). PMID:22644523

  6. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. The Pasteur effect in carrot root tissue.

    PubMed

    Faiz-Ur-Rahman, A T; Trewavas, A J; Davies, D D

    1974-09-01

    The presence of a Pasteur effect in aged discs of carrot (Daucus carota L.) storage tissue and its apparent absence in fresh discs was confirmed. Changes in the concentration of glycolytic intermediates have been determined, following the transfer of fresh and aged discs from air to nitrogen. In addition the changes in glycolytic intermediates associated with the ageing of the discs have also been measured. The results are analysed and interpreted to indicate that in aged discs the enzyme phosphofructokinase plays an important role in controlling glycolysis. In fresh discs phosphofructokinase appears to exert little control of glycolysis. The results also suggest that glycolysis may be controlled at points other than phosphofructokinase.

  10. 7 CFR 58.521 - Pasteurization and product flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... whole milk need not be re-pasteurized provided it is separated in equipment from which all traces of raw... Procedures § 58.521 Pasteurization and product flow. (a) The skim milk used for the manufacture of cottage... of skim milk to a temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15 seconds or by any other combination...

  11. 7 CFR 58.521 - Pasteurization and product flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... whole milk need not be re-pasteurized provided it is separated in equipment from which all traces of raw... Procedures § 58.521 Pasteurization and product flow. (a) The skim milk used for the manufacture of cottage... of skim milk to a temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15 seconds or by any other combination...

  12. 7 CFR 58.521 - Pasteurization and product flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... whole milk need not be re-pasteurized provided it is separated in equipment from which all traces of raw... Procedures § 58.521 Pasteurization and product flow. (a) The skim milk used for the manufacture of cottage... of skim milk to a temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15 seconds or by any other combination...

  13. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...

  14. The Development of Vaccination and the Discoveries of Louis Pasteur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of vaccination and provides a brief biographical sketch of the life and work of Pasteur. Describes historical practices related to vaccination before Pasteur did his work, including variolation as practiced by the ancient Chinese and Jenner's use of smallpox. (PR)

  15. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  16. 23 CFR 140.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 140.501 Section 140.501 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Administrative... performed by a State under Federal-aid procedures....

  17. 23 CFR 646.202 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 646.202 Section 646.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.202...

  18. 20 CFR 10.727 - What is the pay rate of jurors for compensation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the pay rate of jurors for compensation purposes? 10.727 Section 10.727 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS.... Peace Corps Volunteers...

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. 20 CFR 625.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 625.20 Section 625.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.20...

  1. 20 CFR 638.307 - Facility surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Facility surveys. 638.307 Section 638.307....307 Facility surveys. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to conduct periodic facility surveys of centers....

  2. 24 CFR 1005.107 - What is eligible collateral?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2 CFR part 2424.) ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is eligible collateral? 1005... URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOAN GUARANTEES FOR INDIAN HOUSING § 1005.107 What is eligible collateral? (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 884.6150 - Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a)...

  5. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  6. Pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after Pasteur.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D; Adler, Ben

    2006-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. Since then, this Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. The mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. Key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. The capsule is clearly involved in bacterial avoidance of phagocytosis and resistance to complement, while complete lipopolysaccharide is critical for bacterial survival in the host. A number of other virulence factors have been identified by both directed and random mutagenesis, including Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), putative surface adhesins and iron acquisition proteins. However, it is likely that many key virulence factors are yet to be identified, including those required for initial attachment and invasion of host cells and for persistence in a relatively nutrient poor and hostile environment.

  7. Demonstrating the Efficacy of the FoneAstra Pasteurization Monitor for Human Milk Pasteurization in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Coutsoudis, Anna; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Chaudhri, Rohit; Perin, Noah; Mlisana, Koleka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human milk provides crucial nutrition and immunologic protection for infants. When a mother's own milk is unavailable, donated human milk, pasteurized to destroy bacteria and viruses, is a lifesaving replacement. Flash-heat pasteurization is a simple, low-cost, and commonly used method to make milk safe, but currently there is no system to monitor milk temperature, which challenges quality control. FoneAstra, a smartphone-based mobile pasteurization monitor, removes this barrier by guiding users through pasteurization and documenting consistent and safe practice. This study evaluated FoneAstra's efficacy as a quality control system, particularly in resource-limited settings, by comparing bacterial growth in donor milk flash-heated with and without the device at a neonatal intensive care unit in Durban, South Africa. Materials and Methods: For 100 samples of donor milk, one aliquot each of prepasteurized milk, milk flash-heated without FoneAstra, and milk pasteurized with FoneAstra was cultured on routine agar for bacterial growth. Isolated bacteria were identified and enumerated. Results: In total, 300 samples (three from each donor sample) were analyzed. Bacterial growth was found in 86 of the 100 samples before any pasteurization and one of the 100 postpasteurized samples without FoneAstra. None of the samples pasteurized using FoneAstra showed bacterial growth. Conclusions: Both pasteurization methods were safe and effective. FoneAstra, however, provides the additional benefits of user-guided temperature monitoring and data tracking. By improving quality assurance and standardizing the pasteurization process, FoneAstra can support wide-scale implementation of human milk banks in resource-limited settings, increasing access and saving lives. PMID:25668396

  8. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  9. Appropriation and commercialization of the Pasteur anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2005-12-01

    Whereas Pasteur patented the biotechnological processes that he invented between 1857 and 1873 in the agro-food domain, he did not file any patents on the artificial vaccine preparation processes that he subsequently developed. This absence of patents can probably be explained by the 1844 patent law in France that established the non-patentable status of pharmaceutical preparations and remedies, including those for use in veterinary medicine. Despite the absence of patents, the commercial exploitation of the anthrax vaccine in the 1880s and 1890s led to a technical and commercial monopoly by Pasteur's laboratory as well as the founding of a commercial company to diffuse the vaccine abroad. Pasteur repeatedly refused to transfer his know-how and anthrax vaccine production methods to foreign laboratories, on the grounds that he wished to control the quality of the vaccines produced. Indeed, it was relatively difficult to transfer a method that was not yet perfectly stabilized in the early 1880s. Pasteur also wanted to maintain the monopoly of his commercial company and to increase the profits from vaccine sales so that the Institut Pasteur could be financially independent. The 'Pasteur anthrax vaccine' operating licences are described and analysed in detail in this article.

  10. Reduction of pasteurization temperature leads to lower bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk during refrigerated storage: a case study.

    PubMed

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial numbers over refrigerated shelf-life were enumerated in high-temperature, short-time (HTST) commercially pasteurized fluid milk for 15 mo before and 15 mo after reducing pasteurization temperature from 79.4°C (175°F) [corrected] to 76.1°C (169°F). Total bacterial counts were measured in whole fat, 2% fat, and fat-free milk products on the day of processing as well as throughout refrigerated storage (6°C) at 7, 14, and 21 d postprocessing. Mean total bacterial counts were significantly lower immediately after processing as well as at 21 d postprocessing in samples pasteurized at 76.1°C versus samples pasteurized at 79.4°C. In addition to mean total bacterial counts, changes in bacterial numbers over time (i.e., bacterial growth) were analyzed and were lower during refrigerated storage of products pasteurized at the lower temperature. Lowering the pasteurization temperature for unflavored fluid milk processed in a commercial processing facility significantly reduced bacterial growth during refrigerated storage.

  11. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  12. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    PubMed Central

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-01-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8 degrees C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65 degrees C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested. PMID:6712206

  13. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciochetti, D.A.; Metcalf, R.H.

    1984-02-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60/sup 0/C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65/sup 0/C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8/sup 0/C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65/sup 0/C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested. 14 references.

  14. [Pathogenicity expressed by inhibition of the Pasteur effect].

    PubMed

    Dragomirescu, M; Marţincu, V; Novac, E

    1977-01-01

    The experiments carried out demonstrate that under the influence of tetanus exotoxin, Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins, staphylococcal infection and infestation with Tr. spiralis, inhibition of the Pasteur effect occurs. Recently published data show that the same manifestation of pathogenicity is induced by diphtheria alpha and delta exotoxin, staphylococcal toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin, streptolysin O, infections with Cl. perfringens, Pasteurella and Rickettsia and hepatitis viruses in man. These data confirm a previous hypothesis according to which inhibition of the Pasteur effect represents the expression and metabolic measure of pathogenicity and toxicity. The inhibitory effect was proportional to the amount of pathogenic agent or toxin, just as the respective anatoxin or toxin + endotoxin mixture does not influence the Pasteur effect. The metabolic criteria of the Pasteur effect, i.e. inhibition of hyperlactacidaemia and decrease of the organic P/inorganic P ratio, are thus the direct indices of pathogenicity and toxigenicity. This also accounts for deep alteration of the Pasteur effect in infections generating states of infectious and endotoxinic shock.

  15. Influence of pasteurization and lye treatment on the fermentation of spanish-style manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Y Alcaĺa, J M; Ferńandez-Diez, M J; Gonźalez-Cancho, F

    1969-05-01

    The effect of lye concentration and pasteurization on the fermentation of Spanish-style Manzanilla green olives was investigated. Results showed that a rapid, normal fermentation always occurred when the proper lye was used, and only in the case of an inappropriate alkaline treatment could pasteurization help the growth of lactobacilli. Although pasteurization does not seem to affect color of processed olives, texture tests gave lower values for pasteurized samples than for those obtained from nonpasteurized olives. PMID:16349845

  16. Design and testing of two low-cost solar pasteurizers

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.J.; Johnson, R.R.

    1999-07-01

    Four solar water pasteurizer concept designs was examined with the option of three different types of heat exchangers and two different glazing materials. An optimization study to minimize system cost for a desired level of performance (minimum monthly average of 160 liters/day) was conducted by utilizing steady-state TRNSYS models. Based on the optimization study, two prototype systems were built and are in the process of being tested. The first prototype consists of a traditional fin and tube absorber and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The second prototype is a fully wetted rigid polymer pasteurizer with integral heat exchanger (SPIHX). The first prototype pasteurized nearly 400 liter per square meter of absorber area during a cool March day in North Carolina. Although polymer systems have potential to reduce system costs, purging and flow distribution have to be improved for narrow channels before they are effective.

  17. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  18. The pasteurized state: milk, health and the government of risk.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth Cullen

    2011-06-01

    In the late 1940s, Florence Sabin, a retired professor of medicine, returned to her home in Colorado to launch a massive public health campaign. Seeing "filthy milk" as an important vector of disease, she struggled not just pasteurized milk, but a pasteurized state government that was capable of regulating the milk industry. In the process, she brought managerialism into public health by fighting against the political machines and introducing Robert McNamara's systems analysis into government for the first time. Sabin's innovation, which united business, government and public health in new ways, transformed the way that public health is managed even today. PMID:21840061

  19. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acid, and phosphoric acid, in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese spread is not...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not more... the same size as the type used in such word or statement. (h) The name of the food shall include...

  20. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acid, and phosphoric acid, in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese spread is not...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not more... the same size as the type used in such word or statement. (h) The name of the food shall include...

  1. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid, and phosphoric acid, in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese spread is not...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not more... the same size as the type used in such word or statement. (h) The name of the food shall include...

  2. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acid, and phosphoric acid, in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese spread is not...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not more... the same size as the type used in such word or statement. (h) The name of the food shall include...

  3. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid, and phosphoric acid, in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese spread is not...) Safe and suitable enzyme modified cheese. (11) Nisin preparation in an amount which results in not more... the same size as the type used in such word or statement. (h) The name of the food shall include...

  4. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (h)(5) of this section. Such mixtures are considered as one variety of cheese for the purposes of... following: A vinegar, lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, and phosphoric acid in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese food is not below 5.0. (3) Water. (4) Salt. (5)...

  5. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (h)(5) of this section. Such mixtures are considered as one variety of cheese for the purposes of... following: A vinegar, lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, and phosphoric acid in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese food is not below 5.0. (3) Water. (4) Salt. (5)...

  6. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... paragraph (h)(5) of this section. Such mixtures are considered as one variety of cheese for the purposes of... following: A vinegar, lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, and phosphoric acid in such quantity that the pH of the pasteurized process cheese food is not below 5.0. (3) Water. (4) Salt. (5)...

  7. A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method for the preparation of Pasteur pipet chromatography columns is presented that allows the column to be filled with solvent without bubbles and allows greater control of fluid flow while the materials to be separated are added. Students are required to wear gloves and goggles and caution should be used while handling glass…

  8. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  9. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  10. Liquid egg white pasteurization using a centrifugal UV irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies are lacking on UV nonthermal pasteurization of liquid egg white (LEW). The objective of this study was to inactivate Escherichia coli using a UV irradiator that centrifugally formed a thin film of LEW on the inside of a rotating cylinder. The LEW was inoculated with E. coli K12 to approximat...

  11. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks.

  12. [Henry Toussaint and Louis Pasteur. Rivalry over a vaccine].

    PubMed

    Chevallier-Jussiau, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Henry Toussaint (1847-1890) is a veterinary who studied in Veterinary School of Lyon with his great master Auguste Chauveau the famous physiologist. This place is the First School founded in Europe at the end of the XVIIIth century and has opened a way of thinking. His carrer brilliant and rich begins first in Lyon and then when he is named Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at the Veterinary School of Toulouse. Doctor of Science and Doctor of Medecine Toussaint applies "the experimental method" to his research in his laboratory and makes a lot of publications. He starts with Anatomy, then Physiology and soon he prioritizes his research to infestious diseases which cause serious damage to cattle in this time. He developes his own methods about anthrax an its "bacteridie", its nature, its way of culture and especially he studies the physiopathology of this disease. Pasteur is a renowned scientist who does study Microbiology at the same time in his laboratory in Paris, and precisely anthrax. He has explained his theories about "microbes" and has predominant advice. Toussaint admires Pasteur; in the year 1879 he finds first and isolates the microbe of "cholera des poules" (now Pasteurella) and gives Pasteur this new germ which will be used by Pasteur for his particular works about reducing of virulence by successive subcultures. In 1880 with his publishing on July 12 at the Academy of Science, Toussaint presents his successful result with an attenuated vaccine against anthrax: he has got protection against anthrax for dogs and sheep by using a vaccine which he has reduced off virulence by chemical manner. Academy congratulates him. Pasteur jealous of one's reputation contests the demonstration of Toussaint because he does not believe in the chemical method too different from his tests but will make use of this method for an experience open to the public in Pouilly-le-Fort in 1881. After this promotional event Pasteur will product and sell vaccines maked in his

  13. Louis Pasteur, language, and molecular chirality. I. Background and dissymmetry.

    PubMed

    Gal, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Louis Pasteur resolved sodium ammonium (±)-tartrate in 1848, thereby discovering molecular chirality. Although hindered by the primitive state of organic chemistry, he introduced new terminology and nomenclature for his new science of molecular and crystal chirality. He was well prepared for this task by his rigorous education and innate abilities, and his linguistic achievements eventually earned him membership in the supreme institution for the French language, the Académie française. Dissymmetry had been in use in French from the early 1820s for disruption or absence of symmetry or for dissimilarity or difference in appearance between two objects, and Pasteur initially used it in the latter connotation, without any reference to handedness or enantiomorphism. Soon, however, he adopted it in the meaning of chirality. Asymmetry had been in use in French since 1691 but Pasteur ignored it in favor of dissymmetry. The two terms are not synonymous but it is not clear whether Pasteur recognized this difference in choosing the former over the latter. However, much of the literature mistranslates his dissymmetry as asymmetry. Twenty years before Pasteur the British polymath John Herschel proposed that optical rotation in the noncrystalline state is due to the "unsymmetrical" [his term] nature of the molecules and later used dissymmetrical for handed. Chirality, coined by Lord Kelvin in 1894 and introduced into chemistry by Mislow in 1962, has nearly completely replaced dissymmetry in the meaning of handedness, but the use of dissymmetry continues today in other contexts for lack of symmetry, reduction of symmetry, or dissimilarity.

  14. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  15. [Industrial pasteurization of plasma and criteria of quality].

    PubMed

    Burnouf-Radosevich, M; Burnouf, T; Huart, J J

    1993-01-01

    The approach followed in the design of a large-scale pasteurization treatment (60 degrees C for 10 hours in the liquid state) of fresh frozen plasma is presented. Various aspects thought to influence the viral safety of such a product are discussed. They are based largely upon the fact that, although it is subjected to a specific viral inactivation treatment, this plasma does not benefit from any fractionation steps known to participate in the potential elimination of infectious agents during the manufacture of plasma derivatives. Consequently, the plasma is obtained from regular plasmapheresis donors, and the plasma donations used to make the pool must be negative for anti-HIV-1 and -2, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-HTLV-1 and -2, HBs antigen and parvovirus B19 antigen, and have a normal level of ALT. The batch size is limited to 100 plasma units to limit the potential infectious risk associated with very large batches, especially if an infectious agent, resistant to pasteurization, is present. Pasteurization has been chosen for this procedure, as applied to plasma derivatives, has been shown to inactivate a broad spectrum of viruses, both enveloped and non-enveloped. The process is relatively simple. The frozen plasma units are opened, and the plasmas are mixed and thawed at 30 degrees C to avoid the formation of cryoprecipitate. The liquid plasma is transferred to a sterilized container and stabilizers are added. The mixture is then transferred to the pasteurization unit to be heat-treated at 60 degrees C for at least 10 hours under gentle mixing. Following cooling, the mixture is ultrafiltered to eliminate the stabilizers and to concentrate the plasma pool to its initial volume. The plasma is sterile-filtered, then dispensed into bottles and frozen. Virus validation of this pasteurization process, carried out by independent virology laboratories, have confirmed the ability of the process to inactivate more than 4 to 6 logs of non-enveloped or enveloped, DNA or RNA

  16. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  17. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  18. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  19. [Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). A century later].

    PubMed

    Janssens, P G

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the amazing series of successive and diverse items worked on by the chemist and physicist Pasteur starts with the asymmetry of paratartrates, switches over to the fermentations and ends in the fight against diseases of invertebrates and vertebrates, including man. It is the wonderful story of an exceptional contribution to the advancement of knowledge, which was made possible by his keen observation skill, his rigorous and innovative methods and his careful judgement. A retrospective analysis of the inner man may impair somewhat the fame of Pasteur. He was a lonely man, in need of solitude to be able to make full use of his thinking capacity, foreboding secretiveness and shrewdness , which are contradictory to his careful writing down day after day of all the details of his thinking and research in his notebooks by now available to the scientific community. He was furthermore selfish, domineering, inflexible, impulsive and inclined to engage in endless controversies. But on the contrary his motivation to accept new assignments was subordinate to their public welfare value and as a rule he endeavoured to work on the problems in the field and in association with those concerned. He was courageous when struck by a cerebral hemorrhage at middle age, so that its aftermath hardly hampered his research activities. The dimness cast on his personality is not up to his pioneer role within a general conservative climate among the medical and even scientific profession, antagonistic to innovation. Pasteur has been a founder of stereochemistry, microbiology and its applications, immunology, bacterial vaccines, pasteurisation and a promotor of prevention and hygiene. These overwhelming achievements justify to keep alive the recognition of the outstanding stature of Pasteur.

  20. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)--chance and the prepared mind.

    PubMed

    Manchester, K L

    1995-12-01

    Louis Pasteur is often regarded as one of the founders of microbiology, and is chiefly famous for his discovery of the role that microorganisms play in health and disease. However, he was trained as a physical scientist, and his research began with the discovery of the stereoisomerism of the different forms of tartaric acid. As a biotechnologist, he is remembered for his studies on the nature of fermentation, and for his rebuttal of the theory of spontaneous generation.

  1. [The formative years of a research scientist: Louis Pasteur].

    PubMed

    Lambrichs, L L

    The article endeavors to bring back to life Pasteur's years as a teenage boy, based on his correspondence with his parents and on the philosophy homework he undertook during his school days. These materials reveal an authoritarian, moralizing young man who bore the strong mark of his education and his father's personality but who was also endowed with a spirit of curiosity, already imbued with the rational faith that would characterize the entirety of his scientific works.

  2. [Experimental data on the virological study of pasteurized milk].

    PubMed

    Kalitina, T A

    1975-01-01

    Virological analyses of sterile milk per se enabled the poliovirus to be disclosed with a concentration of 30 infection units in 1 ml. To determine such doses of the viruses in pasteurized milk the viruses have to be concentrated, for prior to cytopathogenic manifestations subsequent to these viral doses there occurs bacterial germination. In achieving poliovirus concentration in pasteurized milk are suitable polyethyleneglycol, molecular weight 15 000, and polyvinylpyrolidon, molecular weight 10 000, in a 10% concentration. Dilution of milk with Hanks' solution in the ratio of 1:4 and 1:9 improves the process of the poliovirus sorption-eluation with the polymer, enabling it to detect 3 BOU of the virus in 1 ml of milk. The AB-17-8 anionite and Ky-21-8 cationite are capable of adequately sorbing the poliovirus in pasteurized milk, but it is only from the cationite, and then only in a small amount, that eluation of the virus can be accomplished.

  3. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cider by flash pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Deng, M Q; Cliver, D O

    2001-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a well-recognized pathogen of significant medical importance, and cider (apple juice) has been associated with foodborne cryptosporidiosis. This study investigated the effect of flash pasteurization on the viability of contaminant C. parvum oocysts. Cider inoculated with oocysts was heated at 70 or 71.7 degrees C for 5, 10, or 20 s, and oocyst viability was measured by a semiquantitative in vitro infectivity assay. By infecting multiple wells of confluent Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells with serial dilutions of heat-treated oocysts and examining infected cells by indirect fluorescent antibody staining, the most probable number technique was applied to quantify log reduction of oocyst viability. Heating for 10 or 20 s at either temperature caused oocyst killing of at least 4.9 log (or 99.999%), whereas oocyst inactivation after pasteurization for 5 s at 70 and 71.7 degrees C was 3.0 log (99.9%) and 4.8 log (99.998%), respectively. Our results suggested that current practices of flash pasteurization in the juice industry are sufficient in inactivating contaminant oocysts.

  4. Pasteur effect in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, G; Lundholm, L

    1985-01-01

    The increase in lactate production on changing from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, i.e. the Pasteur effect, has been reported to be small in vascular muscle and especially in aorta. It has been suggested that this may be an artefact caused by damage to the intimal endothelium. We have compared the Pasteur effect in different kinds of pig arteries, but also in rabbit colon. The aerobic lactate production in 60 min was 11-15 mumol/g in the aorta and the carotid artery, but 3 mumol/g in the mesenteric and renal arteries and 4 mumol/g in the rabbit colon. The increase in lactate production under anaerobic conditions was 12-20 mumol/g/60 min in the carotid artery, aorta and rabbit colon and 10 mumol/g/60 min in the mesenteric and renal arteries. When calculated in per cent, the Pasteur effect was greater in the mesenteric artery than in the aorta, but the actual rise in lactate production in mumol/g was higher in the aorta and carotid artery. The high aerobic lactate production of smooth muscle in vitro may be related to its low ability to oxidize glucose; some other substrates may be preferentially oxidized when present in vitro or in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of calf milk pasteurization systems on 6 Pennsylvania dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2010-11-01

    Waste milk has been fed to calves for many years, but concerns with bacterial contamination as well as possible transmission of diseases have discouraged widespread use of this feed. Pasteurization of waste milk is one option to reduce management risk while utilizing a valuable, low-cost, liquid feed source for calves. However, many farms currently pasteurizing waste milk lack a system to adequately monitor the efficiency of the process. A study was carried out to evaluate 6 on-farm pasteurization systems, including high-temperature, short-time pasteurizers and low-temperature, batch pasteurizers. Milk samples were taken pre- and postpasteurization as well as from the calf buckets and immediately frozen for later bacterial culture. Samples were collected twice daily for 15 d. Milk samples were examined for standard plate count (SPC), coagulase-negative staphylococci count, environmental streptococci count, coliform count, gram-negative noncoliform count, Streptococcus agalactiae count, and Staphylococcus aureus count. Before pasteurization, 68% of the samples had SPC <20,000 cfu/mL, and 39% of samples contained <100 cfu/mL of coliform bacteria. After pasteurization, 96% of samples had SPC <20,000 cfu/mL, and 92% had coliform counts <100 cfu/mL. Bacteria counts were significantly reduced by pasteurization, and pasteurized milk contained acceptable numbers of bacteria in >90% of samples. These results indicate that pasteurization can be very effective in lowering bacterial contamination of milk. However, bacteria numbers significantly increased after pasteurization and, in some cases, bacteria counts in milk fed to calves were similar to prepasteurization levels. Milk handling after pasteurization was identified as an important issue on the farms studied.

  6. Pasteurization of food by hydrostatic high pressure: chemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Tauscher, B

    1995-01-01

    Food pasteurized by hydrostatic high pressure have already been marketed in Japan. There is great interest in this method also in Europe and USA. Temperature and pressure are the essential parameters influencing the state of substances including foods. While the influence of temperature on food has been extensively investigated, effects of pressure, also in combination with temperature, are attracting increasing scientific attention now. Processes and reactions in food governed by Le Chatelier's principle are of special interest; they include chemical reactions of both low- and macromolecular compounds. Theoretical fundamentals and examples of pressure affected reactions are presented. PMID:7732731

  7. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  8. The effect of shell egg pasteurization on the protein quality of albumen.

    PubMed

    Hank, C R; Kunkel, M E; Dawson, P L; Acton, J C; Wardlaw, F B

    2001-06-01

    The effect of a low-temperature, extended-time, in-shell pasteurization process on the protein quality of egg albumen was evaluated. Ten dozen fresh chicken eggs were pasteurized in a hot-air oven at 55 C for 180 min. The eggs were refrigerated and broken out for analysis on Days 0, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56 following pasteurization. There were no significant differences in total or soluble protein over the experimental period for the pasteurized or unpasteurized albumen. Mean protein content was 80.6 +/- 0.5% for the pasteurized albumen and 80.9 +/- 0.5% for the unpasteurized albumen. In vitro digestibility, as measured by the AOAC method, was 82.4 +/- 0.7% for the pasteurized albumen and 81.7 +/- 0.6% for the unpasteurized albumen. There were no significant differences over the experimental period in the digestibility of the samples. Free amino acids and discriminant-computed protein efficiency ratio (DC-PER) also did not differ between the pasteurized and unpasteurized albumens or over the experimental period. The in-shell pasteurization process used had no effect on the protein quality of albumen.

  9. Correlation of quality measurements to visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using ch...

  10. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  11. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  12. Biology, History and Louis Pasteur: A New Approach to Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Presents a rationale for using the history of science in science education. Uses the life and work of Louis Pasteur to illustrate how the history of science can illustrate the nature of science. Describes how Pasteur's bourgeois ideology and ambition influenced his selection of problems to investigate. (over 35 references) (PR)

  13. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products. PMID:27586030

  14. Triumph and controversy. Pasteur's preventive treatment of rabies as reported in JAMA.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, L J

    1986-04-01

    Louis Pasteur's vaccine against rabies, introduced 100 years ago, was greeted by the American medical community with a mixture of praise and skepticism. These sentiments as well as details of Pasteur's landmark discoveries appeared in late-19th-century articles in The Journal of the American Medical Association.

  15. The source of Yersinia spp. in pasteurized milk: an investigation at a dairy.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M H; Hooper, W L; Rodhouse, J C

    1990-06-01

    Pasteurized bottled milk supplied by a single dairy was frequently found to be contaminated with Yersinia spp. Investigations were carried out at the dairy in an effort to pinpoint the source of these organisms. Viable counts obtained from milk bottle rinses indicated that bottle washing was often unsatisfactory, and on one occasion Y. frederiksenii was isolated from the pooled rinse water of six bottles. Samples of milk were taken on arrival at the dairy and at various stages following pasteurization. Heat resistance tests carried out on strains of yersinia isolated from pasteurized milk indicated that they would not survive the pasteurization process. However two strains of yersinia were isolated from a sample of milk taken immediately after pasteurization but before bottling. The thermograph indicated that the time/temperature conditions applied during pasteurization were adequate. The presence of yersinia strains in the milk at this stage therefore suggests that undetectable levels of raw milk were being allowed to contaminate the pasteurized milk. The absence of yersinia in cartoned samples produced on the same day as contaminated bottled samples indicated that environmental contamination of the bottle filler valve also may have occurred at times. Results of this investigation indicate that increased vigilance is required to ensure proper operation of pasteurizers and bottle washers.

  16. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  17. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    PubMed

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  19. Comparison between irradiated and thermally pasteurized liquid egg white on functional, physical, and microbiological properties.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y C; Herald, T J; Hachmeister, K A

    1996-06-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to determine the effect of irradiation and thermal pasteurization on the functional, physical, and microbiological properties of liquid egg white (LEW). The LEW was irradiated or thermally pasteurized then stored at 4 C for 3 mo. Both treatments destroyed the inoculum, Salmonella typhimurium. The microbial growth rate was slower in the irradiated LEW than in the thermally pasteurized treatment. Irradiated samples had 47% lower foam drainage and more stable viscosity than samples that were thermally pasteurized. Volume of angel food cake prepared with irradiated or pasteurized LEW decreased 48 and 57%, respectively, after 90 d. Color did not differ between treatments. Ionizing radiation is an alternative processing method that inhibits microbial growth and helps maintain functionality of LEW.

  20. Reconstruction of the mandible bone by treatment of resected bone with pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masataka; Inokuchi, Tsugio; Sano, Kazuo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

    2012-11-01

    The results of long-term follow-up for reimplantation of the mandibular bone treated with pasteurization are reported. Mandibulectomy was performed for mandibular malignancy in 3 cases. The resected bones were subsequently reimplanted after treatment with pasteurization in 3 cases to eradicate tumor cells involved in the resected bone. Although postoperative infection was observed in 2 of 3 cases, reimplantation of the resected mandibular bone treated by pasteurization was finally successful. Ten to 22 years of follow-up was carried out. Pasteurization was able to devitalize tumor cells involved in the resected bone and to preserve bone-inductive activity. Reimplantation of pasteurization could be a useful strategy for reconstruction of the mandible in patients with mandibular malignancy.

  1. Effects of glycinin basic peptide on physicochemical characteristics and microbial inactivation of pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Ping; Li, Ying-Qiu; Sun, Gui-Jin; Mo, Hai-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    The effects of glycinin basic peptide (GBP) on physicochemical characteristics and microbial inactivation of pasteurized milk were investigated over 21d of storage at 4°C. Sensory properties, total bacterial count, pH, alcohol levels, lactose content, and protein changes of pasteurized milk differentially treated with GBP were analyzed periodically during refrigerated storage. Compared with the control, reductions for total bacterial count and specific bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus) in pasteurized milk treated with GBP during storage were found. However, sensory scores, pH, lactose, and protein contents of pasteurized milk treated with GBP were much higher than those of the control. A concentration of 0.015% (wt/vol) GBP could effectively inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria in pasteurized milk, enhance its sensory and physicochemical properties, and extend its shelf life to 15d. Thus, GBP has good potential to be a natural milk preservative. PMID:27157568

  2. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  3. Practical evaluation of Mung bean seed pasteurization method in Japan.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Enomoto, K; Nei, D; Kawamoto, S

    2010-04-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method for inactivating these organisms on the seeds before sprouting is needed. The current pasteurization method for mung beans in Japan (hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 10 s) was more effective for disinfecting inoculated E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli on mung bean seeds than was the calcium hypochlorite treatment (20,000 ppm for 20 min) recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 40 s followed by dipping in cold water for 30 s and soaking in chlorine water (2,000 ppm) for 2 h reduced the pathogens to undetectable levels, and no viable pathogens were found in a 25-g enrichment culture and during the sprouting process. Practical tests using a working pasteurization machine with nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate produced similar results. The harvest yield of the treated seed was within the acceptable range. These treatments could be a viable alternative to the presently recommended 20,000-ppm chlorine treatment for mung bean seeds.

  4. Public health implication of refrigerated pasteurized ('sous-vide') foods.

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A; Struijk, C B

    1991-07-01

    Food that upon pasteurization is stored in hermetically sealed containers at food temperatures not exceeding 3 degrees C could be designated by the generic term Refrigerated Pasteurized Foods of Extended Durability, REPFEDs. If not properly processed or protected against recontamination, or if temperature-abused, REPFEDs may present serious health risks. However, control is readily available. Sound microbial ecology, supported by expert risk assessment, allows the design and introduction of longitudinally integrated manufacture, distribution, handling by outlets and consumers and culinary preparation, which result in the assurance of the wholesomeness of the commodity as eaten. Recent progress, including intrinsic preservation by the incorporation of starter cultures, bacteriocins or particular enzymes, opens vistas for attractive future developments. Once microbiological safety has been built into the REPFED-line, monitoring can be limited to (i) real-time tests particularly applied to the factory environment; and (ii) rapid, simple examination for marker organisms of freshly manufactured products versus those approaching expiration dates. Such audits will allow rapid retrieval of incidental process failure and its rectification. It also serves to substantiate measurements of food temperature and spot checks on intrinsic inhibitory attributes. The application of scientific knowledge and technological expertise should primarily be entrusted to the industry itself, heeding Lord Plumb's strategy of "partnership along the food production chain from farm to fork." It should be supported and validated by Public Health Authorities. At all stages safety communication with the public should be ensured. PMID:1892737

  5. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power.

  6. Evidence for a negative Pasteur effect in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Lee, R B; Urban, J P

    1997-01-01

    Uptake of external glucose and production of lactate were measured in freshly-excised bovine articular cartilage under O2 concentrations ranging from 21% (air) to zero (N2-bubbled). Anoxia (O2 concentration < 1% in the gas phase) severely inhibited both glucose uptake and lactate production. The decrease in lactate formation correlated closely with the decrease in glucose uptake, in a mole ratio of 2:1. This reduction in the rate of glycolysis in anoxic conditions is seen as evidence of a negative Pasteur effect in bovine articular cartilage. Anoxia also suppressed glycolysis in articular cartilage from horse, pig and sheep. Inhibitors acting on the glycolytic pathway (2-deoxy-D-glucose, iodoacetamide or fluoride) strongly decreased aerobic lactate production and ATP concentration, consistent with the belief that articular cartilage obtains its principal supply of ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. Azide or cyanide lowered the ATP concentration in aerobic cartilage to approximately the same extent as did anoxia but, because glycolysis (lactate production) was also inhibited by these treatments, the importance of any mitochondrial ATP production could not be assessed. A negative Pasteur effect would make chondrocytes particularly liable to suffer a shortage of energy under anoxic conditions. Incorporation of [35S]sulphate into proteoglycan was severely curtailed by treatments, such as anoxia, which decreased the intracellular concentration of ATP.

  7. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  8. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  9. The Pasteur effect in human platelets: implications for storage and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Guppy, M; Abas, L; Arthur, P G; Whisson, M E

    1995-11-01

    The Pasteur effect and the associated acidosis have long been considered a major cause of platelet death during storage. We have investigated this phenomenon using a defined platelet preparation and a system whereby the oxidative and glycolytic contributions to total ATP production can be measured over a range of oxygen concentrations from saturating (pO2 = 158 mmHg) to anoxic (pO2 = 0 mmHg). Platelets do not show a Pasteur effect until the pO2 decreases to < 2.0 mmHg, whereupon lactate production increases 1.5-fold. The Pasteur effect is therefore not a likely cause of platelet death during storage where pO2 in a storage bag typically drops to no less than 50 mmHg. The data also have implications for the role of oxygen diffusion in oxidative metabolism, and for the compensatory nature of the Pasteur effect. As platelets are relatively small cells, and the onset of the Pasteur effect occurs at a relatively low oxygen concentration, diffusion may limit the rate of oxygen consumption in most other (larger) cells. The Pasteur effect is only fully compensative if the P/O2 ratio used for the calculations is lower than the conventional one. Since recent research strongly suggests that the conventional P/O2 ratio is too high, examples of fully compensative Pasteur effects may be more common than the literature suggests.

  10. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea.

  11. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  12. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices. PMID:24780323

  13. Louis Pasteur: a controversial figure in a debate on scientific ethics.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2002-04-01

    Louis Pasteur long has been heralded as the "father of modern hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine," despite early controversies regarding his findings and methodology. A recently published biography, however, has shed new light on both Pasteur's scientific acumen and integrity. Reactions to this portrayal have been mixed. This article provides an overview of Pasteur's life and the debate regarding his scientific discoveries and honesty that has ensued for more than 100 years, with insights gained from both supporters and critics of the new biography by Gerald L. Geison.

  14. Role of phosphate in the regulation of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lagunas, R; Gancedo, C

    1983-12-15

    The occurrence of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several conditions has been examined. In these conditions measurements of a series of metabolites potentially involved in the regulation of the effect were performed. These included, among others, adenine nucleotides, citrate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Only phosphate changed in a consistent way, increasing in anaerobiosis when the Pasteur effect occurred. It is concluded that, with the available data, only phosphate may be considered as a regulator of the Pasteur effect in this microorganism.

  15. The Pasteur effect in rat jejunum and the influence of nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A M

    1978-01-01

    1. The Pasteur effect was shown after 15 min but not after 30 min incubation of jejunal rings from normal rats. 2. During 15-30 min incubation, the rate of anaerobic lactate production decreased, while aerobic lactate production remained unchanged. Thus oxygen was necessary to maintain the functional integrity of the tissue during this period. 3. After infection with either Nematospiroides dubius or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the Pasteur effect could not usually be shown, mainly due to a reduced rate of anaerobic lactate production. 4. The possible relationship of the loss of the Pasteur effect to the immune response is discussed.

  16. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  17. Louis Pasteur, from crystals of life to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Berche, P

    2012-10-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is an exceptional scientist who opened a new era in medicine and biology. Starting from studies on crystals of by-products of wine fermentation, he first defined a distinct chemistry between dead and living matters. He then showed the role of living microbes in the fermentation and putrefaction processes. This brought him to challenge the two-millennium-old theory of spontaneous generation, using remarkably well-designed experiments. His observations on epidemics in silkworms allowed him to demonstrate the role of specific germs in infectious diseases. His discovery of the vaccine against fowl cholera can be considered as the birth of immunology. Finally, he became universally recognized through his famous vaccinations against anthrax and rabies.

  18. Decreased Pasteur effect in platelets of aged individuals.

    PubMed

    D'Aurelio, M; Merlo Pich, M; Catani, L; Sgarbi, G L; Bovina, C; Formiggini, G; Parenti Castelli, G; Baum, H; Tura, S; Lenaz, G

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial energy state in human platelets of young (19-30 years old) and aged individuals (65-87 years old) exploiting the Pasteur effect, i.e. stimulation of lactate production by incubation of the purified platelets with the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, antimycin A. This assay allows the determination of mitochondrial function with respect to glycolysis, and the ratio of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to glycolytic ATP. A significant increase of basal, non-stimulated lactate production and decrease of the stimulation by antimycin A were observed in the older individuals, suggesting that the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation detectable in post-mitotic tissues of aged individuals can be observed also in easily collectable blood cells.

  19. Liquid egg white pasteurization using a centrifugal UV irradiator.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J; Torres, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Studies are limited on UV nonthermal pasteurization of liquid egg white (LEW). The objective of this study was to inactivate Escherichia coli using a UV irradiator that centrifugally formed a thin film of LEW on the inside of a rotating cylinder. The LEW was inoculated with E. coli K12 to approximately 8 log cfu/ml and was processed at the following conditions: UV intensity 1.5 to 9.0 mW/cm²; cylinder rotational speed 450 to 750 RPM, cylinder inclination angle 15° to 45°, and flow rate 300 to 900 ml/min, and treatment time 1.1 to 3.2s. Appropriate dilutions of the samples were pourplated with tryptic soy agar (TSA). Sublethal injury was determined using TSA+4% NaCl. The regrowth of surviving E. coli during refrigerated storage for 28 days was investigated. The electrical energy of the UV process was also determined. The results demonstrated that UV processing of LEW at a dose of 29 mJ/cm² at 10°C reduced E. coli by 5 log cfu/ml. Inactivation significantly increased with increasing UV dose and decreasing flow rate. The results at cylinder inclination angles of 30° and 45° were similar and were significantly better than those at 15°. The cylinder rotational speed had no significant effect on inactivation. The occurrence of sublethal injury was detected. Storage of UV processed LEW at 4° and 10°C for 21 days further reduced the population of E. coli to approximately 1 log cfu/ml where it remained for an additional 7 days. The UV energy applied to the LEW to obtain a 5 log reduction of E. coli was 3.9 J/ml. These results suggest that LEW may be efficiently pasteurized, albeit at low flow rates, using a nonthermal UV device that centrifugally forms a thin film.

  20. From Pasteur to Mitchell: a hundred years of bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Racker, E

    1980-02-01

    The discovery in 1861 by Louis Pasteur that more yeast is formed aerobically than anaerobically per gram of glucose was the first clue to the difference in efficiency of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. During the first half of the 20th century the pathway of glycolysis was untraveled. Individual enzymes and cofactors were isolated and characterized. A reconstituted system of all enzymes and cofactors catalyzed steady-state glycolysis, provided an appropriate ATPase was added. The need for an ATPase, clearly demonstrated in 1945 by Otto Meyerhof, remains an important aspect of glycolysis that has been sorely neglected by textbooks. The coupling of oxidation and phosphorylation and the formation of the high-energy intermediate 1,3-diphosphoglycerate, discovered by Otto Warburg, are the key reactions of glycolysis. A high-energy intermediate formed during this process was identified as a thiolester. Early concepts of the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation based on this model led to some frustrating and confusing years of search for high-energy intermediates. Important contributions from the laboratories of Boyer, Cohn, Chance, Green, Lardy, and Lehninger elucidated the properties of the mitochondrial process. Then Peter Mitchell proposed in 1961, 100 years after the publication by Pasteur, that the "high-energy intermediate" is an electrochemical proton gradient generated by the electron transport chain and utilized by a proton turbine (the mitochondrial ATPase complex) to generate ATP. This concept is now widely accepted. Several problems remain to be solved. How are the protons translocated during electron transport? How many protons per site? What is the mechanism of ATP generation during proton flux via the mitochondrial ATPase?

  1. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  2. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    PubMed

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.

  3. [Pasteur's rabies vaccination: 130 years ago successfully started in Vienna, however officially rejected].

    PubMed

    Flamm, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The Viennese surgeon Emerich Ullmann who was trained in rabies vaccination by Pasteur personally started his activity in Vienna on 28.6.1886 vaccinating persons of Austria-Hungary been bitten by rabid animals. Whereas Prof. v.Frisch of the other surgical clinic who also had visited Pasteur carried out animal experiments which urged him to disapprove Pasteur's human rabies vaccination. Ullmann vaccinated with great success but soon there appeared obstructions in Viennese medical journals and hateful discussions in the Austrian Parliament against Pasteur and Ullmann. These facts blocked the necessary financial subvention of Ullmann's self financed vaccinations and resulted in their interruption. After a mass infection of rabies in the Bukowina in 1891 the Supreme Sanitary Board formed an Epidemiologic Committee which recommended the establishment of a vaccination unit in an Austrian hospital. In July 1894 the Vaccination Unit was opened in the Viennese hospital Rudolfstiftung, where Emerich Ullmann carried out the rabies vaccinations.

  4. Microbiological aspects related to the feasibility of PEF technology for food pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, G; Álvarez, I; Condón, S; Raso, J

    2014-01-01

    Processing unit operations that seek to inactivate harmful microorganisms are of primary importance in ascertaining the safety of food. The capability of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to inactivate vegetative cells of microorganisms at temperatures below those used in thermal processing makes this technology very attractive as a nonthermal pasteurization process for the food industry. Commercial exploitation of this technology for food pasteurization requires the identification of the most PEF-resistant microorganisms that are of concern to public health. Then, the treatment conditions applicable at industrial scale that would reduce the population of these microorganisms to a level that guarantees food safety must be defined. The objective of this paper is to critically compile recent, relevant knowledge with the purpose of enhancing the feasibility of using PEF technology for food pasteurization and underlining the required research for designing PEF pasteurization processes.

  5. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    PubMed

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume. PMID:26788309

  6. The Pasteur effect and catabolite repression in an oxidative yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Royt, P W; MacQuillan, A M

    1979-01-01

    The presence of the Pasteur effect in Kluyveromyces lactis grown in glucose was shown by azide-stimulated glucose fermentation. Extracts from these cells contained ATP-sensitive phosphofructokinase activity. Cells grown on succinate oxidized glucose slowly at first without azide-stimulated rates of fermentation. Phosphofructokinase in these cells was ATP-insensitive. The activity of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase in cell extracts did not require AMP activation. These results suggested the presence of a Pasteur effect in glucose-grown but not in succinate-grown K. lactis, mediated by (a) ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase (b) possibly via feedback control of glucose transport, but not by AMP activation of isocitrate dehydrogenase. Azide inhibition of the Pasteur effect during growth of the cells did not lead to catabolite repression of respiratory activity. The results therefore suggest that the Pasteur effect does not inhibit the development of a Crabtree effect in oxidative yeasts.

  7. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  8. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: A Canadian demonstration project — 1988-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Wilson, Bruce K.

    Nordion International Inc. and a Canadian city, in cooperation with the Federal & Provincial Ministries of the Environment, began a project in 1988 to construct and operate a commercial-scale sewage sludge pasteurization facility using gamma radiation technology. The facility is scheduled to begin operations in 1991. This paper discusses the objectives and scope of the project, the design of the irradiation system, and the plans to market the pasteurized sludge as a high-value, organic soil conditioner and fertilizer.

  9. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  10. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    PubMed

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  11. Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice.

    PubMed

    Berlinet, C; Guichard, E; Fournier, N; Ducruet, V

    2007-10-01

    Release of aroma compounds in orange juice according to pulp content and pasteurization was performed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), HS-SPME-GC-olfactometry, and by the determination of partition coefficients of aroma compounds between the juice and the headspace. Orange juices with 12% and 6% pulp contents were collected from a processing line before and after pasteurization. HS-SPME revealed that the 6% pulp juice was the most affected by pasteurization, with an increase in the release of several aroma compounds that are generated by heat treatment (that is, alpha- and beta-terpinéol) and a decrease in the release of compounds sensitive to pasteurization (that is, neral and geranial). Principal component analysis of olfactometric data allowed discriminating fresh and pasteurized juices, regardless of the pulp content. The determination of the gas/liquid partition coefficients by the phase ratio variation method was possible for 7 aroma compounds. For the most hydrophobic ones, the release of aroma compounds in fresh juices was higher in the 6% pulp juice than in the 12% pulp juice. However, in pasteurized juices, the difference between their partition coefficients was less marked. Potential interactions between cloud proteins and hydrophobic aroma compounds may explain this phenomenon.

  12. Science and the applications of science from Louis Pasteur to Jacques Monod.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Maxime

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod's ideas on the applications of science came within the scope of a long tradition at the Institut Pasteur. Louis Pasteur, whose scientific career was characterized by a permanent come and go between science and its applications, long opposed the idea of getting any income from his research, until the financial needs of the Institut Pasteur made him change his mind. As for Jacques Monod, he remained a fervent supporter of basic science during his whole scientific career. However, once he became director of the Institut Pasteur, he realized that the applications of research had to be developed to support the institute from a financial point of view. Thus, he reorganized the valorization of research in the institute, through an incitation of scientists to develop projects with possible applications, and by creating a company, Institut Pasteur Production, for which he had a factory built, and which was in charge of producing and commercializing the vaccines and reagents stemming from the research at the Institut Pasteur.

  13. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  14. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  15. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth.

  16. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  17. Pasteurization of salted whole egg inoculated with Arizona or Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Ng, H; Garibaldi, J A; Ijichi, K; Mihara, K L

    1979-06-01

    Recently, Arizona bacteria, close relatives of Salmonella, were recovered from salted whole egg that had been pasteurized by the presently recommended process of 63.3 degrees C (146 degrees F) for 3.5 min. Because of this and the fact that the heat resistance of Arizona in salted whole egg had not been determined, the present study was undertaken. Arizona or Salmonella, grown in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 2% yeast extract in Fernbach flasks covered with aluminum foil over cotton and guaze at 35 degrees C with shaking at 176 rpm for about 96 h, were found to have the greatest degree of heat resistance. As expected, these cells, when inoculated into salted whole egg at 10(7) cells per ml, survived heating at 63.3 degrees C (146 degrees F) for 3.5 min in a two-phase slug flow heat exchanger. To consistently achieve a 7-log kill of typical Salmonella or Arizona, a treatment of 67 degrees C (152.6 degrees F) for 3.5 min was required. However, if a 7-log kill is mandatory, it remains to be determined whether this process affect the functional properties of this product.

  18. The use of electron beams for pasteurization of meats

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, K.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-12-01

    Electron beam accelerators can be used for electronic pasteurization of meat products by: (1) using the electrons directly impacting the products, or (2) optimizing the conversion of electron energy to x-rays and treating the product with these x-rays. The choice of process depends on the configuration of the product when it is treated. For electron treatment, ten million electron volt (MeV) kinetic energy is the maximum allowed by international agreement. The depth of penetration of electrons with that energy into a product with density of meat is about five centimeters (cm). Two-sided treatment can be done on products up to 10 cm thick with a two-to-one ratio between minimum and maximum dose. Ground beef patties are about 1.25 cm (0.5 inch thick). Beams with 2.5 MeV electron energy could be used to treat these products. Our calculations show that maximum to minimum dose ratios less than 1.2 can be achieved with this energy if the transverse beam energy is small. If the product thickness is greater than 10 cm, x-rays can provide the needed dose uniformity. Uniform doses can be supplied for pallets with dimensions greater than 1.2 m on each side using x-rays from a 5 MeV electron beam. The efficiency of converting the electron beam to x-rays and configurations to achieve dose uniformity are discussed.

  19. Hexose metabolism in pancreatic islets: the Pasteur effect.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, W J; Rasschaert, J; Zähner, D; Sener, A

    1988-02-01

    In rat pancreatic islets, hypoxia severely decreased both the oxidation of D-[U-14C]glucose and the release of insulin evoked by D-glucose. The production of [14C]lactate was increased in the hypoxic islets, the relative magnitude of such an increment being greater at low (2.8 mM) than high (8.3 and 16.7 mM) D-glucose concentrations. Hypoxia increased the detritiation of D-[5-3H]glucose at low glucose concentration (2.8 mM), failed to affect 3H2O production at an intermediate glucose level (8.3 mM), and inhibited the utilization of D-[5-3H]glucose at a higher hexose concentration (16.7 mM). In tumoral islet cells (RINm5F line) exposed to 16.7 mM D-glucose, hypoxia decreased D-[U-14C]glucose oxidation to the same extent as in normal islet cells, but increased the production of [14C]lactate and 3H2O to a greater extent than in normal islets. These findings indicate that the Pasteur effect is operative in islet cells. The experimental data also suggest that, under normal conditions of oxygenation, high concentrations of D-glucose lead to both activation of phosphofructokinase and stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative events in normal, but not tumoral, islet cells.

  20. 20 CFR 614.11 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 614.11... for fraud. (a) False statements and representations. Section 8507(a) of the Act provides that if a... under § 614.7. (b) Prosecution for fraud. Section 1919 of title 18, United States Code, provides...

  1. 20 CFR 609.11 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 609.11...; penalties for fraud. (a) False statements and representations. Section 8507(a) of the Act provides that if a... appropriate under § 609.7. (b) Prosecution for fraud. Section 1919 of title 18, United States Code,...

  2. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  3. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  4. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  5. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  6. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  7. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  8. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  9. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  11. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  12. Efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in treating roof harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Dobrowsky, P H; Carstens, M; De Villiers, J; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have concluded that roof harvested rainwater is susceptible to chemical and microbial contamination. The aim of the study was thus to conduct a preliminary investigation into the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing the microbiological load in harvested rainwater and to determine the change in chemical components after pasteurization. The temperature of the pasteurized tank water samples collected ranged from 55 to 57°C, 64 to 66°C, 72 to 74°C, 78 to 81°C and 90 to 91°C. Cations analyzed were within drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron [195.59 μg/L (55°C)-170.1 μg/L (91°C)], aluminum [130.98 μg/L (78°C)], lead [12.81 μg/L (55°C)-13.2 μg/L (91°C)] and nickel [46.43 μg/L (55°C)-32.82 μg/L (78°C)], which were detected at levels above the respective guidelines in the pasteurized tank water samples. Indicator bacteria including, heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli and total coliforms were reduced to below the detection limit at pasteurization temperatures of 72°C and above. However, with the use of molecular techniques Yersinia spp., Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in tank water samples pasteurized at temperatures greater than 72°C. The viability of the bacteria detected in this study at the higher temperature ranges should thus be assessed before pasteurized harvested rainwater is used as a potable water source. In addition, it is recommended that the storage tank of the pasteurization system be constructed from an alternative material, other than stainless steel, in order for a closed-coupled pasteurization system to be implemented and produce large quantities of potable water from roof harvested rainwater.

  13. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (<10 cfu/mL) after factory pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h

  14. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (<10 cfu/mL) after factory pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h

  15. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    PubMed

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids.

  16. Polyphenol oxidase activity as a potential intrinsic index of adequate thermal pasteurization of apple cider.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Ingham, B H; Ingham, S C

    2004-05-01

    In response to increasing concerns about microbial safety of apple cider, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated treatment of cider sufficient for a 5-log reduction of the target pathogen. Pasteurization has been suggested as the treatment most likely to achieve a 5-log reduction, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the target pathogen. Regulators and processors need a reliable method for verifying pasteurization, and apple cider polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was studied as a potential intrinsic index for thermal pasteurization. The effect of pasteurization conditions and apple cider properties on PPO activity and survival of three pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Factors considered in the design were pasteurization conditions, i.e., hold temperature (60, 68, and 76 degrees C), preheat time (10, 20, 30 s), and hold time (0, 15, 30 s), pH, and sugar content ((o)Brix) of apple cider. Response surface contour plots were constructed to illustrate the effect of these factors on PPO activity and pathogen survival. Reduction in PPO activity of at least 50% was equivalent to a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes for cider at pH 3.7 and 12.5 (o)Brix. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the relationship between PPO activity and pathogen reduction in cider with various pH and (o)Brix values.

  17. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M

    2010-12-01

    Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). To study the heat stability of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, we needed to measure and compare the activity of botulinum neurotoxins, serotypes A and B, under various pasteurization conditions. Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. botulinum neurotoxin is an in vivo mouse bioassay, which raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this study, noninvasive methods were used to simultaneously detect and distinguish between active BoNT serotypes A and B in one reaction and sample. We developed an enzymatic activity assay employing internally quenched fluorogenic peptides corresponding to SNAP-25, for BoNT-A, and VAMP2, for BoNT-B, as an alternative method to the mouse bioassay. Because each peptide is labeled with different fluorophores, we were able to distinguish between these two toxins. We used this method to analyze the heat stability of BoNT-A and BoNT-B. This study reports that conventional milk pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) inactivated BoNT serotype A; however, serotype B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization. Using this activity assay, we also showed that the commonly used food processes such as acidity and pasteurization, which are known to inhibit C. botulinum growth and toxin production, are more effective in inactivating BoNT serotype A than serotype B when conventional pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) is used.

  18. [Alain Georges: in the footsteps of Louis Pasteur and Eugène Jamot].

    PubMed

    Bélec, L; Milleliri, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biography of the physician general Alain Jean Georges (1946-2012) shows the exceptional career of a military physician-clinical pathologist specialized in tropical medicine and educated at the Navy Health School in Bordeaux and the Pharo School in Marseille. He completed his education at the Institut Pasteur de Paris in courses still conducted in the spirit of those taught by Louis Pasteur. In 1979, he became director of the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, following in the steps of Eugène Jamot, in the long tradition of military doctors from the Institut Pasteur overseas network committed to a career in Africa. For more than 12 years, Alain Georges directed the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, one of the last citadels of French postcolonial military medicine, in a very personal and charismatic style. He was thus a pioneer in research about both AIDS in Africa and hemorrhagic fevers. His methods were widely misunderstood later as the traditional networks of French biomedical research in its former African colonies modernized and opened internationally, including to national elites. Alain Georges was probably one of the last important figures of the golden age of French colonial medicine.

  19. [Mathematical model for carbohydrate energy metabolism. Mechanism of the Pasteur effect].

    PubMed

    Khainrikh, R; Dynnik, V V; Sel'kov, E E

    1980-06-01

    The simple mathematical model based on the stoichiometric structure of carbohydrate metabolism and the only allosteric regulation presented, i. e. activation of phosphofructokinase by AMP, was used to study the mechanism of the Pasteur effect, e. g. interrelationship of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and H-transporting shuttles at varying rates of oxidative phosphorylation and ATPase load. It was shown that the mechanism of the Pasteur effect is based on the presence of two negative feed-back mechanisms in carbohydrate metabolism, namely by the level of ATP in glycolysis and by the level of mitochondrial NADH in the Krebs cycle and H-transporting shuttles. It was also shown that the value and sign of the Pasteur effect depend on the level of ATPase load. The role of this phenomenon in stabilization of ATP in the cell is discussed. The effects of changes in the allosteric properties of phosphofructokinase and low activity of H-transporting shuttles on the Pasteur effect was studied. It was shown that the low values of the pasteur effect in tumour tissues are mainly determined by an insufficient activity of oxidative phosphorylation.

  20. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species.

  1. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  2. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  3. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively. PMID:25944498

  4. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  5. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively.

  6. Salmonella spp. isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg produce: thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by f...

  7. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (<0.45); the majority of R(2) values were <0.25, indicating small relationship between the results from the raw milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products.

  8. Quality of shell eggs pasteurized with heat or heat-ozone combination during extended storage.

    PubMed

    Perry, J J; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Yousef, A E

    2011-09-01

    The physical quality and functionality of shell eggs, pasteurized with heat or a combination of heat and ozone, were assessed during eight weeks of storage at 4 or 25 °C. Shell eggs were treated as follows: (1) immersion heating that mimics commercial pasteurization processes (egg internal temperature of 56 ± 0.1 °C for 32 min), or (2) a newly developed combination process comprised of heating (56 ± 0.1 °C, internal, for 10 min) followed by gaseous ozone treatment. Eggs were tested for yolk index, Haugh units, albumen pH, albumen turbidity, and percent overrun. Additionally, albumen samples were assayed for lysozyme activity and free sulfhydryl group content, and were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both processed and unprocessed eggs maintained superior quality when stored at 4 °C, as opposed to 25 °C. Pasteurization, regardless of method, led to superior maintenance of Haugh units during storage but also increased albumen opacity and decreased albumen overrun. Detrimental effects on quality markers were more severe in heat-pasteurized eggs than those treated with the ozone-based process. Pasteurization of shell eggs by either process did not affect lysozyme activity or sulfhydryl group content. Changes in protein secondary structure, as indicated by FTIR analysis, suggest that the ozone-based process is less damaging to albumen proteins than is the heat-alone process. In conclusion, heat-ozone pasteurization, by virtue of its less severe heat treatment, yields a safe final product that more closely resembles untreated shell eggs.

  9. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  10. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively. PMID:16174359

  11. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  12. 21 CFR 520.2123c - Spectinomycin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (scours) caused by E. coli susceptible to spectinomycin in pigs under 4 weeks of age. (3) Limitations. Do... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectinomycin solution. 520.2123c Section 520.2123c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 884.2990 - Breast lesion documentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breast lesion documentation system. 884.2990... Devices § 884.2990 Breast lesion documentation system. (a) Identification. A breast lesion documentation system is a device for use in producing a surface map of the breast as an aid to document palpable...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150... § 884.5150 Nonpowered breast pump. (a) Identification. A nonpowered breast pump is a manual suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. 18 CFR 301.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The regulations in this part apply to the sales of electric power by any Utility to the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) under section 5(c) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability....

  17. 17 CFR 210.12-04 - Condensed financial information of registrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed financial... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-04 Condensed financial information of registrant. (a) Provide condensed financial information as to financial position, cash...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7415...

  3. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5600 - Automated hematocrit instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated hematocrit instrument. 864.5600 Section 864.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7275 - Euglobulin lysis time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Euglobulin lysis time tests. 864.7275 Section 864.7275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7275 Euglobulin...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425...

  7. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700 Section 864.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  8. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  10. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent....

  11. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6100 - Bleeding time device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bleeding time device. 864.6100 Section 864.6100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6100 Bleeding time...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  17. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 864.3400 - Device for sealing microsections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Device for sealing microsections. 864.3400 Section 864.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  20. 21 CFR 864.6650 - Platelet adhesion test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Platelet adhesion test. 864.6650 Section 864.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6650 Platelet...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5680 - Automated heparin analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated heparin analyzer. 864.5680 Section 864.5680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7340 - Fibrinogen determination system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fibrinogen determination system. 864.7340 Section 864.7340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5850 - Automated slide spinner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated slide spinner. 864.5850 Section 864.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thromboplastin generation test. 864.7900 Section 864.7900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3300 - Cytocentrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cytocentrifuge. 864.3300 Section 864.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3300 Cytocentrifuge....

  8. 21 CFR 864.7735 - Prothrombin-proconvertin test and thrombotest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prothrombin-proconvertin test and thrombotest. 864.7735 Section 864.7735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8625 - Hematology quality control mixture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hematology quality control mixture. 864.8625... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8625 Hematology quality control mixture. (a) Identification. A hematology quality control mixture is a device used...

  10. 21 CFR 864.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 864.1 Section 864.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND... hematology and pathology devices intended for human use that are in commercial distribution. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. 864.1860 Section 864.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains §...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6675 - Platelet aggregometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Platelet aggregometer. 864.6675 Section 864.6675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6675...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8165 - Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement. 864.8165 Section 864.8165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 864.5800 - Automated sedimentation rate device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated sedimentation rate device. 864.5800 Section 864.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. 864.7440 Section 864.7440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490...

  18. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  19. 21 CFR 864.6600 - Osmotic fragility test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Osmotic fragility test. 864.6600 Section 864.6600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6600 Osmotic...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7695 - Platelet factor 4 radioimmunoassay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Platelet factor 4 radioimmunoassay. 864.7695 Section 864.7695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7695...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  3. 27 CFR 21.103 - Chloroform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloroform. 21.103 Section 21.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.103 Chloroform. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  4. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  5. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.771 Section 10.771... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good under the...

  6. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.25 Textile... NAFTA preferential tariff treatment involving non-originating textile or apparel products subject to...

  7. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  8. 19 CFR 10.472 - Verification in the United States of textile and apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification in the United States of textile and... the United States of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures to determine whether a claim of origin... for the purpose of determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate....

  9. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  10. 19 CFR 10.453 - Treatment of textile and apparel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of textile and apparel sets. 10.453... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.453 Treatment of textile and apparel sets. Notwithstanding the specific rules specified in General Note 26(n), HTSUS, textile and apparel goods classifiable...

  11. 19 CFR 102.24 - Entry of textile or apparel products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry of textile or apparel products. 102.24...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.24 Entry of textile or apparel products. (a) General. Separate shipments of textile or apparel products, including samples, which originate from...

  12. 19 CFR 10.874 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.874 Section 10.874... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.874 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. (1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  13. 19 CFR 10.811 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile or apparel goods. 10.811 Section 10.811... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.811 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a textile or apparel good that is not an originating good...

  14. 22 CFR 172.1 - Purpose and scope; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR, 1982 Comp., p. 166), the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b, the Department's implementing regulations in 22 CFR part 171 or pursuant to congressional subpoena. Nothing in this part... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose and scope; definitions. 172.1...

  15. 26 CFR 1.247-1 - Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock... Corporations § 1.247-1 Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities. (a) Amount of... public utility corporations (see paragraph (b) of this section) on certain preferred stock (see...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 204, Preferred stock issued. 367.2040 Section 367.2040 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2040 Account 204, Preferred...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  18. 18 CFR 1300.107 - Financial interest exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financial interest exemptions. 1300.107 Section 1300.107 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... convertible into shares of preferred or common stock and have no warrants attached entitling the holder...

  19. 18 CFR 367.4370 - Account 437, Dividends declared-preferred stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 437, Dividends declared-preferred stock. 367.4370 Section 367.4370 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4370 Account 437, Dividends declared—preferred stock....

  20. 18 CFR 367.4380 - Account 438, Dividends declared-common stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 438, Dividends declared-common stock. 367.4380 Section 367.4380 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4380 Account 438, Dividends declared—common stock. (a)...

  1. 18 CFR 420.31 - Certificate of entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificate of entitlement. 420.31 Section 420.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Entitlement; Measurement; Billing §...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2110 - Account 211, Miscellaneous paid-in capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 211, Miscellaneous paid-in capital. 367.2110 Section 367.2110 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... expenses incurred in connection with the issuance of capital stock....

  3. 21 CFR 1312.30 - Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled... Controlled Substances § 1312.30 Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances requiring an import and export permit. The following Schedule III, IV, and V non-narcotic controlled substances...

  4. 19 CFR 12.36 - Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. 12.36 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Narcotic Drugs § 12.36 Regulations of Bureau of Narcotics. The importation and exportation of narcotic drugs are governed by regulations of the...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  6. 19 CFR 162.64 - Custody of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...

  7. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Standard for Claim Determinations-Separation Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard for Claim Determinations-Separation... Part 602—Standard for Claim Determinations—Separation Information Employment Security Manual (Part V... separation was voluntary, and the reason does not constitute good cause,” rather than merely the...

  8. 17 CFR 12.8 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 12.8 Section 12.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.8 Separation of functions....

  9. 22 CFR 224.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 224.14 Section 224.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and...

  10. 20 CFR 355.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 355.14 Section 355.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.14 Separation of...

  11. 24 CFR 180.220 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 180.220 Section 180.220 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Law Judge § 180.220 Separation of functions. No officer, employee, or agent of the Federal...

  12. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  13. 24 CFR 26.37 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 26.37 Section 26.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Separation of functions. No officer, employee, or agent of the Federal Government engaged in the...

  14. 17 CFR 10.9 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 10.9 Section 10.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.9 Separation of functions. (a) An Administrative Law Judge will not be...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.101 - Fire separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fire separation. 3285.101 Section... separation. Fire separation distances must be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of NFPA 501A... installers to take into account any local requirements on fire separation....

  16. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  17. 18 CFR 385.2202 - Separation of functions (Rule 2202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions (Rule 2202). 385.2202 Section 385.2202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Communications; Separation of Functions § 385.2202 Separation of functions (Rule 2202). In any proceeding...

  18. 22 CFR 35.14 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 35.14 Section 35.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.14 Separation of functions. (a) The investigating official, the reviewing official, and any employee or agent...

  19. 20 CFR 211.10 - Separation allowance or severance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation allowance or severance pay. 211.10 Section 211.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.10 Separation allowance or severance pay. Separation or...

  20. 17 CFR 201.121 - Separation of functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of functions. 201.121 Section 201.121 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.121 Separation of functions. Any Commission...

  1. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  3. 19 CFR 10.179 - Canadian crude petroleum subject to a commercial exchange agreement between United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Customs Regulations (19 CFR part 151, subpart C). Certain Fresh, Chilled, or Frozen Beef ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canadian crude petroleum subject to a commercial... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Canadian Crude Petroleum §...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  5. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  6. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740 Section 573.740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light...

  7. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative....

  8. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit...

  9. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine....

  10. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  11. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  12. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  13. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products... percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from...

  14. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is...

  15. 19 CFR 19.30 - Domestic wheat not to be allowed in bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic wheat not to be allowed in bonded space... THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.30 Domestic wheat not to be allowed in bonded space. The presence of domestic wheat in space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall not...

  16. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans,...

  17. 19 CFR 19.31 - Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to be commingled in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Standards for Grain, see 7 CFR part 810. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.31 Bulk wheat of...

  18. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  19. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  20. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  1. 19 CFR 10.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 10.106 Section 10.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Wheat § 10.106 Rescue and Relief Work...

  2. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  3. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  4. 19 CFR 151.76 - Grading of wool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grading of wool. 151.76 Section 151.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.76 Grading of wool....

  5. 24 CFR 1003.401 - Application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application process. 1003.401... Grants § 1003.401 Application process. (a) Letter to proceed. The Area ONAP may issue the applicant a... activities do not alter environmental conditions and are for temporary or permanent improvements limited...

  6. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  7. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U.S. Customs...

  8. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses. (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  9. 22 CFR 123.12 - Shipments between U.S. possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipments between U.S. possessions. 123.12 Section 123.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.12 Shipments between U.S. possessions. An export license...

  10. 22 CFR 123.24 - Shipments by U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subchapter by clearly marking on the package “This export is subject to the controls of the ITAR, 22 CFR... controls of the ITAR, 22 CFR (identify section for an exemption) or (state license number).” For those... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipments by U.S. Postal Service....

  11. 22 CFR 123.14 - Import certificate/delivery verification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Import certificate/delivery verification procedure. 123.14 Section 123.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.14 Import certificate/delivery...

  12. 21 CFR 123.12 - Special requirements for imported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special requirements for imported products. 123.12 Section 123.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.12...

  13. 21 CFR 123.20 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General. 123.20 Section 123.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS Raw Molluscan Shellfish § 123.20 General. This subpart augments...

  14. 22 CFR 123.2 - Import jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Attorney General (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Import jurisdiction. 123.2 Section 123.2... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.2 Import jurisdiction. The Department of State regulates the temporary import...

  15. 22 CFR 123.10 - Non-transfer and use assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Non-transfer and use assurances. 123.10 Section 123.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.10 Non-transfer and use assurances. (a) A nontransfer and...

  16. 21 CFR 123.15 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General. 123.15 Section 123.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS Smoked and Smoke-Flavored Fishery Products § 123.15 General....

  17. 22 CFR 225.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals. 225.123 Section 225.123 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.123 Early termination of research support: Evaluation...

  18. 21 CFR 56.123 - Reinstatement of an IRB or an institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinstatement of an IRB or an institution. 56.123 Section 56.123 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS Administrative Actions for Noncompliance § 56.123 Reinstatement of...

  19. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary import licenses. 123.3 Section 123.3... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of... articles, unless exempted from this requirement pursuant to § 123.4. This requirement applies to:...

  20. 22 CFR 123.4 - Temporary import license exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authority of 22 CFR 123.4(a) (identify subsection),” and (ii) Include, on the invoice or other appropriate... Automated Export System (AES), and identify 22 CFR 123.4 as the authority for the export and provide, as... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary import license exemptions....

  1. 18 CFR 401.123 - Waiver of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver of rules. 401.123 Section 401.123 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.123 Waiver of rules....

  2. 22 CFR 123.13 - Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign country. 123.13 Section 123.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.13 Domestic aircraft shipments via a...

  3. 22 CFR 123.26 - Recordkeeping requirement for exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirement for exemptions. 123.26 Section 123.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.26 Recordkeeping requirement for exemptions. When...

  4. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  5. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is regular non-railroad employment. 216.16 Section 216.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.16 What...

  6. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  7. 20 CFR 404.631 - Statements filed with the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statements filed with the Railroad Retirement... Written Statement § 404.631 Statements filed with the Railroad Retirement Board. A written statement filed with the Railroad Retirement Board will be considered a written statement filed with us under the...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  9. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  10. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico shall present...

  11. 20 CFR 227.3 - Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum. 227.3 Section 227.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.3 Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum....

  12. 26 CFR 1.45G-0 - Table of contents for the railroad track maintenance credit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents for the railroad track... § 1.45G-0 Table of contents for the railroad track maintenance credit rules. This section lists the...) Definitions. (1) Class II railroad and Class III railroad. (2) Eligible railroad track. (3) Eligible...

  13. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  14. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  15. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-2 - Returns under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer, pursuant to the provisions of 26 CFR (1939) 410.501(b) (Regulations 100) or of 26 CFR (1939) 411... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns under Railroad Retirement Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-2 Returns under Railroad Retirement...

  16. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity. 216.42 Section 216.42 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Supplemental Annuity § 216.42 How a private...

  17. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  18. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  19. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  20. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  1. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2270 - Thin-layer chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thin-layer chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2270 Thin-layer chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A thin-layer chromatography (TLC) system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to...

  7. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  8. 18 CFR 157.39 - Rate treatment of pipeline expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rate treatment of pipeline expansions. 157.39 Section 157.39 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... treatment of pipeline expansions. There shall be a rebuttable presumption that rates for any expansion of...

  9. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  10. 18 CFR 284.12 - Standards for pipeline business operations and communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... citations affecting § 284.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for...

  11. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  12. 18 CFR 381.207 - Pipeline certificate applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipeline certificate... Related Authorities § 381.207 Pipeline certificate applications. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, “pipeline certificate application” means any application for authorization or exemption,...

  13. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  14. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal by pipeline. 25... Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery, without payment of tax, by pipeline to the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant which is authorized...

  15. 18 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - Nationwide Proceeding Computation of Federal Income Tax Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nationwide Proceeding Computation of Federal Income Tax Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline Affiliates and Pipeline Producers... Allowance Independent Producers, Pipeline Affiliates and Pipeline Producers Continental U.S.—1972...

  16. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  17. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  18. 19 CFR 18.31 - Pipeline transportation of bonded merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipeline transportation of bonded merchandise. 18... Pipeline § 18.31 Pipeline transportation of bonded merchandise. (a) General. Merchandise may be transported by pipeline under the procedures in this part, as appropriate and unless otherwise...

  19. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the...

  20. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed...

  1. 20 CFR 10.337 - If an employee is only partially reimbursed for a medical expense, must the provider refund the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If an employee is only partially reimbursed for a medical expense, must the provider refund the balance of the amount paid to the employee? 10.337... for a medical expense, must the provider refund the balance of the amount paid to the employee?...

  2. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited...

  3. 20 CFR 10.813 - If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance? 10.813 Section 10.813 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Schedule § 10.813 If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance? A provider...

  4. 20 CFR 30.713 - If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance? 30.713 Section 30.713 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance? A provider whose fee for service is...

  5. 18 CFR 367.4330 - Account 433, Balance transferred from income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 433, Balance transferred from income. 367.4330 Section 367.4330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4330 Account 433, Balance transferred from income....

  6. 23 CFR 1200.34 - Disposition of unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposition of unexpended balances. 1200.34 Section 1200.34 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION... HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS Closeout § 1200.34 Disposition of unexpended balances. Any funds which...

  7. 20 CFR 30.422 - If an employee is only partially reimbursed for a medical expense, must the provider refund the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If an employee is only partially reimbursed for a medical expense, must the provider refund the balance of the amount paid to the employee? 30.422... provider refund the balance of the amount paid to the employee? (a) The OWCP fee schedule sets...

  8. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this...

  9. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is... declining balance rate may be determined without resort to formula. Such rate determined under section...

  10. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related...

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4610 - Ocular pressure applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ocular pressure applicator. 886.4610 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4610 Ocular pressure applicator. (a) Identification. An ocular pressure applicator is a manual device that consists of a sphygmomanometer-type...

  15. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section... Miniature pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A miniature pressure transducer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure the pressure between a device and soft tissue by converting mechanical...

  16. 21 CFR 890.1600 - Intermittent pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermittent pressure measurement system. 890.1600... Intermittent pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. An intermittent pressure measurement system is an evaluative device intended for medical purposes, such as to measure the actual pressure between the...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1110 Blood pressure computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2610 Gas pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A gas pressure gauge (e.g., bourdon tube pressure gauge) is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2900 - Gas pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas pressure transducer. 868.2900 Section 868.2900...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2900 Gas pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A gas pressure transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  3. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2700 - Pressure regulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure regulator. 868.2700 Section 868.2700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2700 Pressure regulator. (a) Identification. A pressure regulator is a device, often called a pressure-reducing valve, that is intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2875 - Differential pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Differential pressure transducer. 868.2875 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2875 Differential pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A differential pressure transducer is a two-chambered device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2870 - Catheter tip pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catheter tip pressure transducer. 870.2870 Section... pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A catheter tip pressure transducer is a device incorporated into... change in relation to changes in blood pressure. These changes are transmitted to accessory equipment...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6450 - Skin pressure protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin pressure protectors. 880.6450 Section 880... Devices § 880.6450 Skin pressure protectors. (a) Identification. A skin pressure protector is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to reduce pressure on the skin over a bony prominence to...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge provides mechanical support to the perianal region during the labor and delivery...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2620 - Gas pressure calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas pressure calibrator. 868.2620 Section 868.2620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2620 Gas pressure calibrator. (a) Identification. A gas pressure calibrator is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1750 - Pressure plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure plethysmograph. 868.1750 Section 868.1750...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1750 Pressure plethysmograph. (a) Identification. A pressure plethysmograph is a device used to determine a patient's airway resistance and...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1620 - Intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intracranial pressure monitoring device. 882.1620... pressure monitoring device. (a) Identification. An intracranial pressure monitoring device is a device used for short-term monitoring and recording of intracranial pressures and pressure trends. The...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  16. 19 CFR 113.62 - Basic importation and entry bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be based upon the quantity and value of the merchandise as determined by Customs. Value as used in... chapter, fees relating to dutiable mail described in § 24.22(f) of this chapter, and harbor maintenance... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basic importation and entry bond conditions....

  17. 19 CFR 113.73 - Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... condition shall be based upon the quantity and value of the merchandise as determined by Customs, and that... Regulations concerning the maintenance of inventory control and recordkeeping systems covering merchandise in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions....

  18. 27 CFR 22.132 - Deposit in storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deposit in storage tanks....132 Deposit in storage tanks. (a) Recovered alcohol shall be accumulated and kept in separate storage...) Recovered alcohol may be removed from storage tanks for packaging and shipment to a distilled spirits...

  19. 24 CFR 3286.11 - Temporary storage of units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary storage of units. 3286.11 Section 3286.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 3286.11 Temporary storage of units. Pursuant to § 3286.5(c), the manufacturer is required...

  20. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...