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Sample records for 2012-07-01 false ballast

  1. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  2. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  3. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  4. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  5. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  6. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  7. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  8. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  9. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  10. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean ballast may not be discharged overboard unless the discharge is verified as clean ballast through use...

  11. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2 and that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141... laws or regulations. Ballast water carried in any tank containing a residue of oil, NLSs, or any other... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water...

  12. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  13. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  14. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  15. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Segregated ballast tanks and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions. 151.1515 Section 151.1515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2040 - Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances. 151.2040 Section 151.2040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE,...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE,...

  1. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  2. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. 155.350 Section 155.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL...

  3. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new oceangoing oil tankers of 150 gross tons and above. 155.440 Section 155.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a reservist or any other person who submits false...

  6. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a veteran or servicemember or any other person...

  7. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740...

  8. 29 CFR 1602.33 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government Information Report § 1602.33 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. The making of willfully false statements on report EEO-4, is a violation of the United States Code, title 18... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on...

  9. 29 CFR 1602.51 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. 1602.51 Section 1602.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... Information Report EEO-6 § 1602.51 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. The making...

  10. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 46 CFR 170.235 - Fixed ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed ballast. 170.235 Section 170.235 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Special Installations § 170.235 Fixed ballast. (a) Fixed ballast, if used, must... shifting of position. (b) Fixed ballast may not be removed from a vessel or relocated unless approved...

  12. 46 CFR 170.235 - Fixed ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed ballast. 170.235 Section 170.235 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Special Installations § 170.235 Fixed ballast. (a) Fixed ballast, if used, must... shifting of position. (b) Fixed ballast may not be removed from a vessel or relocated unless approved...

  13. 46 CFR 170.235 - Fixed ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed ballast. 170.235 Section 170.235 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Special Installations § 170.235 Fixed ballast. (a) Fixed ballast, if used, must... shifting of position. (b) Fixed ballast may not be removed from a vessel or relocated unless approved...

  14. 46 CFR 170.235 - Fixed ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed ballast. 170.235 Section 170.235 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Special Installations § 170.235 Fixed ballast. (a) Fixed ballast, if used, must... shifting of position. (b) Fixed ballast may not be removed from a vessel or relocated unless approved...

  15. 46 CFR 170.235 - Fixed ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed ballast. 170.235 Section 170.235 Shipping COAST... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Special Installations § 170.235 Fixed ballast. (a) Fixed ballast, if used, must... shifting of position. (b) Fixed ballast may not be removed from a vessel or relocated unless approved...

  16. 46 CFR 182.540 - Ballast systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 182.540 Section 182.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.540 Ballast systems. (a) Ballast piping must not be installed in any compartment integral...

  17. 14 CFR 27.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removable ballast. 27.31 Section 27.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  18. 14 CFR 27.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removable ballast. 27.31 Section 27.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  19. 14 CFR 29.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removable ballast. 29.31 Section 29.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  20. 14 CFR 29.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removable ballast. 29.31 Section 29.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  2. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  3. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  4. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  5. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  6. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  7. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  9. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... achieve a significant improvement in ballast water treatment efficacy could be practicably implemented... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  10. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... achieve a significant improvement in ballast water treatment efficacy could be practicably implemented... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  11. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  12. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix to Subpart D of... - Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form Appendix to Subpart D of Part 151 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  14. 33 CFR Appendix to Subpart D of... - Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form Appendix to Subpart D of Part 151 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  15. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  16. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  17. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1502 - Fixed ballast relocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed ballast relocation. 153.1502 Section 153.1502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS....1502 Fixed ballast relocation. No person may remove or relocate fixed ballast unless: (a) The change...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1502 - Fixed ballast relocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed ballast relocation. 153.1502 Section 153.1502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS....1502 Fixed ballast relocation. No person may remove or relocate fixed ballast unless: (a) The change...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1502 - Fixed ballast relocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed ballast relocation. 153.1502 Section 153.1502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS....1502 Fixed ballast relocation. No person may remove or relocate fixed ballast unless: (a) The change...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1502 - Fixed ballast relocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed ballast relocation. 153.1502 Section 153.1502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS....1502 Fixed ballast relocation. No person may remove or relocate fixed ballast unless: (a) The change...

  2. 46 CFR 153.1502 - Fixed ballast relocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed ballast relocation. 153.1502 Section 153.1502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS....1502 Fixed ballast relocation. No person may remove or relocate fixed ballast unless: (a) The change...

  3. 49 CFR 213.334 - Ballast; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ballast; general. 213.334 Section 213.334 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.334 Ballast; general. Unless it is...

  4. 49 CFR 213.103 - Ballast; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ballast; general. 213.103 Section 213.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.103 Ballast; general. Unless it is otherwise structurally supported, all...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1515 Ballast water management alternatives...

  6. 33 CFR 151.2040 - Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge of ballast water in..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2040 Discharge of ballast water in...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1515 Ballast water management alternatives...

  8. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  11. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  12. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  13. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  14. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  15. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  16. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  17. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  18. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  19. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  20. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  1. 33 CFR 151.2015 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions. 151.2015 Section 151.2015 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States §...

  2. 33 CFR 151.03 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 151.03 Section 151.03 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  3. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Oil Pollution... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1000 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 151.1000 Section 151.1000 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1021 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeals. 151.1021 Section 151.1021 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST...

  6. 33 CFR 151.26 - Shipboard oil pollution emergency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipboard oil pollution emergency... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1500 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 151.1500 Section 151.1500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  9. 33 CFR 157.222 - Pump and piping arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section of discharge piping. Note: An example of a sample point is shown in 46 CFR Figure 162.050-17(e). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pump and piping arrangements. 157... OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.222 Pump...

  10. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  11. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  12. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... ballast and putting the ballast in standby mode. Active mode means the condition in which an...

  13. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... ballast and putting the ballast in standby mode. Active mode means the condition in which an...

  14. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... ballast and putting the ballast in standby mode. Active mode means the condition in which an...

  15. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 431.322 Section 431.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... ballast and putting the ballast in standby mode. Active mode means the condition in which an...

  16. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  17. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  18. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  19. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  20. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  1. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  2. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  3. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  4. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  5. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  6. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements...

  7. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks. An access opening to an enclosed space or a dedicated ballast tank must meet the requirements...

  8. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  9. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  10. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  11. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  12. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  13. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  14. 46 CFR 162.060-14 - Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-14 Information requirements for the ballast... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application. 162.060-14 Section 162.060-14 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  16. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  17. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2 and that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141... laws or regulations. Ballast water carried in any tank containing a residue of oil, NLSs, or any other... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water...

  18. 10 CFR 429.26 - Fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluorescent lamp ballasts. 429.26 Section 429.26 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.26 Fluorescent lamp ballasts. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to fluorescent lamp...

  19. 10 CFR 429.26 - Fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluorescent lamp ballasts. 429.26 Section 429.26 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.26 Fluorescent lamp ballasts. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to fluorescent lamp...

  20. 10 CFR 429.26 - Fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluorescent lamp ballasts. 429.26 Section 429.26 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.26 Fluorescent lamp ballasts. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to fluorescent lamp...

  1. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000 DWT or more. 157.10a Section 157.10a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR...

  4. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  5. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., 1980 must, if segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks are not required under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., 1980 must, if segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks are not required under §...

  7. First PCBs, now DEHP ballasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    Half of all non-PCB fluorescent light ballasts contain a toxic chemical called di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). DEHP is listed as a hazardous substance under EPA`s Superfund regulations. Organizations discarding light ballasts should take the same precautions with their DEHP ballasts as they do with their PCB ballasts to avoid potential clean up liability. The best way to dispose of both types of ballasts is through combined incineration of the toxic materials and recycling of the metals contained within the ballasts.

  8. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean ballast may not be discharged overboard unless the discharge is verified as clean ballast through use...

  9. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  10. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean ballast may not be discharged overboard unless the discharge is verified as clean ballast through use...

  11. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean ballast may not be discharged overboard unless the discharge is verified as clean ballast through use...

  12. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  13. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  14. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean ballast may not be discharged overboard unless the discharge is verified as clean ballast through use...

  15. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  16. Walking on ballast impacts balance.

    PubMed

    Wade, Chip; Garner, John C; Redfern, Mark S; Andres, Robert O

    2014-01-01

    Railroad workers often perform daily work activities on irregular surfaces, specifically on ballast rock. Previous research and injury epidemiology have suggested a relationship between working on irregular surfaces and postural instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of walking on ballast for an extended duration on standing balance. A total of 16 healthy adult males walked on a 7.62 m × 4.57 m (25 ft × 15 ft) walking surface of no ballast (NB) or covered with ballast (B) of an average rock size of about 1 inch for 4 h. Balance was evaluated using dynamic posturography with the NeuroCom(®) Equitest System(™) prior to experiencing the NB or B surface and again every 30 min during the 4 h of ballast exposure. Dependent variables were the sway velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) sway components in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in RMS and sway velocity between ballast surface conditions and across exposure times. Overall, the ballast surface condition induced greater sway in all of the dynamic posturography conditions. Walking on irregular surfaces for extended durations has a deleterious effect on balance compared to walking on a surface without ballast. These findings of changes in balance during ballast exposure suggest that working on an irregular surface may impact postural control. PMID:24354716

  17. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). 162.060-16 Section 162.060-16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes...

  18. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  19. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  20. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  1. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). 162.060-16 Section 162.060-16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes...

  2. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). 162.060-16 Section 162.060-16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes...

  3. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  4. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  5. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  6. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  7. 46 CFR 167.20-35 - Liquid ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 1011), except through oily water separators which meet the requirements in 33 CFR 155.330 through 155... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid ballast. 167.20-35 Section 167.20-35 Shipping... Hull Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-35 Liquid...

  8. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  9. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  10. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables..., overflow tube and sounding tube that serves a dedicated ballast tank and that is located within a...

  11. 46 CFR 178.510 - Ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that prevents shifting of the ballast; and (2) Installed to the satisfaction of the cognizant OCMI. (b... repair if it is replaced to the satisfaction of the OCMI. (d) Water ballast, either as an active...

  12. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  13. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregated ballast tanks and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Segregated ballast tanks and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Segregated ballast tanks and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Test Procedures § 431.324...

  17. Ballast Blockade: Stopping Aquatic Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Presents students with six ballast water treatment methods to evaluate. Allows students to acquaint themselves with current Great Lakes topics while simultaneously partaking in decision-making processes that could affect them. Emphasizes not only an important environmental issue for the Great Lakes, but also the importance of decision-making…

  18. Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

  19. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

  20. Statistical considerations in estimating organism concentrations in ballast water discharges

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling probabilities may affect the practical use of different ballast water performance standards which establish the acceptable concentration of organisms in ballast discharges. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has initiated a ballast water standard of <10 viabl...

  1. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  2. 33 CFR 157.09 - Segregated ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... ballast water in cargo tanks during the condition described in § 157.35. (d) Segregated ballast spaces, voids, and other noncargo-carrying spaces for a vessel of conventional form must be distributed: (1)...

  3. 33 CFR 157.09 - Segregated ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... ballast water in cargo tanks during the condition described in § 157.35. (d) Segregated ballast spaces, voids, and other noncargo-carrying spaces for a vessel of conventional form must be distributed: (1)...

  4. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from discharging ballast water? 151.2037 Section 151.2037 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  5. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from discharging ballast water? 151.2037 Section 151.2037 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  6. 33 CFR 151.2041 - What are the mandatory ballast water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast tanks bound for ports or places of..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2041 What are the mandatory ballast water...

  7. 33 CFR 151.2041 - What are the mandatory ballast water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast tanks bound for ports or places of..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2041 What are the mandatory ballast water...

  8. Ballast water research at the WFRC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aquatic species are considered to be one of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, coastal economies, and even human health. Ballast water is a primary vector for these bioinvasions. One method of reducing risk of ballast water introductions is mid-ocean exchange of marine ballast water. However, it is widely recognized that this practice has many limitations, including serious ship safety concerns and variable biological effectiveness. International agencies and federal, state and local governments are attempting to tackle the problem by recommending or mandating the installation of ballast water treatment systems. The WFRC is working with others to develop new technologies to detect, prevent, and control aquatic invasive species impacts in Puget Sound and the Pacific Northwest.

  9. High voltage compliance constant current ballast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A ballast circuit employing a constant current diode and a vacuum tube that can provide a constant current over a voltage range of 1000 volts. The simple circuit can prove useful in studying voltage breakdown characteristics.

  10. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks.

    PubMed

    Flagella, Maria Monia; Verlaque, Marc; Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina

    2007-09-01

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 degrees C, 12:12h LD, 60micromol photons m(-2)s(-1)). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

  11. 10 CFR 429.54 - Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 429.54 Section 429.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR... and fixtures. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of §...

  12. 10 CFR 429.54 - Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 429.54 Section 429.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR... and fixtures. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of §...

  13. 10 CFR 429.54 - Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures. 429.54 Section 429.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR... and fixtures. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of §...

  14. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  15. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  16. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  17. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  18. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE,...

  20. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE,...

  2. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  4. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions. 151.1514 Section 151.1514 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  6. IBECS network/ballast interface: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Pete

    2001-11-15

    This report describes the work performed to design, develop, and demonstrate an IBECS network/ballast interface that is useful for economically dimming controllable ballasts in commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the network/ballast interface. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept circuit and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we describe the lessons learned from the first demonstration of the network/ballast interface at an office at LBNL. The fourth section describes how electrical noise interference encountered with the first generation of interface led to design changes for a refined prototype that hardened the interface from electrical noise generated by the ballast. The final section of the report discusses the performance of refined prototype after we replaced the proof-of-concept prototype with the refined prototypes in the demonstration office at LBNL.

  7. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  8. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  9. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  10. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... section; or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that have a total capacity to meet the draft and...

  11. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... section; or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that have a total capacity to meet the draft and...

  12. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international laws or regulations. Ballast water carried in any tank containing a residue of oil, NLS, or any... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of the... CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  13. Limiting invasive species in ballast water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-06-01

    Ballast water is often intentionally loaded onto cargo ships and other vessels to provide weight necessary for safe maneuvering. However, this practice can unintentionally transport exotic organisms to parts of the world where populations of these organisms can establish themselves in new habitats as invasive and environmentally and economically disruptive species. Each year, an estimated 196 million metric tons of ballast water are discharged into U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes alone from an average of more than 90,000 visits of commercial ships greater than 300 metric tons, according to a 2 June report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies.

  14. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June 1... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10b Segregated ballast...

  15. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June 1... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10b Segregated ballast...

  16. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June 1... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10b Segregated ballast...

  17. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  18. Ballast water control - The Canadian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    This article is a review of Canadian practices and regulations concerning the discharge of ballast water from ocean-going vessels. This has been identified as a major factor in the transfer of nuisance aquatic species from one area of the world to another. The basis for Canadian policy is reviewed and the policies are outlined. On-going and future efforts are noted.

  19. 46 CFR 153.208 - Ballast equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) That allows liquid to flow only towards that ballast tank (such as a check valve); and (3) That enables a person to shut off the fill line from the weatherdeck (such as a stop valve). (c) Except as... cargo tank may enter an engine room or accommodation space if the piping has a valve or...

  20. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  1. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water.

  2. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  3. Flushing of passive contaminants through ship ballast tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhixin; Eames, Ian; Greig, Alistair; Eames Research Group Team

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water is taken up in ports and carried by ships to maintain balance, trim, and structural integrity. Since the volume of ballast water taken up is significant, it is likely that aquatic species are taken into the tank and transported to another ecosystem. To prevent damage to ecosystems, the International Maritime Organization's Ballast Water Management Convention requires that ballast water tanks must be pumped through with at least three volumes, less is permissible if it can be demonstrated that at least a 95% of initial water is exchanged. The purpose of this talk is to examine how the exchange process depends on the geometrical complexity of the ballast tank and the density contrast between the initial ballast water and the water used for flushing. These physical processes are studied using a new mathematical model to describe flushing of contaminants from a ballast tank based on models of transport in multiroom buildings. A series of laboratory tests were undertaken using an acrylic model of a 2 to 20 compartmented ballast tank to examine the flushing of a dye from each compartment. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is good. These results are finally discussed in the context of international regulations for flushing ballast tanks.

  4. Inflence of fouling on the dielectric constant of railway ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontul, Simona; de Chiara, Francesca; Fortunato, Eduardo; Rui, Burrinha

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the level of ballast fouling for Portugal aggregates and the influence of antenna frequency on its measurement several laboratory tests were performed on different materials. Initially the clean granitic ballast was tested in different water content conditions, from dry to soaked in order to see the influence of water on the dielectric characteristics. The fouling of the ballast was reproduced in laboratory through mixing the ballast with soil, mainly fine particles, in order to simulate the fouling existing in several old lines in Portugal, where the ballast was placed over the soil without any sub ballast layer. The soil was also tested for different water contents to register the evolution of its dielectric constant. Five different fouling levels were reproduced and tested in laboratory, with different water contents, four for each contamination level. Tests were performed with IDS 400 MHz antenna in two different test positions. The water content was evaluated with nuclear gauge, after each GPR test. In situ test pits were then made, in existing railways with ballast in different condition from recently renewed to significantly fouled ballast. The results were used to validate the values of the dielectric constants obtained in laboratory. The main results obtained are presented in this paper together with troubleshooting associated to measurement on fouling ballast. This abstract is of interest for COST Action TU1208.

  5. Continuous flushing of contaminants from ballast water tanks.

    PubMed

    Eames, I; Landeryou, M; Greig, A; Snellings, J

    2008-02-01

    The transport of non-indigenous species (NIS) with ship ballast water is a major environmental problem. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have recommended that ballast tanks are flushed through with sea water to remove NIS contaminants. The flushing efficiency is studied using mathematical models and a scaled experimental model of a ballast tank. The density contrast between the ballast water and water used for flushing is important when the Froude number Fr(w)=U(w)/sqr rt|g(')|H < 1 (defined in terms of average horizontal flow U(w), reduced buoyancy g', and H the vertical dimension in the tank). When denser water is used to flush a ballast tank, from below, it efficiently displaces lighter ballast water; but flushing through with light water creates a buoyant gravity current which effectively short circuits part of the tank. When Fr(w)>1, the density contrast between the ballast water and water used for flushing is not important and flushing is controlled by a bulk Péclet number, Pe(w). For Pe(w)<1 perfect mixing occurs, while for Pe(w)>1 displacement flushing occurs. Laboratory experiments of flushing were performed using a model two-dimensional ballast tank employing dye attenuation to measure the whole concentration field and these experiments confirm the essential features of the mathematical models. The results of this study are discussed in the context of current IMO flushing protocols. PMID:18086479

  6. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a... safely taken onboard at one time. The master of the vessel is responsible for ensuring the safety of the vessel, crew, and passengers. Vessels reporting only residual ballast water onboard shall take...

  7. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a... safely taken onboard at one time. The master of the vessel is responsible for ensuring the safety of the vessel, crew, and passengers. Vessels reporting only residual ballast water onboard shall take...

  8. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... information. 157.23 Section 157.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and...

  9. Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leishman, D.L.

    1996-05-01

    All around the world, governments, utility companies, and private businesses are attempting to reduce the amount of energy consumed. In the United States alone, new economic strategies and programs are being created to facilitate this process. For instance, the recent enactment of the National Energy Policy Act, the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Green Lights Program, and a surge of utility involvement in Demand Side Management (DSM) Commercial/Industrial Direct Install and Rebate Programs. Many of these programs target Commercial/Industrial lighting system retrofits as one of the most cost effective avenues for reducing the consumption of energy. Due to this trend, hundreds of millions of lighting ballasts and lamps are being pulled out of existing buildings and discarded. The benefits of these programs result in enormous reductions in fossil fuels (and subsequent carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions) required to generate the displaced electricity. Throughout the United States, however, there is an increasing concern for the environmental impacts surrounding the accelerated disposal of both lighting ballasts and lamps. Regulations initially established were for a {open_quotes}one by one,{close_quotes} retirement (failure) process rather than promoted obsolescence and forced retirement of lamp groups or entire systems (truckloads of old technologies). Recognizing this trend and the potential negative environmental effects federal state, and local regulators are in the process of reevaluating the impacts and are being asked to promulgate policies to specifically address this situation. While it is anticipated that regulations pertaining to PCB ballasts will become better focused, the regulations regarding fluorescent lamps are, really, yet to be finalized. As interested and involved parties continue to become more aware of all the impacts, we can expect clearer direction.

  10. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tanks with a total capacity to meet the draft and trim requirements in paragraph (d) of this section; or... ballast tanks with a total capacity to meet the draft and trim requirements in paragraph (d) of this section; or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that have a total capacity to meet the draft and...

  11. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  12. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the United States, the master, owner, operator, agent, or person in charge of a vessel subject to § 151.1510 of...

  13. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  14. Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leishman, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    All around the world, governments, utility companies, and private businesses are attempting to reduce the amount of energy consumed. In the US alone, new economic strategies and programs are being created to facilitate this process. For instance, the recent enactment of the National Energy Policy Act, the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Green Lights Program, and a surge of utility involvement in Demand Side Management (DSM) Commercial/Industrial Direct Install and Rebate Programs. Many of these problems target commercial/industrial lighting system retrofits as one of the most cost effective avenues for reducing the consumption of energy. Due to this trend, hundreds of millions of lighting ballasts and lamps are being discarded. The benefits of these programs result in enormous reductions in fossil fuels (and subsequent carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions) required to generate the displaced electricity. Throughout the US, however, there is an increasing concern for the environmental impacts surrounding the accelerated disposal of both lighting ballasts and lamps. Regulations initially established were for a one by one, retirement (failure) process rather than promoted obsolescence and forced retirement of lamp groups or entire systems (truckloads of old technologies). Recognizing this trend and the potential negative environmental effects, federal, state, and local regulators are reevaluating the impacts and are being asked to promulgate policies to specifically address this situation.

  15. Electronic ballasts: Developments in the U.S. market

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.J.; Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.; Lovins, A.B.; Kiernan, P.

    1992-12-31

    Sales of electronic fluorescent ballasts are soaring as manufacturers continue to introduce better-performing models. Improvements include higher power factor, lower harmonic distortion, better reliability, four-lamp capability, and applicability to a wider variety of lamps. However, the juiciest plum -- a modestly priced, highly reliable, high-power-quality, continuously dimming ballast -- is still awaited. Manufacturers are addressing reported problems with batch failures, power quality, and unpredictable equipment incompatibilities, but are having difficulty keeping up with growing demand. Back orders of several months are common. This update summarizes technical data on current offerings and describes recent developments in making electronic ballasts.

  16. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the ballast water information section of the St. Lawrence Seaway required “Pre-entry Information... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), volume(s) and temperature(s) (If a tank has been exchanged, list the loading port of the ballast water... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless...

  18. Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    In anticipation of the need to address performance verification and subsequent approval of new and innovative ballast water treatment technologies for shipboard installation, the U.S Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency‘s Environmental Technology Verification Progr...

  19. 4. AN IMAGE, LOOKING NORTH WEST, OF THE TRACK, BALLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AN IMAGE, LOOKING NORTH WEST, OF THE TRACK, BALLAST AND CONCRETE BALUSTRADES, SHOWING HOW THE BRIDGE WAS DESIGNED TO TAKE TWO SETS OF TRACK. - Vandalia Railroad Bridge, Spanning U.S. Route 40, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  20. Implications of heterogeneous distributions of organisms on ballast water sampling.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2015-02-15

    Ballast water sampling is one of the problems still needing investigation in order to enforce the D-2 Regulation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship Ballast Water and Sediments. Although statistical "representativeness" of the sample is an issue usually discussed in the literature, neither a definition nor a clear description of its implications are presented. In this context, we relate it to the heterogeneity of the distribution of organisms in ballast water and show how to specify compliance tests under different models based on the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. We provide algorithms to obtain minimum sample volumes required to satisfy fixed limits on the probabilities of Type I and II errors. We show that when the sample consists of a large number of aliquots, the Poisson model may be employed even under moderate heterogeneity of the distribution of the organisms in the ballast water tank. PMID:25510550

  1. Compatibility testing of fluorescent lamp and ballast systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Y.; Davis, R.; O'Rourke, C.; Chui, E.W.M.

    1999-12-01

    The rapid growth in the use of electronic ballasts for fluorescent lighting systems, and the corresponding increase in the number of new products and new manufacturers in the market, has raised a number of questions regarding the compatibility of the lamps and ballasts used in fluorescent systems. Because many of the new products start and operate lamps differently than previous products, the relevant American National Standards Institute requirements may no longer be adequate for addressing compatibility concerns. The impacts on system performance of the newer products of a parametric study designed to test key hypotheses regarding the impact of ballast parameters on fluorescent lamp life. In this study, samples of 4-ft T8 fluorescent lamps were operated on duty cycles of 5 min on and 5 min off, using seven different ballast types. The results of the study indicate which parameters seem to have the biggest effect on lamp life, and can be used in establishing new performance standards for fluorescent systems.

  2. Density matters: Approaches to settling ballast water discharge concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consensus has evolved that invasion risk increases with propagule pressure. However, translating this general principal into ecologically “acceptable” concentrations of organisms in ballast water has proven challenging. The treaty being promulgated by the International Maritime...

  3. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, William Newell; Thomas, Robert James

    1999-01-01

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast.

  4. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  5. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation in ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Martina; Kompare, Boris; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2015-05-01

    Ballast water is, together with hull fouling and aquaculture, considered the most important factor of the worldwide transfer of invasive non-indigenous organisms in aquatic ecosystems and the most important factor in European Union. With the aim of preventing and halting the spread of the transfer of invasive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and also in accordance with IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, the systems for ballast water treatment, whose work includes, e.g. chemical treatment, ozonation and filtration, are used. Although hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is used in many different areas, such as science and engineering, implied acoustics, biomedicine, botany, chemistry and hydraulics, the application of HC in ballast water treatment area remains insufficiently researched. This paper presents the first literature review that studies lab- and large-scale setups for ballast water treatment together with the type-approved systems currently available on the market that use HC as a step in their operation. This paper deals with the possible advantages and disadvantages of such systems, as well as their influence on the crew and marine environment. It also analyses perspectives on the further development and application of HC in ballast water treatment.

  6. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... international laws or regulations. Ballast water carried in any tank containing a residue of oil, NLS, or any... the provisions of 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii). Section 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii) requires a...

  7. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must meet current standards in 46 CFR part 162, subpart 162.050 by the date set forth in paragraphs (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400...

  8. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must meet current standards in 46 CFR part 162, subpart 162.050 by the date set forth in paragraphs (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400...

  9. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must meet current standards in 46 CFR part 162, subpart 162.050 by the date set forth in paragraphs (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400...

  10. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  11. Potential microbial bioinvasions via ships' ballast water, sediment, and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa A; Doblin, Martina A; Dobbs, Fred C

    2007-01-01

    A prominent vector of aquatic invasive species to coastal regions is the discharge of water, sediments, and biofilm from ships' ballast-water tanks. During eight years of studying ships arriving to the lower Chesapeake Bay, we developed an understanding of the mechanisms by which invasive microorganisms might arrive to the region via ships. Within a given ship, habitats included ballast water, unpumpable water and sediment (collectively known as residuals), and biofilms formed on internal surfaces of ballast-water tanks. We sampled 69 vessels arriving from foreign and domestic ports, largely from Western Europe, the Mediterranean region, and the US East and Gulf coasts. All habitats contained bacteria and viruses. By extrapolating the measured concentration of a microbial metric to the estimated volume of ballast water, biofilm, or residual sediment and water within an average vessel, we calculated the potential total number of microorganisms contained by each habitat, thus creating a hierarchy of risk of delivery. The estimated concentration of microorganisms was greatest in ballast water>sediment and water residuals>biofilms. From these results, it is clear microorganisms may be transported within ships in a variety of ways. Using temperature tolerance as a measure of survivability and the temperature difference between ballast-water samples and the water into which the ballast water was discharged, we estimated 56% of microorganisms could survive in the lower Bay. Extrapolated delivery and survival of microorganisms to the Port of Hampton Roads in lower Chesapeake Bay shows on the order of 10(20) microorganisms (6.8 x 10(19) viruses and 3.9 x 10(18) bacteria cells) are discharged annually to the region.

  12. 40 CFR 113.5 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusions. 113.5 Section 113.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS LIABILITY LIMITS FOR... capacity. (b) Vehicles and rolling stock....

  13. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false X Appendix X to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendix X to Part 268...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false V Appendix V to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendix V to Part 268...

  15. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 52.281 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Haze Rule in 40 CFR 51.308. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.281 Section 52.281 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  18. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  19. 40 CFR 62.2155 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of plan-negative... Identification of plan—negative declaration. Letter from the District of Columbia Department of Health... CFR part 60, subpart DDDD....

  20. 30 CFR 75.1708-1 - Surface structures; fireproof construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface structures; fireproof construction. 75... Surface structures; fireproof construction. Structures of fireproof construction is interpreted to mean structures with fireproof exterior surfaces....

  1. 33 CFR 55.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 55.1 Section 55.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT... Child Development Services....

  2. 40 CFR 1508.24 - Referring agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referring agency. 1508.24 Section 1508.24 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.24... or environmental quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a... of the plan. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14580 - What is a waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eliminate toxic emissions from incinerated waste. ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a waste management plan? 62... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That...

  7. 40 CFR 799.19 - Chemical imports and exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR part 707. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical imports and exports. 799.19... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING...

  8. 28 CFR 804.5 - Audit and public inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 CFR part 802). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit and public inspection. 804.5 Section 804.5 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT...

  9. 40 CFR 501.18 - Prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... writing under 40 CFR 123.44. ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition. 501.18 Section 501.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2852 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2852 Section 147.2852 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Pacific Islands § 147.2852 Aquifer exemptions....

  11. 40 CFR 147.2152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2152 Section 147.2152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  12. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.152 Section 147.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  13. 40 CFR 147.452 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.452 Section 147.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... § 147.452 Aquifer exemptions....

  14. 40 CFR 147.252 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.252 Section 147.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  15. 40 CFR 147.2352 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2352 Section 147.2352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  16. 40 CFR 147.1302 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1302 Section 147.1302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  17. 40 CFR 147.1152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1152 Section 147.1152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  18. 40 CFR 147.752 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.752 Section 147.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  19. 40 CFR 147.1802 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1802 Section 147.1802 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  20. 40 CFR 147.902 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.902 Section 147.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  1. 40 CFR 147.652 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.652 Section 147.652 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  2. 40 CFR 147.1202 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1202 Section 147.1202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  3. 40 CFR 147.1452 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1452 Section 147.1452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  4. 40 CFR 147.2752 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2752 Section 147.2752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS....2752 Aquifer exemptions....

  5. 40 CFR 147.502 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.502 Section 147.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  6. 40 CFR 147.1402 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1402 Section 147.1402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions....

  7. 40 CFR 141.718 - Treatment performance toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... performance. The State may approve Cryptosporidium treatment credit for drinking water treatment processes... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment performance...

  8. 28 CFR 513.35 - Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 28 CFR 16.52. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures... JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information General...

  9. 40 CFR 434.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Areas § 434.51 ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 434.51 Section 434.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  10. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private... 28 CFR 16.34....

  11. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  12. 32 CFR 2001.50 - Telecommunications automated information systems and network security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Telecommunications automated information systems... Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.50 Telecommunications automated information systems...

  13. 30 CFR 1229.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 1229.1 Section 1229.1 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE... effective Federal royalty management system....

  14. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 250, subpart O. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.805 Section 250.805 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  15. 28 CFR 541.7 - Unit Discipline Committee (UDC) review of the incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 28 CFR part 542, subpart B. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unit Discipline Committee (UDC) review of... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline...

  16. 40 CFR 19.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 19.3 Section 19.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.3...

  17. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  18. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  19. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  20. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

  1. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  2. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports. PMID:24928458

  3. Single-stage electronic ballast with high-power factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chun-Yoon; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kwon, Bong-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    This article proposes a single-stage electronic ballast circuit with high-power factor. The proposed circuit was derived by sharing the switches of the power factor correction (PFC) and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter. This integration of switches forms the proposed single-stage electronic ballast, which provides an almost unity power factor and a ripple-free input current by using a coupled inductor without increasing the voltage stress. In addition, it realises zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by employing the self-oscillation technique. The saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Therefore, the proposed single-stage ballast has the advantage of high-power factor, high efficiency, low cost and high reliability. Steady-state analysis of the PFC and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter are described. The results of experiments performed using a 30 W fluorescent lamp are also presented to confirm the performance of the proposed ballast.

  4. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... public rulemaking (NOPR) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 76 FR 20090. For the test... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR). 75 FR 71570. All comments on the fluorescent lamp ballast... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY: Office of...

  5. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... cycle to amend energy conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts. 65 FR 56740, 56740-56749... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB50 Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and... conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  8. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS.

  9. Identification of type and degree of railway ballast fouling using ground coupled GPR antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Dixit, P. S. Naresh; Bharatha, T. P.

    2016-03-01

    GPR is widely used for ballast fouling identification, however, there are no robust guidelines to find the degree and type of fouling quantitatively. In this study, GPR studies were carried out on model and actual railway tracks using three ground coupled antennas and considering three fouling materials. Three ground coupled antennas viz., 100 MHz, 500 MHz and 800 MHz antennas were used for the initial survey and it was found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna is an optimum one to get quality results. Three major fouling materials viz., screened/broken ballast, coal and iron ore were used to construct prototype model sections, which were 1/2 of the actual Indian broad-gauge railway track. A separate model section has been created for each degree and type of fouling and GPR surveys were carried out. GPR study shows that increasing the fouling content results in a decrease in the Electromagnetic Wave (EMW) velocity and an increase in the dielectric constant. EMW velocity of ballast fouled with screened ballast was found to be more than coal fouled ballast and iron ore fouled ballast at any degree of fouling and EMW velocity of iron ore fouled ballast was found to be less than coal and screen ballast fouled ballast. Dielectric constant of iron ore fouled ballast was found to be higher than coal and screen ballast fouled ballast for all degrees of fouling. Average slope of the trend line of screen ballast fouled section is low (25.6°), coal fouled ballast is medium (27.8°) and iron ore fouled ballast is high (47.6°).

  10. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, W.N.; Thomas, R.J.

    1999-08-31

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast. 4 figs.

  11. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  12. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  13. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.

    PubMed

    Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation.

  14. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.

    PubMed

    Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. PMID:25048914

  15. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    Gasification offers an efficient approach for producing fuels and products from a wide variety of biomass. The object of this Congressionally-mandated project is to develop an indirectly-heated gasification system (ballasted gasifier) for converting switch grass into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells.

  16. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF SHIP BALLAST WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages and during loading and unloading operations. Water is taken on at one port when cargo is unloaded and usually discharged at another port when the ship receives cargo. Because sediments and/or organisms ranging in size ...

  17. Chamber study of PCBemissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  18. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral

  19. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method.

    PubMed

    van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis; Buma, Anita G J

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was tested for its applicability as a ballast water treatment method. The treatment of the marine phytoplankton species Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans showed that at 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC was able to inactivate photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and disintegrate the cells after 5 days of dark incubation. The treatment of natural marine plankton communities with 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC did not sufficiently decrease zooplankton abundance to comply with the IMO D-2 standard. Bivalve larvae showed the highest resistance to DDAC. PSII efficiency was inactivated within 5 days but phytoplankton cells remained intact. Regrowth occurred within 2 days of incubation in the light. However, untreated phytoplankton exposed to residual DDAC showed delayed cell growth and reduced PSII efficiency, indicating residual DDAC toxicity. Natural marine plankton communities treated with 5 µL L(-1) DDAC showed sufficient disinfection of zooplankton and inactivation of PSII efficiency. Phytoplankton regrowth was not detected after 9 days of light incubation. Bacteria were initially reduced due to the DDAC treatment but regrowth was observed within 5 days of dark incubation. Residual DDAC remained too high after 5 days to be safely discharged. Two neutralization cycles of 50 mg L(-1) bentonite were needed to inactivate residual DDAC upon discharge. The inactivation of residual DDAC may seriously hamper the practical use of DDAC as a ballast water disinfectant.

  20. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  1. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  2. Assessing the viability of microorganisms in the ballast water of vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jamie L; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    Testing phytoplankton viability within ballast tanks and receiving waters of ballast water discharge remain understudied. Potentially harmful dinoflagellates and diatoms are transported via ballast water to Galveston Bay, Texas (USA), home to three major ports: Houston, Texas City and Galveston. Ballast water from vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean was inoculated into treatments representing low and high salinity conditions similar to the Ports of Houston and Galveston respectively. Phytoplankton in ballast water growout experiments were deemed viable and showed growth in low and mid salinities with nutrient enrichment. Molecular methods identified several genera: Dinophysis, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Peridinium, Scrippsiella, Chaetoceros and Nitzschia. These phytoplankton genera were previously identified in Galveston Bay except Scrippsiella. Phytoplankton, including those capable of forming harmful algal blooms leading to fish and shellfish kills, are transported to Galveston Bay via ballast water, and are viable when introduced to similar salinity conditions found in Galveston Bay ports.

  3. Assessing the viability of microorganisms in the ballast water of vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jamie L; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    Testing phytoplankton viability within ballast tanks and receiving waters of ballast water discharge remain understudied. Potentially harmful dinoflagellates and diatoms are transported via ballast water to Galveston Bay, Texas (USA), home to three major ports: Houston, Texas City and Galveston. Ballast water from vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean was inoculated into treatments representing low and high salinity conditions similar to the Ports of Houston and Galveston respectively. Phytoplankton in ballast water growout experiments were deemed viable and showed growth in low and mid salinities with nutrient enrichment. Molecular methods identified several genera: Dinophysis, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Peridinium, Scrippsiella, Chaetoceros and Nitzschia. These phytoplankton genera were previously identified in Galveston Bay except Scrippsiella. Phytoplankton, including those capable of forming harmful algal blooms leading to fish and shellfish kills, are transported to Galveston Bay via ballast water, and are viable when introduced to similar salinity conditions found in Galveston Bay ports. PMID:26455784

  4. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new oceangoing oil tankers of 150 gross tons and above. 155.440 Section 155.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new oceangoing oil tankers of 150 gross tons and above. 155.440 Section 155.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  7. Ballasted and electrically steerable carbon nanotube field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M. T.; Li, C.; Qu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B.; Pribat, D.; Milne, W. I.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our on-going efforts toward the development of stable ballasted carbon nanotube-based field emitters employing hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowires and thin film silicon-on-insulator substrates. The semiconducting channel in each controllably limits the emission current thereby preventing detrimental burn-out of individual emitters that occurs due to unavoidable statistical variability in emitter characteristics, particularly in their length. Fabrication details and emitter characterization are discussed in addition to their field emission performance. The development of a beam steerable triode electron emitter formed from hexagonal carbon nanotube arrays with central focusing nanotube electrodes, is also described. Numerical ab-initio simulations are presented to account for the empirical emission characteristics. Our engineered ballasted emitters have shown some of the lowest reported lifetime variations (< 0.7%) with on-times of < 1 ms, making them ideally-suited for next-generation displays, environmental lighting and portable x-rays sources.

  8. Direct current ballast circuit for metal halide lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutus, P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A direct current ballast circuit for a two electrode metal halide lamp is described. Said direct current ballast circuit includes a low voltage DC input and a high frequency power amplifier and power transformer for developing a high voltage output. The output voltage is rectified by diodes and filtered by inductor and capacitor to provide a regulated DC output through commutating diodes to one terminal of the lamp at the output terminal. A feedback path from the output of the filter capacitor through the bias resistor to power the high frequency circuit which includes the power amplifier and the power transformer for sustaining circuit operations during low voltage transients on the input DC supply is described. A current sensor connected to the output of the lamp through terminal for stabilizing lamp current following breakdown of the lamp is described.

  9. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  10. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  11. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  12. High-intensity-discharger 400-W sodium ballast. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felper, G.

    1981-10-01

    A research and development program directed toward design, test, and evaluation of an energy efficient High Intensity Discharge (HID) Solid-State 400 Watt Ballast lighting system was undertaken. Under Phase I of the project, the existing ballast was modified, performance characteristics were measured, efficiency was compared with a core/coil ballast including energy loss analysis. Six (6) prototype 400 W High Pressure Sodium Ballasts were built, for verification tests by an independent test facility prior to follow-on performance and life tests. This report covers Phase II of the project which was designed to make test data comparisons on results received from the independent test laboratory, determine methods to increase ballast efficiency, determine the importance of power factors, conduct bulb life tests, perform specification review, performance versus cost analysis, investigate the ballast to determine compliance with new FCC requirement, and determine a line transient specification in respect to solid state ballasting. In addition, Phase II required reliability testing, a manufacturing test plan, a marketing study for solid-state ballast, and the manufacture and delivery of fifteen (15) demonstration ballast units to LBL. These requirements are discussed.

  13. High intensity discharge 400-watt sodium ballast. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felper, G.

    1980-06-01

    The results of a research and development program directed toward design, test, and evaluation of energy efficient High Intensity Discharge (HID) Solid State 400-Watt Ballast lighting system are reported. Phase I of the project which was designed to modify the existing Datapower ballast to LBL configuration, measure performance characteristics, and compare efficiency with a core/coil ballast including energy loss analysis is covered. In addition, Datapower was tasked to build six (6) prototype 400-Watt High Pressure Sodium Ballasts for verification tests by an independent test facility and follow-on performance and life tests at LBL.

  14. Constant Light Output Ballasting For High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkin, Adrian

    1988-02-01

    Since the commercial introduction some twenty years ago of HMI* (Hydragyrum-mercury, Medium, Iodide) type lamps, as a source intended primarily for floodlighting applications, their attraction as a cinematographic light source has been apparent due to their largely desirable characteristics. Use in this field has been restricted due to the absolute requirement for an alternating current supply - with a sine wave supply frame rates are limited to a sub-multiple of the supply frequency with the supply frequency phase locked to the camera frame rate. This has effectively barred metal halide HID lighting from use in high speed photography. The general characteristics of metal halide HID lamps are presented alongside a sample of other light sources. An electronic ballast which has been proven to 12000 Watts in the motion picture industry is then described which overcomes the limitations of the conventional magnetic ballast - the square wave output of the electronic ballast theoretically allows the use of any camera frame rate/shutter angle combination. Finally the suitability of luminaires for high speed photography is discussed.

  15. Magnetic fluorescent ballasts: Market data, market imperfections, and policy success

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.; Shown, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    Many economists have strongly questioned engineering-economic studies aimed at demonstrating anomalously slow diffusion of energy-efficient technology and the benefits of regulations to promote such technology. One argument against such studies is that standard techniques of engineering-economics are either inappropriate for or are routinely misapplied in assessing the performance of the market for energy efficiency. This paper presents engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements that takes account of such critiques. The authors examine the engineering and economic characteristics of standard and energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for fluorescent lighting. Efficient magnetic ballasts represented an excellent investment for 99% of the commercial building floor stock, and a moderately good investment for 0.7% of the commercial floor stock. Still, these ballasts were only being adopted in the 1980s at a rate commensurate with the enactment of appliance efficiency standards in various states. In this case, there is solid empirical evidence for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements as well as evidence of the benefits of regulation to counteract this shortcoming.

  16. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  17. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean... Protocol. 2. Example Procedure. Dedicated clean ballast tanks operational procedure: (a) Before arrival...

  18. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean... Protocol. 2. Example Procedure. Dedicated clean ballast tanks operational procedure: (a) Before arrival...

  19. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean... Protocol. 2. Example Procedure. Dedicated clean ballast tanks operational procedure: (a) Before arrival...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Lamp Ballasts Comply with Appendix Q until November 14, 2014. After this date, all fluorescent lamp... means the rated input voltage of a fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4 DC control signal means a...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Lamp Ballasts Comply with Appendix Q until November 14, 2014. After this date, all fluorescent lamp... means the rated input voltage of a fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct...

  2. Enumerating sparse organisms in ships' ballast water: why counting to 10 is not so easy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To reduce ballast water-borne aquatic invasions worldwide, the International Maritime Organization and United States Coast Guard have each proposed discharge standards specifying maximum concentrations of living biota that may be released in ships’ ballast water (BW), but these r...

  3. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  4. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... and rapid start (IS/RS) ballasts, DOE found the exponent ``C'' to be 0.25. The exponent 0.25 is also a.../RS product class. EL1 was designed to eliminate 4-foot MBP T12 ballasts while allowing 4- foot MBP T8... A. Compliance Certification Requirements and Design Variation B. Measurement Variation V....

  5. 46 CFR 162.060-14 - Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-14 Information requirements for the ballast... evaluations. (2) Two sets of plans describing the BWMS, as specified in 46 CFR 159.005-12. (3) An Operation... relevant chemicals used by the BWMS. The documentation must include the following: (i) A list of any...

  6. 46 CFR 162.060-14 - Information requirements for the ballast water management system (BWMS) application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-14 Information requirements for the ballast... evaluations. (2) Two sets of plans describing the BWMS, as specified in 46 CFR 159.005-12. (3) An Operation... relevant chemicals used by the BWMS. The documentation must include the following: (i) A list of any...

  7. Per capita invasion probabilities: an empirical model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry; Frazier, Melanie; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Fofonoff, Paul W.; Minton, Mark S.; Miller, A. Whitman

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine and estuarine ecosystems. To mitigate the introduction of new invaders into these ecosystems, many agencies are proposing standards that establish upper concentration limits for organisms in ballast discharge. Ideally, ballast discharge standards will be biologically defensible and adequately protective of the marine environment. We propose a new technique, the per capita invasion probability (PCIP), for managers to quantitatively evaluate the relative risk of different concentration-based ballast water discharge standards. PCIP represents the likelihood that a single discharged organism will become established as a new nonindigenous species. This value is calculated by dividing the total number of ballast water invaders per year by the total number of organisms discharged from ballast. Analysis was done at the coast-wide scale for the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, as well as the Great Lakes, to reduce uncertainty due to secondary invasions between estuaries on a single coast. The PCIP metric is then used to predict the rate of new ballast-associated invasions given various regulatory scenarios. Depending upon the assumptions used in the risk analysis, this approach predicts that approximately one new species will invade every 10–100 years with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) discharge standard of 50 μm per m3 of ballast. This approach resolves many of the limitations associated with other methods of establishing ecologically sound discharge standards, and it allows policy makers to use risk-based methodologies to establish biologically defensible discharge standards.

  8. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting and... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653....

  9. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts,'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. DOE has completed the... consumption for fluorescent lamp ballasts in the Federal Register on October 22, 2009. 74 FR 54445. II... service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps (74 FR 34080) adopted a new definition...

  10. Microprocessor control unit of thyristor regulator of microhydroelectric power station ballast load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomokonova, Yu; Bogdanov, E.

    2014-10-01

    The operational principle of microhydroelectric power station ballast load is presented. The comparative overview of the mathematical modeling methods is performed. The ranges of thyristors optimal work are shown as a result of the regulator regimes analysis. Shows the necessity of regulation the ballast load in microhydroelectric power station with help of developed algorithm of the program for microprocessor control.

  11. A unique aspect of ballast water management requirements--the same location concept.

    PubMed

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2012-09-01

    Under certain circumstances vessels do not need to meet ballast water management requirements as stated in the International Convention for the Management and Control of Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Besides exceptions to ensure e.g., (a) the safety of a ship, (b) discharge of ballast water for the purpose of avoiding or minimizing pollution incidents, (c) uptake and discharge on high seas of the same ballast water, the same location concept comes into play as ballast water discharges from a ship at the same location where it was taken up is also excepted from BWM requirements. The term same location was not defined in this instrument, hence it is exposed to different interpretations (e.g., a terminal, a port, a larger area where two or more ports may be located). As the BWM Convention is an instrument with biological meaning, the authors recommend a biologically meaningful definition of the same location in this contribution.

  12. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention.

    PubMed

    Carney, Katharine J; Basurko, Oihane C; Pazouki, Kayvan; Marsham, Sara; Delany, Jane E; Desai, D V; Anil, A C; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2013-03-15

    As implementation of the Ballast Water Convention draws nearer a major challenge is the development of protocols which accurately assess compliance with the D-2 Standard. Many factors affect the accuracy of assessment: e.g. large volume of ballast water, the shape, size and number of ballast tanks and the heterogeneous distribution of organisms within tanks. These factors hinder efforts to obtain samples that truly represent the total ballast water onboard a vessel. A known cell density of Tetraselmis suecica was added to a storage tank and sampled at discharge. The factors holding period, initial cell density and sampling interval affected representativeness. Most samples underestimated cell density, and some tanks with an initial cell density of 100 cells ml(-1) showed <10 cells ml(-1) at discharge, i.e. met the D-2 standard. This highlights difficulties in achieving sample representativeness and when applied to a real ballast tank this will be much harder to achieve.

  13. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  14. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure.

  15. Detection of Ballast Damage by In-Situ Vibration Measurement of Sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. F.; Wong, M. T.; Keefe, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    Ballasted track is one of the most important elements of railway transportation systems worldwide. Owing to its importance in railway safety, many monitoring and evaluation methods have been developed. Current railway track monitoring systems are comprehensive, fast and efficient in testing railway track level and alignment, rail gauge, rail corrugation, etc. However, the monitoring of ballast condition still relies very much on visual inspection and core tests. Although extensive research has been carried out in the development of non-destructive methods for ballast condition evaluation, a commonly accepted and cost-effective method is still in demand. In Hong Kong practice, if abnormal train vibration is reported by the train operator or passengers, permanent way inspectors will locate the problem area by track geometry measurement. It must be pointed out that visual inspection can only identify ballast damage on the track surface, the track geometry deficiencies and rail twists can be detected using a track gauge. Ballast damage under the sleeper loading area and the ballast shoulder, which are the main factors affecting track stability and ride quality, are extremely difficult if not impossible to be detected by visual inspection. Core test is a destructive test, which is expensive, time consuming and may be disruptive to traffic. A fast real-time ballast damage detection method that can be implemented by permanent way inspectors with simple equipment can certainly provide valuable information for engineers in assessing the safety and riding quality of ballasted track systems. The main objective of this paper is to study the feasibility in using the vibration characteristics of sleepers in quantifying the ballast condition under the sleepers, and so as to explore the possibility in developing a handy method for the detection of ballast damage based on the measured vibration of sleepers.

  16. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  17. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  18. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  19. An Electronic Ballast Using Back-boost Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozeki, I.; Kato, Y.; Kuratani, T.; Okamura, Y.; Ohkita, M.; Takahashi, N.

    The new circuit of the electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp, which is based on the back-boost converter, is proposed. This circuit has the advantage further than the circuit that combined the converter for rectification with the inverter for lighting in some points. Those advantages are reduction of the number of elements and improvement in the circuit efficiency, etc. And this circuit also satisfies regulation value of IEC class C on the relative harmonic contents of input current. From experimental results, the effectiveness of the proposed circuit is shown.

  20. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  1. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  2. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  3. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  4. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  5. Disinfection of ballast water with iron activated persulfate.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Samyoung; Peterson, Tawnya D; Righter, Jason; Miles, Danielle M; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2013-10-15

    The treatment of ballast water carried onboard ships is critical to reduce the spread of nonindigenous aquatic organisms that potentially include noxious and harmful taxa. We tested the efficacy of persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S2O8(2-), PS) activated with zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) as a chemical biocide against two taxa of marine phytoplankton grown in bench-scale, batch cultures: the diatom, Pseudonitzshia delicatissima and the green alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta . After testing a range of PS concentrations (0-4 mM activated PS) and exposure times (1-7 days), we determined that a dosage of 4 mM of activated PS was required to inactivate cells from both species, as indicated by reduced or halted growth and a reduction in photosynthetic performance. Longer exposure times were required to fully inactivate D. tertiolecta (7 days) compared to P. delicatissima (5 days). Under these conditions, no recovery was observed upon placing cells from the exposed cultures into fresh media lacking biocide. The results demonstrate that activated PS is an effective chemical biocide against species of marine phytoplankton. The lack of harmful byproducts produced during application makes PS an attractive alternative to other biocides currently in use for ballast water treatments and merits further testing at a larger scale.

  6. Real-time PCR and NASBA for rapid and sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae in ballast water.

    PubMed

    Fykse, Else M; Nilsen, Trine; Nielsen, Agnete Dessen; Tryland, Ingun; Delacroix, Stephanie; Blatny, Janet M

    2012-02-01

    Transport of ballast water is one major factor in the transmission of aquatic organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. The IMO-guidelines of the Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, states that ships are to discharge <1 CFU per 100 ml ballast water of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, emphasizing the need to establish test methods. To our knowledge, there are no methods sensitive and rapid enough available for cholera surveillance of ballast water. In this study real-time PCR and NASBA methods have been evaluated to specifically detect 1 CFU/100ml of V. cholerae in ballast water. Ballast water samples spiked with V. cholerae cells were filtered and enriched in alkaline peptone water before PCR or NASBA detection. The entire method, including sample preparation and analysis was performed within 7 h, and has the potential to be used for analysis of ballast water for inspection and enforcement control.

  7. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  8. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia.

    PubMed

    Cope, Robert C; Prowse, Thomas A A; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events. PMID:26064643

  9. Comparison of SeaWiFS images with ballast water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    It has become a great concern among the international communities that the ship's ballast water causes marine environmental disturbances of coastal ecosystem. And the regulations and prohibitions of ballast water discharge have already been executed by some coastal countries and discussed by the International Maritime Organization. Since Japan is the one of the largest exporting countries of ballast water, it is important to investigate how the ballast water is exchanged at open seas and influences the surrounding waters. In collaboration with a LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons onboard sampling and plankton analysis of the ballast water have been carried out during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May, 2002 to July, 2003. SeaWiFS images including the ballast water exchange areas along the ship's route were acquired and processsed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. Skeletonema costatum was identified as a species for most of the cruises. Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans were also identified in one of the cruises. Furthermore it is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm.

  10. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Robert C.; Prowse, Thomas A. A.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wittmann, Talia A.; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events. PMID:26064643

  11. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    PubMed

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-01

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  12. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  13. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid state electronic fluorescent lighting ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Marcus, A. A.; Campbell, R. S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    A solid state ballast (SSB), which improves the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts was developed and the technology was transferred to the private sector. The opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace is examined. Product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process are included.

  14. Inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of alien ballast water is a well-known, major reason for marine species invasion. Here, circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation was used to inactivate Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water. In comparison with single- and multihole orifice plates, the conical-hole orifice plate yielded the highest inactivation percentage, 51.12%, and consumed only 6.84% energy (based on a 50% inactivation percentage). Repeating treatment, either using double series-connection or circling inactivation, elevated the inactivation percentage, yet consumed much more energy. The results indicate that conical-hole-generated hydrodynamic cavitation shows great potential as a pre-inactivation method for ballast water treatment.

  15. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindi; Xiao, Yu; Bai, Mindong; Yang, Bo; Bai, Xiyao

    2006-06-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl- a, chlorophyl- b, chlorophyl- c and carotenoid are decreased by 35% 64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  16. Dimmable electronic ballasts by variable power density modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borekci, Selim; Kesler, Selami

    2014-11-01

    Dimming can be accomplished commonly by switching frequency and pulse density modulation techniques and a variable inductor. In this study, a variable power density modulation (VPDM) control technique is proposed for dimming applications. A fluorescent lamp is operated in several states to meet the desired lamp power in a modulation period. The proposed technique has the same advantages of magnetic dimming topologies have. In addition, a unique and flexible control technique can be achieved. A prototype dimmable electronic ballast is built and experiments related to it have been conducted. As a result, a 36WT8 fluorescent lamp can be driven for a desired lamp power from several alternatives without modulating the switching frequency.

  17. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is produced by radiation of metal halides and their products of dissociation, possibly in combination... electromagnetic ballast that starts a pulse-start metal halide lamp with high voltage pulses, where lamps shall...

  18. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems. PMID:25176277

  19. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems.

  20. International dissemination of epidemic Vibrio cholerae by cargo ship ballast and other nonpotable waters.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, S A; Khambaty, F M

    1994-07-01

    In 1991 and 1992, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, biotype El Tor, was recovered from nonpotable (ballast, bilge, and sewage) water from five cargo ships docked in ports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Four of these ships had taken on ballast water in cholera-infected countries; the fifth took on ballast in a noninfected country. Isolates examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were indistinguishable from the Latin American epidemic strain, C6707; however, they differed significantly from the endemic Gulf Coast strain (VRL 1984), the sixth-pandemic strain (569-B), and a V. cholerae non-O1 strain isolated from a ship arriving from a foreign port. On the basis of our findings, the Food and Drug Administration recommended that the U.S. Coast Guard issue an advisory to shipping agents and captains requesting that ballast waters be exchanged on the high seas before entry of ships into U.S. ports.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SHIP BALLAST WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROTOCOL THROUGH AN INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT PARTNERSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of nonindigenous aquatic nuisance species through the discharge of shipboard ballast water into coastal areas around the world has profound negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic nuisance species are one of the most important environmental issu...

  2. Multiplex PCR allows simultaneous detection of pathogens in ships' ballast water.

    PubMed

    Aridgides, L J; Doblin, M A; Berke, T; Dobbs, F C; Matson, D O; Drake, L A

    2004-06-01

    There is enormous potential for global transfer of microorganisms, including pathogens, in ships' ballast water. We contend that a major advancement in the study of ballast-water microorganisms in particular, and of aquatic pathogens in general, will be expedited sample analysis, such as provided by the elegant technology of DNA microarrays. In order to use DNA microarrays, however, one must establish the appropriate conditions to bind target sequences in samples to multiple probes on the microarrays. We conducted proof-of-concept experiments to optimize simultaneous detection of multiple microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. We chose three target organisms, all potentially found in ballast water: a calicivirus, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, and the photosynthetic protist Aureococcus anophagefferens. Here, we show simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens is possible, a result supporting the promising future use of microarrays for simultaneous detection of pathogens in ballast water.

  3. Review of interdisciplinary devices for detecting the quality of ship ballast water.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The results of the ship ballast water treatment systems neutralization need to be verified in a transparent and trustful way before the ship enters a port. Some researches and results, explained in this article, confirm a need for a good verification. If there is no good methodology agreed, then it would not be accepted the solution that the BWMC (Ballast Water Management Convention) 2004 did protect the sea environment in full meaning. The main problem of ballast neutralization are remaining microorganisms (algae blooms, bacteria) ≥10 and <50. Autonomy of the future ballast water detection device has been explained and newest detection methods analyzed. The ranking analysis has been done thru PROMETHEE II (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations) and results were shown by D-Sight software projections.

  4. Density matters: Approaches to settling ballast water discharge concentrations - 10/22

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consensus has evolved that invasion risk increases with propagule pressure. However, translating this general principal into ecologically “acceptable” concentrations of organisms in ballast water has proven challenging. The treaty being promulgated by the International Maritime...

  5. Inactivation of microalgae in ballast water with pulse intense light treatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Shi, Jidong; Sun, Dan

    2015-01-15

    The exotic emission of ballast water has threatened the coastal ecological environment and people's health in many countries. This paper firstly introduces pulse intense light to treat ballast water. 99.9 ± 0.09% inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo and 99.9 ± 0.16% inactivation of Pyramimonas sp. are observed under treatment conditions of 350 V pulse peak voltage, 15 Hz pulse frequency, 5 ms pulse width and 1.78 L/min flow rate. The energy consumption of the self-designed pulse intense light treatment system is about 2.90-5.14 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The results indicate that pulse intense light is an effective technique for ballast water treatment, while it is only a competitive one when drastic decreasing in energy consumption is accomplished.

  6. Per capita invasion probabilities: A linear model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems. To mitigate the introduction of new invaders into these ecosystems, many agencies are proposing discharge standards that establish upper concentration limits f...

  7. Refurbishment of the ballast-water system of the gravity-based structure Beryl Alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Seume, K.; Gilchrist, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    In Sept. 1985, the Beryl Alpha platform in the North Sea experienced a leak in its ballast-water system in the utility shaft 328 ft (100m) below sea level. The importance of the ballast-water system for platform operations and the particular location of the leak led to the development and implementation of unique and extensive repair procedures. These procedures are detailed by the authors.

  8. Per capita invasion probabilities: an empirical model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Deborah A; Lee, Henry; Frazier, Melanie; Ruiz, Gregory M; Fofonoff, Paul W; Minton, Mark S; Miller, A Whitman

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine and estuarine ecosystems. To mitigate the introduction of new invaders into these ecosystems, many agencies are proposing standards that establish upper concentration limits for organisms in ballast discharge. Ideally, ballast discharge standards will be biologically defensible and adequately protective of the marine environment. We propose a new technique, the per capita invasion probability (PCIP), for managers to quantitatively evaluate the relative risk of different concentration-based ballast water discharge standards. PCIP represents the likelihood that a single discharged organism will become established as a new nonindigenous species. This value is calculated by dividing the total number of ballast water invaders per year by the total number of organisms discharged from ballast. Analysis was done at the coast-wide scale for the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, as well as the Great Lakes, to reduce uncertainty due to secondary invasions between estuaries on a single coast. The PCIP metric is then used to predict the rate of new ballast-associated invasions given various regulatory scenarios. Depending upon the assumptions used in the risk analysis, this approach predicts that approximately one new species will invade every 10-100 years with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) discharge standard of < 10 organisms with body size > 50 microm per m3 of ballast. This approach resolves many of the limitations associated with other methods of establishing ecologically sound discharge standards, and it allows policy makers to use risk-based methodologies to establish biologically defensible discharge standards.

  9. Ballast water treatment systems: design, regulations, and selection under the choice varying priorities.

    PubMed

    Satir, Tanzer

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the role of ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) and proposes a selection procedure for conventional merchant ships based on the financial, legal, and operational circumstances. Through the metallurgical revolution of the nineteenth century, commercial ships are converted to steel hull from wooden structures. By this innovative shift, use of ballast water became an essential part of ships for improving propulsion and stability while reducing stress on hull (instead of rocks). However, the content of ballast water is emerged since it relocates marine species from an ecological composition (usually cargo discharging port) to another one (loading port). Uncontrolled relocation of marine species may cause severe damage to existing ecological basis on ballast discharging area. BWTSs are developed for ships to eliminate marine species (i.e., aquatic invasive species) content by using a filtering device. It ensures an eco-friendly ballasting and de-ballasting process. The selection of proper BWTS is another debate since the BWTSs are designed with cost-quality and cost (eco)-performance variations. The proposed approach denoted that both tonnage and the age of ship are indicative factors on selection. The cost of installation varies based on installation space and active vs. project vessel cases. PMID:24894755

  10. Ballast water treatment systems: design, regulations, and selection under the choice varying priorities.

    PubMed

    Satir, Tanzer

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the role of ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) and proposes a selection procedure for conventional merchant ships based on the financial, legal, and operational circumstances. Through the metallurgical revolution of the nineteenth century, commercial ships are converted to steel hull from wooden structures. By this innovative shift, use of ballast water became an essential part of ships for improving propulsion and stability while reducing stress on hull (instead of rocks). However, the content of ballast water is emerged since it relocates marine species from an ecological composition (usually cargo discharging port) to another one (loading port). Uncontrolled relocation of marine species may cause severe damage to existing ecological basis on ballast discharging area. BWTSs are developed for ships to eliminate marine species (i.e., aquatic invasive species) content by using a filtering device. It ensures an eco-friendly ballasting and de-ballasting process. The selection of proper BWTS is another debate since the BWTSs are designed with cost-quality and cost (eco)-performance variations. The proposed approach denoted that both tonnage and the age of ship are indicative factors on selection. The cost of installation varies based on installation space and active vs. project vessel cases.

  11. Feasibility study of ocean color remote sensing for detecting ballast water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    The paper describes the feasibility of ballast water detection with SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and the corresponding number of in situ plankton cell density along the ship’s routes. Onboard sampling of the ballast water have been carried out by the LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May 2002 to July 2003. SeaWiFS images of the ballast water exchange areas along the ship’s route were acquired and processed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis of the sampled ballast water, phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. It is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(490)). By using this correlation the criterion of 10 cells/ml imposed by IMO regulations corresponds to 0.24 m-1 of K(490). It is expected that this value of K(490) will be the criterion of future satellite-based ballast water quality standard.

  12. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  13. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  14. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  15. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  16. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  17. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  18. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  19. Where is mineral ballast important for surface export of particulate organic carbon in the ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Le Moigne, Frédéric A C; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Marcinko, Charlotte L J; Martin, Patrick; Sanders, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes in the deep ocean have inspired the inclusion of “ballast effect” parameterizations in carbon cycle models. A recent study demonstrated regional variability in the effect of ballast minerals on the flux of POC in the deep ocean. We have undertaken a similar analysis of shallow export data from the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. Mineral ballasting is of greatest importance in the high-latitude North Atlantic, where 60% of the POC flux is associated with ballast minerals. This fraction drops to around 40% in the Southern Ocean. The remainder of the export flux is not associated with minerals, and this unballasted fraction thus often dominates the export flux. The proportion of mineral-associated POC flux often scales with regional variation in export efficiency (the proportion of primary production that is exported). However, local discrepancies suggest that regional differences in ecology also impact the magnitude of surface export. We propose that POC export will not respond equally across all high-latitude regions to possible future changes in ballast availability. PMID:26074644

  20. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Ballast of Surface Aggregates Sinking through the Twilight Zone

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Mendes, Pedro A.; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution of CaCO3 is one of the ways ocean acidification can, potentially, greatly affect the ballast of aggregates. A diminution of the ballast could reduce the settling speed of aggregates, resulting in a change in the carbon flux to the deep sea. This would mean lower amounts of more refractory organic matter reaching the ocean floor. This work aimed to determine the effect of ocean acidification on the ballast of sinking surface aggregates. Our hypothesis was that the decrease of pH will increase the dissolution of particulate inorganic carbon ballasting the aggregates, consequently reducing their settling velocity and increasing their residence time in the upper twilight zone. Using a new methodology for simulation of aggregate settling, our results suggest that future pCO2 conditions can significantly change the ballast composition of sinking aggregates. The change in aggregate composition had an effect on the size distribution of the aggregates, with a shift to smaller aggregates. A change also occurred in the settling velocity of the particles, which would lead to a higher residence time in the water column, where they could be continuously degraded. In the environment, such an effect would result in a reduction of the carbon flux to the deep-sea. This reduction would impact those benthic communities, which rely on the vertical flow of carbon as primary source of energy. PMID:23272075

  1. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where...

  2. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contents, if any, for signs of contamination. (5) Discharge a sufficient amount of clean ballast water to ensure that remaining ballast water and cargo to be loaded will not exceed the permissible deadweight or draft. Leave a sufficient amount of water for flushing the piping, and as a minimum, a quantity equal...

  4. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...; telephone 202-372-1402, email environmental_standards@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing material... FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S... March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to the... standby mode. 1.5F4OT12 lamp means a nominal 40 watt tubular fluorescent lamp which is 48 inches in...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to the... standby mode. 1.5F4OT12 lamp means a nominal 40 watt tubular fluorescent lamp which is 48 inches in...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to the... standby mode. 1.5F4OT12 lamp means a nominal 40 watt tubular fluorescent lamp which is 48 inches in...

  8. 77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Water Discharged in U.S. Waters'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 44632). In response, we received 662... Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  9. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  10. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  11. Domestic and international arrivals of NOBOB (no ballast on board) vessels to lower Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa A; Jenkins, Philip T; Dobbs, Fred C

    2005-05-01

    In examining ship-mediated biological invasions, most research and treatment development has focused on ballast water. Another vector that has gained attention recently is vessels arriving in a "no ballast on board" (NOBOB) condition. Such ships retain relatively small, unpumpable volumes of water and sediment in their ballast tanks. Nonetheless, these unpumpable portions can represent great ecological risk. This scenario is relevant in the Great Lakes, which have experienced a dramatic series of introductions, despite most vessels arriving there as NOBOBs since 1994. We examined shipping patterns of NOBOBs arriving to lower Chesapeake Bay to begin evaluating their risk of biopollution. Only 14% of ships arrive as NOBOBs, and of those, 17% depart to another port in the upper bay. Most NOBOBs arrive from or leave for other US ports; proximate trans-Atlantic crossings are few. Given the nature of their operations, we conclude NOBOBs may represent a risk for aquatic nuisance species invasions to Chesapeake Bay. PMID:15907498

  12. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis.

  13. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of ballast life-cycle cost and payback period

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin; Turiel, Ike; Hakim, Sajid; Fisher, Diane

    2000-06-01

    The paper introduces an innovative methodology for evaluating the relative significance of energy-efficient technologies applied to fluorescent lamp ballasts. The method involves replacing the point estimates of life cycle cost of the ballasts with uncertainty distributions reflecting the whole spectrum of possible costs, and the assessed probability associated with each value. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses will help analysts reduce effort in data collection and carry on analysis more efficiently. These methods also enable policy makers to gain an insightful understanding of which efficient technology alternatives benefit or cost what fraction of consumers, given the explicit assumptions of the analysis.

  14. Global hot spots of biological invasions: evaluating options for ballast-water management.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M; Lodge, David M

    2004-03-22

    Biological invasions from ballast water are a severe environmental threat and exceedingly costly to society. We identify global hot spots of invasion based on worldwide patterns of ship traffic. We then estimate the rate of port-to-port invasion using gravity models for spatial interactions, and we identify bottlenecks to the regional exchange of species using the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm for network flows. Finally, using stochastic simulations of different strategies for controlling ballast-water introductions, we find that reducing the per-ship-visit chance of causing invasion is more effective in reducing the rate of biotic homogenization than eliminating key ports that are the epicentres for global spread.

  15. Life of fluorescent lamps operated at high frequencies with solid-state ballasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verderber, R. R.; Morse, O.; Rubinstein, F. M.

    1985-07-01

    Standard 40-watt, F-40, rapid-start, fluorescent lamps were operated with solid-state ballasts following the standard life-testing cycle of 3 hours on and 20 minutes off for more than 20,000 hours at high frequency. Lamp operating characteristics (starting voltage, filament voltage, arc current, and current-crest factor) were studied as factors affecting lamp life. Measurements show that fluorescent lamps can attain rated life at high frequency using solid-state ballasts. When lamps are operated in the dimmed mode, full filament power is required to sustain lamplife. The rate of lamp lumen depreciation is dependent on the lamp loading and not the operating frequency.

  16. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  17. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  18. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  19. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  20. 37 CFR 11.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 11.1 Section 11... confession to a crime; a verdict or judgment finding a person guilty of a crime; any entered plea, including... with the administration of justice, false swearing, misrepresentation, fraud, willful failure to...

  1. 39 CFR 952.3 - Informal dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Informal dispositions. 952.3 Section 952.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE... any matter by agreement between the parties either before or after the filing of a complaint when...

  2. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data Quality Objective and Lower... while still being assured of correctly demonstrating compliance. It is designed to reduce “false positive” or so called “Type II errors” which may erroneously indicate compliance where more variable...

  4. 40 CFR 761.130 - Sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... against false positives. (c) The number of samples must be sufficient to ensure that areas of... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling requirements. 761.130 Section 761.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...

  5. International dissemination of epidemic Vibrio cholerae by cargo ship ballast and other nonpotable waters.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, S A; Khambaty, F M

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, biotype El Tor, was recovered from nonpotable (ballast, bilge, and sewage) water from five cargo ships docked in ports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Four of these ships had taken on ballast water in cholera-infected countries; the fifth took on ballast in a noninfected country. Isolates examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were indistinguishable from the Latin American epidemic strain, C6707; however, they differed significantly from the endemic Gulf Coast strain (VRL 1984), the sixth-pandemic strain (569-B), and a V. cholerae non-O1 strain isolated from a ship arriving from a foreign port. On the basis of our findings, the Food and Drug Administration recommended that the U.S. Coast Guard issue an advisory to shipping agents and captains requesting that ballast waters be exchanged on the high seas before entry of ships into U.S. ports. Images PMID:8074532

  6. 33 CFR 151.2040 - Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2040 Discharge of ballast water in extraordinary... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE... requirements of 33 CFR 151.1515. (b) If the installed BWMS required by this subpart stops operating...

  7. Combining Ballast Water Exchange and Treatment To Maximize Prevention of Species Introductions to Freshwater Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Briski, Elizabeta; Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej; Linley, R Dallas; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Rajakaruna, Harshana; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-08-18

    The most effective way to manage species transfers is to prevent their introduction via vector regulation. Soon, international ships will be required to meet numeric ballast discharge standards using ballast water treatment (BWT) systems, and ballast water exchange (BWE), currently required by several countries, will be phased out. However, there are concerns that BWT systems may not function reliably in fresh and/or turbid water. A land-based evaluation of simulated "BWE plus BWT" versus "BWT alone" demonstrated potential benefits of combining BWE with BWT for protection of freshwater ecosystems. We conducted ship-based testing to compare the efficacy of "BWE plus BWT" versus "BWT alone" on voyages starting with freshwater ballast. We tested the hypotheses that there is an additional effect of "BWE plus BWT" compared to "BWT alone" on the reduction of plankton, and that taxa remaining after "BWE plus BWT" will be marine (low risk for establishment at freshwater recipient ports). Our study found that BWE has significant additional effect on the reduction of plankton, and this effect increases with initial abundance. As per expectations, "BWT alone" tanks contained higher risk freshwater or euryhaline taxa at discharge, while "BWE plus BWT" tanks contained mostly lower risk marine taxa unlikely to survive in recipient freshwater ecosystems.

  8. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

  9. An Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Testing of a Ballast Exchange Assurance Meter (BEAM) 100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) is mandatory for all vessels entering U.S. waters from outside the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. To support such regulation, accurate and portable verification tools are needed for determining that BWE has taken place. One parameter pr...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Compliance Statement for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...”) submits this Compliance Statement under 10 CFR Part 431 (Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial... Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... models of metal halide lamp ballasts subject to energy conservation standards specified in 10 CFR...

  11. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  12. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... system. DOE's current test procedures for ballasts address such standby mode energy use. 74 FR 54455... Interstate Rule (CAIR, 70 FR 25162 (May 12, 2005)), but not the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR, 70 FR 28606... Clean Air Transport Rule (75 FR 45210 (August 2, 2010)), do not appear in the forecast. \\5\\ DOE is...

  13. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ..., 70 FR 25162 (May 12, 2005)), but not the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR, 70 FR 28606 (May 18, 2005... (75 FR 45210 (Aug. 2, 2010)), do not appear in the forecast. \\6\\ Results for NO X and Hg are presented... ballast active mode test procedure final rule. 76 FR 25211 (May 4, 2011). DOE must follow...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID... situations: (i) Areas known to have infestations or populations of harmful organisms and pathogens (e.g...) Clean the ballast tanks regularly to remove sediments. Clean the tanks in mid-ocean or under...

  15. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water

    PubMed Central

    Maw, Myint Myint; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Fabo; Jiang, Jinhu; Song, Younan; Pan, Xinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods. PMID:26516836

  16. Population attenuation in zooplankton communities during transoceanic transfer in ballast water.

    PubMed

    Ghabooli, Sara; Zhan, Aibin; Paolucci, Esteban; Hernandez, Marco R; Briski, Elizabeta; Cristescu, Melania E; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2016-09-01

    Successful biological invasion requires introduction of a viable population of a nonindigenous species (NIS). Rarely have ecologists assessed changes in populations while entrained in invasion pathways. Here, we investigate how zooplankton communities resident in ballast water change during transoceanic voyages. We used next-generation sequencing technology to sequence a nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment of zooplankton from ballast water during initial, middle, and final segments as a vessel transited between Canada and Brazil. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity decreased as voyage duration increased, indicating loss of community-based genetic diversity and development of bottlenecks for zooplankton taxa prior to discharge of ballast water. On average, we observed 47, 26, and 24 OTUs in initial, middle, and final samples, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of genetic diversity within taxa indicated likely attenuation of OTUs in final relative to initial samples. Abundance of the most common taxa (copepods) declined in all final relative to initial samples. Some taxa (e.g., Copepoda) were represented by a high number of OTUs throughout the voyage, and thus had a high level of intraspecific genetic variation. It is not clear whether genotypes that were most successful in surviving transit in ballast water will be the most successful upon introduction to novel environments. This study highlights that population bottlenecks may be common prior to introduction of NIS to new ecosystems. PMID:27648234

  17. Per capita invasion probabilities: A linear model to predict rates of invasion via ballast water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ballast water discharges are a major source of species introductions into marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems. For example, in the San Francisco Estuary, dubbed the “most invaded estuary in the world”, it is estimated to account for 38-76% of the aquatic invaders. To pre...

  18. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water.

    PubMed

    Maw, Myint Myint; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Fabo; Jiang, Jinhu; Song, Younan; Pan, Xinxiang

    2015-10-26

    Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods.

  19. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  20. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  1. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  2. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  3. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  4. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: Efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  5. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  6. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  7. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  9. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  10. Effect of Type and Concentration of Ballasting Particles on Sinking Rate of Marine Snow Produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×105 µm3 ml-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  11. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE... contents, if any, for signs of contamination. (5) Discharge a sufficient amount of clean ballast water...

  12. Linking science and policy to prevent the spread of invasive species from the ballast water discharge of ships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Huamn activites are causing the global redistribution of species at a historically unprecedented rates. In marine environments, a major vector of nonindigenous species introduction is commercial shipping, including the ballast water of ocean going vessels. The introduction of n...

  13. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  14. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  15. Evaluation of approaches to quantify total residual oxidants in ballast water management systems employing chlorine for disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Ambrose, Richard F; Tamburri, Mario N

    2014-01-01

    With the maturation and certification of several ballast water management systems that employ chlorine as biocide to prevent the spread of invasive species, there is a clear need for accurate and reliable total residual oxidants (TRO) technology to monitor treatment dose and assure the environmental safety of treated water discharged from ships. In this study, instruments used to measure TRO in wastewater and drinking water applications were evaluated for their performance in scenarios mimicking a ballast water treatment application (e.g., diverse hold times, temperatures, and salinities). Parameters chosen for testing these technologies in the past do not reflect conditions expected during ballast water treatment. Salinity, temperature, and oxidant concentration all influenced the response of amperometric sensors. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) sensors performed more consistently than amperometric sensors under different conditions but it may be difficult to correlate ORP and TRO measurements for the multitude of biogeochemical conditions found naturally in ballast water. N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) analyzers and amperometric sensors were also tested under intermittent sampling conditions mimicking a ballasting scenario, with cyclical dosage and discharge operations. When sampling was intermittent, amperometric sensors required excessive response and conditioning times, whereas DPD analyzers provided reasonable estimates of TRO under the ballasting scenario.

  16. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done...

  17. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits...

  18. 40 CFR 423.10 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 423.10 Section 423.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.10 Applicability. The provisions of this part...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 423, App. A Appendix A to...

  20. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15155 - What pollutants are regulated by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What pollutants are regulated by this subpart? 62.15155 Section 62.15155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES...

  2. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants 16 Table 16 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4315 - What pollutants are regulated by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What pollutants are regulated by this subpart? 60.4315 Section 60.4315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance...

  4. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1210 - What pollutants are regulated by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What pollutants are regulated by this subpart? 60.1210 Section 60.1210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... air pollutant emission standards? (a) General requirements. The requirements in paragraphs...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1700 - What pollutants are regulated by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What pollutants are regulated by this subpart? 60.1700 Section 60.1700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and...

  9. 40 CFR 123.28 - Control of disposal of pollutants into wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of disposal of pollutants into wells. 123.28 Section 123.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER..., however, that CWA excludes certain types of well injections from the definition of “pollutant.” If...

  10. 40 CFR 503.23 - Pollutant limits (other than domestic septage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollutant limits (other than domestic septage). 503.23 Section 503.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Surface Disposal § 503.23...

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Part 455 - PSES and PSNS for Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PSES and PSNS for Priority Pollutants 6 Table 6 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... for Priority Pollutants Pollutant Daily maximum shall not exceed Monthly maximum shall not exceed...

  12. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  13. 40 CFR 63.72 - General provisions for compliance extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety to protect public health pursuant to section 112(f) of the Act, and the Administrator will, for... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General provisions for compliance extensions. 63.72 Section 63.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 40 CFR 124.64 - Appeals of variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... anticipated to pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment because of bioaccumulation... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeals of variances. 124.64 Section 124.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  15. 40 CFR 406.103-406.104 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 406.103-406.104 Section 406.103-406.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory §§ 406.103-406.104...

  16. 40 CFR 406.105 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards of performance for new sources. 406.105 Section 406.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten...

  17. 40 CFR 410.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.15 Section 410.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.15 New...

  18. 40 CFR 410.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.45 Section 410.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.45...

  19. 40 CFR 410.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.25 Section 410.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.25 New...

  20. 40 CFR 410.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.35 Section 410.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Low Water Use Processing Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 410.02 - Monitoring requirements. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring requirements. 410.02 Section 410.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 410.02 Monitoring requirements....

  2. 40 CFR 410.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.55 Section 410.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.55...

  3. 29 CFR 2700.1 - Scope; applicability of other rules; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope; applicability of other rules; construction. 2700.1... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES General Provisions § 2700.1 Scope; applicability of other rules; construction. (a) Scope. (1) This part sets forth rules applicable to proceedings before the Federal Mine Safety...

  4. 32 CFR 18.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 18.2 Section 18.2... AUTHORITY FOR MILITARY COMMISSIONS § 18.2 Applicability and scope. This part applies to: (a) The Office of... (hereafter referred to collectively as “the DoD Components”). (b) Any special trial counsel of the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.920-2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure. 35.920-2 Section 35.920-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.920-2 Procedure....

  6. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified?...

  7. 40 CFR 35.925 - Limitations on award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on award. 35.925 Section 35.925 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  8. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-10 - Operation and maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operation and maintenance program. 35.925-10 Section 35.925-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-5 - Funding and other capabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding and other capabilities. 35.925-5 Section 35.925-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  11. 40 CFR 105.10 - What do I need to be considered for an award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What do I need to be considered for an award? 105.10 Section 105.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.10 What do I need to...

  12. 40 CFR 35.901 - Program policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program policy. 35.901 Section 35.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.901 Program policy. The...

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-4...

  14. 40 CFR 35.925-6 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permits. 35.925-6 Section 35.925-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-6 Permits. That the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.918-2 - Eligible and ineligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible and ineligible costs. 35.918-2 Section 35.918-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  16. 40 CFR 35.917 - Facilities planning (step 1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Facilities planning (step 1). 35.917 Section 35.917 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-8 - Environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental review. 35.925-8 Section 35.925-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  18. 40 CFR 35.917-4 - Planning scope and detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Planning scope and detail. 35.917-4 Section 35.917-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-3 - Priority determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Priority determination. 35.925-3 Section 35.925-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  20. 40 CFR 35.927-4 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance. 35.927-4 Section 35.927-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  1. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  2. 40 CFR 35.910-1 - Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allotments. 35.910-1 Section 35.910-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-1 Allotments. Allotments...

  3. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award...

  4. 40 CFR 35.912 - Delegation to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delegation to State agencies. 35.912 Section 35.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  5. 40 CFR 35.920-1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility. 35.920-1 Section 35.920-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.920-1 Eligibility....

  6. 40 CFR 35.907 - Municipal pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Municipal pretreatment program. 35.907 Section 35.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  7. 40 CFR 105.3 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Title. 105.3 Section 105.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.3 Title. The awards are known as the National Clean Water...

  8. 40 CFR 35.910-2 - Period of availability; reallotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Period of availability; reallotment. 35.910-2 Section 35.910-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-12 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property. 35.925-12 Section 35.925-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-12 Property. That...

  10. 40 CFR 35.910-3-35.910-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 35.910-3-35.910-4 Section 35.910-3-35.910-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §§...

  11. 40 CFR 105.8 - When can I apply for an award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When can I apply for an award? 105.8 Section 105.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Application and Nomination Process § 105.8 When can I apply...

  12. 40 CFR 35.910 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 35.910 Section 35.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  13. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  14. 40 CFR 35.917-3 - Federal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal assistance. 35.917-3 Section 35.917-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.917-3...

  15. 40 CFR 105.7 - How do I apply for an award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I apply for an award? 105.7 Section 105.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Application and Nomination Process § 105.7 How do I apply for...

  16. 40 CFR 35.917-2 - State responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State responsibilities. 35.917-2 Section 35.917-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  17. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners?...

  18. 40 CFR 35.903 - Summary of construction grant program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary of construction grant program. 35.903 Section 35.903 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  19. 40 CFR 135.4 - Service of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Service of complaint. 135.4 Section 135.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS Prior Notice Under the Clean Water Act § 135.4 Service of complaint. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 105.12 - How is the awards review committee selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How is the awards review committee selected? 105.12 Section 105.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.12 How is the awards...