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Sample records for 2012-07-01 false ballast

  1. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 160. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  2. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  4. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water and trim. (a) Every vessel shall be...

  5. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  7. 33 CFR 151.2040 - Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of 33 CFR 151.1515. (b) If the installed BWMS required by this subpart stops operating properly... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge of ballast water in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES,...

  8. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new oceangoing oil tankers of 150 gross tons and above. 155.440 Section 155.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a)...

  10. 29 CFR 1602.51 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. 1602.51 Section 1602.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... Information Report EEO-6 § 1602.51 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. The making...

  11. 39 CFR 501.13 - False representations of Postal Service actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False representations of Postal Service actions. 501.13 Section 501.13 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.13 False representations of Postal Service...

  12. 34 CFR 685.215 - Discharge for false certification of student eligibility or unauthorized payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the student did not meet the eligibility requirements described in 34 CFR part 668 and section 484(d... the eligibility requirements described in 34 CFR part 668 and section 484(d) of the Act, as applicable... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge for false certification of...

  13. 29 CFR 1602.16 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. 1602.16 Section 1602.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER TITLE VII, THE ADA AND GINA...

  14. 29 CFR 1602.23 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on reports. 1602.23 Section 1602.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS UNDER TITLE VII, THE ADA AND GINA Local Union...

  15. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 46 CFR 119.540 - Ballast systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ballast systems. 119.540 Section 119.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Ballast Systems § 119.540 Ballast systems. Solid and water ballast must comply with the requirements...

  17. 46 CFR 182.540 - Ballast systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 182.540 Section 182.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.540 Ballast systems. (a) Ballast piping must not...

  18. 46 CFR 178.510 - Ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast. 178.510 Section 178.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Special Installations § 178.510 Ballast. (a) Any solid fixed ballast used to...

  19. 14 CFR 31.51 - Ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ballast. 31.51 Section 31.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.51 Ballast. Each captive gas balloon must have...

  20. 49 CFR 213.103 - Ballast; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ballast; general. 213.103 Section 213.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.103 Ballast; general. Unless it is otherwise structurally supported, all...

  1. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  2. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  3. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  5. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  6. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  8. 33 CFR 151.2060 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 151.2060 Section 151.2060 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

  9. 33 CFR 151.1504 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 151.1504 Section 151.1504 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for...

  10. 33 CFR 151.1506 - Restriction of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restriction of operation. 151.1506 Section 151.1506 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

  11. 33 CFR 151.1502 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 151.1502 Section 151.1502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for...

  12. 33 CFR 151.2005 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 151.2005 Section 151.2005 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for...

  13. 33 CFR 151.2000 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 151.2000 Section 151.2000 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2015 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions. 151.2015 Section 151.2015 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  15. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and... FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures § 431.322 Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. Ballast efficiency means, in the case of...

  16. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  17. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  18. 10 CFR 429.54 - Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 429.54 Section... CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.54 Metal halide lamp ballasts... are applicable to metal halide lamp ballasts; and (2) For each basic model of metal halide...

  19. 10 CFR 429.54 - Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 429.54 Section... CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.54 Metal halide lamp ballasts... are applicable to metal halide lamp ballasts; and (2) For each basic model of metal halide...

  20. 10 CFR 429.54 - Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 429.54 Section... CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.54 Metal halide lamp ballasts... are applicable to metal halide lamp ballasts; and (2) For each basic model of metal halide...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix to Subpart D of... - Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form Appendix to Subpart D of Part 151 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  4. 33 CFR Appendix to Subpart D of... - Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form Appendix to Subpart D of Part 151 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  5. 33 CFR 151.03 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 151.03 Section 151.03 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1500 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 151.1500 Section 151.1500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  7. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  8. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  9. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  10. 33 CFR 157.222 - Pump and piping arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section of discharge piping. Note: An example of a sample point is shown in 46 CFR Figure 162.050-17(e). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pump and piping arrangements. 157... OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.222 Pump...

  11. 33 CFR 151.26 - Shipboard oil pollution emergency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipboard oil pollution emergency... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on...

  12. 33 CFR 151.1000 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 151.1000 Section 151.1000 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  13. 33 CFR 151.1021 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeals. 151.1021 Section 151.1021 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  14. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  15. 46 CFR 119.540 - Ballast systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 119.540 Section 119.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge...

  16. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  17. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  18. 46 CFR 162.060-14 - Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application. 162.060-14 Section 162.060-14 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems...

  19. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). 162.060-16 Section 162.060-16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes...

  20. 46 CFR 162.060-30 - Testing requirements for ballast water management system (BWMS) components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing requirements for ballast water management system (BWMS) components. 162.060-30 Section 162.060-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems §...

  1. 46 CFR 162.060-30 - Testing requirements for ballast water management system (BWMS) components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing requirements for ballast water management system (BWMS) components. 162.060-30 Section 162.060-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems §...

  2. 46 CFR 162.060-30 - Testing requirements for ballast water management system (BWMS) components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing requirements for ballast water management system (BWMS) components. 162.060-30 Section 162.060-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems §...

  3. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures § 431.322 Definitions concerning metal halide...

  4. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures § 431.322 Definitions concerning metal halide...

  5. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures § 431.322 Definitions concerning metal halide...

  6. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). 162.060-16 Section 162.060-16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes...

  7. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). 162.060-16 Section 162.060-16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes...

  8. 46 CFR 162.060-14 - Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application. 162.060-14 Section 162.060-14 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems...

  9. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  10. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  11. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not...

  12. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not...

  13. 10 CFR 429.26 - Fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluorescent lamp ballasts. 429.26 Section 429.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... annual energy operating costs, energy consumption, or other measure of energy consumption of a...

  14. 10 CFR 429.26 - Fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluorescent lamp ballasts. 429.26 Section 429.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... annual energy operating costs, energy consumption, or other measure of energy consumption of a...

  15. 10 CFR 429.26 - Fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluorescent lamp ballasts. 429.26 Section 429.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... annual energy operating costs, energy consumption, or other measure of energy consumption of a...

  16. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  17. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  18. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  19. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  20. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  3. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cargo and ballast system information. 157.23 Section 157.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment,...

  4. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  5. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  6. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  7. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 160. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  9. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 160. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  10. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  11. Ballast water sediment elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Maglić, Lovro; Zec, Damir; Frančić, Vlado

    2016-02-15

    Sediment samples from the ballast water tanks of ships calling at the port of Rijeka in the Northern Adriatic were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) using caesium, argon and oxygen ion beams. The research was carried out in order to determine the sediment composition and relative abundance of the dominant elements. The results indicate that the sediment samples mostly consisted of compounds that originated from the deterioration of tank plates, tank coating residues and ballast operations such as clay, silt, sand and organic materials. No significant heavy metals or highly toxic elements were found. The research revealed some advantages and significant drawbacks of using XPS and SIMS for the routine analysis of sediment composition as a decision supporting tool for ballast water and sediment management. PMID:26763315

  12. Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

  13. Ballast Blockade: Stopping Aquatic Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Presents students with six ballast water treatment methods to evaluate. Allows students to acquaint themselves with current Great Lakes topics while simultaneously partaking in decision-making processes that could affect them. Emphasizes not only an important environmental issue for the Great Lakes, but also the importance of decision-making…

  14. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  15. Statistical considerations in estimating organism concentrations in ballast water discharges

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling probabilities may affect the practical use of different ballast water performance standards which establish the acceptable concentration of organisms in ballast discharges. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has initiated a ballast water standard of <10 viabl...

  16. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

  17. Improved Thermal Stability of RF Power BJT with Ballast Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Benqing; Zhang, Qingzhong

    2013-12-01

    To improve thermal stability and relieve current convergence in rf power bjts, an embedded active CMOS ballast circuit is proposed. By detecting the inhomogeneous temperature through distributed temperature sensors, the adjacent ballast circuit is triggered to shunt the base convergence current of the power BJT cell, performing the ballast protection for the device. Simulations and measurements validate the effectiveness of the proposed ballast circuit. Compared to conventional ballast resistor methods, the improved device integrated with ballast circuits exhibits superior electrical performance. The single ballast circuit only consumes 6.5 mW with additional occupied area of 2530 um2.

  18. High voltage compliance constant current ballast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A ballast circuit employing a constant current diode and a vacuum tube that can provide a constant current over a voltage range of 1000 volts. The simple circuit can prove useful in studying voltage breakdown characteristics.

  19. 49 CFR 213.103 - Ballast; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.103 Ballast; general. Unless it is... laterally, longitudinally, and vertically under dynamic loads imposed by railroad rolling equipment...

  20. 49 CFR 213.103 - Ballast; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.103 Ballast; general. Unless it is... laterally, longitudinally, and vertically under dynamic loads imposed by railroad rolling equipment...

  1. 49 CFR 213.103 - Ballast; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.103 Ballast; general. Unless it is... laterally, longitudinally, and vertically under dynamic loads imposed by railroad rolling equipment...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart S to... - Certification Report for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Submit by E-mail to: U.S. Department of Energy, Buildings Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification Report for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts...

  3. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  4. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  5. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  6. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  7. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  8. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  9. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  10. 46 CFR 154.350 - Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area. 154.350 Section 154.350 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements §...

  11. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks. 153.217 Section 153.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel...

  12. 46 CFR 11.474 - Officer endorsements as ballast control operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.474 Officer endorsements... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Officer endorsements as ballast control operator. 11.474... Technology (ABET). Commanding Officer, National Maritime Center will give consideration to...

  13. 33 CFR 151.2040 - Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of 33 CFR 151.1515. (b) If the installed BWMS required by this subpart stops operating properly... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge of ballast water in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES,...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2040 - Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of 33 CFR 151.1515. (b) If the installed BWMS required by this subpart stops operating properly... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge of ballast water in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES,...

  15. IBECS network/ballast interface: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Pete

    2001-11-15

    This report describes the work performed to design, develop, and demonstrate an IBECS network/ballast interface that is useful for economically dimming controllable ballasts in commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the network/ballast interface. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept circuit and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we describe the lessons learned from the first demonstration of the network/ballast interface at an office at LBNL. The fourth section describes how electrical noise interference encountered with the first generation of interface led to design changes for a refined prototype that hardened the interface from electrical noise generated by the ballast. The final section of the report discusses the performance of refined prototype after we replaced the proof-of-concept prototype with the refined prototypes in the demonstration office at LBNL.

  16. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with § 157.37; and (d) On a new vessel under § 157.10 that carries crude oil, the ballast water is....10a(b), § 157.10a(c), § 157.10b(a), § 157.10c(b)(1), or § 157.10c(c) shall ensure that ballast water...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean...

  17. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with § 157.37; and (d) On a new vessel under § 157.10 that carries crude oil, the ballast water is....10a(b), § 157.10a(c), § 157.10b(a), § 157.10c(b)(1), or § 157.10c(c) shall ensure that ballast water...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean...

  18. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with § 157.37; and (d) On a new vessel under § 157.10 that carries crude oil, the ballast water is....10a(b), § 157.10a(c), § 157.10b(a), § 157.10c(b)(1), or § 157.10c(c) shall ensure that ballast water...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  20. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  1. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  2. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  4. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  5. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  6. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of...

  7. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of...

  8. 33 CFR 151.2041 - What are the mandatory ballast water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast tanks bound for ports or places of... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of...

  9. 33 CFR 151.2041 - What are the mandatory ballast water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast tanks bound for ports or places of... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of...

  10. Problems continue to plague electronic ballast industry

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1983-10-17

    Problems of unreliable components, poor quality due to the lack of performance testing standards, and electromagnetic radiation are preventing the electronic ballast industry from achieving the anticipated 40% electricity savings and have led several manufacturers to drop out of the market. The National Association of Lighting Maintenance Contractors (NALMCO) recognized the problem, and the remaining manufacturers plan to reduce the number of components to improve reliability until standards are developed. Many potential users are waiting for a larger selection and better product before they invest in electronic ballasts. A directory of major lighting equipment manufacturers accompanies the article. (DCK)

  11. Limiting invasive species in ballast water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-06-01

    Ballast water is often intentionally loaded onto cargo ships and other vessels to provide weight necessary for safe maneuvering. However, this practice can unintentionally transport exotic organisms to parts of the world where populations of these organisms can establish themselves in new habitats as invasive and environmentally and economically disruptive species. Each year, an estimated 196 million metric tons of ballast water are discharged into U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes alone from an average of more than 90,000 visits of commercial ships greater than 300 metric tons, according to a 2 June report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies.

  12. Ballast water control - The Canadian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    This article is a review of Canadian practices and regulations concerning the discharge of ballast water from ocean-going vessels. This has been identified as a major factor in the transfer of nuisance aquatic species from one area of the world to another. The basis for Canadian policy is reviewed and the policies are outlined. On-going and future efforts are noted.

  13. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  14. 33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section 155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  15. 33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section 155.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  16. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  17. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  18. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  4. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. 157.43 Section 157.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO...

  5. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a... safely taken onboard at one time. The master of the vessel is responsible for ensuring the safety of the vessel, crew, and passengers. Vessels reporting only residual ballast water onboard shall take...

  6. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a... safely taken onboard at one time. The master of the vessel is responsible for ensuring the safety of the vessel, crew, and passengers. Vessels reporting only residual ballast water onboard shall take...

  7. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters,'' published on March 23, 2012. 77 FR 17254. The Coast Guard... Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters,'' (March 23, 2012-77 FR 17254), the Coast Guard... FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit a request...

  8. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  9. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  10. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  11. Ballast water exchangeable seas identified by ocean color satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    The paper describes the identification of ballast water exchangeable seas with MODIS Aqua-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient K 490 along the LNG carrier s routes between Japan and Qatar during the period from 2002 to 2005 Study areas include the northwestern Pacific Ocean the East China Sea the South China Sea the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea Based on the relationship between K 490 and corresponding number of in situ plankton cell densities ballast water exchangeable seas are identified to meet the regulation of ballast water performance standard imposed by International Maritime Organization IMO Furthermore ballast water exchangeable seas are extracted from MODIS-derived K 490 images overlaid with the depth and the distance from shore to meet the IMO regulation of ballast water exchange area As a result the Bay of Bengal is identified as an suitable ballast water exchangeable sea except an anomalously high K 490 area off the coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast monsoon in 2005 Seasonal and annual variations of K 490 along the LNG carrier s routes are also discussed in order to implement an early routing system for suitable ballast water exchangeable seas

  12. Electronic ballasts: Developments in the U.S. market

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.J.; Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.; Lovins, A.B.; Kiernan, P.

    1992-12-31

    Sales of electronic fluorescent ballasts are soaring as manufacturers continue to introduce better-performing models. Improvements include higher power factor, lower harmonic distortion, better reliability, four-lamp capability, and applicability to a wider variety of lamps. However, the juiciest plum -- a modestly priced, highly reliable, high-power-quality, continuously dimming ballast -- is still awaited. Manufacturers are addressing reported problems with batch failures, power quality, and unpredictable equipment incompatibilities, but are having difficulty keeping up with growing demand. Back orders of several months are common. This update summarizes technical data on current offerings and describes recent developments in making electronic ballasts.

  13. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... (ST). (4) Ballast Water Management. Include the total number of ballast tanks/holds that are to be... well as the type of method used. Indicate whether the vessel has a ballast water management plan...

  14. 4. AN IMAGE, LOOKING NORTH WEST, OF THE TRACK, BALLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AN IMAGE, LOOKING NORTH WEST, OF THE TRACK, BALLAST AND CONCRETE BALUSTRADES, SHOWING HOW THE BRIDGE WAS DESIGNED TO TAKE TWO SETS OF TRACK. - Vandalia Railroad Bridge, Spanning U.S. Route 40, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  15. Density matters: Approaches to settling ballast water discharge concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consensus has evolved that invasion risk increases with propagule pressure. However, translating this general principal into ecologically “acceptable” concentrations of organisms in ballast water has proven challenging. The treaty being promulgated by the International Maritime...

  16. Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    In anticipation of the need to address performance verification and subsequent approval of new and innovative ballast water treatment technologies for shipboard installation, the U.S Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency‘s Environmental Technology Verification Progr...

  17. Implications of heterogeneous distributions of organisms on ballast water sampling.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2015-02-15

    Ballast water sampling is one of the problems still needing investigation in order to enforce the D-2 Regulation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship Ballast Water and Sediments. Although statistical "representativeness" of the sample is an issue usually discussed in the literature, neither a definition nor a clear description of its implications are presented. In this context, we relate it to the heterogeneity of the distribution of organisms in ballast water and show how to specify compliance tests under different models based on the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. We provide algorithms to obtain minimum sample volumes required to satisfy fixed limits on the probabilities of Type I and II errors. We show that when the sample consists of a large number of aliquots, the Poisson model may be employed even under moderate heterogeneity of the distribution of the organisms in the ballast water tank. PMID:25510550

  18. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    PubMed

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  19. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, William Newell; Thomas, Robert James

    1999-01-01

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast.

  20. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  1. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation in ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Martina; Kompare, Boris; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2015-05-01

    Ballast water is, together with hull fouling and aquaculture, considered the most important factor of the worldwide transfer of invasive non-indigenous organisms in aquatic ecosystems and the most important factor in European Union. With the aim of preventing and halting the spread of the transfer of invasive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and also in accordance with IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, the systems for ballast water treatment, whose work includes, e.g. chemical treatment, ozonation and filtration, are used. Although hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is used in many different areas, such as science and engineering, implied acoustics, biomedicine, botany, chemistry and hydraulics, the application of HC in ballast water treatment area remains insufficiently researched. This paper presents the first literature review that studies lab- and large-scale setups for ballast water treatment together with the type-approved systems currently available on the market that use HC as a step in their operation. This paper deals with the possible advantages and disadvantages of such systems, as well as their influence on the crew and marine environment. It also analyses perspectives on the further development and application of HC in ballast water treatment. PMID:25810104

  2. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q1 Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. Q1 Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of Part...

  4. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....370, and an entry shall be made in the Oil Record Book to this effect. (Approved by the Office of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on...

  5. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  6. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  7. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  8. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  9. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  10. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports. PMID:24928458

  11. Single-stage electronic ballast with high-power factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chun-Yoon; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kwon, Bong-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    This article proposes a single-stage electronic ballast circuit with high-power factor. The proposed circuit was derived by sharing the switches of the power factor correction (PFC) and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter. This integration of switches forms the proposed single-stage electronic ballast, which provides an almost unity power factor and a ripple-free input current by using a coupled inductor without increasing the voltage stress. In addition, it realises zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by employing the self-oscillation technique. The saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Therefore, the proposed single-stage ballast has the advantage of high-power factor, high efficiency, low cost and high reliability. Steady-state analysis of the PFC and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter are described. The results of experiments performed using a 30 W fluorescent lamp are also presented to confirm the performance of the proposed ballast.

  12. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  13. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  14. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  15. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements for a cargo tank access in § 153.254 (b), (c), and (d) if: (a) The enclosed space or dedicated ballast... within the enclosed space or dedicated ballast tank....

  16. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  18. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  7. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  8. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, W.N.; Thomas, R.J.

    1999-08-31

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast. 4 figs.

  9. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  10. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.

    PubMed

    Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. PMID:25048914

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... defined in 49 CFR part 173, in enclosed cargo spaces, the bilge-pumping system must be designed to ensure... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-50 Bilge and ballast piping. (a)(1) All... of the vessel. (iii) The stop valve or the stop-check valve is power-driven, is capable of...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... defined in 49 CFR part 173, in enclosed cargo spaces, the bilge-pumping system must be designed to ensure... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-50 Bilge and ballast piping. (a)(1) All... of the vessel. (iii) The stop valve or the stop-check valve is power-driven, is capable of...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... defined in 49 CFR part 173, in enclosed cargo spaces, the bilge-pumping system must be designed to ensure... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-50 Bilge and ballast piping. (a)(1) All... of the vessel. (iii) The stop valve or the stop-check valve is power-driven, is capable of...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... defined in 49 CFR part 173, in enclosed cargo spaces, the bilge-pumping system must be designed to ensure... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-50 Bilge and ballast piping. (a)(1) All... of the vessel. (iii) The stop valve or the stop-check valve is power-driven, is capable of...

  15. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF SHIP BALLAST WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages and during loading and unloading operations. Water is taken on at one port when cargo is unloaded and usually discharged at another port when the ship receives cargo. Because sediments and/or organisms ranging in size ...

  16. Performance of ballast mats on passenger railroads: Measurement vs. projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. E.; Singleton, H. L.

    2006-06-01

    Ballast mats have been installed on urban railway systems throughout the world to provide isolation of ground-borne vibrations from trains. In general, the performance has been found to be satisfactory. However, often there is a variance between the claims of the suppliers of ballast mats and the actual performance of the product in the real world. The classic case involves an infinite terminal impedance applicable to a tunnel configuration. However, a ballast mat installation outdoors on surface track with sub-grade slabs may not have the same performance as a tunnel base where sides are stiffened by walls. In order to represent this situation, Kimura developed a simplified prediction procedure based on an original Wettschureck/Kurze model, with a finite termination impedance based on a flat beam model. This prediction procedure has been tested against measurements on at-grade installations on light rail transit and commuter railway installations in Baltimore and Boston. In both cases, the model showed good agreement with measured values for the resonant frequency dip and the mid-frequency insertion loss. At higher frequencies, however, the model over-predicted the insertion loss, as do many of the models used by ballast mat suppliers. Suggestions are made to account for the discrepancies between predicted and measured values.

  17. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with § 157.37; and (d) On a new vessel under § 157.10 that carries crude oil, the ballast water is only carried in a cargo tank that is crude oil washed in accordance with Subpart D of this part during or after the most recent discharge of crude oil from that tank....

  18. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    Gasification offers an efficient approach for producing fuels and products from a wide variety of biomass. The object of this Congressionally-mandated project is to develop an indirectly-heated gasification system (ballasted gasifier) for converting switch grass into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells.

  19. Ballast: A Ball-based Algorithm for Structural Motifs

    PubMed Central

    He, Lu; Vandin, Fabio; Pandurangan, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Structural motifs encapsulate local sequence-structure-function relationships characteristic of related proteins, enabling the prediction of functional characteristics of new proteins, providing molecular-level insights into how those functions are performed, and supporting the development of variants specifically maintaining or perturbing function in concert with other properties. Numerous computational methods have been developed to search through databases of structures for instances of specified motifs. However, it remains an open problem how best to leverage the local geometric and chemical constraints underlying structural motifs in order to develop motif-finding algorithms that are both theoretically and practically efficient. We present a simple, general, efficient approach, called Ballast (ball-based algorithm for structural motifs), to match given structural motifs to given structures. Ballast combines the best properties of previously developed methods, exploiting the composition and local geometry of a structural motif and its possible instances in order to effectively filter candidate matches. We show that on a wide range of motif-matching problems, Ballast efficiently and effectively finds good matches, and we provide theoretical insights into why it works well. By supporting generic measures of compositional and geometric similarity, Ballast provides a powerful substrate for the development of motif-matching algorithms. PMID:23383999

  20. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral

  1. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method.

    PubMed

    van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis; Buma, Anita G J

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was tested for its applicability as a ballast water treatment method. The treatment of the marine phytoplankton species Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans showed that at 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC was able to inactivate photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and disintegrate the cells after 5 days of dark incubation. The treatment of natural marine plankton communities with 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC did not sufficiently decrease zooplankton abundance to comply with the IMO D-2 standard. Bivalve larvae showed the highest resistance to DDAC. PSII efficiency was inactivated within 5 days but phytoplankton cells remained intact. Regrowth occurred within 2 days of incubation in the light. However, untreated phytoplankton exposed to residual DDAC showed delayed cell growth and reduced PSII efficiency, indicating residual DDAC toxicity. Natural marine plankton communities treated with 5 µL L(-1) DDAC showed sufficient disinfection of zooplankton and inactivation of PSII efficiency. Phytoplankton regrowth was not detected after 9 days of light incubation. Bacteria were initially reduced due to the DDAC treatment but regrowth was observed within 5 days of dark incubation. Residual DDAC remained too high after 5 days to be safely discharged. Two neutralization cycles of 50 mg L(-1) bentonite were needed to inactivate residual DDAC upon discharge. The inactivation of residual DDAC may seriously hamper the practical use of DDAC as a ballast water disinfectant. PMID:25182049

  2. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  4. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii). Section 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii) requires a mandatory... waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 to 1376). ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of...

  5. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii). Section 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii) requires a mandatory... waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 to 1376). ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of...

  6. Analysis and design of a high power factor, single-stage electronic dimming ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.F.; Yu, T.H.

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and practical consideration of a single-stage electronic dimming ballast with unity power factor. The power stage of the ballast is derived from combining a buck-boost converter and a half-bridge series-resonant parallel-loaded inverter (SRPLI). With the plasma model of the lamp, the analysis of the ballast is carried out, from which the key equations used for dimming control are derived. Starting performance and dimming consideration are also addressed in the paper. In this dimming ballast, both pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and variable-frequency control strategies are employed. The discussed ballast with the controls can save a controller and a switch driver, reduce size and cost, and possibly increase system reliability over conventional two-stage systems in the applications with moderate power level. Simulated and experimental results of the ballast for an OSRAM T8 32-W lamp are used to verify the discussion.

  7. Assessing the viability of microorganisms in the ballast water of vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jamie L; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    Testing phytoplankton viability within ballast tanks and receiving waters of ballast water discharge remain understudied. Potentially harmful dinoflagellates and diatoms are transported via ballast water to Galveston Bay, Texas (USA), home to three major ports: Houston, Texas City and Galveston. Ballast water from vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean was inoculated into treatments representing low and high salinity conditions similar to the Ports of Houston and Galveston respectively. Phytoplankton in ballast water growout experiments were deemed viable and showed growth in low and mid salinities with nutrient enrichment. Molecular methods identified several genera: Dinophysis, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Peridinium, Scrippsiella, Chaetoceros and Nitzschia. These phytoplankton genera were previously identified in Galveston Bay except Scrippsiella. Phytoplankton, including those capable of forming harmful algal blooms leading to fish and shellfish kills, are transported to Galveston Bay via ballast water, and are viable when introduced to similar salinity conditions found in Galveston Bay ports. PMID:26455784

  8. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhong-Liang

    2008-12-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper, the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank, increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally, the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false X Appendix X to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendix X to Part 268...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  11. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 250, subpart O. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.805 Section 250.805 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  12. 40 CFR 81.400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope. 81.400 Section 81.400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Service (FS)....

  13. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access. 228.12 Section 228.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable... water or air pollution....

  14. 40 CFR 131.32 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 131.32 Section 131.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards §...

  15. 40 CFR 408.253 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 408.253 Section 408.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED....253...

  16. 28 CFR 513.35 - Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 28 CFR 16.52. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures... JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information General...

  17. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...

  19. 40 CFR 74.45 - Reduced utilization for process sources. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reduced utilization for process sources. 74.45 Section 74.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....45 Reduced utilization for process sources....

  20. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  1. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  2. 40 CFR 1036.815 - Confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reference Information § 1036.815 Confidential information. The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.10 apply for information you consider confidential. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidential information....

  3. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate...

  4. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  5. 33 CFR 55.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 55.1 Section 55.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT... Child Development Services....

  6. 40 CFR 501.18 - Prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... writing under 40 CFR 123.44. ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition. 501.18 Section 501.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE...

  7. 40 CFR 49.10924 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10924 Section 49.10924 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  8. 40 CFR 49.10104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10104 Section 49.10104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 49.10434 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10434 Section 49.10434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  10. 40 CFR 49.10344 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10344 Section 49.10344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  11. 40 CFR 49.11104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11104 Section 49.11104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  12. 40 CFR 49.11014 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11014 Section 49.11014 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  13. 40 CFR 49.10704 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10704 Section 49.10704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  14. 40 CFR 49.10194 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10194 Section 49.10194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  15. 40 CFR 49.10854 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10854 Section 49.10854 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  16. 40 CFR 49.10954 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10954 Section 49.10954 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  17. 40 CFR 49.10374 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10374 Section 49.10374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  18. 40 CFR 49.10134 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10134 Section 49.10134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  19. 40 CFR 49.9984 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9984 Section 49.9984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Source surveillance....

  20. 40 CFR 49.10494 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10494 Section 49.10494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  1. 40 CFR 49.10674 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10674 Section 49.10674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  2. 40 CFR 49.10764 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10764 Section 49.10764 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  3. 40 CFR 49.9894 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9894 Section 49.9894 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  4. 40 CFR 49.9954 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9954 Section 49.9954 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  5. 40 CFR 49.11074 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11074 Section 49.11074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  6. 40 CFR 49.9864 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9864 Section 49.9864 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  7. 40 CFR 49.10284 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10284 Section 49.10284 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  8. 40 CFR 49.9924 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9924 Section 49.9924 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 799.19 - Chemical imports and exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 707. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical imports and exports. 799.19... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING...

  10. 40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

  11. 28 CFR 33.51 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit. 33.51 Section 33.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants... Justice Programs....

  12. 40 CFR 147.2752 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2752 Section 147.2752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS....2752 Aquifer exemptions....

  13. 40 CFR 147.902 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.902 Section 147.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  14. 40 CFR 147.1402 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1402 Section 147.1402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  15. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.152 Section 147.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  16. 40 CFR 147.252 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.252 Section 147.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  17. 40 CFR 147.652 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.652 Section 147.652 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  18. 40 CFR 147.1302 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1302 Section 147.1302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  19. 40 CFR 147.752 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.752 Section 147.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  20. 40 CFR 147.2852 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2852 Section 147.2852 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Pacific Islands § 147.2852 Aquifer exemptions....

  1. 40 CFR 147.1452 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1452 Section 147.1452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  2. 40 CFR 147.452 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.452 Section 147.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... § 147.452 Aquifer exemptions....

  3. 40 CFR 147.1802 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1802 Section 147.1802 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  4. 40 CFR 147.1152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1152 Section 147.1152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  5. 40 CFR 147.2152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2152 Section 147.2152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  6. 40 CFR 147.502 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.502 Section 147.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  7. 40 CFR 147.1202 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1202 Section 147.1202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  8. 40 CFR 94.407 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notice under any provision of law. ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal...-related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.407 Responsibility...

  9. 40 CFR 91.906 - Responsibility under other legal provisions preserved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under any provision of law. ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility under other legal... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.906 Responsibility under...

  10. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 CFR 16.34. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false V Appendix V to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendix V to Part 268...

  12. 32 CFR 324.13 - Access to medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Program’ (see 32 CFR part 310). ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to medical and psychological records. 324... to medical and psychological records. Individual access to medical and psychological records...

  13. 33 CFR 117.671 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.671... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.671 Upper Mississippi River. (a) The.... Mississippi...

  14. 40 CFR 434.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 434.51 Section 434.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL... Areas § 434.51...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1708-1 - Surface structures; fireproof construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface structures; fireproof construction. 75... Surface structures; fireproof construction. Structures of fireproof construction is interpreted to mean structures with fireproof exterior surfaces....

  16. 28 CFR 104.42 - Applicable state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable state law. 104.42 Section 104.42 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND... the victim....

  17. 39 CFR 3002.16 - Office of Inspector General. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Inspector General. 3002.16 Section 3002.16 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION § 3002.16 Office of Inspector General....

  18. 40 CFR 141.718 - Treatment performance toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... performance. The State may approve Cryptosporidium treatment credit for drinking water treatment processes... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment performance...

  19. 28 CFR 512.12 - Content of research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Review of related literature; (2) Detailed description of the research method; (3) Significance... required by 28 CFR part 46, if applicable. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of research proposal....

  20. 32 CFR 2001.50 - Telecommunications automated information systems and network security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Telecommunications automated information systems... Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.50 Telecommunications automated information systems...

  1. 32 CFR 3.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 3.2 Section 3.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS... CFR)....

  2. 32 CFR 736.6 - Certification prior to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification prior to disposition. 736.6 Section 736.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PROCUREMENT... defense of the United States....

  3. 40 CFR 35.4175 - What other reporting and record keeping requirements are there?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in the terms and conditions of the “grant agreement”; (b) Keep complete financial records... CFR part 30. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What other reporting and record...

  4. 40 CFR 429.12 - Monitoring requirements. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring requirements. 429.12 Section 429.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES... Monitoring requirements....

  5. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  6. 40 CFR 1508.24 - Referring agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referring agency. 1508.24 Section 1508.24 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.24... or environmental quality....

  7. 29 CFR 1471.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during... may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? The debarring official may reduce or... debarring official finds appropriate....

  8. Direct current ballast circuit for metal halide lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutus, P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A direct current ballast circuit for a two electrode metal halide lamp is described. Said direct current ballast circuit includes a low voltage DC input and a high frequency power amplifier and power transformer for developing a high voltage output. The output voltage is rectified by diodes and filtered by inductor and capacitor to provide a regulated DC output through commutating diodes to one terminal of the lamp at the output terminal. A feedback path from the output of the filter capacitor through the bias resistor to power the high frequency circuit which includes the power amplifier and the power transformer for sustaining circuit operations during low voltage transients on the input DC supply is described. A current sensor connected to the output of the lamp through terminal for stabilizing lamp current following breakdown of the lamp is described.

  9. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  10. Ballast-mounted PV arrays: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Edward C. Kern

    2000-03-01

    The expansive flat rooftops of industrial and commercial buildings across America offer the largest, most secure, and potentially least-cost real estate opportunity to install massive amounts of solar photovoltaic generation in the building sector. Unfortunately, mechanical penetration of roofing membranes is very expensive and perceived by building owners and operators to increase the likelihood of leaking. In response Ascension Technology has pioneered the development of low-cost ballasted approaches for mounting PV arrays. Recently, however, we have experienced our first two instances in which strong winds have moved our arrays on rooftops and heightened our interest, and the PV industries' need, to develop zero-penetration mounting techniques that are more secure, yet remain low in cost. In this PV BONUS project, Ascension Technology and its partners addressed wind loading on solar panels and the suitability of using frictional forces between ballast trays and roofing materials to resist PV arrays sliding on rooftops. The primary goal of the project is to capture the potential cost savings made possible by ballast-mounting by showing under what conditions it can satisfy wind loading concerns. A secondary goal is to address a more geographically constrained concern regarding withstanding seismic forces.

  11. Constant Light Output Ballasting For High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkin, Adrian

    1988-02-01

    Since the commercial introduction some twenty years ago of HMI* (Hydragyrum-mercury, Medium, Iodide) type lamps, as a source intended primarily for floodlighting applications, their attraction as a cinematographic light source has been apparent due to their largely desirable characteristics. Use in this field has been restricted due to the absolute requirement for an alternating current supply - with a sine wave supply frame rates are limited to a sub-multiple of the supply frequency with the supply frequency phase locked to the camera frame rate. This has effectively barred metal halide HID lighting from use in high speed photography. The general characteristics of metal halide HID lamps are presented alongside a sample of other light sources. An electronic ballast which has been proven to 12000 Watts in the motion picture industry is then described which overcomes the limitations of the conventional magnetic ballast - the square wave output of the electronic ballast theoretically allows the use of any camera frame rate/shutter angle combination. Finally the suitability of luminaires for high speed photography is discussed.

  12. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  13. Utility DSM Rebates for electronic ballasts: National estimates and assessment of market impact (1992 - 1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, C.B.; Atkinson, B.A.; Eto, J.H.; Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E.

    2000-06-30

    In this report we present national estimates of utility Demand-Side Management (DSM) rebates for electronic fluorescent lamp ballasts during the period of 1992 - 1997. We then compare these trends with developments in the fluorescent ballast market from 1993 - 1998. The analysis indicates that DSM rebates for electronic ballasts peaked in the mid-1990s and declined sharply in 1996 and 1997. In a parallel trend, electronic ballast sales and market share both increased significantly during 1993 - 1994 and increased more slowly in 1996 -1997.

  14. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new oceangoing oil tankers of 150 gross tons and above. 155.440 Section 155.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new oceangoing oil tankers of 150 gross tons and above. 155.440 Section 155.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  17. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  18. Per capita invasion probabilities: an empirical model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry, II; Frazier, Melanie; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Fofonoff, Paul W.; Minton, Mark S.; Miller, A. Whitman

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine and estuarine ecosystems. To mitigate the introduction of new invaders into these ecosystems, many agencies are proposing standards that establish upper concentration limits for organisms in ballast discharge. Ideally, ballast discharge standards will be biologically defensible and adequately protective of the marine environment. We propose a new technique, the per capita invasion probability (PCIP), for managers to quantitatively evaluate the relative risk of different concentration-based ballast water discharge standards. PCIP represents the likelihood that a single discharged organism will become established as a new nonindigenous species. This value is calculated by dividing the total number of ballast water invaders per year by the total number of organisms discharged from ballast. Analysis was done at the coast-wide scale for the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, as well as the Great Lakes, to reduce uncertainty due to secondary invasions between estuaries on a single coast. The PCIP metric is then used to predict the rate of new ballast-associated invasions given various regulatory scenarios. Depending upon the assumptions used in the risk analysis, this approach predicts that approximately one new species will invade every 10–100 years with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) discharge standard of 50 μm per m3 of ballast. This approach resolves many of the limitations associated with other methods of establishing ecologically sound discharge standards, and it allows policy makers to use risk-based methodologies to establish biologically defensible discharge standards.

  19. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting and... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653....

  20. Enumerating sparse organisms in ships' ballast water: why counting to 10 is not so easy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To reduce ballast water-borne aquatic invasions worldwide, the International Maritime Organization and United States Coast Guard have each proposed discharge standards specifying maximum concentrations of living biota that may be released in ships’ ballast water (BW), but these r...

  1. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  2. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  3. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure. PMID:26724446

  4. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  5. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  6. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  7. Detection of Ballast Damage by In-Situ Vibration Measurement of Sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. F.; Wong, M. T.; Keefe, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    Ballasted track is one of the most important elements of railway transportation systems worldwide. Owing to its importance in railway safety, many monitoring and evaluation methods have been developed. Current railway track monitoring systems are comprehensive, fast and efficient in testing railway track level and alignment, rail gauge, rail corrugation, etc. However, the monitoring of ballast condition still relies very much on visual inspection and core tests. Although extensive research has been carried out in the development of non-destructive methods for ballast condition evaluation, a commonly accepted and cost-effective method is still in demand. In Hong Kong practice, if abnormal train vibration is reported by the train operator or passengers, permanent way inspectors will locate the problem area by track geometry measurement. It must be pointed out that visual inspection can only identify ballast damage on the track surface, the track geometry deficiencies and rail twists can be detected using a track gauge. Ballast damage under the sleeper loading area and the ballast shoulder, which are the main factors affecting track stability and ride quality, are extremely difficult if not impossible to be detected by visual inspection. Core test is a destructive test, which is expensive, time consuming and may be disruptive to traffic. A fast real-time ballast damage detection method that can be implemented by permanent way inspectors with simple equipment can certainly provide valuable information for engineers in assessing the safety and riding quality of ballasted track systems. The main objective of this paper is to study the feasibility in using the vibration characteristics of sleepers in quantifying the ballast condition under the sleepers, and so as to explore the possibility in developing a handy method for the detection of ballast damage based on the measured vibration of sleepers.

  8. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  9. Disinfection of ballast water with iron activated persulfate.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Samyoung; Peterson, Tawnya D; Righter, Jason; Miles, Danielle M; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2013-10-15

    The treatment of ballast water carried onboard ships is critical to reduce the spread of nonindigenous aquatic organisms that potentially include noxious and harmful taxa. We tested the efficacy of persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S2O8(2-), PS) activated with zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) as a chemical biocide against two taxa of marine phytoplankton grown in bench-scale, batch cultures: the diatom, Pseudonitzshia delicatissima and the green alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta . After testing a range of PS concentrations (0-4 mM activated PS) and exposure times (1-7 days), we determined that a dosage of 4 mM of activated PS was required to inactivate cells from both species, as indicated by reduced or halted growth and a reduction in photosynthetic performance. Longer exposure times were required to fully inactivate D. tertiolecta (7 days) compared to P. delicatissima (5 days). Under these conditions, no recovery was observed upon placing cells from the exposed cultures into fresh media lacking biocide. The results demonstrate that activated PS is an effective chemical biocide against species of marine phytoplankton. The lack of harmful byproducts produced during application makes PS an attractive alternative to other biocides currently in use for ballast water treatments and merits further testing at a larger scale. PMID:24024829

  10. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Robert C.; Prowse, Thomas A. A.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wittmann, Talia A.; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events. PMID:26064643

  11. Comparison of SeaWiFS images with ballast water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    It has become a great concern among the international communities that the ship's ballast water causes marine environmental disturbances of coastal ecosystem. And the regulations and prohibitions of ballast water discharge have already been executed by some coastal countries and discussed by the International Maritime Organization. Since Japan is the one of the largest exporting countries of ballast water, it is important to investigate how the ballast water is exchanged at open seas and influences the surrounding waters. In collaboration with a LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons onboard sampling and plankton analysis of the ballast water have been carried out during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May, 2002 to July, 2003. SeaWiFS images including the ballast water exchange areas along the ship's route were acquired and processsed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. Skeletonema costatum was identified as a species for most of the cruises. Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans were also identified in one of the cruises. Furthermore it is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm.

  12. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  13. Schizotypy and false memory.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

  14. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  15. On-site demonstration procedure for solid-state fluorescent ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-09-01

    The report was presented to plant engineers and managers who were involved in an on-site demonstration of EETech solid-state ballasts for two 40-watt T12 fluorescent lamps. The report includes a brief review of the operating principles of solid-state fluorescent ballasts and the status of development achieved during the LBL program. The remainder of the test describes the techniques of managing and instrumenting a test area for assessing the performance of solid-state fluorescent ballasts at an occupied site.

  16. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid state electronic fluorescent lighting ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Marcus, A. A.; Campbell, R. S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    A solid state ballast (SSB), which improves the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts was developed and the technology was transferred to the private sector. The opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace is examined. Product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process are included.

  17. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  18. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindi; Xiao, Yu; Bai, Mindong; Yang, Bo; Bai, Xiyao

    2006-06-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl- a, chlorophyl- b, chlorophyl- c and carotenoid are decreased by 35% 64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  19. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  20. Callisto False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 on July 7, 1979 at a range of 1,094,666 kilometers (677,000 miles) and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W. This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue component. Because the surface displays regional contrast in UV, variations in surface materials are apparent. Notice in particular the dark blue haloes which surround bright craters in the eastern hemisphere. The surface of Callisto is the most heavily cratered of the Galilean satellites and resembles ancient heavily cratered terrains on the moon, Mercury and Mars. The bright areas are ejecta thrown out by relatively young impact craters. A large ringed structure, probably an impact basin, is shown in the upper left part of the picture. The color version of this picture was constructed by compositing black and white images taken through the ultraviolet, clear and orange filters.

  1. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  2. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  3. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems. PMID:25176277

  4. Review of interdisciplinary devices for detecting the quality of ship ballast water.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The results of the ship ballast water treatment systems neutralization need to be verified in a transparent and trustful way before the ship enters a port. Some researches and results, explained in this article, confirm a need for a good verification. If there is no good methodology agreed, then it would not be accepted the solution that the BWMC (Ballast Water Management Convention) 2004 did protect the sea environment in full meaning. The main problem of ballast neutralization are remaining microorganisms (algae blooms, bacteria) ≥10 and <50. Autonomy of the future ballast water detection device has been explained and newest detection methods analyzed. The ranking analysis has been done thru PROMETHEE II (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations) and results were shown by D-Sight software projections. PMID:25202651

  5. Density matters: Approaches to settling ballast water discharge concentrations - 10/22

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consensus has evolved that invasion risk increases with propagule pressure. However, translating this general principal into ecologically “acceptable” concentrations of organisms in ballast water has proven challenging. The treaty being promulgated by the International Maritime...

  6. Per capita invasion probabilities: A linear model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems. To mitigate the introduction of new invaders into these ecosystems, many agencies are proposing discharge standards that establish upper concentration limits f...

  7. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SHIP BALLAST WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROTOCOL THROUGH AN INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT PARTNERSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of nonindigenous aquatic nuisance species through the discharge of shipboard ballast water into coastal areas around the world has profound negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic nuisance species are one of the most important environmental issu...

  9. The impact of ballast water effluent on the Manila clam, Tapes semidecussatus.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Pamela A; O'Halloran, John

    2004-05-01

    The impact of ballast water discharge from an oil refinery in Whitegate Harbour, Co. Cork, Ireland to the Manila clam, Tapes semidecussatus, was investigated using a whole sediment bioassay. Bioassay organisms were exposed to surface sediments for a period of 21 days, including a reference and control sediment, collected from the vicinity of a ballast water discharge pipe. At the whole organism level, mortality and burrowing behaviour (assessed as time taken for organisms to burrow into the sediment) were used to determine the effects of exposure to test sediments. After 21 days, clam mortality was higher in surface sediments collected directly at the point of the ballast water discharge pipe than from all other test sediments assayed. After 10 days exposure to test sediments collected from the vicinity of the ballast water discharge pipe, the burrowing behaviour of animals was significantly different to the behaviour of animals exposed to uncontaminated sediments. PMID:15344512

  10. Proposed procedure for exemption from the requirement for segregated ballast tanks (SBT), dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT), or a crude oil washing (COW) system for existing tank vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-22

    A proposed procedure for exemption from the requirement for segregated ballast tanks (SBT), dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT), or a crude oil washing (COW) system for existing tank vessels of 40,000 dwt and over, in domestic trade has been issued by the US Coast Guard under the Port and Tanker Safety Act. Exemption would be allowed if shore-based reception facilities are a preferred method of handling dirty ballast and if such facilities are adequate and readily available. Adoption of the proposal would recognize that in certain trades where existing tank vessels have set loading locations, it is as effective to use shore-based reception facilities for the treatment of oil residues as it is to use SBT, CBT, or COW. The proposal requires, among others, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for the reception facilities, and contains a provision for revocation of exemptions upon noncompliance with regulations. Comments must be received by 7/7/80.

  11. Feasibility study of ocean color remote sensing for detecting ballast water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    The paper describes the feasibility of ballast water detection with SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and the corresponding number of in situ plankton cell density along the ship’s routes. Onboard sampling of the ballast water have been carried out by the LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May 2002 to July 2003. SeaWiFS images of the ballast water exchange areas along the ship’s route were acquired and processed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis of the sampled ballast water, phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. It is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(490)). By using this correlation the criterion of 10 cells/ml imposed by IMO regulations corresponds to 0.24 m-1 of K(490). It is expected that this value of K(490) will be the criterion of future satellite-based ballast water quality standard.

  12. Ballast water treatment systems: design, regulations, and selection under the choice varying priorities.

    PubMed

    Satir, Tanzer

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the role of ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) and proposes a selection procedure for conventional merchant ships based on the financial, legal, and operational circumstances. Through the metallurgical revolution of the nineteenth century, commercial ships are converted to steel hull from wooden structures. By this innovative shift, use of ballast water became an essential part of ships for improving propulsion and stability while reducing stress on hull (instead of rocks). However, the content of ballast water is emerged since it relocates marine species from an ecological composition (usually cargo discharging port) to another one (loading port). Uncontrolled relocation of marine species may cause severe damage to existing ecological basis on ballast discharging area. BWTSs are developed for ships to eliminate marine species (i.e., aquatic invasive species) content by using a filtering device. It ensures an eco-friendly ballasting and de-ballasting process. The selection of proper BWTS is another debate since the BWTSs are designed with cost-quality and cost (eco)-performance variations. The proposed approach denoted that both tonnage and the age of ship are indicative factors on selection. The cost of installation varies based on installation space and active vs. project vessel cases. PMID:24894755

  13. Optimized parameters for fluorescence-based verification of ballast water exchange by ships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathleen R; Ruiz, Gregory M; Dunsmuir, William T M; Waite, T David

    2006-04-01

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange is mandatory for ships discharging foreign ballast in US territorial waters in order to reduce the risk of biological invasions. However, a reliable tool for determining whether the procedure took place is lacking. We investigated chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence as a tracer of mid-ocean exchange on nine research cruises out of Asia, Europe, and the USA, focusing on challenging source conditions (high salinity, low CDOM). Using parallel factor analysis, we identified nine independent fluorescent components present in varying concentrations in the ocean and in ballast water. One component was sufficient for predicting the coastal vs oceanic source of most ballast water samples. Across nine cruises, thresholds (1.7 and 0.7 ppb quinine sulfate equivalent units) at two fixed wavelength pairs (lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 320/414 and 370/496 nm, respectively) discriminated coastal from oceanic ballast water in > 95% of samples (N = 514). Our results suggest that single- and dual-channel fluorometers could be optimized for verifying ballast water exchange. PMID:16646474

  14. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  15. Neptune in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this false color image of Neptune, objects that are deep in the atmosphere are blue, while those at higher altitudes are white. The image was taken by Voyager 2's wide-angle camera through an orange filter and two different methane filters. Light at methane wavelengths is mostly absorbed in the deeper atmosphere. The bright, white feature is a high altitude cloud just south of the Great Dark Spot. The hard, sharp inner boundary within the bright cloud is an artifact of computer processing on Earth. Other, smaller clouds associated with the Great Dark Spot are white or pink, and are also at high altitudes. Neptune's limb looks reddish because Voyager 2 is viewing it tangentially, and the sunlight is scattered back to space before it can be absorbed by the methane. A long, narrow band of high altitude clouds near the top of the image is located at 25 degrees north latitude, and faint hazes mark the equator and polar regions. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  16. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  17. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  18. Settling velocity spectra and the ballast ratio hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Robert A.; Peterson, Michael L.; Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2009-08-01

    Recently it has been observed that a strong quantitative relationship exists between asymptotic fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the deep ocean and asymptotic fluxes of "ballast" minerals (opal; calcium carbonate; dust). It has further been suggested that this relationship might provide a mechanistic basis for improved representations of remineralization in ocean carbon models. Since the depth scale of remineralization z* is the ratio k/v of a remineralization rate k and a settling velocity (SV) v, a mechanistic understanding of settling velocities will be crucial in developing such models. Historically, there have been two approaches to estimating the speed with which POC is transported to the deep ocean. First, settling speeds of single particles have been observed directly in both field and laboratory settings; estimates of fecal pellet sinking velocities tend to be higher and more variable than those of aggregates. Second, estimates have been made of the velocity at which temporal patterns in flux propagate between pairs of sediment traps separated in depth (the "benchmark approach"); recent studies have shown these results to be variable and to depend on mineral ballasting. Here we present SV estimates using a relatively new technology: indented rotating sphere (IRS) sediment traps run in settling velocity (SV) mode. In this approach, particles are separated into SV classes during settling to collection cups. In MedFlux, SV data were collected concurrently with time-series (TS) data; the latter were used to construct benchmark estimates for comparison to the SV estimates. From the SV data, the range of modal settling velocities (sinking velocities having the largest time-averaged mass flux densities on a logarithmic scale of SV) in the fast-sinking fraction was estimated to be 287-503 m/d; the average of these modal values is 353 m/d, with standard deviation 76 m/d. In contrast, mean settling velocities of the fast-sinking fraction depend on the

  19. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  20. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  1. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  2. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  3. Electronic ballasts for metal halide lamps broaden applicability and improve efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    Metal halide lamps, typically used to light parking lots, highways, and industrial facilities, are among the most efficient and long-lived light sources available. In recent years, smaller metal halide lamps with improved color rendering have been developed, enabling these systems to gradually penetrate the commercial lighting market, with impressive efficiency gains. In a typical display lighting application, for instance, a 70-watt metal halide will produce more light than two 150-watt PAR 38 incandescents and last up to five times as long. Progress in applying metal halides in such applications has been limited, however, by the color shift that occurs as the lamp ages. New electronic ballasts for these lamps can reduce color shift by maintaining constant voltage as the lamps age, thereby broadening their application into areas like retail display, where color quality is of critical concern. Electronic ballasting can also improve efficacy by about 15 percent in comparison to electromagnetic ballasting, improve lumen maintenance and warm-up characteristics, extend lamp life, and maintain consistent power to the lamp over wide fluctuations in line voltage. Because they are smaller and lighter than electromagnetic ballasts, electronic ballasts allow metal halides to be used in track fixtures and other installations where weight might have previously been a problem.

  4. Single-state electronic ballast with dimming feature and unity power factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.F.; Yu, T.H.; Chiang, M.C.

    1998-05-01

    Analysis, design, and practical consideration of a single-stage electronic ballast with dimming feature and unity power factor are presented in this paper. The proposed single-stage ballast is the combination of a boost converter and a half-bridge series-resonant parallel-loaded inverter. The boost semistage working in the discontinuous conduction mode functions as a power factor corrector and the inverter semistage operated above resonance are employed to ballast the lamp. Replacing the lamp with the plasma model, analysis of the ballast is fulfilled. The dimming feature is carried out by pulse-width modulation (PWM) and variable-frequency controls simultaneously. The proposed single-stage ballast is suitable for applications with moderate power level and low-line voltage while requiring a high-output voltage. It can save a controller, an active switch and its driver, reduce size, and possibly increase system reliability while requiring two additional diodes over a conventional two-stage system. A prototype was implemented to verify the theoretical discussion. The hardware measurements have shown that the desired performance can be achieved feasibly.

  5. Where is mineral ballast important for surface export of particulate organic carbon in the ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Le Moigne, Frédéric A C; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Marcinko, Charlotte L J; Martin, Patrick; Sanders, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes in the deep ocean have inspired the inclusion of “ballast effect” parameterizations in carbon cycle models. A recent study demonstrated regional variability in the effect of ballast minerals on the flux of POC in the deep ocean. We have undertaken a similar analysis of shallow export data from the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. Mineral ballasting is of greatest importance in the high-latitude North Atlantic, where 60% of the POC flux is associated with ballast minerals. This fraction drops to around 40% in the Southern Ocean. The remainder of the export flux is not associated with minerals, and this unballasted fraction thus often dominates the export flux. The proportion of mineral-associated POC flux often scales with regional variation in export efficiency (the proportion of primary production that is exported). However, local discrepancies suggest that regional differences in ecology also impact the magnitude of surface export. We propose that POC export will not respond equally across all high-latitude regions to possible future changes in ballast availability. PMID:26074644

  6. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Ballast of Surface Aggregates Sinking through the Twilight Zone

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Mendes, Pedro A.; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution of CaCO3 is one of the ways ocean acidification can, potentially, greatly affect the ballast of aggregates. A diminution of the ballast could reduce the settling speed of aggregates, resulting in a change in the carbon flux to the deep sea. This would mean lower amounts of more refractory organic matter reaching the ocean floor. This work aimed to determine the effect of ocean acidification on the ballast of sinking surface aggregates. Our hypothesis was that the decrease of pH will increase the dissolution of particulate inorganic carbon ballasting the aggregates, consequently reducing their settling velocity and increasing their residence time in the upper twilight zone. Using a new methodology for simulation of aggregate settling, our results suggest that future pCO2 conditions can significantly change the ballast composition of sinking aggregates. The change in aggregate composition had an effect on the size distribution of the aggregates, with a shift to smaller aggregates. A change also occurred in the settling velocity of the particles, which would lead to a higher residence time in the water column, where they could be continuously degraded. In the environment, such an effect would result in a reduction of the carbon flux to the deep-sea. This reduction would impact those benthic communities, which rely on the vertical flow of carbon as primary source of energy. PMID:23272075

  7. Indirectly heated fluidized bed biomass gasification using a latent heat ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Pletka, R.; Brown, R.; Smeenk, J.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this study is to improve the heating value of gas produced during gasification of biomass fuels using an indirectly heated gasifier based on latent heat ballasting. The latent heat ballast consists of lithium fluoride salt encased in tubes suspended in the reactor. The lithium fluoride has a melting point that is near the desired gasification temperature. With the ballast a single reactor operating in a cyclic mode stores energy during a combustion phase and releases it during a pyrolysis phase. Tests were carried out in a fluidized bed reactor to evaluate the concept. The time to cool the reactor during the pyrolysis phase from 1,172 K (1,650 F) to 922 K (1,200 F) increased 102% by use of the ballast system. This extended pyrolysis time allowed 33% more biomass to be gasified during a cycle. Additionally, the total fuel fraction pyrolyzed to produce useful gas increased from 74--80%. Higher heating values of 14.2 to 16.6 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (382--445 Btu/scf) on a dry basis were obtained from the ballasted gasifier.

  8. Hydrobiological studies of the ballast waters of cargo ships in Russian Sea ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, A. Yu.; Selifonova, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The results of the first studies on the ballast waters of commercial vessels in Novorossiysk and Vladivostok ports are presented. Data on the composition of the flora and fauna, their abundance, viability, and the origin of the species were obtained. In the zooplankton from the ballast waters sampled in the Novorossiysk port, 31 species of holoplankton and 15 species of meroplankton were found. The total number of zooplankton varied from 1.3 to 60 thousand ind./m3. The Mediterranean basin, providing 62% of the ballast waters, represents a vector of the greatest risk. In the port of Vladivostok, in the ballast waters of the vessels of the Russian-Japanese and Russian-Chinese lines, 45 species of microalgae, 24 species of zooplankton, 22 species of meroplankton, and 10 groups of meiofauna were revealed. In addition, 24 species of microscopic filamentous fungi were identified and 28 morphologically distinguishable strains of bacteria were isolated (in total not less than 153 species). The basic "groups of risk" for bioinvasions in the basins of the Black Sea and the seas of the Far East were revealed. The need for control of ships' ballast waters in Russia, which is presently lacking relevant national methodical guidelines and legislation, is substantiated.

  9. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S... March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water... Standards Directorate''. Notification should be provided to U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center. In FR...

  10. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS) Final Rule (77 FR 35268). The rulemaking... (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard is now publishing a document to advise the public that we received four...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information...

  11. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard also established an approval process for ballast water management systems (77 FR 17254... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in...

  12. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Test Procedures § 431.324 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a.... (3) Ensure that all valves in the dedicated clean ballast tanks are closed. (d) Before arrival at...

  14. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a.... (3) Ensure that all valves in the dedicated clean ballast tanks are closed. (d) Before arrival at...

  15. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a.... (3) Ensure that all valves in the dedicated clean ballast tanks are closed. (d) Before arrival at...

  16. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a.... (3) Ensure that all valves in the dedicated clean ballast tanks are closed. (d) Before arrival at...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a.... (3) Ensure that all valves in the dedicated clean ballast tanks are closed. (d) Before arrival at...

  18. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where abnormal conditions or the need to carry large quantities of fuel oil render it necessary to carry ballast water...

  19. Inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of alien ballast water is a well-known, major reason for marine species invasion. Here, circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation was used to inactivate Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water. In comparison with single- and multihole orifice plates, the conical-hole orifice plate yielded the highest inactivation percentage, 51.12%, and consumed only 6.84% energy (based on a 50% inactivation percentage). Repeating treatment, either using double series-connection or circling inactivation, elevated the inactivation percentage, yet consumed much more energy. The results indicate that conical-hole-generated hydrodynamic cavitation shows great potential as a pre-inactivation method for ballast water treatment. PMID:26370563

  20. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, P. K.; Vinod, J. S.; Indraratna, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  1. New continuous-input current charge pump power-factor-correction electronic ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.; Lee, F.C.; Yamauchi, Tokushi

    1999-03-01

    Continuous-input current charge pump power-factor-correction (CIC-CPPFC) electronic ballasts are proposed in this paper. The CPPFC circuit and unity power factor condition using the charge pump concept are derived and analyzed. The average lamp current control with switching frequency modulation was developed so that the low crest factor and constant lamp power operation can be achieved. The developed electronic ballast has continuous input current, so that a small line input filter can be used. The proposed CIC-CPPFC electronic ballast was implemented and tested with two 45-W fluorescent lamps. It is shown that the measured line input current harmonics satisfy IEC 1000-3-2 Class C requirements.

  2. Metabarcoding approach for the ballast water surveillance--an advantageous solution or an awkward challenge?

    PubMed

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Schmidt-Petersen, Julia; Ribicic, Deni; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-03-15

    Transfer of organisms with ships' ballast water is recognized as a major pathway of non-indigenous species introduction and addressed in a few recent legislative initiatives. Among other they imply scientific and technical research and monitoring to be conducted in a efficient and reliable way. The recent development of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding technologies opens new opportunities for biodiversity and biosecurity surveillance. In the current study, the performance of metabarcoding approach was assessed in comparison to the conventional (visual) observations, during the en route experimental ballast water survey. Opportunities and limitations of the molecular method were identified from taxonomical datasets rendered by two molecular markers of different degree of universality - the universal cytochrome oxydase sub-unit I gene and a fragment of RuBisCO gene. The cost-efficacy and possible improvements of these methods are discussed for the further successful development and implementation of the approach in ballast water control and NIS surveillance. PMID:25627196

  3. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  4. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was followed for six BWTSs. Natural plankton communities were treated and incubated for 20 days. Growth, photosystem II efficiency and species composition were followed. The three UV systems all showed similar patterns of decrease in phytoplankton concentrations followed by regrowth. The two EC and the chlorine dioxide systems showed comparable results. However, UV- and chlorine-based treatment systems showed significantly different responses. Overall, all BWTSs reduced phytoplankton concentrations to below the IMO limits, which represents a reduced risk of aquatic invasions through ballast water. PMID:25704551

  5. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  6. Life of fluorescent lamps operated at high frequencies with solid-state ballasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verderber, R. R.; Morse, O.; Rubinstein, F. M.

    1985-07-01

    Standard 40-watt, F-40, rapid-start, fluorescent lamps were operated with solid-state ballasts following the standard life-testing cycle of 3 hours on and 20 minutes off for more than 20,000 hours at high frequency. Lamp operating characteristics (starting voltage, filament voltage, arc current, and current-crest factor) were studied as factors affecting lamp life. Measurements show that fluorescent lamps can attain rated life at high frequency using solid-state ballasts. When lamps are operated in the dimmed mode, full filament power is required to sustain lamplife. The rate of lamp lumen depreciation is dependent on the lamp loading and not the operating frequency.

  7. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  8. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  9. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water.

    PubMed

    Maw, Myint Myint; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Fabo; Jiang, Jinhu; Song, Younan; Pan, Xinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods. PMID:26516836

  10. [Studies for killing the oceanic harmful organisms in ship's ballast water using hydroxyl radicals].

    PubMed

    Bai, Min-Dong; Zhang, Na-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Tao; Chen, Cao; Meng, Xiang-Ying

    2012-02-01

    With a physical method of strong electric-field discharge, O2 in air and H2O at gas state are ionized and dissociated into a number of activated particles such as *OH, O2+, H2O+, etc, which are injected into a part of ballast water to form the dissolved *OH. High concentration of *OH solution was injected into the main pipe of discharge ballast water to effectively and fast kill the oceanic harmful organisms and bacteria in the course of conveying ship's ballast water. In the 10 t x h(-1) experimental system of ship's ballast water, the experiments were carried out for killing the plankton and bacteria using *OH radicals. The *OH concentration is 0.65 mg x L(-1) for 100% killing efficiency. At the same time, cell morphology changes of Chaetoceros muelleri and Nitzschia closterium were observed by a microscope. The cells of algae in their cellular wall, cellular membrane or cell protoplasm were greatly destroyed using *OH radicals. PMID:22509581

  11. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... rulemakings, DOE published the 2000 Ballast Rule. 65 FR 56740 (Sept. 19, 2000). To complete the second...). 76 FR 20090. In conjunction with the NOPR, DOE also published on its Web site the complete technical... with ISO 17025. 76 FR 25211, 25219 (May 4, 2011). ISO 17025 is an international standard that...

  12. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scripsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhishan; Jiang, Wenju; Zhang, Yi; Lim, T M

    2015-01-01

    Ship-borne ballast water contributes significantly to the transfer of non-indigenous species across aquatic environments. To reduce the risk of bio-invasion, ballast water should be treated before discharge. In this study, the efficiencies of several conventional and advanced oxidation processes were investigated for potential ballast water treatment, using a marine dinoflagellate species, Scripsiella trochoidea, as the indicator organism. A stable and consistent culture was obtained and treated by ultraviolet (UV) light, ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and their various combinations. UV apparently inactivated the cells after only 10 s of irradiation, but subsequently photo-reactivation of the cells was observed for all methods involving UV. O3 exhibited 100% inactivation efficiency after 5 min treatment, while H2O2 only achieved maximum 80% inactivation in the same duration. Combined methods, e.g. UV/O3 and UV/H2O2, were found to inhibit photo-reactivation and improve treatment efficiency to some degree, indicating the effectiveness of using combined treatment processes. The total residual oxidant (TRO) levels of the methods were determined, and the results indicated that UV and O3 generated the lowest and highest TRO, respectively. The synergic effect of combined processes on TRO generation was found to be insignificant, and thus UV/O3 was recommended as a potentially suitable treatment process for ballast water. PMID:25182606

  13. 46 CFR 162.060-14 - Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... evaluations. (2) Two sets of plans describing the BWMS, as specified in 46 CFR 159.005-12. (3) An Operation... management system (BWMS) application. 162.060-14 Section 162.060-14 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-14 Information requirements for the...

  14. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Kaveh; Askari, Vahid; Ullrich, Matthias; Mohinudeen, Khwajah; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Khandeparker, Lidita; Burgess, J. Grant; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a rapid and cost-effective method for monitoring bacteria in ballast water, several marine bacterial isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Since International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations are concerned with the unintended transportation of pathogenic bacteria through ballast water, emphasis was placed on detecting species of Vibrio, enterococci and coliforms. Seawater samples collected from the North Sea were incubated in steel ballast tanks and the presence of potentially harmful species of Pseudomonas was also investigated. At the genus-level, the identification of thirty six isolates using MALDI-TOF MS produced similar results to those obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No pathogenic species were detected either by 16S rRNA gene analysis or by MALDI-TOF MS except for the opportunistically pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, in house software that calculated the correlation coefficient values (CCV) of the mass spectral raw data and their variation was developed and used to allow the rapid and efficient identification of marine bacteria in ballast water for the first time. PMID:22685576

  15. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water

    PubMed Central

    Maw, Myint Myint; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Fabo; Jiang, Jinhu; Song, Younan; Pan, Xinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods. PMID:26516836

  16. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... cycle to amend energy conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts. 65 FR 56740, 56740-56749... document (TSD), and briefing materials, which are available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings..., 2010. ADDRESSES: The public meeting will be held at the U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Compliance Statement for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...”) submits this Compliance Statement under 10 CFR Part 431 (Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial... models of metal halide lamp ballasts subject to energy conservation standards specified in 10 CFR Part... comply with the energy conservation requirements in 10 CFR Part 431 with regard to any new basic model...

  18. An Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Testing of a Ballast Exchange Assurance Meter (BEAM) 100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) is mandatory for all vessels entering U.S. waters from outside the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. To support such regulation, accurate and portable verification tools are needed for determining that BWE has taken place. One parameter pr...

  19. 46 CFR 154.350 - Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.350 Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area. (a) Hold, interbarrier, and insulation spaces must have a means of sounding the space or other means of detecting liquid leakage specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) Each hold and insulation space must have...

  20. 46 CFR 154.350 - Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.350 Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area. (a) Hold, interbarrier, and insulation spaces must have a means of sounding the space or other means of detecting liquid leakage specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) Each hold and insulation space must have...

  1. 46 CFR 154.350 - Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.350 Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area. (a) Hold, interbarrier, and insulation spaces must have a means of sounding the space or other means of detecting liquid leakage specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) Each hold and insulation space must have...

  2. 46 CFR 154.350 - Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.350 Bilge and ballast systems in the cargo area. (a) Hold, interbarrier, and insulation spaces must have a means of sounding the space or other means of detecting liquid leakage specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) Each hold and insulation space must have...

  3. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

  4. Per capita invasion probabilities: A linear model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems. For example, in the San Francisco Estuary, dubbed the “most invaded estuary in the world”, it is estimated to account for 38-76% of the aquatic invaders. To pre...

  5. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  6. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: Efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  7. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  8. Effect of Type and Concentration of Ballasting Particles on Sinking Rate of Marine Snow Produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×105 µm3 ml-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  9. Linking science and policy to prevent the spread of invasive species from the ballast water discharge of ships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Huamn activites are causing the global redistribution of species at a historically unprecedented rates. In marine environments, a major vector of nonindigenous species introduction is commercial shipping, including the ballast water of ocean going vessels. The introduction of n...

  10. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  11. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  12. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality. PMID:21361941

  13. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  14. VESPA: False positive probabilities calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA) calculates false positive probabilities and statistically validates transiting exoplanets. Written in Python, it uses isochrones [ascl:1503.010] and the package simpledist.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

  16. Assessing exemptions under the ballast water management convention: preclude the Trojan horse.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn; Minchin, Dan; Boelens, Rick

    2016-02-15

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) is a powerful instrument aimed at reducing spread of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs). As BWMC is expected to enter into force soon, shipping companies will start seeking exemptions for ballast water management in accordance with BWMC Regulation A-4. However, without scientifically robust risk assessment (RA) and consistent rules, the exemptions may introduce a new form of risk within a convention generally designed to reduce risks. This paper describes an adaptive system for granting exemptions, consisting of six major components: target species selection procedure, port-to-port RA, monitoring, information support, administrative decision and review process. The system is based on key principles defined in the IMO guidelines for RA and is designed to continuously accumulate evolving experience on granting exemptions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the control of the spread of HAOPs, without placing an unnecessary burden on the shipping industry. PMID:26795122

  17. Global hot spots of biological invasions: evaluating options for ballast-water management.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M; Lodge, David M

    2004-03-22

    Biological invasions from ballast water are a severe environmental threat and exceedingly costly to society. We identify global hot spots of invasion based on worldwide patterns of ship traffic. We then estimate the rate of port-to-port invasion using gravity models for spatial interactions, and we identify bottlenecks to the regional exchange of species using the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm for network flows. Finally, using stochastic simulations of different strategies for controlling ballast-water introductions, we find that reducing the per-ship-visit chance of causing invasion is more effective in reducing the rate of biotic homogenization than eliminating key ports that are the epicentres for global spread. PMID:15156914

  18. Methods coagulation/flocculation and flocculation with ballast agent for effective harvesting of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Kirill V; Sergeeva, Yana E; Butylin, Victor V; Komova, Anastasiya V; Pojidaev, Victor M; Badranova, Gulfiya U; Shapovalova, Anna A; Konova, Irina A; Gotovtsev, Pavel M

    2015-10-01

    The effects of coagulant (FeCl3·6H2O), various flocculants based on polyacrylamide (PAA), polyethylenoxide (PEO) and flocculated biomass as ballast agent, dosage and sedimental time on flocculation efficiency of harvesting Chlorella vulgaris GKV1 cultivated in a laboratory were investigated. The results of this work indicated that the flocculation efficiency achieved about 90% after 5 min of sedimentation when adding of coagulant and flocculant mixture (FeCl3 50 mg/l+PEO based Sibfloc-718 7.5 mg/l) or flocculant with ballast agent (Sibfloc-718 7.5 mg/l+10% flocculated biomass). PAA and PEO showed good flocculation efficiency at dosage of 0.025 and 0.015 g/l, respectively without pH adjustment. Finally, the most suitable flocculation method was discussed in this paper. PMID:26133475

  19. A mathematical model of the class D converter for compact fluorescent ballasts

    SciTech Connect

    Nerone, L.R.

    1995-11-01

    The time-harmonic analysis is often used to design the class D converter. Since the Q of the resonant network is often low, this analysis, in the form of the sinusoidal approximation, begins to lose accuracy. This paper explores an improved method of designing compact fluorescent ballasts via the square wave approximation (SWA), where the time domain equations are solved for the general case of arbitrary Q, duty ratio, and frequency. A precise mathematical model of the Class D converter is developed that predicts the currents and voltages of the converter and these solutions are compared with computer simulation. Nonlinear programming (NLP) is introduced as a means to design the ballast for the lowest conduction losses. The equations developed in the mathematical model are formulated into a NLP format that includes the self-oscillating case.

  20. Global hot spots of biological invasions: evaluating options for ballast-water management.

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological invasions from ballast water are a severe environmental threat and exceedingly costly to society. We identify global hot spots of invasion based on worldwide patterns of ship traffic. We then estimate the rate of port-to-port invasion using gravity models for spatial interactions, and we identify bottlenecks to the regional exchange of species using the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm for network flows. Finally, using stochastic simulations of different strategies for controlling ballast-water introductions, we find that reducing the per-ship-visit chance of causing invasion is more effective in reducing the rate of biotic homogenization than eliminating key ports that are the epicentres for global spread. PMID:15156914

  1. Disinfection by-products in ballast water treatment: an evaluation of regulatory data.

    PubMed

    Werschkun, Barbara; Sommer, Yasmin; Banerji, Sangeeta

    2012-10-15

    To reduce the global spread of invasive aquatic species, international regulations will soon require reductions of the number of organisms in ballast water discharged by ships. For this purpose, ballast water treatment systems were developed and approved by an international procedure. These systems rely on established water treatment principles which, to different degrees, have been proven to generate disinfection by-products with hazardous properties but have only scarcely been investigated in marine environments. Our study evaluates the publicly available documentation about approved ballast water treatment systems with regard to by-product formation. The most commonly employed methods are chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chlorination systems generate trihalomethanes, halogenated acetic acids, and bromate in substantially larger quantities than reported for other areas of application. Levels are highest in brackish water, and brominated species predominate, in particular bromoform and dibromoacetic acid. Ozonation, which is less frequently utilized, produces bromoform in lower concentrations but forms higher levels of bromate, both of which were effectively reduced by active carbon treatment. In systems based on UV radiation, medium pressure lamps are employed as well as UV-induced advanced oxidation. For all UV systems, by-product formation is reported only occasionally. The most notable observations were small increases in nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, halogenated methanes and acetic acids. The assessment of by-product formation during ballast water treatment is limited by the lacking completeness and quality of available information. This concerns the extent and statistical characterisation of chemical analysis as well as the documentation of the test water parameters. PMID:22818950

  2. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  3. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  4. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  5. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  6. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  7. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  8. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  9. Chlorine dioxide as a treatment for ballast water to control invasive species: shipboard testing.

    PubMed

    Maranda, Lucie; Cox, Annie M; Campbell, Robert G; Smith, David C

    2013-10-15

    The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in eliminating organisms present in estuarine ballast water of a containership was determined under actual operating conditions by comparing the survival of planktonic communities present in waters of treated and control ballast tanks. Sampling was via ballast-tank hatches. The treatment (5 mg L(-1)ClO2 without pre-filtration) delivered by a prototype ClO2-generating system was generally effective against planktonic assemblages, although bacterial communities rebounded after a few days. Regardless of temperature, ClO2 was very effective against phytoplankton; the effect was immediate, without resurgence. Some zooplankters in the ≥ 50-μm fraction may survive the biocide, especially those able to find refuge within a protective coating (e.g., cysts, resting eggs, and shells) or in sediment. In order to boost efficacy, a pre-filtration step is recommended (now installed as standard equipment) to lower the intake of the ≥ 50-μm fraction and lessen the challenge posed by this size class. PMID:23987094

  10. Effects of temperature on type approval testing of ballast water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Drillet, Guillaume; Schmoker, Claire; Trottet, Aurore; Mahjoub, Mohamed-Sofiane; Duchemin, Matthieu; Andersen, Martin

    2013-04-01

    To limit the risk associated with invasion of habitats by exogenous species, the International Convention for the Control and Management of the Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments was adopted in February 2004 and may soon enter into force. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has produced guidelines to assess the efficacy and reliability of Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS), but no guidance on how to take temperature into account during test cycles has been provided yet. Temperature is one of the main factors influencing the distribution and ecology of organisms along latitudes. Its increase results in higher grazing, growth, and reproduction rates of zooplankton. Under dark conditions, phytoplankton loss is also increased due to faster natural decay as well as enhanced top down control from zooplankton. Increased temperatures also improve the efficacy of chemical treatment, whereas the decay rates of disinfectants and their byproducts are potentially accelerated. The IMO guidelines for the type approval of BWTS should be amended to include recommendations on how to take temperature into account. Failing to ensure comparability and reliability between tests may pose a threat to the environment and may create problems for those attempting to apply BWTS. We propose to use a fixed Q10 value and a temperature of reference to adjust the retention time in ballast water tanks during testing. PMID:23307338

  11. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

    2007-05-15

    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port. PMID:17547204

  12. Modeling tether-ballast asteroid diversion systems, including tether mass and elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David B.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    2014-10-01

    The risk of an impact between a large asteroid and the Earth has been significant enough to attract the attention of many researchers. This paper focuses on a mitigation technique that involves the use of a long tether and ballast mass to divert an asteroid. When such a tether is modeled as massless and inelastic, results show that the method may be viable for diverting asteroids away from a collision with the Earth; the next step towards demonstrating the viability of the approach is to conduct a study which uses a more realistic tether model. This paper presents such a study, in which the tether models include tether mass and elasticity. These models verify that a tether-ballast system is capable of diverting Earth-threatening asteroids. Detailed parametric studies are presented which illustrate how system performance depends on tether mass and elasticity. Also, case studies are presented which show how more realistic models can aid in the design of tether-ballast asteroid mitigation systems. Key findings include the dangers imposed by periods during which the tether goes slack and ways to preclude this.

  13. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

  14. Sample port design for ballast water sampling: Refinement of guidance regarding the isokinetic diameter.

    PubMed

    Wier, Timothy P; Moser, Cameron S; Grant, Jonathan F; First, Matthew R; Riley, Scott C; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Drake, Lisa A

    2015-09-15

    By using an appropriate in-line sampling system, it is possible to obtain representative samples of ballast water from the main ballast line. An important parameter of the sampling port is its "isokinetic diameter" (DISO), which is the diameter calculated to determine the velocity of water in the sample port relative to the velocity of the water in the main ballast line. The guidance in the U.S. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program protocol suggests increasing the diameter from 1.0× DISO (in which velocity in the sample port is equivalent to velocity in the main line) to 1.5-2.0× DISO. In this manner, flow velocity is slowed-and mortality of organisms is theoretically minimized-as water enters the sample port. This report describes field and laboratory trials, as well as computational fluid dynamics modeling, to refine this guidance. From this work, a DISO of 1.0-2.0× (smaller diameter sample ports) is recommended. PMID:26187400

  15. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  16. Partial 'Seminole' Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view from Spirit's panoramic camera is assembled from frames acquired on Martian days, or sols, 672 and 673 (Nov. 23 and 24, 2005) from the rover's position near an outcrop called 'Seminole.' The view is a southward-looking portion of a larger panorama still being completed. This is a false-color version to emphasize geological differences. It is a composite of images shot through three different filters, admitting light of wavelengths 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  17. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shin Giek; Liang, Liang; Kim, Yiseul; Rose, Joan B.; Yew-Hoong, Karina Gin

    2015-01-01

    Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members), while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp.) dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG) targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13–3.44 x 102 copies/mL), dfrA (0.77–1.80 x10 copies/mL) and cfr (2.00–5.21 copies/mL) genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05) between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  18. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  19. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  20. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  1. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Meng, X. Y.; Bai, M. D.; Tian, Y. P.; Jing, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h-1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml-1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml-1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  2. Inactivation of invasive marine species in the process of conveying ballast water using OH based on a strong ionization discharge.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mindong; Zheng, Qilin; Tian, Yiping; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Cao; Cheng, Chao; Meng, Xiangying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, invasive marine species in medium-salinity ballast water were inactivated using OH generated from a strong ionization discharge. The OH is determined by the concentration of oxygen active species combined with the effects of water jet cavitation. The results indicated that the OH concentration reached 7.62 μM, within 1 s, which is faster and higher than in conventional AOP methods. In a pilot-scale OH ballast water system with a capacity of 10 m(3)/h, algae were inactivated when CT value was 0.1 mg min/L with a contact time only 6 s. The viable and nonviable cells were determined using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain and Flow cytometry. As a result, the OH treatment could be completed during the process of conveying the ballast water. In addition, the concentrations of relevant disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, were less than that required by the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, which suggest that the discharged ballast water posed no risks to the oceanic environment. Nevertheless, for conventional ozonation and electrolysis methods, the ballast water should be treated only in the treated tanks during the ship's voyage and form higher level DBPs. PMID:27058879

  3. 39 CFR 952.18 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 952.18 Section 952.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.18 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall govern. However,...

  4. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  5. 39 CFR 952.19 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subpoenas. 952.19 Section 952.19 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.19 Subpoenas. (a) General. Upon written request of either party filed with the Recorder or on his or her own...

  6. 39 CFR 952.8 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Service. 952.8 Section 952.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.8 Service. (a) Where Respondent's mailing address is within the United States,...

  7. 39 CFR 952.25 - Exceptions to initial decision or tentative decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exceptions to initial decision or tentative decision. 952.25 Section 952.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.25 Exceptions to initial decision...

  8. 39 CFR 233.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil penalties. 233.12 Section 233.12 Postal... Civil penalties. False representation and lottery orders— (a) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3005, the... be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $11,000 for each...

  9. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  10. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS...)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. (a) No person may operate a...

  11. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS...)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. (a) No person may operate a...

  12. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS...)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. (a) No person may operate a...

  13. Phytoplankton and Bacterial Assemblages in Ballast Water of U.S. Military Ships as a Function of Port of Origin, Voyage Time, and Ocean Exchange Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We characterized the physical/chemical conditions and the algal and bacterial assemblages in ballast water from 62 ballast tanks aboard 28 ships operated by the U.S. Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration, sampled at 9 ports on the U.S. West Coast and 4 ports on the U.S. East Coast...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from discharging ballast water? 151.2037 Section 151.2037 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES,...

  15. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from discharging ballast water? 151.2037 Section 151.2037 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES,...

  16. Flocculation kinetics mechanism and floc formation prepared by poly aluminum chloride coupled with polyacrylamide for ship ballast water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhimin; Liu, Sha; Jia, Linan

    2016-01-01

    The performance of flocculants prepared by poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) on treating ballast water collected at the Dalian new port area, the evaluation depending on the values of reaction parameters, and kinetics mechanism of flocculation were investigated in this study. Accordingly, the flocculants of 0.1 g·L(-1), prepared by mixing PAC of 10% with PAM of 2.0‰, enabled the removal rate of zooplankton and phytoplankton to reach 91% in ballast water at 20 °C. Based on flocculation kinetics mechanism analysis, the efficient vortex size during stirring should be larger than the floc particles, and gradient of fluctuating velocity provide the impetus for turbulence flocculation. The results of this study could be relevant to understanding particle-floc interactions during developmental flocculation, and during application of ballast water treatment. PMID:27386983

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Instability of the Mechanical Equilibrium of a Four-Component Mixture with Ballast Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldabekova, M. S.; Asembaeva, M. K.; Akzholova, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The instability of the mechanical equilibrium of the diffusion mixing of a four-component mixture with ballast gases by the two-flask method was investigated experimentally. The main gases helium and methane were diluted with nitrous oxide and propane, respectively. An analysis of the evolution of the diffusion mixing of these gases with time has shown that, in the case where the diffusion proceeding in a system with a ballast gas is unstable, in it there arises circulation of the gas-diluent by the diffusion channel from one flask to the other of a diffusion apparatus. It was established that the circulation of the ballast gas by the diffusion channel makes it possible to sustain the unsteady multicomponent diffusion during a long time and, in so doing, to decelerate the change of this regime to the regime of stable mass transfer.

  18. New Mass Properties Engineers Aerospace Ballasting Challenge Facilitated by the SAWE Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutright, Amanda; Shaughnessy, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Mass Properties Engineering tends to find the engineers; not typically vice versa. In this case, two engineers quickly found their new responsibilities deep in many aspects of mass properties engineering and required to meet technical challenges in a fast paced environment. As part of NASA's Constellation Program, a series of flight tests will be conducted to evaluate components of the new spacecraft launch vehicles. One of these tests is the Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test which will test the Launch Abort System (LAS), a system designed to provide escape for astronauts in the event of an emergency. The Flight Test Articles (FTA) used in this flight test are required to match mass properties corresponding to the operational vehicle, which has a continually evolving design. Additionally, since the structure and subsystems for the Orion Crew Module (CM) FTA are simplified versions of the final product, thousands of pounds of ballast are necessary to achieve the desired mass properties. These new mass properties engineers are responsible for many mass properties aspects in support of the flight test, including meeting the ballasting challenge for the CM Boilerplate FTA. SAWE expert and experienced mass properties engineers, both those that are directly on the team and many that supported via a variety of Society venues, significantly contributed to facilitating the success of addressing this particular mass properties ballasting challenge, in addition to many other challenges along the way. This paper discusses the details regarding the technical aspects of this particular mass properties challenge, as well as identifies recommendations for new mass properties engineers that were learned from the SAWE community along the way.

  19. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized. PMID:26168359

  20. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    PubMed

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  1. Biodegradation of ballast tank coating investigated by impedance spectroscopy and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Heyer, A; D'Souza, F; Zhang, X; Ferrari, G; Mol, J M C; de Wit, J H W

    2014-02-01

    This research paper addresses the biodegradation process for ballast tank coatings in marine environments. As part of this new approach, a commercially available ballast tank coating was exposed to bacteria obtained from a culture collection and to a natural bacterial community isolated from a real ballast tank. The natural community was chosen to explore the interaction of natural biofilms with the coating, an aspect, which is not covered in standard procedures. It is shown that biological activity significantly affects the coating properties. Micro-cracks and holes have been identified using AFM. Acidic bacteria generated holes with 0.2-0.9 μm in depth and 4-9 μm in width. Whereas the natural community additionally caused cracks of 2-8 μm in depth and 1 μm in length. The overall effect of this degradation was examined using the EIS technique. However, the bacterial affected coatings (exposed to acid producing bacteria and a natural community) show a decrease in corrosion resistance. Impedance IZI values decreased over time from 1.18 × 10(9) to 1.87 × 10(7) Ω for acidic bacteria and from 1.71 × 10(9) to 2.24 × 10(7) Ω for the natural community, indicating a clear loss in coating resistance over time. It is also revealed that the coating corrosion resistance declines after 40 days of exposure for the natural community, leading to the formation of blisters. Bacterial settling could be linked to some specific biofilm patterns affecting different types of coating attack. It can be concluded that it is necessary to include natural communities in coating degradation studies to identify possible degradation mechanisms and the severity of the attack over time. PMID:23660751

  2. Incorporation of hydrophobized mineral particles in activated sludge flocs: a way to assess ballasting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Defontaine, G; Thormann, J; Lartiges, B S; El Samrani, A G; Barrs, O

    2005-01-01

    The role of mineral surface hydrophobicity in attachment to activated sludge flocs was investigated. Fluorite and quartz particles of similar granulometry were hydrophobized by adsorbing sodium oleate and dodecylamine chloride, respectively. Mineral hydrophobicity was assessed by flotation expriments. The attachment of particles to microbial flocs was determined by optical microscopy. The results indicate that hydrophobized particles are always better incorporated within activated sludge flocs than non-coated particles. A comparison with Aquatal particles used as sludge ballast reveals that hydrophobized minerals are associated with microbial flocs to the same extent. PMID:16459790

  3. Refurbishment of ballast water system of the gravity base structure - Beryl 'A'

    SciTech Connect

    Seume, K.; Gilchrist, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Beryl Alpha Gravity Base Platform has operated satisfactorily for the past 11 years and is expected to stay in operation until the year 2017. The Ballast Water System is a vital part of the platform's oil storage and export equipment. In 1986, during routine pipe inspections in the lower part of the utility shaft, significant defects were discovered which resulted in major refurbishment work. Innovative designs and working procedures were employed for replacement and reinforced grout encasement of line pipe sections. This paper details the important aspects of this refurbishment work.

  4. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements of fluorescent lamps operated with solid-state ballasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, A.; Verderber, R.; Rubinstein, F.; Morse, O.

    1981-05-01

    Solid state ballasts were placed in fluorescent lamps in various areas of a hospital to determine if these high frequency systems would adversely any hospital operations. The general areas tested included a lobby and an office space. Potentially sensitive areas containing hospital diagnostic and monitoring equipment, including a computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanning room, an electroencephatograph (EEG) examination room, and a coronary ward were also tested. The measurement techniques are described and the results discussed with respect to the existing RFI environment and with respect to EMI radiated and conducted limits specified by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Drug Administration.

  5. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  6. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  7. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  8. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  9. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  10. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1910.1029 Section 1910.1029 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1029 Coke oven emissions. (a) Scope...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.252 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements. 1910.252 Section 1910.252 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.252 General requirements. (a) Fire prevention and...

  13. 29 CFR 825.115 - Continuing treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuing treatment. 825.115 Section 825.115 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.115 Continuing treatment. A serious health condition...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1051 - 1,3-Butadiene. =

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3-Butadiene. = 1910.1051 Section 1910.1051 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1051 1,3-Butadiene.= (a) Scope and...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.12 - Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950. 1926.12 Section 1926.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Interpretations § 1926.12 Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950....

  17. 29 CFR 34.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 34.2 Section 34.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Administrative Law Judge...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1910.1003 Section 1910.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1003 13 Carcinogens...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1044 - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. 1910.1044 Section 1910.1044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1044...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1150 - Substituted polyglycidyl ben-zena-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted polyglycidyl ben-zena-mine. 721.1150 Section 721.1150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1150...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1910.1017 Section 1910.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1017 Vinyl chloride. (a) Scope and...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1910.1026 Section 1910.1026 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This...

  4. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 104 - Analysis of Final Regulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analysis of Final Regulation A Appendix A to Part 104 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Pt. 104, App. A Appendix...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1910.1018 Section 1910.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1018 Inorganic arsenic. (a) Scope...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 169a - Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas A Appendix A to Part 169a National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Pt. 169a, App. A Appendix A to Part 169a—Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas This list...

  7. 40 CFR 131.34 - Kansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kansas. 131.34 Section 131.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.34 Kansas. (a) In addition to the State-adopted use designations, the following water...

  8. 40 CFR Table 13 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 13 Table 13 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  9. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 12 Table 12 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  10. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) 11 Table 11 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  11. 40 CFR 60.7 - Notification and record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification and record keeping. 60.7 Section 60.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.7 Notification and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.266 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.266 Section 60.266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Production Facilities § 60.266 Test methods and procedures. (a) During any performance test required in §...

  13. 40 CFR 53.32 - Test procedures for methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedures for methods for SO2, CO... for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2. (a) Comparability. Comparability is shown for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 methods.... (4) A 1-hour measurement consists of the integral of the instantaneous concentration over a...

  14. 40 CFR 60.611 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 60.611 Section 60.611... From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Air Oxidation Unit Processes § 60... in the Act and in subpart A of part 60, and the following terms shall have the specific...

  15. 40 CFR 60.17 - Incorporations by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....17, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incorporations by reference. 60.17 Section 60.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A-5 to Part 60 - Test Methods 11 through 15A

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 11 through 15A A Appendix A-5 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-5 Appendix A-5 to Part 60—Test Methods 11 through 15A...

  17. 40 CFR 60.257 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test. CO performance tests are conducted concurrently (or within a 60-minute period) with NOX... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.257 Section 60.257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  18. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... covered under another 40 CFR Part 60 subpart must meet the applicable requirements in that subpart but are... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for thermal dryers. 60.252 Section 60.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A-7 to Part 60 - Test Methods 19 through 25E

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 19 through 25E A Appendix A-7 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-7 Appendix A-7 to Part 60—Test Methods 19 through 25E...

  1. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The CO CEMS must be installed, certified, maintained, and operated according to the provisions in § 60... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions and fuel monitoring. 60.45 Section 60.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  2. 40 CFR 60.51c - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 60.51c Section 60.51c... Incinerators for Which Construction is Commenced After June 20, 1996 § 60.51c Definitions. Bag leak detection... the purpose of stopping or reversing the growth of malignant cells. Co-fired combustor means a...

  3. 40 CFR 60.701 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 60.701 Section 60.701... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Reactor Processes § 60.701 Definitions. As used in... of part 60, and the following terms shall have the specific meanings given them. Batch...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A-8 to Part 60 - Test Methods 26 through 30B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 26 through 30B A Appendix A-8 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-8 Appendix A-8 to Part 60—Test Methods 26 through 30B...

  5. 40 CFR 60.102a - Emissions limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exempted from the requirement for a CO continuous emissions monitoring system under § 60.105a(h)(3) shall... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions limitations. 60.102a Section 60.102a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  6. 40 CFR 60.661 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 60.661 Section 60.661... From Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Distillation Operations § 60.661... and in subpart A of part 60, and the following terms shall have the specific meanings given...

  7. 40 CFR Table 40 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Opacity Monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems and Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems 40 Table 40 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

  8. 36 CFR 60.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 60.3 Section 60... REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES § 60.3 Definitions. (a) Building. A building is a structure created to shelter... Molly Brown House (Denver, CO) Meek Mansion and Carriage House (Hayward, CA) Huron County Courthouse...

  9. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  10. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Uuu of... - Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 8 Table 8 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  11. 40 CFR 60.32e - Designated facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... co-fired combustor (defined in § 60.51c) is not subject to this subpart if the owner or operator of... and the implementing regulations under 40 CFR part 70 in the State in which the unit is located... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated facilities. 60.32e...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... brake HP located at a major source that are meeting the requirements of 40 CFR part 63, subpart ZZZZ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3 - Units and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 60.3 Section 60.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.3 Units and abbreviations....

  14. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 10 Table 10 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  16. 40 CFR 421.235 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 421.235 Section 421.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.235...

  17. 40 CFR 421.317 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 421.317 Section 421.317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.317...

  18. 40 CFR 421.237 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 421.237 Section 421.237 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.237...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide. (PMN P-02-90) is subject to reporting under this section for...