Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob
This summary from the "Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014" full report presents the school district performance in a pull-out format. Definitions are provided for the column heading: (1) Total Operations Spending, (2) Property Tax Revenue, (3) Total Enrollment; (4) One-Year Change in Enrollment, (5) Minority Enrollment,…
The West Virginia Board of Education (WVBE), recognizing the need for safe and supportive schools, revised its policy regarding student conduct. The result, "Expected Behaviors in Safe and Supportive Schools" (WVBE Policy 4373, effective July 1, 2012), put forth the behaviors expected of West Virginia's students; the rights and…
Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014
"MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…
Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob
Over nearly three decades, the Public Policy Forum has collected and analyzed education data to report on the demographics, academic performance, and finances of public schools and districts in southeast Wisconsin. This 29th annual public schools report continues that tradition with updated analyses of new data and trends to shed light on the…
Proposition 10, also known as the California Children and Families Act of 1998, is the legislation for creating Kern County Children and Families Commission (First 5 Kern). Over the past 15 years, First 5 Kern administered a trust fund from a $.50 per pack tax on cigarettes or equivalent tobacco products to support children ages 0-5 and their…
... Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); 2013-2014 Award Year AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Free Application for Federal Student Aid... information. The Secretary will include on the applicant's Institutional Student Information Record...
Tretyak, Kornyliy; Hlotov, Volodymyr; Holubinka, Yuriy; Marusazh, Khrystyna
In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station "Academician Vernadsky". Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.
Texas Education Agency, 2014
Under Texas Administrative Code (TAC) §89.1225(h), districts are required to use the exit criteria represented in the chart titled "2013-2014 English Proficiency Exit Criteria Chart" found at (http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=4098) to exit English language learners (ELLs) from bilingual/ESL programs. The exit criteria under TAC…
Green, H K; Brousseau, N; Andrews, N; Selby, L; Pebody, R
A phased introduction of routine influenza vaccination of healthy children was recommended in the UK in 2012, with the aim of protecting both vaccinated children and the wider population through reducing transmission. In the first year of the programme in 2013-2014, 4- to 11-year-olds were targeted in pilot areas across England. This study assesses if this was associated with school absenteeism, an important societal burden of influenza. During the spring 2014 term when influenza predominantly circulated, the proportion of absence sessions due to illness was compared between vaccination pilot and non-pilot areas for primary schools (to measure overall impact) and secondary schools (to measure indirect impact). A linear multilevel regression model was applied, adjusting for clustering within schools and potential school-level confounders, including deprivation, past absenteeism, and ethnicity. Low levels of influenza activity were reported in the community in 2013-2014. Primary schools in pilot areas had a significantly adjusted decrease in illness absenteeism of 0·05% relative to non-pilot schools; equivalent to an average of 4 days per school. In secondary schools, there was no significant indirect impact of being located in a pilot area on illness absenteeism. These insights can be used in conjunction with routine healthcare surveillance data to evaluate the full benefits of such a programme.
Arkansas Department of Education, 2015
In compliance with the provisions of A.C.A.§§6-20-2201 et seq., the Annual Statistical Report of the Public Schools of Arkansas, Public Charter Schools, and Education Service Cooperatives, 2013-2014 Actual and 2014-2015 Budgeted, (ASR) is presented here. The Rankings of Selected Items of the Public Schools of Arkansas, 2013-2014 Actual, (Rankings)…
Alabama Department of Education, 2014
The Alabama Department of Education presents "Quick Facts," an annual snapshot of general state statistics, facts about public schools, the State Board of Education, and general financial data. The data presented in this report covers the school year 2013-2014.
Respiratory Highlights Page 1 Demographic Summary Page 1 Laboratory Results - Cumulative for Season Pages 2 & 3 Vaccination Status by Beneficiary Type Page...epi-consult/influenza 3 Graph 3. Vaccination status by beneficiary type for the 2013-2014 surveillance year Graph 4. Influenza subtype trends by... Vaccine (trivalent) § Influenza Injectable Vaccine (quadrivalent) † Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (quadrivalent) 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
Schools Network, 2011
The Schools Network is an independent, not-for-profit membership organization dedicated to raising levels of achievement in education. It has a membership of over 5,000 schools, academies, universities, colleges and local authorities. It is a registered charity. Formerly known as the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust, The Schools Network has…
Oregon Department of Education, 2014
The Oregon Statewide Report Card is an annual publication required by law (ORS 329.115), which reports on the state of public schools and their progress towards the goals of the Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century. The purpose of the Oregon Report Card is to monitor trends among school districts and Oregon's progress toward achieving the…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
The "Academic Year Report 2013-14" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in Washington's community and technical colleges for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel, and…
Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.
McDonald, Dale; Schultz, Margaret M.
This annual statistical report presents information about schools, school enrollment and staffing patterns for grades PreK-12 for Catholic elementary and secondary schools. An executive summary provides insight into the data along with highlights of statistics in a historical perspective for comparison of past years and decades. Updated annually.
Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda
Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in
Kaiser, Cameron; Cole, Barbara; Saruwatari, Kimberly; Leon, Ramon
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), can spread from person to person through the air, which can make contact investigations particularly complex in heavily populated settings such as schools. In November 2013, a student (the index patient) at a southern California high school with approximately 2,000 students and staff members was diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Because of an unexpectedly high number of positive tuberculin skin test results in the initial contact investigation, testing was extended to the entire school population, which had to be completed before the end of the school term. A total of 1,806 persons were tested in 24 hours. The rapid testing of the entire population of a high school is unusual and led to widespread media attention and community concern, requiring close coordination among branches of the County of Riverside Department of Public Health, local governments, and the school district. The testing resulted in identification of two additional cases of TB; in addition, 72 persons underwent treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI). This incident demonstrates the importance of a coordinated emergency response in a large-scale deployment of rapid testing, including efficiently focused resources, organized testing operations, and effective media relations.
Woon, Yuan Liang; Hor, Chee Peng; Hussin, Narwani; Zakaria, Ariza; Goh, Pik Pin; Cheah, Wee Kooi
Background Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and investigational forms. These cases were categorized into children (<15 years), adults (15–59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) to compare their clinical characteristics. Results A total of 322 dengue deaths were reviewed. Their mean age was 40.7±19.30 years, half were females and 72.5% were adults. The median durations of first medical contact, and hospitalization were 1 and 3 days, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension were common co-morbidities among adults and elderly. The most common warning signs reported were lethargy and vomiting, with lethargy (p = 0.038) being more common in children, while abdominal pain was observed more often in the adults (p = 0.040). But 22.4% did not have any warning signs. Only 34% were suspected of dengue illness at their initial presentation. More adults developed severe plasma leakage (p = 0.018). More than half (54%) suffered from multi-organ involvement, and 20.2% were free from any organ involvement. Dengue deaths occurred at the median of 3 days post-admission. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) contributed to more than 70% of dengue deaths, followed by severe organ involvement (69%) and severe bleeding (29.7%). Conclusion In Malaysia, dengue deaths occurred primarily in adult patients. DSS was the leading cause of death, regardless of age groups. The atypical presentation and dynamic progression of severe dengue in this cohort prompts early recognition and aggressive intervention to prevent deaths. Trial Registration
Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R
Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.
Rahmati, M; Moayedi, A; Zakery Shahvari, S; Golmirzaei, J; Zahirinea, M; Abbasi, B
Introduction. Bruxism is to press or grind teeth against each other in non-physiologic cases, when an individual does not swallow or chew. If not treated, teeth problems, stress, mental disorders, frequent night waking, and headache is expected. This research aimed to study the effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital. Methodology. In this clinical trial, 143 children with the ages between 4-12 years were admitted to the Children Hospital and were divided randomly into test and control groups. The test group consisted of 88 hydroxyzine-treated children and the control group consisted of 55 children who used hot towels. Both groups were examined in some stages including the pre-test stages or the stage before starting treatments at two, four, and six weeks and four months after stopping the treatment. The effects of each treatment on reducing bruxism symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using SPSS in descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA. Results. As far as bruxism severity was concerned, the results showed a significant difference between the test group members who received hydroxyzine and the control group members who received no medication. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the test and the control groups in the second post-test (four weeks later) (p. value ≤ 0.05). Mean of the scores of bruxism severity in the test group has changed significantly in the post-test (at two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks later) as compared to the pre-test. Whereas, as far as the response to the treatment, no significant difference was recorded between the control group and the test group 4 weeks after the treatment. Discussion. The results showed that prescribing hydroxyzine for 4 weeks had a considerable effect in diminishing bruxism severity between the test groups.
Rahmati, M; Moayedi, A; Zakery Shahvari, S; Golmirzaei, J; Zahirinea, M; Abbasi, B
Introduction. Bruxism is to press or grind teeth against each other in non-physiologic cases, when an individual does not swallow or chew. If not treated, teeth problems, stress, mental disorders, frequent night waking, and headache is expected. This research aimed to study the effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital. Methodology. In this clinical trial, 143 children with the ages between 4-12 years were admitted to the Children Hospital and were divided randomly into test and control groups. The test group consisted of 88 hydroxyzine-treated children and the control group consisted of 55 children who used hot towels. Both groups were examined in some stages including the pre-test stages or the stage before starting treatments at two, four, and six weeks and four months after stopping the treatment. The effects of each treatment on reducing bruxism symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using SPSS in descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA. Results. As far as bruxism severity was concerned, the results showed a significant difference between the test group members who received hydroxyzine and the control group members who received no medication. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the test and the control groups in the second post-test (four weeks later) (p. value ≤ 0.05). Mean of the scores of bruxism severity in the test group has changed significantly in the post-test (at two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks later) as compared to the pre-test. Whereas, as far as the response to the treatment, no significant difference was recorded between the control group and the test group 4 weeks after the treatment. Discussion. The results showed that prescribing hydroxyzine for 4 weeks had a considerable effect in diminishing bruxism severity between the test groups.
Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015
The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) is one of the world's leading educational research centres. ACER's mission is to create and promote research-based knowledge, products and services that can be used to improve learning across the life span. This annual report describes ACER's milestones and accomplishments for the 2013-2014…
Hu, S Sean; Neff, Linda; Agaku, Israel T; Cox, Shanna; Day, Hannah R; Holder-Hayes, Enver; King, Brian A
While significant declines in cigarette smoking have occurred among U.S. adults during the past 5 decades, the use of emerging tobacco products* has increased in recent years (1-3). To estimate tobacco use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). During 2013-2014, 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.5% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking, during 2013-2014, cigarettes remained the most commonly used tobacco product among adults. Young adults aged 18-24 years reported the highest prevalence of use of emerging tobacco products, including water pipes/hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Furthermore, racial/ethnic and sociodemographic differences in the use of any tobacco product were observed, with higher use reported among males; non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanics of other races(†); persons aged <45 years; persons living in the Midwest or South; persons with a General Educational Development (GED) certificate; persons who were single/never married/not living with a partner or divorced/separated/widowed; persons with annual household income <$20,000; and persons who were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). Population-level interventions that focus on all forms of tobacco product use, including tobacco price increases, high-impact anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting tobacco use, in conjunction with FDA regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States.(§).
Haffke, Louise Marie; Damm, Paula; Cross, Barbara
During the 2013-2014 school year, the Shaker Heights, Ohio City school district was mandated to change its evaluation process as part of the Race to the Top initiative. Although not required by the federal or state Departments of Education, the Shaker Heights City school district tasked all members of their faculty and staff, including school…
Florida Department of Education, 2014
While fiscal year 2012-2013 was a year of transition for the Office of Early Learning (OEL), fiscal year 2013-2014 proved to be a year when new leadership, organizational structure, direction and vision coalesced, producing results that demonstrated the office was moving in the right direction. The first day of the fiscal year--July 1, 2013--was…
Bloom, Marlene Z
Jeffrey C. Delafuente, MS, FCCP, FASCP, associate dean for academic affairs and professor of pharmacotherapy, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy, Richmond, Virginia, will assume the office of 2013-2014 president of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists at the Society's 2013 Annual Meeting & Exhibition in November.
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; O'Brien, Fearghal; Lipsky, Leah; Bible, Joe; Liu, Danping
Objective: To examine changes in health behaviors among US emerging adults 1 year after high school. Participants: The national sample of participants (N = 1,927), including those attending 4-year college/university (n = 884), 2-year colleges/technical schools (n = 588), and no college (n = 455), participated in annual spring surveys 2013-2014.…
Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014)
Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Bielecki, Wojciech; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Piwoński, Jerzy; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech
Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA) patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland. Methods The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20–74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003–2005; n = 14572) and WOBASZ II (2013–2014; n = 5694). In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey). Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity. Results Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003–2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men); 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%). In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01). Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001). About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey. Conclusions The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance. PMID:27272130
Cosman, F; Krege, J H; Looker, A C; Schousboe, J T; Fan, B; Sarafrazi Isfahani, N; Shepherd, J A; Krohn, K D; Steiger, P; Wilson, K E; Genant, H K
Spine fracture prevalence is similar in men and women, increasing from <5 % in those <60 to 11 % in those 70-79 and 18 % in those ≥80 years. Prevalence was higher with age, lower bone mineral density (BMD), and in those meeting criteria for spine imaging. Most subjects with spine fractures were unaware of them.
Mao, Yixin; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.
California has experienced severe drought in 2012-2014 (which appears to be continuing into 2015), with especially low winter precipitation and mountain snowpack in winter 2013-2014. However, the extent to which climate change is implicated in the drought, if at all, is not clear. By applying modeling and statistical approaches, we construct a historical record of California snowpack, runoff, and other hydrological variables of almost 100 years in length and use the reconstructed records to analyze climate trends in the Sierra Nevada and their impact on extreme drought events in the historic record. We confirm a general warming trend and associated decreasing trends in spring snowpack and runoff. We find that the warming may have slightly exacerbated some extreme events (including the 2013-2014 drought and the 1976-1977 drought of record), but the effect is modest; instead, these drought events are mainly the result of variability in precipitation.
Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong
The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.
Tiffany, Burton C.
This presentation describes the year-round school operation of the Chula Vista City School District in California. Chula Vista adopted the 45-15 year-round plan to help ease a shortage of classroom space while maintaining a quality program for children. Under the plan, each pupil attends school for about nine weeks and then has vacation for three…
Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) datasets are statistical upper-air climatologies of specific geographical locations. center dot The Range Commanders Council (RCC) have been publishing RRAs since 1963, with updates produced. Two "milestone" series were produced in 1983 and 2006. center dot In late 2012, the NASA/MSFC Natural Environments Branch initiated production of a new series of RRA updates. These are referred to as the 2013/2014 versions. center dot To date, four RRAs have been completed (CCAFS, EAFB, VAFB, WSMR). Development of these four were funded by the NASA Space Launch System program. center dot The RCC has funded a proposal to create RRAs for an additional ten sites. Work on these is ongoing.
Hickmann, Kyle S; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y
Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.
Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xuebin
The severe 2013/2014 cold winter has been examined in the context of the previous 55 winters using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data for the period 1960-2014. North America is dominated by pronounced cold anomalies over the Great Plains and Great Lakes in December 2013 and February 2014 but exhibits an east-west contrast pattern with warm anomalies over most of the North American West in January 2014. A relevant temperature index, defined as land surface temperature anomalies averaged over (40°-60°N, 105°-80°W), reveals a warming trend as well as interannual variability with a significant power peak of 6.0 years. While 2013/2014 was the second coldest winter during 1960-2014, it is the coldest one in the linearly detrended series, with a negative anomaly of 2.63 standard deviations. This indicates that the long-term warming has made the 2013/2014 winter less severe than it could have been. The temperature and circulation variability in association with the zonally symmetric variability of the polar vortex projects weakly on the corresponding anomalies in the 2013/2014 winter, whereas the variability associated with the principal mode of North American surface temperature projects strongly on the corresponding anomalies in the winter. This mode is associated with a sea surface temperature (SST) pattern of significant anomalies over the North Pacific and North Atlantic middle and high latitudes. The anomalous atmospheric circulation shows an anticyclonic anomaly over the Gulf of Alaska-Bering Sea and a cyclonic anomaly downstream over North America. It bears resemblance to the North Pacific Oscillation/Western Pacific pattern and drives the SST in the North Pacific. Over western-central Canada and the northern U.S., below-average heights are associated with above-normal precipitation, implying enhanced upward vertical motion and variation of local cloud forcing, leading to a variation of the surface energy budget dominated by
Moturi, Edna K; Porter, Kimberly A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Jafari, Hamid
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports. In 2013, a total of 416 WPV cases were reported globally from eight countries, an 86% increase from the 223 WPV cases reported from five countries in 2012. This upsurge in 2013 was caused by a 60% increase in WPV cases detected in Pakistan, and by outbreaks in five previously polio-free countries resulting from international spread of WPV. In 2014, as of May 20, a total of 82 WPV cases had been reported worldwide, compared with 34 cases during the same period in 2013. Polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) were detected in eight countries in 2013 and in two countries so far in 2014. To achieve polio eradication in the near future, further efforts are needed to 1) address health worker safety concerns in areas of armed conflict in priority countries, 2) to prevent further spread of WPV and new outbreaks after importation into polio-free countries, and 3) to strengthen surveillance globally. Based on the international spread of WPV to date in 2014, the WHO Director General has issued temporary recommendations to reduce further international exportation of WPV through vaccination of persons traveling from currently polio-affected countries.
Melkonian, Andrew; Willis, Michael; Pritchard, Matt
We calculate thinning rates (dh/dt) at the 5,800 km2 Stikine Icefield of southeast Alaska from stacked digital elevation models (DEMs) acquired between 2000 and 2013/2014, and glacier velocities between 1985 and 2014 from feature tracking on optical image pairs. We find a mass change rate of -3.3 ± 1.1 Gt yr-1 between 2000&and 2014, equivalent to an area-averaged elevation change rate of -0.57 ± 0.18 m w.e. yr-1. In 2014, land-terminating glaciers are 50% of the Stikine Icefield's glaciated area and contribute -0.9 ± 0.4 Gt yr-1 of mass change (27% of the total), while marine-terminating glaciers are only 30% of the total glaciated area, but contribute -1.5 ± 0.3 Gt yr-1 (or 45% of total mass change, with the remaining mass loss from lacustrine-terminating glaciers). We estimate the frontal ablation flux between 2000 and 2014 at the four largest marine-terminating glaciers on the Stikine Icefield (covering 90 to 95% of the marine-terminating glaciated area) using our glacier velocities and maps of fjord bathymetry to estimate terminus cross sections and glacier thicknesses. The combined 2014 frontal ablation flux of these four glaciers is 1.18 ± 0.14 Gt yr-1, which may account for the difference in average mass loss between marine- and land-terminating glaciers on the Stikine Icefield. The Stikine and adjacent Juneau Icefields have very different mass loss contributions from marine-terminating glaciers (45% vs. effectively 0%), but both have area-averaged elevation change rates that are less negative than Alaska-wide estimates, which is surprising for these southernmost icefields in Alaska.
Porter, Kimberly A; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988 and have been successful in all but two of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Within these two regions (African and Eastern Mediterranean), three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan) have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). Outbreaks following importation of WPV from these countries occurred in the Horn of Africa, Central Africa, and in the Middle East during 2013-2014. The primary means of tracking polio is surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), the main symptom of polio, followed by testing of AFP patients' stool specimens for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). This is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for WPV and VDPV) (4). Both types of surveillance use genomic sequencing for characterization of poliovirus isolates to map poliovirus transmission and for identifying gaps in AFP surveillance by measuring genetic divergence between isolates. This report presents 2013 and 2014 poliovirus surveillance data, focusing primarily on the two WHO regions with endemic WPV transmission, and the 29 countries (African Region = 23; Eastern Mediterranean Region = six) with at least one case of WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) reported during 2010-2014. In 2013, 20 of these 23 African region countries met both primary surveillance quality indicators; in 2014, the number decreased to 15. In 2013, five of the six Eastern Mediterranean Region countries met the primary indicators, and in 2014, all six did. To complete and certify polio eradication, surveillance gaps must be identified and surveillance activities, including supervision, monitoring, and specimen collection, further strengthened.
Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014
Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) "Special Education at a Glance," which includes a copy of the "Guide to Planning and Assessing School-Based Special Education Programs," provides in a single document, information about the special education population at each Montgomery County public school, including enrollment,…
Texas Education Agency, 2014
Commissioner's Rules Concerning the State Plan for Educating English Language Learners (ELLs) states that all school districts that are required to provide bilingual education and/or English as a second language (ESL) programs establish and operate a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC). The LPACs are charged with reviewing all…
Abramenkov, Sergey; Shapiro, Nikolai; Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyirov, Ilyas; Frank, William; Jakovlev, Andrey
We present observation of seismic activity associated with the strong degassing episode occurred in Gorely volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) in 2013-2014. We use the data of a temporary network of 21 broadband seismographs that operated on this volcano during one year. During the considered period, the volcanic activity mainly consisted of sustained gas emission that produced strong volcanic tremor well recorded by seismic stations. A close analysis of this tremor revealed that it was composed of many very frequent pulses of seismic energy. The corresponding signals had an emergent character without clear arrivals of P and S waves, which is typical for burst of Long Period (LP) events on many volcanoes. We developed a source-scanning algorithm based on summation of seismogram envelopes for automatic detection and location of these LP events. With the help of this method, numerous events originated from the vicinity of the main crater were detected. In a next step, we cross-correlated the waveforms of the detected LP events and found that a large part of them can be regrouped in families of seismic multiplets. This indicates that the increased pressure produced by the volcanic degassing activates a set of non-destructive shallow seismic sources in vicinity of the main volcanic conduit. The developed analysis of continuous seismic records was used to characterize the spatio-temporal evolution of these sources.
Hall, Rose A.
During the 2013-2014 school year, a case study on parent involvement was conducted at an elementary school in Florida's Broward County, the 9th largest school district in our nation. The study's goal was to identify a systematic schema for evaluating parent involvement in the school lives of students that would allow researchers to examine the…
Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.
Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.
... hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2013-2014 season. DATES: We will accept comments... migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing. These regulations list... Refuge/region (*) State Migratory bird hunting Upland game hunting Big game hunting Sport fishing...
Kucharski, Adam J; Mills, Harriet L; Donnelly, Christl A; Riley, Steven
To determine transmission potential of influenza A(H7N9) virus, we used symptom onset data to compare 2 waves of infection in China during 2013-2014. We found evidence of increased transmission potential in the second wave and showed that live bird market closure was significantly less effective in Guangdong than in other regions.
Polat, Soner; Kazak, Ender
The purpose of this study is to determine the views of primary school teachers on intergenerational learning (IGL). The study group consists of eight primary schools in the central district of Düzce during the 2013-2014 academic year and 13 teachers who teach in these schools. Participants were selected among teachers working in Düzce's city…
Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker
This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…
Mazor, Kathleen M; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Valluri, Sruthi; Wilson, Patrick M; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Background Health information exchanged between friends or family members can influence decision making, both for routine health questions and for serious health issues. A health information broker is a person to whom friends and family turn for advice or information on health-related topics. Characteristics and online behaviors of health information brokers have not previously been studied in a national population. Objective The objective of this study was to examine sociodemographic characteristics, health information seeking behaviors, and other online behaviors among health information brokers. Methods Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2013-2014; n=3142) were used to compare brokers with nonbrokers. Modified Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between broker status and sociodemographics and online information seeking. Results Over half (54.8%) of the respondents were consulted by family or friends for advice or information on health topics (ie, they acted as health information brokers). Brokers represented 54.1% of respondents earning <$20,000 yearly and 56.5% of respondents born outside the United States. Women were more likely to be brokers (PR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.47) as were those with education past high school (PR 1.42, CI 1.22-1.65). People aged ≥75 were less likely to be brokers as compared to respondents aged 35-49 (PR 0.81, CI 0.67-0.99). Brokers used the Internet more frequently for a variety of online behaviors such as seeking health information, creating and sharing online content, and downloading health information onto a mobile device; and also reported greater confidence in obtaining health information online. Conclusions More than 50% of adults who responded to this national survey, including those with low income and those born abroad, were providing health information or advice to friends and family. These individuals may prove to be effective targets for initiatives supporting patient engagement
This study consists of a review of the literature, a discussion of some of the vital questions concerning the year-round school, and a bibliography. Discussed are (1) quarter schedules of various types and their applications to school calendars, (2) transitions to quarter schedules from conventional schedules, (3) teacher and staff assignments,…
Cragan, Janet D; Mai, Cara T; Petersen, Emily E; Liberman, Rebecca F; Forestieri, Nina E; Stevens, Alissa C; Delaney, Augustina; Dawson, April L; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Dunn, Julie E; Higgins, Cathleen A; Meyer, Robert E; Williams, Tonya; Polen, Kara N D; Newsome, Kim; Reynolds, Megan; Isenburg, Jennifer; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen A; Honein, Margaret A
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations(†) (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.
Points made in favor of year-round education include: improved attendance; better coordination of students, vacations, and facilities; fewer discipline problems; less stressful teaching conditions; and continuity benefits for special needs students. (CB)
One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this…
Clark, Renee M.; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary; Budny, Daniel; Bursic, Karen M.; Clark, William W.; Norman, Bryan A.; Parker, Robert S.; Patzer, John F., II; Slaughter, William S.
In the 2013-2014 school year, we implemented the "flipped classroom" as part of an initiative to drive active learning, student engagement and enhanced learning in our school. The flipped courses consisted of freshman through senior engineering classes in introductory programming, statics/mechanics, mechanical design, bio-thermodynamics,…
Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Nissen, Poul; Poulsen, Line
Marginalized boys at risk of dropping out of high school have for a long time been a problem in the Western world. 100 such Danish 14-16 year old boys were in the summers of 2013, 2014 and 2015 exposed to a new school program, "The Boys Academy," inspired by Seligman and the American KIPP schools suggesting seven character strengths to…
DeMarcus, Laurie S; Parms, Tiffany A; Thervil, Jeffrey W
This report for the 2013-2014 influenza season summarizes the results of influenza surveillance carried out by the DoD Global, Laboratory-based, Influenza Surveillance Program, which is managed by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Epidemiology Consult Service and Epidemiology Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. Sentinel sites submitted 3,903 specimens for clinical diagnostic testing and 1,163 (29.8%) were positive for influenza virus. The predominant influenza subtype was influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, identified in 79.2% of all influenza-positive specimens. The other most common subtypes were influenza A(H3N2) (10.5%) and influenza B (10.1%). In August 2014, a human case of influenza A(H3N2) variant was identified in a patient with a history of exposure to swine. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated among 1,016 military dependents and retirees in the U.S. and was found to be 44.8% for all vaccine types. Uncertainties and other limitations associated with estimating VE are discussed.
Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Olafsson, Brynjar
A pilot research was undertaken in Icelandic schools during the 2013-2014 school year, in order to explore students' technological understanding and reasoning at the ages of 11 and 13. The survey included a questionnaire regarding mechanical movement, power and thermodynamics, while the project considered the congruity between students'…
Jain, Ram B
For the first time, for 2013-2014, as part of ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, data for fluoride concentrations in water and plasma for U.S. children and adolescents were released in the public domain. This study was undertaken to investigate how fluoride concentrations vary in water and plasma with age, gender, race/ethnicity, housing ownership, use of prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and recent use of tobacco products (among adolescents). Fluoride concentrations in water were found to be lower among those aged 3-5 years than those aged 6-11 years (p=0.02), lower for non-Hispanic Asians than Hispanics (p=0.04) among 3-5 years old, lower for non-Hispanic Asians than non-Hispanic blacks (p=0.04) among 6-11 years old, and lower for those who used prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets than those who did not (p≤0.048) among 12-19 years old. Adjusted fluoride concentrations in plasma were found to be lower for females than males (p<0.01) among those aged 6-11 years, lower for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites (p<0.01) among those aged 12-19 years, and lower for those who used prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets than those who did not (p=0.03) among 12-15 years old. Recent smokers were found to have higher fluoride concentration (p=0.03) in plasma than non-smoker adolescents. Over 60% of the children aged 6-11 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years were at the risk of developing dental caries/decay. About 30% of the children were at the risk of dental fluorosis.
Tousignant, Steven J P; Perez, Andres; Morrison, Robert
The purpose of this study was to describe the 2013/2014 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) epidemic in the United States and compare it with the previous 4 y of data from 2009 to 2012. A total of 371 herds participated in the study, representing nearly 1.2 million sows in 15 States. There were significantly fewer PRRSV cases during this study period and the onset of the annual epidemic was delayed approximately 3 wk. Cluster analysis revealed a pattern similar to previous years. The roles of spurious observations, increased awareness of PRRSV epidemics, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus detection in the United States swine herd are considered.
Mohamadi, Jasem; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj
Vaginal Candidiasis is the most common and important opportunistic fungal infection in women. By increasing use of antifungal drugs in recent years, it has caused drug resistance. This study aims to evaluate antifungal drugs susceptibility of Candida. spp isolated of women with vaginitis from Ilam-Iran during 2013-2014. samples were collected and cultured from 385 women with vaginitis, then Candida.spp was diagnosed by standard method. Antifungal drug susceptibility test for nystatin 100 unit/disk, fluconazole 10µg/disk, itraconazole 10µg/disk, ketoconazole 10µg/disk, amphotericinB 20µg/disk, clotrimazole 10µg/disk, posaconazole 5µg/disk, and voriconazole 1µg/disk were carried out by M44-A method(CLSI). From all culture positive samples, 150 isolates were Candida albicans and 89 isolates were non-albicans. The resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was 76%, 62%, 72%, 55%, 6%, 7%, 1% and 0%. The highest resistance was seen for fluconazole , itraconazole, and the highest susceptible was seen for nystatin and amphotericin B. These results indicate nystatin and amphotericin B can be used as the first line for empirical therapy of vaginal candidiasis in the district. PMID:26124561
Zamani, Mahmmood Reza; Karimi, Fariba
The present paper aims to study the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction among female high school teachers in Isfahan. It was a descriptive-correlation research. Population included all female high school teachers of Isfahan (2015) in academic year 2013-2014. Sample size calculated was 320 teachers by Krejcie and…
Kreisel, Kristen; Torrone, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Hong, Jaeyoung; Gorwitz, Rachel
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (1). PID occurs when microorganisms ascend from the vagina or cervix to the fallopian tubes and other upper genital tract structures (1). PID can result from untreated bacterial infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (1). Because there is no single diagnostic test for PID, clinicians rely on nonspecific signs and symptoms for diagnosis. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle. Starting in 2013, NHANES female participants aged 18-44 years were asked about a lifetime history of PID diagnosis. Based on these data, the estimated prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was 4.4% in sexually experienced women of reproductive age (18-44 years). The prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was highest in women at increased risk, such as women reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Stratified by race/ethnicity and having a previous STI diagnosis, non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) women reporting a previous STI diagnosis had nearly equal self-reported lifetime PID prevalence (10.0% versus 10.3%). However, the lifetime prevalence of PID among black women was 2.2 times that among white women if no previous STI was diagnosed (6.0% versus 2.7%). These findings suggest that PID is prevalent and associated with previous STI diagnoses; therefore, it is important for clinicians to screen female patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea to reduce the incidence of PID.
Vlek, A L M; Frentz, D; Haenen, A; Bootsma, H J; Notermans, D W; Frakking, F N J; de Greeff, S C; Leenstra, T
Laboratory detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is complicated. Screening with MIC values below clinical breakpoints followed by genotypic confirmation is recommended. We evaluated the application of recommended CPE screening and confirmation methods and provide an overview of CPE epidemiology in E. coli and K. pneumoniae in the Netherlands. Data on E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates with elevated meropenem (>0.25 mg/L) and/or imipenem (>1 mg/L) MIC values in 2013-2014 were selected from the Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System for Antibiotic Resistance. Laboratories were requested to provide additional results of any confirmatory testing performed. Confirmation of elevated carbapenem MIC values using gradient testing was performed in 59.8 % of eligible isolates. Confirmatory testing showed elevated MIC values in 8 % of E. coli and 32 % of K. pneumoniae isolates. The overall proportion of confirmed non-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 0.01 % and 0.16 %, respectively. Genotypic confirmation was performed in 61.0 % of isolates with confirmed elevated carbapenem MIC values. A carbapenemase gene was identified in 47 % of E. coli and 65 % of K. pneumoniae isolates. OXA-48, NDM and KPC were the most frequently found carbapenemase genes. The majority (62 %) of CPE isolates was detected through targeted screening. CPE are a rare finding in the Netherlands. Adherence to the national guideline is suboptimal and differs between laboratories, implying a risk of inadequate CPE detection. Since accurate identification of CPE is the first step in prevention of CPE spread, successful implementation of guidelines for testing and reporting of CPE is essential.
Lutomiah, Joel; Barrera, Roberto; Makio, Albina; Mutisya, James; Koka, Hellen; Owaka, Samuel; Koskei, Edith; Nyunja, Albert; Eyase, Fredrick; Coldren, Rodney; Sang, Rosemary
Dengue outbreaks were first reported in East Africa in the late 1970s to early 1980s including the 1982 outbreak on the Kenyan coast. In 2011, dengue outbreaks occurred in Mandera in northern Kenya and subsequently in Mombasa city along the Kenyan coast in 2013-2014. Following laboratory confirmation of dengue fever cases, an entomologic investigation was conducted to establish the mosquito species, and densities, causing the outbreak. Affected parts of the city were identified with the help of public health officials. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using various tools, processed and screened for dengue virus (DENV) by cell culture and RT-PCR. All containers in every accessible house and compound within affected suburbs were inspected for immatures. A total of 2,065 Ae. aegypti adults were collected and 192 houses and 1,676 containers inspected. An overall house index of 22%, container index, 31.0% (indoor = 19; outdoor = 43) and Breteau index, 270.1, were observed, suggesting that the risk of dengue transmission was high. Overall, jerry cans were the most productive containers (18%), followed by drums (17%), buckets (16%), tires (14%) and tanks (10%). However, each site had specific most-productive container-types such as tanks (17%) in Kizingo; Drums in Nyali (30%) and Changamwe (33%), plastic basins (35%) in Nyali-B and plastic buckets (81%) in Ganjoni. We recommend that for effective control of the dengue vector in Mombasa city, all container types would be targeted. Measures would include proper covering of water storage containers and eliminating discarded containers outdoors through a public participatory environmental clean-up exercise. Providing reliable piped water to all households would minimize the need for water storage and reduce aquatic habitats. Isolation of DENV from male Ae. aegypti mosquitoes is a first observation in Kenya and provides further evidence that transovarial transmission may have a role in DENV circulation and
Omrani, H.; Vautard, R.; Schaller, N.; Allen, M. R.
During the winter 2013/2014, the UK saw heavy rainfalls associated with a succession of storms reaching Southern England causing widespread flooding, power cuts and major disruptions to transport. The January precipitation set a record for several rain gauge stations in Southern England. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropogenic climate change, represented by a modification of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the January precipitation. For that, we conducted a sensitivity experiment by running a set of 108 four-months simulations using WRF model with 9 different physics and 12 different SST fields; 9 for the factual world and 99 for the counter-factual world. A spectral nudging technique was used here to ensure a same atmospheric circulation patterns for all the simulations. Therefore, only the thermodynamic effect is considered here. The analysis is focused on January precipitation over the southern England. Results show for 0,5°C SST difference over the Northern Atlantic, the precipitation in the factual simulations is between 0,4 and 8% higher than the precipitation in the counter-factual simulations depending on the physic. A validation test shows that this value is closer to 8% for the "best physic" simulation. It also show a strong spatial variability where in some region the precipitation is higher in the counter-factual world compared the factual world. Finally, a backward trajectories were calculated to evaluate the sensitivity of the moisture sources and air mass trajectories to the SST in the factual and the counter-factual world.
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…
The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…
Describes the variations of year-round education (YRE) plans being used across the country including the 45-15 plan, and the 60-20 plan used by the Oxnard School District (CA). Discusses the school design needs of YRE programming and the structural planning involved in Oxnard's Christa McAuliffe Elementary School. (MD)
Takashita, Emi; Meijer, Adam; Lackenby, Angie; Gubareva, Larisa; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Besselaar, Terry; Fry, Alicia; Gregory, Vicky; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Huang, Weijuan; Lo, Janice; Pereyaslov, Dmitriy; Siqueira, Marilda M; Wang, Dayan; Mak, Gannon C; Zhang, Wenqing; Daniels, Rod S; Hurt, Aeron C; Tashiro, Masato
Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) tested 10,641 viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres between May 2013 and May 2014 to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. In addition, neuraminidase (NA) sequence data, available from the WHO CCs and from sequence databases (n=3206), were screened for amino acid substitutions associated with reduced NAI susceptibility. Ninety-five per cent of the viruses tested by the WHO CCs were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 2% (n=172) showed highly reduced inhibition (HRI) against at least one of the four NAIs, commonly oseltamivir, while 0.3% (n=32) showed reduced inhibition (RI). Those showing HRI were A(H1N1)pdm09 with NA H275Y (n=169), A(H3N2) with NA E119V (n=1), B/Victoria-lineage with NA E117G (n=1) and B/Yamagata-lineage with NA H273Y (n=1); amino acid position numbering is A subtype and B type specific. Although approximately 98% of circulating viruses tested during the 2013-2014 period were sensitive to all four NAIs, a large community cluster of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with the NA H275Y substitution from patients with no previous exposure to antivirals was detected in Hokkaido, Japan. Significant numbers of A(H1N1)pdm09 NA H275Y viruses were also detected in China and the United States: phylogenetic analyses showed that the Chinese viruses were similar to those from Japan, while the United States viruses clustered separately from those of the Hokkaido outbreak, indicative of multiple resistance-emergence events. Consequently, global surveillance of influenza antiviral susceptibility should be continued from a public health perspective.
Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.
Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the
Liakakou, Eleni; Stravroulas, Jason; Roukounakis, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Fourtziou, Luciana; Psiloglou, Vassilis; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos
Black carbon (BC) is a particulate pollutant species emitted from the combustion of fuels, biomass burning for agricultural purposes and forest fires, with the first two anthropogenic sources being the major contributors to the atmospheric burden of BC. The presence of BC is important due to its direct and indirect physicochemical effects and its use as a tracer of burning and subsequent transport processes. Black carbon measurements took place during winter 2013 -2014 in the frame of a pollution monitoring experiment conducted at the urban site of Thissio, Athens (city center) at the premises of the National Observatory of Athens. The economic crisis in Greece and the resulting turn of Athens inhabitants to wood burning for domestic heating, has led to increased daily concentrations of BC in the range of 2-6 μg m-3, peaking at night time (15-20 μg m-3). Three different optical methods were used for the determination of BC. A Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP; Radiance Research) commercial instrument was used to monitor the light absorption coefficient (σap) at 565 nm of ambient aerosols, with 1 minute resolution. During parts of the campaign, a portable Aethalometer (AE-42; Magee Scientific) was also used to provide measurement of the aerosol BC content at 7 wavelengths over 5 minutes intervals. Exploiting the measurements at different wavelengths is was feasible to separate wood burning BC from BC related to fossil fuel. Two Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP; Thermo) were also operated as reference. Finally, aerosol samples were collected on 12-hour basis using a sequential dichotomous sampler for the sampling of PM2.5, PM2.5-10and PM10 fractions of aerosols on quartz filters, and the filters were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) by a thermal - optical transmission technique. The main objective of the study is the intercomparison of the different BC monitoring techniques under a large range of ambient concentrations achieved due to the special
Despite the numerous advantages of a year-round schedule, there are significant political hurdles to its implementation. The most successful year-round schools are those where leaders worked closely with staff and families to maximize the benefits, minimize the costs, and build support for modifying the traditional school calendar. The research on…
Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Liakakou, Eleni; Psiloglou, Vassilis; Stavroulas, Jason; Fourtziou, Luciana; Roukounakis, Nikolaos; Lianou, Maria; Kappos, Nikolaos; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Kambezidis, Harry; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos
Smog due to wood burning has evolved to a major pollution problem affecting the most populated Greek cities during winter time. The economic crisis and the subsequent increase in the price of heating oil, has led people to look for alternative ways for domestic heating. Wood burning appeared to be the most common option, resulting to a rapid increase of pollution levels during nighttime, with emphasis on particulate matter. Taking into account the fact that highly populated cities such as Athens are also overloaded with traffic pollution, the need for specialized air quality measurements for the evaluation of the newly emerged problem was an imperative. Measurements of smog related pollution components in Athens took place during winter 2013-2014, at the premises of the National Observatory of Athens in Thissio (city center). The site was selected as representative of the average situation in Athens, while most of wood burning activities take place in Athens' suburban areas. For the chemical characterization of the smog particles, on line chemistry monitoring was performed by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, with 30 minutes resolution for the determination of organics, ammonium, sulfate, nitrate and chloride) and a Particle Into Liquid Sampler coupled with an Ionic Chromatograph (PILS, with 15 minutes resolution for the determination of ammonium and potassium). Additionally, aerosol samples were collected on 12-hour basis using a sequential dichotomous sampler for the sampling of PM2.5, PM2.5-10and PM10 fractions of aerosols on quartz filters, for further analyses, while a beta attenuation PM monitor was also deployed. Gas analyzers were installed for continuous NOx (NO, NO2), SO2, CO and O3 monitoring on 1-minute resolution. Finally, black carbon (BC) measurements were conducted with: a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, a portable Aethalometer and two Multi Angle Absorption Photometers. The meteorological conditions were recorded during the whole
Gladden, R Matthew; Martinez, Pedro; Seth, Puja
In March and October 2015, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and CDC, respectively, issued nationwide alerts identifying illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) as a threat to public health and safety (1,2). IMF is unlawfully produced fentanyl, obtained through illicit drug markets, includes fentanyl analogs, and is commonly mixed with or sold as heroin (1,3,4). Starting in 2013, the production and distribution of IMF increased to unprecedented levels, fueled by increases in the global supply, processing, and distribution of fentanyl and fentanyl-precursor chemicals by criminal organizations (3). Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid 50-100 times more potent than morphine (2).* Multiple states have reported increases in fentanyl-involved overdose (poisoning) deaths (fentanyl deaths) (2). This report examined the number of drug products obtained by law enforcement that tested positive for fentanyl (fentanyl submissions) and synthetic opioid-involved deaths other than methadone (synthetic opioid deaths), which include fentanyl deaths and deaths involving other synthetic opioids (e.g., tramadol). Fentanyl deaths are not reported separately in national data. Analyses also were conducted on data from 27 states(†) with consistent death certificate reporting of the drugs involved in overdoses. Nationally, the number of fentanyl submissions and synthetic opioid deaths increased by 426% and 79%, respectively, during 2013-2014; among the 27 analyzed states, fentanyl submission increases were strongly correlated with increases in synthetic opioid deaths. Changes in fentanyl submissions and synthetic opioid deaths were not correlated with changes in fentanyl prescribing rates, and increases in fentanyl submissions and synthetic opioid deaths were primarily concentrated in eight states (high-burden states). Reports from six of the eight high-burden states indicated that fentanyl-involved overdose deaths were primarily driving increases in synthetic opioid deaths. Increases in
The sampling of the present study consists of 92 volunteer physical education teachers (59 male and 33 female) who work at state and private primary schools (of the Ministry of Education) in Canakkale in the academic year 2013-2014. To identify the personality traits of the participants, Personality Inventory (PERI) was utilized. PERI consists of…
Upper Midwest Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.
This report contains addresses and symposium discussions presented at the conference on teacher competence for the middle school years (fifth or sixth through eighth grades) which was attended by about 100 educators for various levels and positions. The foreword lists three questions posed by emergence of the middle school movement which the…
The Achievements of Deaf Pupils in Scotland (ADPS) project has been tracking the educational attainment of deaf pupils in Scotland's schools since 2000. At the time of writing, the database contains records for 1,752 deaf pupils (2000--2005). Here 4-year aggregate educational attainment data are reported for a subset of 152 school-aged deaf pupils…
Massachusetts Department of Education, 2006
Site visits are one of the means the Department of Education uses to document each charter school's performance and progress. These visits usually take place during the second and third years of the charter. The Charter School Office, however, reserves the right to conduct visits at other times when deemed necessary. The primary purposes of a site…
Hammer, Patricia Cahape; White, Larry J.
This evaluation study provides descriptive information about the implementation and outcomes of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program in West Virginia, from September 2013 through May 2014. The report draws on information from online surveys of directors of 27 CCLC programs and from school teachers for 2,117 of the 11,432…
Robinson DeShon, Jessica; Jackson, Brandon; Ward, Matthew
This document was judged Best Brief submitted to the 2013–2014 National Health Law Moot Court Competition. The brief was submitted by students Jessica Robinson DeShon, Brandon Jackson, and Matthew Ward on behalf of Faulkner University School of Law in Montgomery, Alabama. Address correspondence to Professor Joe Lester at Jlester@Faulkner.edu.
Jubran, Ali Mohammad
This research aimed to evaluate the degree of organizational conflict among teachers in Jordanian schools, along with the principal strategies to deal with them effectively. The research population was based on a sample of 123 teachers from Irbid, Jordan for the academic year 2013/2014. A descriptive research approach was adopted with the help of…
Watson, Peter A. G.; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff R.; Palmer, T. N.
In the 2013/2014 winter, the eastern U.S. was exceptionally cold, the Bering Strait region was exceptionally warm, California was in the midst of drought, and the UK suffered severe flooding. It has been suggested that elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical West Pacific (TWPAC) were partly to blame due to them producing a Rossby wave train that propagated into the extratropics. We find that seasonal forecasts with the tropical atmosphere relaxed toward a reanalysis give 2013/2014 winter mean anomalies with strong similarities to those observed in the Northern Hemisphere, indicating that low-latitude anomalies had a role in the development of the extremes. Relaxing just the TWPAC produces a strong wave train over the North Pacific and North America in January, but not in the winter mean. This suggests that anomalies in this region alone had a large influence but cannot explain the extremes through the whole winter. We also examine the response to applying the observed TWPAC SST anomalies in two atmospheric general circulation models. We find that this does produce winter mean anomalies in the North Pacific and North America resembling those observed and that the tropical forcing of Rossby waves due to the applied SST anomalies appears stronger than that in reanalysis, except in January. Therefore, both experiments indicate that the TWPAC influence was important, but the true strength of the TWPAC influence is uncertain. None of the experiments indicate a strong systematic impact of the TWPAC anomalies on Europe.
Thorne, Ashley; Turscak, Marilee; Wood, Peter
Assigning a summer reading to entering freshmen is a growing trend at hundreds of American colleges and universities. Colleges typically pick one book and ask students to read it outside their courses. Many invite the author to help kick off the year by speaking on campus at convocation. Most colleges see the key purpose of a common reading…
Harvey, R R; Heiman Marshall, K E; Burnworth, L; Hamel, M; Tataryn, J; Cutler, J; Meghnath, K; Wellman, A; Irvin, K; Isaac, L; Chau, K; Locas, A; Kohl, J; Huth, P A; Nicholas, D; Traphagen, E; Soto, K; Mank, L; Holmes-Talbot, K; Needham, M; Barnes, A; Adcock, B; Honish, L; Chui, L; Taylor, M; Gaulin, C; Bekal, S; Warshawsky, B; Hobbs, L; Tschetter, L R; Surin, A; Lance, S; Wise, M E; Williams, I; Gieraltowski, L
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013-2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Falese, Lavinia; Della Valle, Pietro; Federico, Bruno
Epidemiological studies on football (soccer) injuries are needed to assess both the magnitude of the problem and the effectiveness of preventive programmes. However, few data are available for Italy, which hosts one of the main football leagues in Europe. In this study, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of football injuries in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons of the Italian Serie A. Information about injury location, type, date of occurrence and duration of absence was obtained from www.football-lineups.com , a free collaborative international database on football. Overall, 363 injuries occurred throughout the two seasons affecting 286 players. The most commonly reported injuries were thigh-strain and knee injury, which accounted for 42% and 19% of all injuries, respectively. Injury incidence increased with age and was particularly higher from August to October. Results suggest that injury prevention strategies should be introduced from the preseason to reduce the risk of injuries, especially muscle strains.
Calculates human capital earnings functions over 20 years for 822 men (the Terman sample) and argues that the percentage of gross earnings invested in education may fall below 100 percent well before school ends. (Available from the Secretary's Office, American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave., South, Nashville, Tennessee 37212) (Author/JG)
Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Brimacombe, J.; Bersier, D.; Bishop, D. W.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Danilet, A. B.; Simonian, G. V.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Falco, E.; Pojmanski, G.; Skowron, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G. J.; Hissong, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jose, J.; Kiyota, S.; Long, Feng; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W. S.
We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalogue of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses many previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds bright supernovae closer to the centres of host galaxies than either other professional surveys or amateurs, a remarkable result given ASAS-SN's poorer angular resolution. This is the first of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts that will be released by the ASAS-SN team.
Stovall, W. K.; Cervelli, P. F.; Shelly, D. R.
Although Yellowstone's last magmatic eruption occurred about 70,000 years ago, hydrothermal explosions, earthquakes, and ground deformation still occur as testament to ongoing volcanic and tectonic processes. Since the late 1990s, a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has recorded uplift and subsidence of the caldera and northwest caldera margin near Norris Geyser Basin. Previous deformation episodes have shown opposing vertical motion at the two sites, which has been attributed to temporal variations in magmatic fluid flux from the caldera laterally through the Norris-Mammoth fault corridor that intersects the caldera's northwest margin (Dzurisin et al., 2012; Wicks et al., 2006). These episodes have exhibited gradual changes, transitioning from uplift to subsidence (and vice versa) over weeks to months. Large earthquake swarms accompanied transitions from caldera uplift to subsidence in 1985 and 2010. Recent deformation in Yellowstone differs from previously observed episodes. In the latter half of 2013, uplift began around Norris, and by January of 2014 it reached rates of over 15 cm/yr. Also at the start of 2014, caldera deformation shifted from approximately 4 years of slow subsidence to slow uplift. On March 30, 2014, a M4.8 earthquake, the largest in Yellowstone since 1980, occurred northwest of Norris Geyser Basin near the center of uplift. Shortly after the event, deformation near Norris abruptly reversed to rapid subsidence (over 20 cm/yr). Caldera uplift began to accelerate around the same time. Thus, uplift can occur simultaneously in both the caldera and the Norris area, and dramatic reversals from rapid uplift to rapid subsidence can occur within a matter of days. While the complexity of the deformation defies a simple explanation, we hypothesize that the rapid transition from uplift to subsidence at Norris may indicate that the M4.8 earthquake opened a pathway for fluid migration away from Norris and allowed an
Harris, Jenine K; Mansour, Raed; Choucair, Bechara; Olson, Joe; Nissen, Cory; Bhatt, Jay
An estimated 55 million to 105 million persons in the United States experience acute gastroenteritis caused by foodborne illness each year, resulting in costs of $2-$4 billion annually. Many persons do not seek treatment, resulting in underreporting of the actual number of cases and cost of the illnesses. To prevent foodborne illness, local health departments nationwide license and inspect restaurants and track and respond to foodborne illness complaints. New technology might allow health departments to engage with the public to improve foodborne illness surveillance. For example, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene examined restaurant reviews from an online review website to identify foodborne illness complaints. On March 23, 2013, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) and its civic partners launched FoodBorne Chicago, a website (https://www.foodbornechicago.org) aimed at improving food safety in Chicago by identifying and responding to complaints on Twitter about possible foodborne illnesses. In 10 months, project staff members responded to 270 Twitter messages (tweets) and provided links to the FoodBorne Chicago complaint form. A total of 193 complaints of possible foodborne illness were submitted through FoodBorne Chicago, and 133 restaurants in the city were inspected. Inspection reports indicated 21 (15.8%) restaurants failed inspection, and 33 (24.8%) passed with conditions indicating critical or serious violations. Eight tweets and 19 complaint forms to FoodBorne Chicago described seeking medical treatment. Collaboration between public health professionals and the public via social media might improve foodborne illness surveillance and response. CDPH is working to disseminate FoodBorne Chicago via freely available open source software.
Choi, Won Suk; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Noh, Ji Yun; Song, Joon Young; Wie, Seong-Heon; Lee, Jin Soo; Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Shin-Woo; Park, Kyong-Hwa; Lee, Sun Hee; Cheong, Hee Jin
Background This study was performed to investigate the disease burden of seasonal influenza in adults ≥20 years of age in Korea, based on surveillance data from the Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity & Mortality Surveillance (HIMM) network. Materials and methods The HIMM network is composed of two surveillance systems: emergency room-based and inpatients-based surveillance. A total of ten university hospitals all over the country are included in the surveillance network. The adult catchment population of the HIMM network was calculated by using the data of each hospital and the database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) of Korea. The incidence rates of laboratory-confirmed medically-attended influenza, laboratory-confirmed influenza-related admission and laboratory-confirmed influenza-related death were calculated based on the catchment population. The socioeconomic burden of influenza was estimated using the human capital approach. Results During the 2013–2014 influenza season, the calculated adult catchment population of the HIMM network was 1,380,000. The incidence of medically-attended laboratory-confirmed influenza infection was 242.8 per 100,000 adults. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza-related admission was 57.9 per 100,000 adults. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza-related death was 3.1 per 100,000 adults. The total socioeconomic cost of 2013–2014 seasonal influenza in Korean adult population was estimated as 125 million USD (1 USD = 1,100 KRW). Conclusion The disease burden of 2013–2014 seasonal influenza in Korean adult population is very high and indicates that more active prevention and control policies will be needed to decrease the burden. Additional researches will be needed to assess the burden of seasonal influenza in the Korean child population. PMID:28278158
... Dependent Students And they are If the age of the older parent is Married Single Then the education savings... expenses incurred by working spouses and single-parent households. The allowance is based upon the marginal... allowance for parents of dependent students, adjusted net worth of a business or farm, and the...
This report discusses school fall Enrollment of Montana based on race/ethnicity for the 2003-2004 school year. Sections include: (1) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Overview; and (2) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity-2003-04 School Year. Fall enrollment data are collected by school, grade, gender, and race/ethnicity…
Skowronski, Danuta M; Chambers, Catharine; Sabaiduc, Suzana; Janjua, Naveed Z; Li, Guiyun; Petric, Martin; Krajden, Mel; Purych, Dale; Li, Yan; De Serres, Gaston
To understand the epidemic resurgence of influenza due to the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain (A[H1N1]pdm09) during the 2013-2014 influenza season, we compared age-related cross-sectional estimates of seroprotection before the pandemic (during 2009) and after the pandemic (during 2010 and 2013) to subsequent surveillance-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence of influenza due to A(H1N1)pdm09 in British Columbia, Canada. Prepandemic seroprotection was negligible except for very old adults (defined as adults aged ≥ 80 years), among whom 80% had seroprotection. Conversely, postpandemic seroprotection followed a U-shaped distribution, with detection in approximately 35%-45% of working-aged adults but in ≥ 70% of very old adults and young children, excluding children aged <5 years in 2013, among whom seroprotection again decreased to <20%. The incidence was 5-fold higher during 2013-2014, compared with 2010-2011, and was highest among children aged <5 years and working-aged adults, reflecting a mirror image of the age-based seroprotection data.
District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Research Branch.
The annual dropout and migration statistics report of the District of Columbia public schools reflects the guidelines, definitions, and tracking procedures of the District schools. School year 1992-93 was the fourth year of implementation of this project in the D.C. public schools. In school year 1992-93 the total number of dropouts was 2,499,…
Korhonen, Lauren C; DeGroote, Nicholas P; Shouse, R Luke; Valleroy, Linda A; Prejean, Joseph; Bradley, Heather
The prevalence of diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is more than twice as high as the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites (1). Services that support retention in HIV medical care and assist with day-to-day living, referred to here as ancillary services, help persons living with HIV access HIV medical care, adhere to HIV treatment, and attain HIV viral suppression. The needs for these ancillary services among Hispanics/Latinos are not well described (2). To obtain nationally representative estimates of and reasons for unmet needs for such services among Hispanic/Latino adults receiving outpatient HIV medical care during 2013-2014, CDC analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP). The analysis found that Hispanics/Latinos in all age and sexual orientation/behavior subgroups reported substantial unmet needs, including 24% needing dental care, 21% needing eye or vision care, 15% needing food and nutrition services, and 9% needing transportation assistance. Addressing unmet needs for ancillary services among Hispanics/Latinos living with HIV might help increase access to HIV care, improve health outcomes, and reduce health disparities.
Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Rupar, Julian; Kurdziel, Anna
This paper presents the results of official control of pesticide residues in minor crops collected in southeastern Poland in 2013-2014. Compliance of used pesticides with applicable law was also verified, and determined residues were compared to maximum residue levels (MRLs) provided for in Regulation (EC) No. 395/2005. A total of 583 samples of 25 different types of fresh fruit and vegetables were analyzed for pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in 158 samples (27.1 % of the analyzed samples). According to the European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General (SANCO) guidelines document, MRL violations were understood as cases where a residue level exceeded the MRL after the uncertainty of the method (50 %) was considered. MRL violations were found in four samples. The usage of unauthorized pesticides was detected in 5.8 % of analyzed samples. Substances banned in Poland were found in two samples. Fungicides were the most frequently detected group of pesticides. Pesticide residues were most commonly found in fruit samples (19.4 % of all analyzed samples), mainly in gooseberry, redcurrant, and huckleberry. The majority of samples were compliant with MRLs, which means that they were suitable for trade.
The year-round calendar is an increasingly popular alternative to the traditional 9-month school calendar. This digest examines the benefits and challenges of teaching in year-round schools. Year-round schools may be on a single-track or multi-track schedule. Single-track schedules call for an instructional year of 180 days with short breaks…
This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…
Mirblouk, Fariba; Asgharnia, Dr.Maryam; Solimani, Robabeh; Fakor, Fereshteh; Salamat, Fatemeh; Mansoori, Samaneh
Background: One of the affected aspects in infertile women that have not been given sufficient attention is sexual function. Sexual function is a key factor in physical and marital health, and sexual dysfunction could significantly lower the quality of life. Aim of this study was to assess the comparison sexual dysfunction in women with infertility and without infertility, admitted to Al- Zahra Hospital. Objective: We decided to assess the prevalence of women sexual disorders in fertile and infertile subjects, admitted to Al-Zahra Hospital. Materials and Methods: 149 fertile and 147 infertile women who referred to infertility clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital during 2013-2014 were entered this cross-sectional study and Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (FSFI) had been filled by all the cases. Most of women were married for 6-10 years (35.5%) and mean marriage time in participants was 9.55±6.07 years. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Ver. 18 and 2 test and logistic regression model has been used for analysis. Results: Results showed significant differences between desire (p=0.004), arousal (p=0.001), satisfaction (p=0.022) and total sexual dysfunction (p=0.011) in both groups but in lubrication (p=0.266), orgasm (p=0.61) and pain (p=0.793) difference were not significant. Conclusion: Some of sexual dysfunction indices are high in all infertile women. Our findings suggest that infertility impacts on women’s sexual function in desire, arousal, satisfaction and total sexual dysfunction. Health care professional should be sensitive to impact that diagnosis of infertility can have on women’s sexuality. PMID:27200426
The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…
Stratos, Kati; Wolford, Tonya; Reitano, Adrienne
In 2010-2011, the School District of Philadelphia (the District) launched its Renaissance Schools Initiative, a program designed to dramatically improve student achievement in the District's lowest performing schools. Some schools became Promise Academies, based on the federal turnaround model, and remained District-operated neighborhood schools.…
Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Lai, Alessia; Canuti, Marta; Piralla, Antonio; Baggieri, Melissa; Ranghiero, Alberto; Piatti, Alessandra; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Magurano, Fabio; Baldanti, Fausto
Molecular surveillance and advanced phylogenetic methods are important tools to track the pathways of Measles virus (MV) genotypes, provide evidence for the interruption of endemic transmission and verify the elimination of the disease. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of MV genotype D8 (D8-MV) strains circulating in Northern Italy (Lombardy Region) during the 2013-2014 period and to analyze the transmission chains and estimate the introduction time points using a phylogenetic approach. Forty-four strains of D8-MV identified from 12 outbreaks and 28 cases reported as sporadic were analyzed. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450nt region of the N gene of MV genome (N-450), as recommended by the WHO. Phylogenetic analyses and tree time-scaled reconstruction were performed with BEAST software. We could trace back the transmission pathways that resulted in three chains of transmission, two introductions with limited spread (two familiar outbreaks), and two single introductions (true sporadic cases). The D8-Taunton transmission chain, which was involved in 7 outbreaks and 13 sporadic cases, was endemic during the studied period. Furthermore, two novel local variants emerged independently in March 2014 and caused two transmission chains linked to at least 3 outbreaks. Overall, viral diversity was high and strains belonging to 5 different variants were identified. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that multiple lineages of D8-MV co-circulated in Northern Italy. Measles can be considered a re-emerging disease in Italy and additional efforts are necessary to achieve measles elimination goal.
Benjathummarak, Surachet; Fa-Ngoen, Chanon; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Boonha, Khwanchit; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip
Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013-2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method. All of the Thai rabies virus isolates belonged to lyssavirus genotype 1 and clustered in the same lineage as isolates from South East Asia (SEA) and China. The Thai rabies virus isolates formed two distinct clades, THA-1 and THA-2. Clade THA-1 was the predominant clade and could be divided into two subclades, THA-1A and THA-1B. Clade THA-2 was closely associated with human Thai isolates collected in a previous study. The overall mean rate of evolution based on the G gene was approximately 1.56 × 10(-4) substitutions/site/year. The genetic identities among the isolates from Thailand and other SEA countries were >88.4 % at the nucleotide sequence level and 95 % at the amino acid sequence level. The deduced amino acid sequences of the G proteins of the RABV isolates were compared. A single amino acid change (N194T) in subclade THA-1A distinguished the Thai RABV isolates from other RABV isolates. Our results suggest that these Thai dog RABV isolates share a common ancestor with the RABV isolates circulating in the endemic regions of SEA countries and China. Furthermore, there were strong genetic relationship to RABV from Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos. These data extend our understanding of the relatedness and genetic variation of RABV in Thailand.
Andrew, Erika Nielsen; Dornsife, Carolyn; Flack, Maggie; Hallinan, Mayo Tsuzuki; Jackson, Lola; Raby, Marilyn; Steadman, Mimi Harris
The 10 chapters in this book provide an overview of 5 years of work by member schools and colleges in the Urban Schools Network, which provides technical assistance to schools in 31 urban areas. "Overview of the Urban Schools Network" (Lola Jackson) is a history, defining purposes, participants, and priorities. "Integrating Academic…
Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.
This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…
Mandeville, Garrett K.
School effectiveness indices based on residuals from regressing test performance onto prior test performance and socioeconomic status were obtained for two consecutive years for 431 elementary schools. The resulting indices were found to be stable, and it was found that grade-within-school effects dominated global school effects. (TJH)
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.
Students from a school in Hong Kong (n = 199) responded to 22 items asking about their school motivation and aspirations in a survey. Structural equation models found four school motivation factors consistent with the task, effort, competition, and praise scales of the Inventory of School Motivation, one education aspiration factor, one career…
Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Thorne, Barrie
Explores the politics of time in a multitrack, year-round school in Los Angeles (California), analyzing different experiences of time within the school and the largely immigrant community. Findings show that the year-round schedule is problematic and reveal how issues of educational equity go to the core of debates over school schedules. (SLD)
Brunner, Judy; Lewis, Dennis
This article focuses on how to prepare and plan for a safe and secure environment for students and staff at the end of a school year or during the summer months. Every individual who works in a school approaches the month of May and the subsequent end-of-school-year tasks with mixed feelings of stress and relief. Although preparations for ensuring…
Loosemore, Jean Ann
This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)
Bresler, David; Leon, Armando; Maggio, Lauren; Whitaker, Evans; Heilman, James; Orlowitz, Jake; Swisher, Valerie; Rasberry, Lane; Otoide, Kingsley; Trotter, Fred; Ross, Will; McCue, Jack D.
Problem Most medical students use Wikipedia as an information source, yet medical schools do not train students to improve Wikipedia or use it critically. Approach Between November 2013 and November 2015, the authors offered fourth-year medical students a credit-bearing course to edit Wikipedia. The course was designed, delivered, and evaluated by faculty, medical librarians, and personnel from WikiProject Medicine, Wikipedia Education Foundation, and Translators Without Borders. The authors assessed the effect of the students’ edits on Wikipedia’s content, the effect of the course on student participants, and readership of students’ chosen articles. Outcomes Forty-three enrolled students made 1,528 edits (average 36/student), contributing 493,994 content bytes (average 11,488/student). They added higher-quality and removed lower-quality sources for a net addition of 274 references (average 6/student). As of July 2016, none of the contributions of the first 28 students (2013, 2014) have been reversed or vandalized. Students discovered a tension between comprehensiveness and readability/translatability, yet readability of most articles increased. Students felt they improved their articles, enjoyed giving back “specifically to Wikipedia,” and broadened their sense of physician responsibilities in the socially networked information era. During only the “active editing months,” Wikipedia traffic statistics indicate that the 43 articles were collectively viewed 1,116,065 times. Subsequent to students’ efforts, these articles have been viewed nearly 22 million times. Next Steps If other schools replicate and improve on this initiative, future multi-institution studies could more accurately measure the effect of medical students on Wikipedia, and vice versa. PMID:27627633
Bahr, Steven; Sparks, Dinah
This Statistics in Brief summarizes the changes from the 1998-99 to the 2012-13 school years in the average age of public schools, ratings of satisfaction of the environmental quality of school facilities, the cost to put school buildings in good overall condition, and short-range plans to improve school facilities. In addition to providing…
This article presents operational guidelines or instructions to a newly graduated librarian from library school. The author discusses some important factors to consider in the field of library work as a school librarian. He also presents seven strategies to keep in mind for a successful first year for a school librarian: (1) put people first; (2)…
Hill, Susan; Louden, William
Drawing on the research study, "100 Children Go to School: Connections between Literacy Development in the Prior to School Period and the First Year of Schooling," conducted from 1996-1998 by a team made up of Susan Hill, Barbara Comber, William Louden, Judith Rivalland, and Jo-Anne Reid, this paper discusses the findings of the study,…
Poses six questions for administrators considering a year-round, multitrack school schedule. Discusses probable constraints concerning implementation levels, class organization, staff preparation, and impact on plant maintenance, summer school programs, and community relations. Classroom sharing and summer school present special difficulties;…
Ranalli, Dennis; Harper, Edward; Hirschman, Jay
This report summarizes the results of the school year (SY) 2008-2009 review of applications approved for free or reduced-price benefits under the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) selected nearly 279,000 applications for verification review from among 8.6 million applications approved for…
When high school physics teacher Deborah Waldron needed to pump up her knowledge of biology for National Board Certification, she enrolled in 9th grade Intensified Biology at her school. Waldron shares her observations of what she learned: from the inevitability of starting long-term projects late at night to the realization of how tempting…
VanSciver, James H.
A Delaware middle school schedules its summer school near the end of summer, requires students and parents to attend a preliminary meeting, and features strict attendance and behavior requirements. Students' placement depends on reading ability. An evaluation showed that vocabulary, reading, writing, and math scores increased for nearly 70% of…
Cavatta, Jerry C., Comp.; Borgrink, Henry, Comp.
The purpose of this report is to provide a broad cross section of data on the operation and performance of New Mexico public schools. Data on school district characteristics (40-Day Average Daily Membership; and percent in kindergarten, bilingual, Chapter 1, and special education programs), teacher characteristics (pupil-teacher ratio, salaries,…
Rajizadeh, Afsaneh; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Yassini-Ardakani, Mojtaba; Dehghani, Ali
Depression is the most common mental disorder and involves many factors. The regulatory effects of magnesium on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels make it a factor in the treatment of depression. The present study investigated the level of serum magnesium in subjects diagnosed with depression in the city of Yazd in Iran. This cross-sectional study was done from January 2013 to January 2014 on 650 patients with depression who agreed to participate in this study. Diagnosis was made using the Beck Depression Inventory test (BDI-II); those scoring higher than 11 were sent to the medical school laboratory for further testing of serum magnesium levels. The mean age of the patients was 34.16 ± 9.12 years. Of the 650 subjects, 195 were male (30 %) and 455 were female (70 %). The total mean serum magnesium was 2.1 ± 0.26 mg/dl. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia 13.7 %, hypermagnesemia 8.3 %, and sub-optimal magnesium levels was 26.5 %. Sub-optimal prevalence in women (28.1 %) was higher than in men (26.2 %). A significant relationship was observed between depression and serum magnesium level (p = 0.02). The results indicated that the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in subjects diagnosed with depression is high compared to non-depressed individuals. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between hypomagnesemia and intensity of depression that suggests a role for this element in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The high sub-optimal prevalence among women indicates that increased attention should be paid to this group.
Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.
Available in English or French, this reference guide summarizes the funding of Manitoba public schools for the 2000-2001 school year. School funding for operating and capital expenses is administered by the provincial government. Following a list of 2000-2001 revisions to the Schools Finance Program, the first section describes base support. The…
Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich
This report describes the value-added models used as part of teacher evaluation systems in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) and in eligible DC charter schools participating in "Race to the Top." The authors estimated: (1) teacher effectiveness in DCPS and eligible DC charter schools during the 2011-2012 school year; and (2)…
Tubin, Dorit; Ofek-Regev, Noa
Transforming into an innovative school is one of the strategies schools apply when facing changes in a turbulent environment. In the first year of such a transformation these schools face an essential dilemma: how to facilitate changes without jeopardizing their environmental legitimacy. Examining an Israeli elementary school as an instrumental…
Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.
Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)
Frigo, Tracey; Adams, Isabelle
An ongoing longitudinal study, conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research and Aboriginal consultants in 13 schools across Australia, is following the progress of a group of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in their early years of schooling. This report discusses findings from the first 2 years of the study. The…
Sabia, Joseph J.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between school-year employment and academic performance of young adolescents under age 16. Ordinary least squares estimates show a significant positive relationship between modest hours of school-year employment and grade point average.…
Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…
Tefera, Adai; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica
This report synthesizes major themes in local policymaking during the last year, as local school districts continue to grapple with legal and economic constraints on policies that are aimed at creating diverse schools. The report last year on the second anniversary of "Parents Involved" began to uncover some of the consequences of the difficult…
This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…
Mandeville, Garrett K.
School effectiveness indices (SEIs) based on residuals from regressing test performance in reading and mathematics onto prior-year test performance and a socioeconomic status measure (percentage eligible for a subsidized lunch program) were obtained for two consecutive years for 431 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school…
District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Research Branch.
The annual dropout and migration statistics report of the District of Columbia public schools reflects the guidelines, definitions, and tracking procedures of the District schools. School year 1991-92 was the third year of implementation of the present dropout-accounting system. The report contains dropout and migration statistics for student…
Toledo Public Schools, OH.
In response to declining student enrollment, the Toledo, Ohio public school system conducted a school utilization study involving the evaluation of eight categories of achievement. These categories were: (1) educational adequacy as determined by the ability of the facility to meet the requirements of a good instructional program; (2) an overview…
Wadey, M. P.; Brown, J. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Dolphin, T.; Wisse, P.
The extreme sea levels and waves experienced around the UK's coast during the 2013/2014 winter caused extensive coastal flooding and damage. In such circumstances, coastal managers seek to place such extremes in relation to the anticipated standards of flood protection, and the long-term recovery of the natural system. In this context, return periods are often used as a form of guidance. We therefore provide these levels for the winter storms, as well as discussing their application to the given data sets and case studies (two UK case study sites: Sefton, northwest England; and Suffolk, east England). We use tide gauge records and wave buoy data to compare the 2013/2014 storms with return periods from a national dataset, and also generate joint probabilities of sea level and waves, incorporating the recent events. The UK was hit at a national scale by the 2013/2014 storms, although the return periods differ with location. We also note that the 2013/2014 high water and waves were extreme due to the number of events, as well as the extremity of the 5 December 2013 "Xaver" storm, which had a very high return period at both case study sites. Our return period analysis shows that the national scale impact of this event is due to its coincidence with spring high tide at multiple locations as the tide and storm propagated across the continental shelf. Given that this event is such an outlier in the joint probability analyses of these observed data sets, and that the season saw several events in close succession, coastal defences appear to have provided a good level of protection. This type of assessment should be recorded alongside details of defence performance and upgrade, with other variables (e.g. river levels at estuarine locations) included and appropriate offsetting for linear trends (e.g. mean sea level rise) so that the storm-driven component of coastal flood events can be determined. Local offsetting of the mean trends in sea level allows long-term comparison of
Smith, Mary Lee; Glass, Gene V.
Despite an evaluation study that showed no differences in student achievement between students in traditionally scheduled schools and in year round schools (YRSs), school personnel continued to provide anecdotal evidence of educational benefits in YRSs. In this oral testimony, the continuity of the learning process was stressed. Because the…
Bureau of Indian Education, 2014
The Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) is responsible for approximately 41,051 American Indian and Alaska Native children at 183 elementary and secondary schools on 64 reservations in 23 states. The educational services the BIE provides is vital to current and future students who are their tribes' future. This report presents Special Education…
The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.
Collins, C. W.
This paper reacts to public criticism by reassessing the role of Australian public school education. It recounts the philosophical traditions that have separated instruction and teaching professionals from the realities of the present economy. The paper concludes by suggesting that not only is public input into curricular reform needed, but that…
Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, GA.
THE ATTEMPT IS MADE TO PUT INTO PERSPECTIVE THE MORAL, LEGAL, AND POLITICAL ISSUES OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION FOR THE PRIVATE CITIZEN OF THE SOUTH WHO IS STILL IN SEARCH OF THE MORAL AND SOCIAL VALUES DEMANDED BY THE RACIAL PROBLEM. THIRTY QUESTIONS ARE RAISED AND DISCUSSED. SOME OF THE TOPICS INCLUDED WERE--THE SUPREME COURT RULINGS AND THEIR…
Klausmeier, Herbert J.
This study tested certain implied predictions regarding conceptual learning at each of four sequential levels of development: concrete level, identity level, classificatory level, and formal level. For this purpose, scaled batteries to assess the level of conceptual development of children, kindergarten through high school, were constructed and a…
Tunick, David C.; Schechter, Dan S.
Loyola Law School's plan to normalize grading in sections of a given course involves separate calculations for students with and without statistical background. Examples of class and section distributions are provided, alternative normalization methods are discussed, and the reasons they were not used are noted. (MSE)
Borgrink, Henry, Comp.
This report provides a broad cross section of data on the operation and performance of New Mexico public schools during 1982-85. Data on enrollment (in kindergarten, in grades 1-6 and 7-12, and in special education, and percent enrolled in Title I and bilingual education programs), student characteristics (dropout rate, ethnicity, mobility),…
As students around the country begin the 2011-2012 school year, many of them will be returning to districts that have been forced to restructure their operations in the face of budget cuts. Leaders of those school systems have sought to avoid cuts that they believe would weaken instruction. But they also believe the reductions will put a strain on…
Reilly, Dorothy J.
This article shares the author's experience as the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) School Nurse of the Year. Recognition by one's peers for excellence in the profession is indeed an honor and a humbling experience. She states that it was a wonderful opportunity to reconnect with many NASN friends. Special recognition and awards from…
American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.
Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute. It is a daily, year-long, credit-bearing, physical education elective for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. PASS is based on the concept that the principles and skills…
Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...
In Scotland, the Early Intervention Programme (EIP) aims to raise standards of literacy and numeracy in the first 2 years of primary school with an emphasis on overcoming disadvantage and inequality. As part of this initiative, one local authority, Aberdeen City, has introduced Baseline Assessment on entry to primary school with a follow-up…
Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; You, Ji-In; Ma, Ting-Lan
Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.
Tuck, Kathy D.
This report presents statistics from the second year (1990-91) of the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) implementation of procedures to identify and track student dropouts. Other school "leaver" data was also collected. The primary data presented in this report focuses on secondary school dropouts (grades 7-12). However,…
US Department of Education, 2009
This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…
McKenna, Stacey Redford
In order to understand better the dimensions of education in the foundation year of contemporary art school, this study explores teaching and learning through the lenses of art school freshmen and foundation studio art professors. Since scholarly study of art school education is limited, the author begins with a survey of related fields of…
Piele, Philip K.
This literature review, based on abstracts of documents announced in RIE, compiles information on the rescheduled school year. Following the review is a list of the 18 documents cited, their costs, and availability. (LLR)
Describes the cooperative relationship between the Komsomol (All-Union Leninist Communist League of Youth), the Pioneers, and the schools, with specific reference to their mutual responsibilities in the Lenin Year. (JB)
Penner, Christine; Wallin, Dawn
This paper presents the findings of a case study that examined school attachment and restitution strategies used in a middle years school to determine if the program had provided a viable means of promoting and sustaining positive behaviors among middle years students. Data were gathered by interviewing five teachers who had Restitution I training…
Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide
This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…
The California State Department of Education provides part-day comprehensive development programs for 3- to 5-year-olds from low income families. The programs include educational development, health services, social services, nutrition services, parent education and participation, evaluation, and staff development. The state requires that all…
Omrani, Hiba; Vautard, Robert
During the winter 2013/2014, the UK saw heavy rainfalls associated with a succession of storms reaching Southern England causing widespread flooding, power cuts and major disruptions to transport. The January precipitation set a record for several rain gauge stations in Southern England. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropogenic climate change, represented by a modification of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the January precipitation. For that, we conducted a sensitivity experiment by running a set of two-months simulations using WRF model with 50km horizontal resolution simulation and 2 km convection permitting simulation centered over the southern UK. We also investigated the sensitivity to the model physics. Results show that the horizontal resolution plays an important role for interpreting the results. Indeed, the low resolution simulation showed no robust signal to attribute this event. However, the convection permitting simulations gave more consistent results over the studied area.
Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Lu, Xiaoyan; Al-Mubarak, Abdullah I A; Dalab, Abdul Hafeed S; Al-Busadah, Khalid A S; Erdman, Dean D
To assess the temporal dynamics of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedary camels, specimens were collected at 1-2 month intervals from 2 independent groups of animals during April 2013-May 2014 in Al-Ahsa Province, Saudi Arabia, and tested for MERS-CoV RNA by reverse transcription PCR. Of 96 live camels, 28 (29.2%) nasal swab samples were positive; of 91 camel carcasses, 56 (61.5%) lung tissue samples were positive. Positive samples were more commonly found among young animals (<4 years of age) than adults (>4 years of age). The proportions of positive samples varied by month for both groups; detection peaked during November 2013 and January 2014 and declined in March and May 2014. These findings further our understanding of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels and may help inform intervention strategies to reduce zoonotic infections.
Karashtin, Dmitriy; Berezin, Evgeny; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander
The monitoring of the lower atmosphere structure and stability is required for studying the processes of the convection in the atmosphere, determining the mutual influence of global climate change trends and the current state of regional climate systems, which have an impact on the appearance of dangerous meteorological events (heavy rains, thunderstorms, hail, floods, squalls, tornadoes, etc). There are many methods of measuring structure of the atmosphere: contact (rocket and balloon), contactless - active (lidar) and passive (radiometric), with the placement of the instrumentation on the satellite, airplanes and the Earth's surface (ground-based). For the convection processes study in order to predict dangerous meteorological events the ground-based radiometric sensing of the structure of the lower atmosphere seems to be the most suitable due to higher time and spatial resolution. This report discusses the peculiarities of the structure of the lower atmosphere over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during the abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014 retrieved from measurements by radiometric complex HATPRO-G3 by Radiometer Physics GmbH. This complex gives vertical thermal and water vapor profiles of the lower atmosphere (0 - 10 km) with time resolution of a few minutes, horizontally resolution of about 10 kilometers and vertically resolution of about 100 meters. The analysis of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere is based on the vertical distribution of virtual potential temperature derived from these measurements under the hydrostatic approximation. Also the comparison of the results for the abnormally winter 2013 - 2014 and the data computed from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (http://www.wrf-model.org) for winter 2011 - 2012 is discussed.
Kumazaki, Makoto; Usuku, Shuzo
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, both in sporadic cases and outbreaks. Since the 1990s, the emergence of several GII.4 variants has been reported worldwide. To investigate the epidemic status of NoV, 6,724 stool samples collected from outbreaks in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006-2007 to 2013-2014 seasons were assessed for NoVs. We genotyped one specimen from each GII outbreak and conducted a sequence analysis of the VP1 gene for several GII.4 strains. Of the 947 NoV outbreaks during our study, GII was detected in 835, and GII.4 was the predominant genotype of GII. Five different GII.4 variants, Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b (2006b), Apeldoorn 2007, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012, were detected. During this study period, the most prevalent variant of GII.4 was 2006b, and in each individual season, either 2006b or Sydney 2012 was the predominant variant. Out of the 16 detected 2006b strains, 12 had some amino acid substitutions in their blockade epitope, and these substitutions were concentrated in three residues. Two of the 2006b strains detected in the 2012-2013 season had a S368E substitution, which is consistent with the amino acid residues at same site of NSW0514 (Sydney 2012 prototype). Among the 16 detected strains of Sydney 2012, a phylogenetic analysis showed that all five strains detected in Yokohama during the 2011-2012 season clustered away from the other Sydney 2012 strains that were detected in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons. These five strains and other Sydney 2012 strains in Yokohama had a few amino acid differences in the blockade epitopes compared with NSW0514. The amino acid substitutions observed in this study provide informative data about the evolution of a novel GII.4 variant.
Gohin, F.; Bryère, P.; Griffiths, J. W.
A succession of storms during the winter 2013-2014 enhanced the resuspension of sediments in the surface waters of the North-West European shelf seas. The effects of waves on satellite-derived non-algal SPM (Suspended Particulate Matters) are discussed for the January 2008-March 2014 period. A simple statistical model relating locally SPM to tidal intensity and waves helps us analyse the main characteristics of the winter 2013-2014. The exceptional run of storms observed in this stormy and rainy winter has resulted in the highest SPM concentration in the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay ever observed by remote-sensing during the 1998-2014 period. Despite the lower clarity of the surface waters over a large part of the continental shelf during the first days of March 2014, blooms occurred early off the coast of Southern Brittany (Bay of Biscay) and later in April, as usual, in the Celtic Sea. Off the coast of southern Brittany, a region of freshwater influence, the lower clarity of the waters was counterbalanced by stronger haline stratification, due to high river discharges, enabling the initiation of blooms in late winter when the solar irradiance is sufficient; which was the case in March 2014 with 7 sunny days in a row just after the last storm. As a consequence, we can postulate that a possible increase in the intensity of waves occurring from December to early March, along with a possible scenario of global change, would not restrict the productive period in the Bay of Biscay. However an extension of the period of storms later in March would delay the timing of the blooms as observed in March 2008 in most of the investigated area.
Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Birman, Beatrice; O'Day, Jennifer; Hurlburt, Steven; Mercado-Garcia, Diana; Goff, Rose; Manship, Karen; Brown, Seth; Therriault, Susan Bowles; Rosenberg, Linda; Angus, Megan Hague; Hulsey, Lara
The Study of School Turnaround examines the improvement process in a purposive sample of 35 case study schools receiving federal School Improvement Grants (SIG) over a three-year period (2010-11 to 2012-13 school years). Using site visit, teacher survey, and fiscal data, the case studies describe the school contexts, the principals' leadership…
Powers, Donald E.
A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…
Biskin, Donald S.; And Others
This paper emphasizes that one of the main concerns in year-round education is the effect upon the social, emotional, physical, and psychological development of children. Alteration of the school calendar, and the curricular innovations that tend to piggy-back year-round programs, may well provide the impetus for individualizing and humanizing…
Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte
The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…
This report is the research component of the Center for Civic Education's School Violence Prevention Demonstration Program, a scheme for middle-school-aged students that develops intellectual and participatory skills essential to effective and responsible citizenship. The program is an attempt to draw attention to ways in which civic education can…
Lim, Kun Lee; Hewitt, Joanne; Sitabkhan, Alefiya; Eden, John-Sebastian; Lun, Jennifer; Levy, Avram; Merif, Juan; Smith, David; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A.
Background Norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis across all age groups. In particular, variants of genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) have been associated with epidemics globally, occurring approximately every three years. The pandemic GII.4 variant, Sydney 2012, was first reported in early 2012 and soon became the predominant circulating NoV strain globally. Despite its broad impact, both clinically and economically, our understanding of the fundamental diversity and mechanisms by which new NoV strains emerge remains limited. In this study, we describe the molecular epidemiological trends of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis in Australia and New Zealand between January 2013 and June 2014. Methodology Overall, 647 NoV-positive clinical faecal samples from 409 outbreaks and 238 unlinked cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined by RT-PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to identify NoV capsid genotypes and to establish the temporal dominance of circulating pandemic GII.4 variants. Recombinant viruses were also identified based on analysis of the ORF1/2 overlapping region. Findings Peaks in NoV activity were observed, however the timing of these epidemics varied between different regions. Overall, GII.4 NoVs were the dominant cause of both outbreaks and cases of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis (63.1%, n = 408/647), with Sydney 2012 being the most common GII.4 variant identified (98.8%, n = 403/408). Of the 409 reported NoV outbreaks, aged-care facilities were the most common setting in both Western Australia (87%, n = 20/23) and New Zealand (58.1%, n = 200/344) while most of the NoV outbreaks were reported from hospitals (38%, n = 16/42) in New South Wales, Australia. An analysis of a subset of non-GII.4 viruses from all locations (125/239) showed the majority (56.8%, n = 71/125) were inter-genotype recombinants. These recombinants were surprisingly diverse and could be classified into 18 distinct recombinant
Wang, Yungang; Ying, Qi; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang
Long-term air pollution data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to support the research of physical and chemical processes that affect the air quality, and the corresponding health risks. However, such datasets were not available in China until recently. For the first time, this study examines the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and 8 h O3 in 31 capital cities in China between March 2013 and February 2014 using hourly data released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS), Grade I standards (15 and 40 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) for all cities, and only Haikou, Fuzhou and Lasa met the CAAQS Grade II standards (35 and 70 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). Observed PM2.5, PM10, CO and SO2 concentrations were higher in cities located in the North region than those in the West and the South-East regions. The number of non-attainment days was highest in the winter, but high pollution days were also frequently observed in the South-East region during the fall and in the West region during the spring. PM2.5 was the largest contributor to the air pollution in China based on the number of non-attainment days, followed by PM10, and O3. Strong correlation was found between different pollutants except for O3. These results suggest great impacts of coal combustion and biomass burning in the winter, long range transport of windblown dust in the spring, and secondary aerosol formation throughout the year. Current air pollution in China is caused by multiple pollutants, with great variations among different regions and different seasons. Future studies should focus on improving the understanding of the associations between air quality and meteorological conditions, variations of emissions in different regions, and transport and transformation of pollutants in both intra- and inter
Weller, Nancy F; Kelder, Steven H; Cooper, Sharon P; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Tortolero, Susan R
This study describes the effects of different weekly work intensity levels on adolescent functioning in a sample of 3,083 high school students in rural South Texas, where economically disadvantaged and Hispanic youth are heavily represented. Anonymous surveys were conducted in 10th- and 12th-grade students' classrooms in 1995. The following effects were associated with long hours of weekly employment during the school year: (1) decreased performance/engagement in school and satisfaction with amount of leisure time, and (2) increased health risk behaviors and psychological stress. The effects of school-year work on academic factors and health behaviors differed by grade, but not by race/ethnicity, parent education, or race/ethnicity and parent education considered together. It was concluded that parents and professionals should continue to monitor the number of weekly hours that students work during the school year.
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
As part of a comprehensive study of all mandates placed by the state of Illinois on elementary and secondary education, an analysis was undertaken of the school day/school year mandate in its historical perspective, inquiring into its original purpose, how well that purpose has been served, whether the mandate is still needed, and whether a…
Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.
City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…
Wylie, Cathy; Smith, Lesley
This study organized in 2 sections examined the progress of 32 New Zealand children during their first 3 years at school. Their achievement levels in reading, mathematics, and writing were examined based on interviews with the children, their teachers, and their parents; school records; notes; and video recordings. Section 1 deals with perceptions…
Boyd, Sally; Chalmers, Anna; Kumekawa, Eugene
A study investigated the postsecondary intentions and the actual outcomes of secondary transition among 321 students from five schools in New Zealand. Phase 1 identified students who did not intend to return to secondary school. The next year (2000), they became the target population for Phase 2, which examined the students' actual continuation on…
Cuende, J I; Lahoz, C; Armario, P; García-Alegría, J; Ena, J; García de Casasola, G; Mostaza, J M
During 2013 and the first months of 2014, numerous studies have been published in the cardiovascular field. New guidelines have appeared for managing arterial hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering cholesterol levels. New data have emerged on the considerable lipid-lowering efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK-9, in contrast, however, to the clinical trials directed towards raising HDL-cholesterol with nicotinic acid, which have not shown a reduction in the rate of cardiovascular complications. In the field of hypertension, neither stent placement in patients with renovascular hypertension nor sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension has been shown to be effective in reducing blood pressure. In terms of antithrombotic treatment, the pharmacogenetic tests do not seem useful for maintaining patients anticoagulated with warfarin within the therapeutic range for longer periods. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, for patients with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation, antiplatelet therapy adds no benefit to anticoagulation therapy and is associated with a greater risk of bleeding. Lastly, a Mediterranean diet could prevent the onset of diabetes, while bariatric surgery could be a reasonable option for improving the disease in patients with obesity. Many of these studies have immediate practice applications in daily clinical practice.
Howell, Sandra Lena
The single case study presents the story of the implementation of a three year Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) at a rural North Mississippi school. The school was recognized by the Mississippi Department of Education, Office of Healthy Schools, as one of ten selected model Mississippi healthy schools. An awarded grant of one hundred…
While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…
A TWO-YEAR EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO DEVELOP "BILINGUAL READINESS" WAS UNDERTAKEN IN KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE CLASSES IN NEW YORK CITY. TWO PUBLIC SCHOOLS, ONE IN A POVERTY AREA AND ONE IN A MIDDLE CLASS AREA, WERE CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY. EFFORTS WERE MADE TO CHOOSE SIX KINDERGARTEN AND SIX FIRST GRADE CLASSES COMPOSED OF EQUAL NUMBERS…
The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) as an American Library Association division is sixty-five years young in 2016. This article describes the AASL as a division of the American Library Association (ALA). The author presents: (1) Early Days in ALA; (2) AASL as a Division; (3) AASL's Future; and (4) Commemorating the Past by Paying…
White, Susan C.
We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…
North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck. Div. of Special Education.
These guidelines are intended to assist North Dakota educators in complying with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1997 concerning provision of extended school year (ESY) services to students with disabilities. Presented in a question-and-answer format, guidelines are closely correlated with the IDEA regulations. Individual…
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Reading standards are regarded by many as the true yardstick by which to measure school effectiveness, and the relative standards achieved by different generations are often debated by adults. Some young people do not perceive reading to be of anything like such importance, however, using digital communication habitually and easily. Each year a…
... services means special education and related services that— (1) Are provided to a child with a disability... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL...
Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.
In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…
Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others
The major goals of the project reported here were to learn how teachers who are effective managers handle beginning-of-the-year activities and to determine what basic principles of management underlie their teaching. Twenty-seven third-grade teachers in eight elementary schools served as subjects. (MP)
Educators may start off a school year with the best of intentions for staying organized, but by about November, they quickly find their systems, energy and motivation starts to dwindle. By March, they can't even see their desk, and have hundreds of e-mails in their inboxes. Incorporating a few organizational strategies at the beginning of the…
Job, Jennifer G.
In 1920, the "High School Journal" had been up and running for a year and cost 15 cents an issue. Robert Goddard was ridiculed by the "New York Times" for predicting space travel (a retraction was printed in 1969), small countries like Ireland and Romania were fighting for their own governments, and American women voted for the…
Haenn, Joseph F.
Results from the first year of implementation of year-round schools in a school district that educates students from a medium-sized city and the surrounding county are presented to add to the body of knowledge about year-round schools. Two single-track, year-round elementary schools (kindergarten through grade 5) were established in Durham (North…
Mitchell-Hoefer, Megan D.
This dissertation reports a study of a year-round school in comparison to a traditional calendar school and whether the year-round school calendar was related to higher student achievement in a large, school district in the southeastern United States. The data represented the results of third through fifth grade student state test scores in the…
... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14A AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day...
White, Susan C.
We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they had begun the post-secondary career at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007 had started their college education at a TYC, and these students differ significantly from those who did not start at a TYC. The two graphs at right depict the high school physics experience for these two groups of students. More than one-fourth of those who started at a TYC did not take physics in high school, and only 18% took AP physics. The 6% of those who did not start at a TYC and did not take physics is consistent with the 5% of high school seniors who attend a school where physics is not offered. Their apparent difference of interest in physics in high school is also evident from their knowledge about AP physics offerings: 25% of those who started at a TYC did not know if AP physics was offered at their high school versus only 5% of those who did not start at a TYC. Since their high school physics experiences were so different, it is likely that something happened in their physics courses at the TYC that captured these students' interest in physics.
Murata, K.; Zhang, D.
Airborne bacteria are the major group of bioaerosols in the air and are considered to have important climate effects by acting as ice nuclei. To investigate the dependence of bacteria on particles in the air, we enumerated bacterial cells in size-segregated airborne particle samples that were collected at a rural seaside site on the southwestern coast of Japan during dust and non-dust periods in the spring of 2013-2014. Proportion of particle-attached bacteria was 75-84% of total airborne bacterial concentration during dust periods and 27-76% during non-dust periods, both of which were equal to approximately 12% of >1 µm aerosol particle concentrations. The concentration of particle-attached bacteria was 3.2 times higher during dust periods, compared with that during non-dust periods. The viability, which is referring to the ratio of viable cells to total cells, of particle-attached bacteria was 33-82% during dust periods and 45-98% during non-dust periods. The predominance of particle-associated viable/non-viable bacteria during dust periods demonstrates a potential of bacteria to cooperate with dust in influencing the climate, ecosystems, and health where they arrive.
Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N; Flamm, Robert K
We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 623 Gram-negative organisms causing infection in patients with cancer in 52 United States hospitals (2013-2014) as part of the International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program. Isolates were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution method. β-lactamase encoding genes were evaluated for all Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype by microarray-based assay. ESBL-phenotype was observed among 17.3 and 9.9% of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively; and 25.0% of Enterobacter cloacae were ceftazidime-non-susceptible. All Enterobacteriaceae (n=486) were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25μg/mL) with the highest MIC value at 1μg/mL. Meropenem was active against Enterobacteriaceae overall (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/≤0.06μg/mL; 99.6% susceptible); but showed more limited activity against Klebsiella spp. with an ESBL-phenotype (84.6% susceptible) and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (93.3% susceptible). The most active agents tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were colistin (100.0% susceptible), amikacin (97.7% susceptible) and ceftazidime-avibactam (96.6% susceptible).
Khairullin, Rafil; Vorobyev, Denis; Obukhov, Andrey; Kuular, Ural-Herel; Kubanova, Anna; Kubanov, Alexey; Unemo, Magnus
The incidence of syphilis in the Tuva Republic (geographical centre of Asia), Russia has been exceedingly high historically. No detailed examinations and no molecular investigations of Treponema pallidum strains transmitted in the Tuva Republic, or in general, in Russia, were published internationally. We examined the syphilis epidemiology in 1994-2013, and the molecular epidemiology and macrolide resistance in T. pallidum strains in 2013-2014 in the Tuva Republic. Among 95 mainly primary or secondary syphilis patients, the arp, tpr, tp0548 and 23S rRNA genes in 85 polA gene-positive genital ulcer specimens were characterized. The syphilis incidence in Tuva Republic peaked in 1998 (1562), however declined to 177 in 2013. Among the 70 (82%) completely genotyped specimens, six molecular strain types were found. Strain type 14d/f accounted for 91%, but also 14c/f, 14d/g, 14b/f, 14i/f, 9d/f, and 4d/f were identified. Two (2.4%) specimens contained the 23S rRNA A2058G macrolide resistance mutation. This is the first internationally published typing study regarding T. pallidum in Russia, performed in the Tuva Republic with the highest syphilis incidence in Russia. The two molecular strain types 4d/f and 9d/f have previously been described only in Eastern and Northern China and for the first time, macrolide-resistant syphilis was described in Russia.
Dijkstra, Frederika; van Doorn, Eva; Bijlsma, Maarten J.; Donker, Gé A.; de Lange, Marit M. A.; Cadenau, Laura M.; Hak, Eelko; Meijer, Adam
Influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) varies over different influenza seasons and virus (sub)types/lineages. To assess the association between IVE and circulating influenza virus (sub)types/lineages, we estimated the overall and (sub)type specific IVE in the Netherlands. We conducted a test-negative case control study among subjects with influenza-like illness or acute respiratory tract infection consulting the Sentinel Practices over 11 influenza seasons (2003/2004 through 2013/2014) in the Netherlands. The adjusted IVE was estimated using generalized linear mixed modelling and multiple logistic regression. In seven seasons vaccine strains did not match the circulating viruses. Overall adjusted IVE was 40% (95% CI 18 to 56%) and 20% (95% CI -5 to 38%) when vaccine (partially)matched and mismatched the circulating viruses, respectively. When A(H3N2) was the predominant virus, IVE was 38% (95% CI 14 to 55%). IVE against infection with former seasonal A(H1N1) virus was 83% (95% CI 52 to 94%), and with B virus 67% (95% CI 55 to 76%). In conclusion IVE estimates were particularly low when vaccine mismatched the circulating viruses and A(H3N2) was the predominant influenza virus subtype. Tremendous effort is required to improve vaccine production procedure and to explore the factors that influence the IVE against A(H3N2) virus. PMID:28068386
Bochkovsky, D. A.; Virolainen, Ya. A.; Kulikov, Yu. Yu.; Marichev, V. N.; Poberovsky, A. V.; Ryskin, V. G.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.
We present the results of studying the dynamics of middle-atmosphere ozone above Peterhof (60°N, 30°E) and Tomsk (56°N, 85°E) during stratospheric warming in the winter of 2013-2014 by the radiophysical method. In the ground-based observations we used the same microwave ozone meters (operated at 110.8 GHz) and the same techniques both for measuring the radiation spectra of ozone molecules and estimation of the vertical distribution of ozone in the middle atmosphere. These results were compared with satellite data on the total ozone content TOC (OMI/Aura), altitude profiles of ozone and temperature in the layer 20-60 km (MLS/Aura), and also with the data on ozone content in the layer 25-60 km, which were obtained using a Bruker IFS-125HR infrared Fourier spectrometer in Peterhof. Significant variations in ozone, which were caused by a stratospheric warming of the minor type, were observed in the atmosphere above Peterhof at altitudes of 40 to 60 km. The duration of dynamic perturbations above Peterhof was 2.5 months. Dynamic processes associated with the horizontal transport of air masses, which had an impact on the vertical structure of ozone in the middle atmosphere, were also detected above Tomsk, but this effect was less dependent on the background temperature variations.
McDermott, Robert J.; Mayer, Alyssa B.
Background: Launched 50 years ago, the School Health Education Study (SHES) examined the health education offerings in 135 public school systems, in 38 states, and over 1100 elementary schools and 350 secondary schools. In its second year, knowledge surveys were administered to students in grades 6, 9 and 12 at many of these schools. Analysis of…
gender bias, or any other adverse behavior as defined by the Navy and USNA Equal Opportunity policies. USNAINST 5354.1A, dated 09 Feb 2009, and...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...78 Table 22 – Total Restricted and Unrestricted Reports of Sexual Assault at MSAs ....... 99 Table 23 – Gender of Victims and
Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick
Exiting physics master's recipients from the classes of 2012, 2013, and 2014 combined pursued a variety of different post-degree outcomes. Initial outcomes differed greatly depending on citizenship. The majority of US citizens were in the workforce following the receipt of their master's degrees. In contrast, the majority of non-US citizens…
Gettemeier, Edward Robert
This study is a first year principal's quest to transform the culture of Midwest Middle School (MMS). The study covers the 2009-2010 school year. The data from the 2008-2009 school year provided the baseline data for this study. Alarming results of a state survey regarding the culture of the medium sized suburban middle school caused concern. The…
Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James
The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center has sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purpose of this elective is to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health delivery systems in low-income countries, provide medical service and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 388 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 low-income countries. The most popular sites include the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, India, Kenya and Thailand. Overall, interest in this elective has persisted throughout the course of time, sometimes temporarily increasing or decreasing with outside factors, such as the events of 11 September 2001 and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are almost universally high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to their travel overseas, including a review of individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system and assignment site. Downstate medical students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patient population in Brooklyn, and the diversity of local hospital staff and the medical school class. The Alumni Fund of
Yang, Jin; Zhu, Lin; Li, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Heming; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zongyu
The standard of salt iodine content in China has been adjusted several times since implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) in 1995. The new standard of iodized salt content was adjusted from 35 ± 15 to 30 ± 9 mg/kg in Henan province in 2012. We aimed to determine whether the vulnerable populations were iodine sufficient after the adjustment of salt iodine content and to provide a guideline for the adjustment of USI policy in China. Two cross-sectional surveys of iodine status in vulnerable populations, including reproductive-age, pregnant and lactating women, infants <2 years, and children aged 8-10 years, were conducted in Henan province in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, the median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) of reproductive-age women was 200.1 μg/L and that of school children aged 8-10 years was 221.0 μg/L. These mUICs were considered as "more than adequate." The mUICs of reproductive-age women and school children in 2014 showed a significant decline compared to the mUICs in 2013 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively). The mUICs of the pregnant women were 204.2 μg/L in 2013 and 202.5 μg/L in 2014, which both met the requirement level recommended by WHO. In 2013, the mUIC of lactating women was 169.1 μg/L and that of infants <2 years was 203.2 μg/L, which were significantly lower than that of 2014 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The lactating women and infants in 2013 and 2014 were both regarded as "iodine adequate." Iodine status of the vulnerable populations is still adequate as a whole in Henan province after decreasing the salt iodine content. However, the mUIC of school children aged 8-10 years is slightly above the adequate level. To reduce the risk of iodine excess in the general population and prevent the possibility of iodine deficiency of the vulnerable population, it is necessary to explore the appropriate level of iodized salt content.
This brief publication contains basic revenue and expenditure data, by state, for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2005-06. It contains state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function, including expenditures per pupil. It presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2005-06…
This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…
Palacios, Moses; Casserly, Michael; Corcoran, Amanda; Hart, Ray; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata
Three years ago, the "Council of the Great City Schools" embarked on a multi-year initiative to help its member school districts implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Part of this initiative involves annual surveys of progress urban public school districts were making in implementing the CCSS. With the support of the Bill…
Cornman, Stephen Q.; Keaton, Patrick; Glander, Mark
This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2010-11, fiscal year 2011 (FY 11). The F-33 survey is a school district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the…
Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Jacobs, Zoe L.; Marsh, Robert; Sinha, Bablu; Van Sebille, Erik
Exceptionally low North American temperatures and record-breaking precipitation over the British Isles during winter 2013-2014 were interconnected by anomalous ocean evaporation over the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region (SPG). This evaporation (or oceanic latent heat release) was accompanied by strong sensible heat loss to the atmosphere. The enhanced heat loss over the SPG was caused by a combination of surface westerly winds from the North American continent and northerly winds from the Nordic Seas region that were colder, drier and stronger than normal. A distinctive feature of the air-sea exchange was that the enhanced heat loss spanned the entire width of the SPG, with evaporation anomalies intensifying in the east while sensible heat flux anomalies were slightly stronger upstream in the west. The immediate impact of the strong air-sea fluxes on the ocean-atmosphere system included a reduction in ocean heat content of the SPG and a shift in basin-scale pathways of ocean heat and atmospheric freshwater transport. Atmospheric reanalysis data and the EN4 ocean data set indicate that a longer-term legacy of the winter has been the enhanced formation of a particularly dense mode of Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW)—one of the precursors of North Atlantic Deep Water and thus an important component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Using particle trajectory analysis, the likely dispersal of newly-formed SPMW is evaluated, providing evidence for the re-emergence of anomalously cold SPMW in early winter 2014/2015.
McGrane, S. J.; Hutchins, M. G.; Kjeldsen, T. R.; Miller, J. D.; Bussi, G.; Loewenthal, M.
Urban areas are widely recognised as a key source of contaminants entering our freshwater systems, yet in spite of this, our understanding of stormwater quality dynamics remains limited. The development of in-situ, high-resolution monitoring equipment has revolutionised our capability to capture flow and water quality data at a sub-hourly resolution, enabling us to potentially enhance our understanding of hydrochemical variations from contrasting landscapes during storm events. During the winter of 2013/2014, the United Kingdom experienced a succession of intense storm events, where the south of the country experienced 200% of the average rainfall, resulting in widespread flooding across the Thames basin. We applied high-frequency (15 minute resolution) water quality monitoring across ten contrasting subcatchments (including rural, urban and mixed land-use catchments), seeking to classify the disparity in water quality conditions both within- and between events. Rural catchments increasingly behave like "urban" catchments as soils wet up and become increasingly responsive to subsequent events, however water quality response during the winter months remains limited. By contrast, increasingly urban catchments yield greater contaminant loads during events, and pre-event baseline chemistry highlights a resupply source in dense urban catchments. Wastewater treatment plants were shown to dominate baseline chemistry during low-flow events but also yield a considerable impact on stormwater outputs during peak-flow events, as hydraulic push results in the outflow of untreated solid wastes into the river system. Results are discussed in the context of water quality policy; urban growth scenarios and BMP for stormwater runoff in contrasting landscapes.
Lindsay-Brown, Sandra J.
This study examined the impact that a year-round school calendar and a traditional school calendar may have on student achievement at selected elementary schools in North Central South Carolina. Specifically it investigated mean differences in academic achievement between elementary students at two year-round schools versus two traditional…
Haser, Shelly Gismondi; Nasser, Ilham
Over the last 20 years, many districts and schools have begun to explore year-round education or a modified calendar in response to student under-achievement in low performing schools. Here, the authors detail their two-year study of Title I, year-round, or modified calendar schools that switched from a traditional to a modified schedule in order…
Stevens, Carla J.; And Others
The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) Career Academy was initiated at Worthing High School (WHS) in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District at the beginning of the 1994-95 school year. The career-oriented program operated as a "school-within-a-school" program and was designed to meet the needs of students at risk of…
Public Policy Forum, 2002
One school year after implementation of the Neighborhood Schools Initiative (NS), more Milwaukee Public School (MPS) district schools enroll more neighborhood students, although the increase in neighborhood enrollment is not the result of capacity-building; fewer schools have the capacity to enroll all their neighborhood students than two years…
Smith, Peter K.; Kupferberg, Allison; Mora-Merchan, Joaquin A.; Samara, Muthanna; Bosley, Sue; Osborn, Rob
An analysis was undertaken of 217 English school anti-bullying policies, from 169 primary schools and 48 secondary schools, using a 34-item scoring scheme. Findings were compared with an analysis of 142 schools six years earlier. Overall schools in the current analysis had about 49% of the items in their policies, a modest increase over the…
Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie
An analysis of data from the second year of The After-School Corporation's (TASC's) national demonstration of an expanded school day for elementary and middle school students shows that ExpandED Schools improved school culture, decreased rates of students' chronic absenteeism and helped students develop positive learning habits and attitudes.…
The Drug Free Schools and Communities Act (DFSCA) program exists in each of the 84 Jefferson Parish public schools and a portion of the parish's non-public schools. Direct services are offered to public school students at the school site as part of the school program. Special activities are planned for adults and community members. The evaluation…
Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.
This report examines 46 community (charter) schools that operated during the 1999-2000 school year. Community schools tend to be smaller than their public counterparts, enroll a higher proportion of minority and poor students, and serve relatively fewer special-needs students. On average, community-school teachers have fewer years of experience…
The 1992-93 school year was the third year of the Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program of the Austin (Texas) schools; the project is funded by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and Apple Computer Inc. Grants from these corporations were used to equip three elementary schools with IBM equipment and one with Apple…
Tuck, Kathy D.
These dropout and migration statistics were compiled during the first year of implementation of the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) dropout tracking and database system. These data were collected, primarily, to determine the number of students leaving the DCPS before graduation who did not re-enroll in another educational institution.…
McMullen, Steven C.; Rouse, Kathryn E.
This study exploits a unique policy environment and a large panel dataset to evaluate the impact of school crowding on student achievement in Wake County, NC. We also estimate the effects of two education policy initiatives that are often used to address crowding: multi-track year-round calendars and mobile classrooms. We estimate a multi-level…
Vandegrift, Judith A.; Wright, Joel
In spring 1997, Arizona repeated a spring 1996 statewide public poll that established baseline measures of public attitudes toward school-to-work (STW). Samples were drawn from three constituent groups: parents, businesses, and educators. Over 2,700 Arizonans participated each year. Overall awareness of STW was up significantly among every group.…
Cross, Donna; Waters, Stacey; Pearce, Natasha; Shaw, Therese; Hall, Margaret; Erceg, Erin; Burns, Sharyn; Roberts, Clare; Hamilton, Greg
Purpose: This three-year group randomized controlled trial assessed whether a multi-age, multi-level bullying prevention and intervention with staff capacity building, can reduce bullying among primary school children. Methods: This study comprised two intervention and one comparison conditions. Student self-report data were collected from 2552…
This report provides a count of all students in Montana public and nonpublic schools who are eligible to receive free and reduced price benefits for meals and milk. Because the data presented in this report are frozen on December 31, there may be missing values as well as late corrections for a given year because data came in later than that date.
Carr, B. B.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.
Sinabung is a 2460 m high andesitic volcano located in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Sinabung had no confirmed historical activity until a small (VEI 2) explosive eruption in August-September 2010. In September 2013, explosions began again and were accompanied by lava dome growth and subsequent dome-collapse generated pyroclastic flows (Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network 35:07; 39:01). The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (Indonesia) estimated dome growth at 3.5 m3/s in late December 2013. From January to March 2014 lava extrusion continued and formed a lobe down Sinabung's south flank. As of this writing, effusion and growth of the lava lobe continues, but at a much slower rate. Pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of the steep sides of the lobe remain a hazard. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomter (MODIS) to observe volcanic activity at Sinabung during the 2013-2014 eruption and estimate effusion rates following the methods of Harris & Ripepe (2007, Geophys. Res. Let. 34). We also use new analysis of those thermal images to characterize style of activity, distinguishing pyroclastic flow activity from pure lava lobe growth. Preliminary results from satellite images show an average effusion rate of 1.1 m3/s during January-March 2014, with peak effusion rates from individual TIR images of 4-7 m3/s in mid-January. These numbers are in good agreement with the ground-based estimates, and they provide improved temporal resolution of the activity as it evolved. Since March, effusion rates have decreased to below 0.01 m3/s on average. Using the MODIS images, we estimate the maximum possible total erupted volume to be 7 million m3, and have constrained the accuracy of this estimate using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry from ground-based visual images of the lava lobe. Following explosions in 2010 and 2013 and high effusion rates from January to March 2014, the ongoing slow
Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena
Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza
Ilyicheva, Tatyana; Abdurashitov, Murat; Durymanov, Alexander; Susloparov, Ivan; Goncharova, Natalya; Kolosova, Natalya; Mikheev, Valery; Ryzhikov, Alexander
In total 1,525 blood serum samples were collected in October, 2013 in Russian Asia from people who reside in territories that are at high risk for emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Presence of antibodies to influenza viruses in the sera was tested in hemagglutination inhibition test. None of the samples produced positive results with the antigens A/H5 and A/H7. Twelve strains of influenza A(H1N1pdm09) virus were isolated from people who died presumably from influenza during 2013-2014 epidemic season. All strains were similar to vaccine strain A/California/07/09 according to their antigenic properties and sensitivity to anti-neuraminidase drugs (oseltamivir and zanamivir). Genetic analysis revealed that all strains belong to group 6, subgroup 6B of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Substitutions in HA1: S164F add E235K as well as E47G, A86V, K331R, N386K, N397K in NA, and K131E, N29S in NS1, and N29S, R34Q in NEP separate investigated strains into two groups: 1st group-A/Chita/1114/2014, A/Chita/1115/2014, A/Chita/853/2014, A/Barnaul/269/2014 and 2nd group-A/Chita/655/2014, A/Chita/656/2014, A/Chita/709/2014, A/Chita/873/2014. Mutation D222G in HA1, which is often associated with high morbidity of the illness, was present in strain A/Novosibirsk/114/2014. Substitution N386K in NA removes a potential N-glycosylation site in neuraminidases of A/Chita/1114/2014, A/Chita/1115/2014, A/Chita/853/2014, A/Barnaul/269/2014, A/Novosibirsk/114/2014, and A/Blagoveshensk/252/2014.
Maluccio, John A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John; Murphy, Alexis; Ramakrishnan, Usha
We use village census data and linear regression models to examine changes between 1975 and 2002 in the associations of parental resources with boys' and girls' schooling in four rural Guatemalan villages. Levels of schooling in 1975 were universally low for children 7–17 years. Large increases in schooling achievements occurred between 1975 and 2002. By 2002, schooling levels were comparable for younger boys and girls (7–12 years, N = 3,525) and favored older boys compared to older girls (13–17 years, N = 2,440) by about 0.5 grades. The associations of household standard of living and maternal schooling with schooling among girls diminished over time and became more comparable with these associations among boys, and the associations of household standard of living with schooling among older boys declined and became more comparable with these associations among girls. Thus, as increased social investments reduce the costs of schooling or increase the supply and quality of schooling to families, the magnitudes of the associations between parental resources and children's schooling decline and become more gender equitable at all ages. However, our results show that older boys may benefit more than older girls from social investments in schooling. These changes suggest potential needs to monitor gender gaps in schooling retention among older children, to insure gender equitable access to social investments in schooling, and to encourage parents to invest in schooling as joint measures to achieve greater schooling achievements of girls and boys. PMID:23888089
Impacts on Sea- Ice and Water Properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and Western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014 Rebecca Woodgate Polar Science...from the Pacific, are critical to the water properties of the Chukchi Sea, act as a trigger of sea- ice melt in the Chukchi, provide a subsurface...source of heat to the Arctic in winter (with possible impacts on sea- ice ), and are a major component of freshwater input to the Arctic (Figures 1 and 2
Wheaton, Anne G; Ferro, Gabrielle A; Croft, Janet B
Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are more likely to be overweight; not engage in daily physical activity; suffer from depressive symptoms; engage in unhealthy risk behaviors such as drinking, smoking tobacco, and using illicit drugs; and perform poorly in school. However, insufficient sleep is common among high school students, with less than one third of U.S. high school students sleeping at least 8 hours on school nights. In a policy statement published in 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged middle and high schools to modify start times as a means to enable students to get adequate sleep and improve their health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. AAP recommended that "middle and high schools should aim for a starting time of no earlier than 8:30 a.m.". To assess state-specific distributions of public middle and high school start times and establish a pre-recommendation baseline, CDC and the U.S. Department of Education analyzed data from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Among an estimated 39,700 public middle, high, and combined schools* in the United States, the average start time was 8:03 a.m. Overall, only 17.7% of these public schools started school at 8:30 a.m. or later. The percentage of schools with 8:30 a.m. or later start times varied greatly by state, ranging from 0% in Hawaii, Mississippi, and Wyoming to more than three quarters of schools in Alaska (76.8%) and North Dakota (78.5%). A school system start time policy of 8:30 a.m. or later provides teenage students the opportunity to achieve the 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep recommended by AAP and the 8-10 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009
This document provides guidance to help decrease the spread of flu among students and school staff during the 2009-2010 school year. This document expands upon earlier school guidance documents by providing a menu of tools that school and health officials can choose from based on conditions in their area. It recommends actions to take this school…
Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. In order to further examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students...
Some evidence suggests that children have relatively higher increases in weight during the summer months compared to the school year. In order to further examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standa...
Molitor, C.J.; Leigh, D.E.
Building on the existing education literature, we address two interrelated questions. First, how sensitive are estimated returns to two-year and four-year colleges to the inclusion of in-school work experience? Second, do the estimated returns to in-school work experience vary by type of educational institution attended? Regarding the first…
Moreno, Jennette P.; Johnston, Craig A.; Woehler, Deborah
Background: Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. To examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight further, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students entering kindergarten. Methods: Heights and…
Torres, Ana Cristina; Mouraz, Ana
The study followed students in their 10th year of schooling that entered a new secondary education school in order to examine their perceptions of their previous schools' work and of its relationship with the difficulties they experience when in the transition. The analysis of 155 completed questionnaires of previous students of nine basic…
Cross, Donna; Monks, Helen; Hall, Marg; Shaw, Therese; Pintabona, Yolanda; Erceg, Erin; Hamilton, Greg; Roberts, Clare; Waters, Stacey; Lester, Leanne
A group randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of the Friendly Schools program to reduce student bullying behaviour. This socio-ecological intervention targeted the whole school, classroom, family, and individual students to reduce bullying behaviour. Self-report data were collected in 29 schools over three years from a cohort of 1968…
Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.
This 1999-2000 directory provides information on Alaska's public schools, school districts, education organizations, and institutions of higher education. A statistical summary indicates that in 1998-99, Alaska enrolled 132,905 students in 503 public schools. Breakdowns by grade configuration and enrollment show that about half the schools served…
Policymakers are promoting expanded learning time to help low-performing students, but the know-how and resources for implementation are lacking. Providence's expanded-school-day pilot is a partnership between the school district and the Providence After School Alliance, a nonprofit that manages after-school programs for low-income students in…
A unique early transfer scheme is described for one English secondary school and its eight feeder primary schools whereby all Year 6 children transfer to secondary school four weeks before the end of the summer term. The scheme has many implications. The main focus here comprises gender contrasts in children's perceptions of school life and…
Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil
In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
National performance for 17-year-olds in school, 17-year-olds not in school and young adults aged 26-35 in the area of career and occupational development (COD) was assessed to determine whether or not education status and career development skills are related. Within each of the groups, performance of various subgroups was examined, defined by…
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2009-10, fiscal year 2010 (FY 10). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…
Molnar, Alex; Boninger, Faith
Computer technology has made it possible to aggregate, collate, analyze, and store massive amounts of information about students. School districts and private companies that sell their services to the education market now regularly collect such information, raising significant issues about the privacy rights of students. Most school districts lack…
The 4-year federal Safe and Supportive Schools (S3) program supports targeted interventions to improve and measure conditions for learning at the high school level. For 2011-2012 (Year 2), two evaluation questions were investigated: (EQ1) To what extent do participating schools implement the program with fidelity relative to the WV Model for…
Reported is the status of Colorado public schools' special education services for the school year 1973-74 and midyear 1974-75. Presented is school year 1973-74 information on students served, not served, and the nature of services rendered. Summarized are data on special education instructional and support staff. Special education costs and…
Italiano, Frank; Hine, Gregory
This action research explored how Year 12 achievement data were used by school personnel to inform practice within seven Catholic secondary schools. Deputy Principals of Curriculum from participating schools were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the improvement of Year 12 student achievement outcomes, and their insights into how to…
Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.
The present study examined child and school factors that might foster classroom behavioral engagement during the first year at school in a sample of 67 typically developing British 4-year-olds. The children were followed for 9 months from the summer before enrollment through the first 7 months of school. Our findings showed that effortful control…
This paper describes the 2-year outcomes of one high school's implementation of an intensive 4-block schedule. The study at Angola High School (Indiana) compared schoolwide grade-point averages (GPAs), standardized test scores, attendance data, and disciplinary records to school-baseline data from the 2 years prior to implementation of the block…
District of Columbia Public Schools, 2014
School-Parent Compacts are a component of school-level parental involvement policies, and must be developed by the school, teacher, and parents as a description of how parents, the entire school staff, and students themselves will work together for improved student academic achievement. This District of Columbia Public Schools School Year…
The first of a series of 13 monthly reports, this paper reviews the issue of the year-round school -- a variety of calendar changes aimed at increasing the educational and economic efficiency of the school system. The author first reviews the major pros and cons of the year-round controversy, focusing on the questions of potential learning…
Williams, Allan S.
In determining the feasibility of a year-round school program, administrators should judge its potential for facilities utilization, relief of overcrowding, personnel utilization, curriculum improvement, and better learning opportunities -- especially for the slow and fast learners. To determine the potential of a year-round school, a Steering…
Burns, Amy; Whitney, Joye; Shah, Hardeek; Foley, Ellen; Dure, Elsa
In January 2010, the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE) identified Central Falls High School (CFHS) as one of the state's persistently lowest-achieving schools. The Central Falls School District (CFSD) and the Central Falls Teachers Union (CFTU) considered the transformation model but could not come to an agreement initially around…
Gilmartin, Kevin J.; And Others
This document investigates the processes which influence a high school student's move toward or away from a career in science. Utilizing a Scientific Potential Index, 1,200 scientists and 22,500 non-scientists who were in high school in 1960, and 1,142 current high school students were interviewed concerning career plans and related matters.…
Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.
This report presents required state and federal information and administrative and procedural information related to Kansas school food service programs. These programs include the National School Lunch Program, the School Breakfast Program, the Child Care Food Program, the Special Milk Program, and the Nutrition Education Program, and training…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
During their senior year, students in the Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools develop a postsecondary plan indicating their intentions upon graduation from high school. Postsecondary plan data were generated and consists of several categories, including attending a four-year college/university, attending a two-year/community…
Veale, James R.; Morley, Raymond E.
The School-Based Youth Services Program (SBYSP) of the Iowa Department of Education has just completed its seventh year of operation. This report focuses on the 1995-96 school year, which was the second year of the expanded SBYSP, which went from its original 4 sites to 18. These sites include rural and urban areas, and some of the poorest areas…
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2012.1. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) Revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2014.1 Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) Revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…
Hart, Caroline Sarojini
This paper explores the social context of food practices in primary schools in England based on research conducted in 2013-2014 as part of the Sheffield School Food Project. Drawing on the capability approach, and social quality theory, the theoretical framework informed a research methodology enabling exploration of ways in which food practices…
Wade, Julie; Maina, Nyambura
Students who received mental health services at a Linkages to Learning (LTL) site showed improvement on some measures of well-being and school engagement, including self-ratings of self-concept and attendance. Families who received case management services showed improvement on multiple areas of self-sufficiency, and large percentages of…
Given the shifting population trends across the U.S. and Pennsylvania, it is important for policy makers and school districts to know what to expect, in terms of school district enrollment and facility needs, in the coming years. This research was conducted to provide a perspective on the potential building needs of school districts over the next…
... School Achievement (SRSA) program, the U.S. Department of Education (Department) awards grants on a formula basis to eligible local educational agencies (LEAs) to address the unique needs of rural school... Application Deadline for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013; Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office...
Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika
This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…
Sepanik, Susan; Corrin, William; Roy, David; Gray, Aracelis; Fernandez, Felix; Briggs, Ashley; Wang, Kathleen K.
Too many students in high-poverty, urban communities drop out of high school, and too few graduate prepared for college and careers. Three national organizations--Talent Development Secondary, City Year, and Communities In Schools--have formed "Diplomas Now" in an effort to transform urban secondary schools so fewer students drop out and…
Virginia Department of Education, 2009
The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2007-2008, with selected comparisons…
Virginia Department of Education, 2011
The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2008-2009, with selected comparisons…
Virginia Department of Education, 2011
The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2009-2010, with selected comparisons…
Virginia Department of Education, 2008
The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2006-2007, with selected comparisons…
Virginia Department of Education, 2012
The "Code of Virginia" (Section 22.1-279.3:1) requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2010-2011,…
This article reports findings from the first year of a longitudinal, mixed-methods case study of a large teaching school alliance in England. This national initiative is intended to drive improvement at system level by grouping schools around formally designated teaching schools. These "alliances" work collaboratively to share learning,…
Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.
Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…
Hunt, Thomas C., Ed.; Joseph, Ellis A., Ed.; Nuzzi, Ronald J., Ed.
The collection of articles in this publication offers a review of the research on Catholic schools during the past decade, and as such, represents an update of "Catholic Schools Make a Difference: Twenty-Five Years of Research." Following the "Introduction," the volume is divided into five sections: (1) "Catholic Schools and the Broader Church"…
McCormac, Mary E.
Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…
CLASEN, ROBERT E.
A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS RELATED TO SCHOOL PLANTS IS COMPILED BY YEARS BEGINNING WITH STUDIES PRODUCED IN 1921 AND IS CROSS INDEXED BY TOPIC. IT REVIEWS THE SCHOOL PLANT PROBLEMS MOST INVESTIGATED BY STUDENTS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCHOOL BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN LIGHT OF CORRESPONDING ECONOMIC AND…
This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…
Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu
Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…
Yee, R; David, J; Khadka, R
The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.
Petix, Julie; And Others
An inspection of 138 New Jersey school buildings revealed that a significant percentage of school officials do not have a good understanding of their asbestos management plan and, therefore, are failing to meet all of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act's requirements. (MLF)
Bartholomew Consolidated School Corp., Columbus, IN.
This report evaluates a volunteer program established in the Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation in Columbus, Indiana. Areas identified for evaluation were (1) the fulfillment or achievement of program objectives; (2) measurable differences in volunteers' attitudes toward the schooling process and parenting skills, as well as their…
Rubenstein, Michael C.; Reisner, Elizabeth R.; Coon, Michelle J.; Fabiano, Lara
The New Century High Schools (NCHS) initiative so far has launched three rounds of new small high schools in New York City, working in collaboration with the Department of Education of the City of New York (DOE), the teachers' and principals' professional associations, and a consortium of funders led by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. New…
Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Bol, Linda
The purpose of the present evaluation study was to examine the progress made in program implementation, school climate, and student achievement by Tennessee charter schools. Six evaluation questions guided the methodology for this study. Student achievement results are addressed in a separate report. The following evaluation questions are…
Potamites, Liz; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric; Booker, Kevin
New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. New Leaders and its partner organizations have received from the U.S. Department of Education tens of millions of dollars in…
Lesser, Eli J.
The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic…
Interviews and focus group meetings were held at 24 schools and 3 nonschool sites across Queensland (Australia) to identify current success experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, as well as effective practices that promote such success. School statistics are of limited value because Indigenous identification is not…
Thompson, Sharon M.; Meyers, Joel; Oshima, T. Chris
Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of student mobility (as expressed by the school-level mobility rate) and first through fifth grade reading, language arts, and mathematics achievement for a statewide sample of 1062 elementary schools. Comparison data were analyzed to further investigate the relationship…
Flanigan, Robin L.
An overview of the state of education. Through text and graphs, describes enrollment trends; spending on school construction, maintenance, and operations; changes in ACT and SAT scores; public opinion of educational vouchers and charter schools; and the growth of educational technology. (Contains eight graphs.) (WFA)
Hansen (Shirley J.) Associates, Inc., Lake Jackson, TX.
Since the publication of the original report, entitled "Fiscal Profile of America's Public Schools, 1981-85, and Associated Energy Implications," the national school revenue picture reveals: (1) a decline in federal aid to education, (2) a decline in state fiscal capacity, (3) a reduction in the state-local portion of public l 826/827 sector…
This descriptive study examined the dynamics of partnership over time between a training school and a college of education. Its purpose was to provide a deeper understanding of the dynamics of collaboration within the context of the partnership between the school and the college. The dynamics of the changes occurring in this collaboration over a…
New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.
Annually, a statewide school dropout study is conducted in New Mexico. The purpose of the study is to gather and publish information bearing on the extent and nature of the dropout problem in New Mexico public schools. Data on the grade, sex, ethnicity, and reason for dropping out were collected for students who prematurely discontinued their…
Hembling, David W.; Gilliland, Bob
A random survey of 230 school personnel in various role-groups in a British Columbia school district suggested that an identifiable stress cycle occurs with agreed pattern and regularity and is measurable and statistically significant. Elementary as compared to secondary teachers identified a meaningfully different stress cycle over the school…
Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert
The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.
Vandegrift, Judith A.; Wright, Joel
Since 1996, Arizona has been building a comprehensive statewide system of school-to-work opportunities for students from kindergarten through college, supported by a School-to-Work (STW) implementation grant from the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education. After 3 years, a public opinion poll of a 2,200-person random sample drawn from parents,…
Johnson, Cleo Jacobs; Madoff, Ava; Richman, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Gentile, Claudia
For many years, the Kauffman Foundation has focused efforts on improving education for children in Kansas City. Prior to opening the Kauffman School, the Kauffman Foundation operated several programs that addressed the challenges faced in urban education, such as Project Early (an early childhood program), Project Choice (a high school dropout…
Graves, Jennifer; McMullen, Steven; Rouse, Kathryn
In the face of school crowding and fears about inequality-inducing summer learning loss, many schools have started to adopt multitrack year-round school calendars, which keep the same number of school days, but spread them more evenly across the calendar year. This change allows schools to support a larger student population by rotating which…
Popwell, Emma P.; Amuleru-Marshall, Nancy; Canada, Benjamin O.
In early 1996, the Atlanta school board approved a plan to reconstitute Walden Middle School, opening it to students across the city and substantially changing the composition of the faculty. This report for 1996-97 recounts the first year of the reform effort, during which all positions were declared vacant and a new staff and faculty were…
Stoltzfus, R J; Albonico, M; Tielsch, J M; Chwaya, H M; Savioli, L
Efficacy trials of antihelminthic therapies conducted in Africa have reported improvements in children's growth, but nutritional evaluations of large-scale deworming programs are lacking. We evaluated the first-year effect on growth of a school-based deworming program in Zanzibar, where growth retardation occurs in school children. Children in four primary schools were given thrice-yearly mebendazole (500 mg) and compared with children in four schools that received twice-yearly mebendazole and children in four non-program schools. Evaluation schools were randomly selected and allocated to control, twice-yearly or thrice-yearly deworming. Approximately 1000 children in each program group completed the 1-y follow-up. Children <10 y old gained 0.27 kg more weight (P < 0.05) and 0.13 cm more height (P = 0.20) in the twice-yearly group, and 0. 20 kg more weight (P = 0.07) and 0.30 cm more height (P < 0.01) in the thrice-yearly group, compared with the control group. Children <10 y old with higher heights-for-age at baseline had higher weight and height gains in response to deworming. In children >/=10 y old, overall program effects on height or weight gains were not significant. But in this age range, younger boys had significant improvements in height gain with thrice-yearly deworming, and children with higher heights-for-age had greater improvements in weight gain with deworming. We conclude that the deworming program improved the growth of school children, especially children who were younger and less stunted, but the improvements were small. More effective antihelminthic regimens or additional dietary or disease control interventions may be needed to substantially improve the growth of school children in areas such as Zanzibar.
Cornelius, M. L.
The transition to modern mathematics in the schools is described, and future changes are predicted. Problems which could develop with the current trends toward use of computers, calculators, multiple choice examinations, and new teaching materials are noted. (SD)
Duffy, Bernadette; Fotinatos, Nina; Smith, Amanda; Burke, Jenene
The research reported in this paper investigates why teachers in regional primary schools in the Ballarat region of Victoria, Australia, are choosing to outsource the teaching of sexuality education. A survey was conducted of 29 Year 5 and Year 6 teachers from local primary schools. The teachers provided information about: their confidence in…
Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl
The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the year-round calendar on student performance in Texas middle schools as measured by achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. In the State of Texas, 15 schools served students in grades six through eight using the year-round calendar in 2009-2010. The 15…
This paper provides an overview of assessment policy and practice in mathematics for early years classrooms in New Zealand between 1993 and the present day. It describes the introduction of school entry assessment for children starting school at age five. A numeracy initiative, the Numeracy Development Projects (NDP), for students in Years 1-10…
Martin, Andrew J.; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette; Anderson, Judy
This study of 1,601 students in the middle years of schooling (Grades 5-8, each student measured twice, 1 year apart) from 200 classrooms in 44 schools sought to identify factors explaining gains and declines in mathematics engagement at key transition points. In multilevel regression modeling, findings showed that compared with Grade 6 students…
McDowell, Lena M.; Johnson, Frank
Provides current-year estimates of key statistics for public elementary and secondary schools during the 2001-2002 school year. Data, from the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data, show that student membership in public elementary and secondary education has increased by 1.45 million students since fall 1997 to…
National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.
This report provides a general overview of the activities and experiences of the high school sophomores of 1980, using information from High School and Beyond's (HS&B) base-year, first follow-up (1982), and second follow-up (1984) surveys. It contains a summary of descriptive information about 1980 sophomores two years after leaving high…
This report summarizes the available information on year-round schools. The document narrates a brief history of the year-round school, describes several variant related program types, and presents some of the advantages and disadvantages of such programs. One section of the report offers pro and con views on the subject of the extended school…
Ramnarain, U.; Molefe, P.
A high failure rate at first year physics is often attributed to the lack of readiness of high school students to pursue such studies. This research explores this issue and reports on the perceptions of five physics lecturers at a South African university on the preparedness of high school students for first year physics. Qualitative data was…
Babenko, Oksana; Honish, Lance
Factors affecting the seasonal distribution of norovirus outbreaks are not well understood. This study examined whether grade school settings at the start of the school year may be a factor. We searched Ovid Medline from January 2002 to June 2014 for studies that provided all reported norovirus outbreaks in a developed country by month for a minimum of three years. Historical school years were obtained from verifiable sources. The start of the norovirus seasonal outbreak peak and peak outbreak month were determined for each study and compared to the start month of school. Northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere countries had a different norovirus seasonality and different school year structures (traditional compared to year round). In the two studies that provided outbreaks by age, outbreaks among children started several months before outbreaks in the adult population. The median number of months between school start and start of the seasonal outbreak peak was two months (interquartile range [IQR] = 2.0–3.0), while the median number of months between school start and peak outbreak month was four months (IQR = 3.0–4.0). These findings suggest the possibility the school setting at the start of the school year may be a factor in the seasonality of norovirus. PMID:28167970
Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine
This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural…
Clark, Elizabeth; Buswell, Sue Ann; Morgitan, Judith; Compton, Linda; Westendorf, Georgene; Chau, Elizabeth
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) has the educational and clinical background to coordinate the necessary school health services to provide students with the same health, nutrition, and safety needs while attending…
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, started a programme of cooperations with secondary schools in 2003, which has been expanding continually since that time. By active involvement of teachers and students, the Centre's research topics are communicated to schools, and young people are encouraged to develop their interest for biogeosciences. The portfolio of activities includes: project work with schools over periods from one day to several months, individual student theses at the research centre, internships, a weekly "Research Club" allowing individual experiments, summer school programmes, teacher training courses, joint activities with international partners and a video-project in which students portray scientific aspects of oceanic oxygen minimum zones (in the context of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 754) to other students. Essential prerequisites for these activities are the direct involvement of the Centre's researchers who contribute their expertise and act as role-models for the students, dedicated staff for coordination and continuity, and financial and structural support both at the research centre and the schools.
Ancess, Jacqueline; Ort, Suzanna Wichterle
In 1992, a collaboration of educational reform organizations, the New York City Board of Education, a teachers' union, and private funders created a model of urban high school reform that was practitioner-driven. Two failing high schools, one in Manhattan and one in the Bronx, were phased out while 11 new, small autonomous high schools were…
Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.
This brochure contains information with regard to teacher recruitment procedures for employment in schools operating on United States military bases overseas. The elementary and secondary schools and community colleges provide education for children of military and civilian personnel assigned overseas and are similar to schools in the United…
Tadlock, Martin; LoGuidice, Tom
A survey of representative schools in Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and Illinois showed that most small and rural schools house middle-level students in buildings primarily designed for elementary or high school students. Middle level students often receive an inappropriate educational program that is not taught by teachers trained to understand and…
Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K
The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school.
White, Martha V; Hogue, Susan L; Odom, Dawn; Cooney, Darryl; Bartsch, Jennifer; Goss, Diana; Hollis, Kelly; Herrem, Christopher; Silvia, Suyapa
A pilot survey described the characteristics of anaphylactic events occurring in an initial set of participating U.S. schools during the 2013-2014 school year. This survey was subsequently readministered to large school districts, which were underrepresented in initial results. A cross-sectional survey was administered to the U.S. schools that were participating in the EPIPEN4SCHOOLS(®) program (Mylan Specialty L.P., Canonsburg, PA) to assess characteristics of anaphylactic events. Data from large school districts were added to initial findings in this comprehensive combined analysis. A total of 1,140 anaphylactic events were reported among 6,574 responding schools. Of 1,063 anaphylactic events with data on who experienced the event, it was observed that it occurred mostly in students (89.5%, 951/1,063). For students, anaphylactic events were reported across all grades, with 44.9% (400/891) occurring in high school students, 18.9% (168/891) in middle school students, and 32.5% (290/891) in elementary school students. Food was identified as the most common trigger (60.1%, 622/1,035). A majority of schools (55.0%, 3,332/6,053) permitted only the school nurse and select staff to administer epinephrine to treat anaphylaxis. The unpredictability of anaphylaxis is emphasized by its high occurrence in individuals with no known allergies (25.0%). A majority of schools permitted only the school nurse and select staff to treat anaphylaxis. Thus, individuals experiencing an anaphylactic event may frequently encounter staff members not being permitted to administer potentially life-saving epinephrine. Epinephrine auto-injectors provided by the EPIPEN4SCHOOLS program were used to treat 38.0% of events. Anaphylaxis can occur in children with no previously known allergies, illustrating the importance of public access to epinephrine.
Bellmore, Amy; Villarreal, Vanessa M.; Ho, Alice Y.
As students transition into middle school they must successfully negotiate a new, larger peer context to attain or maintain high social standing. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the maintenance, attainment, and loss of a cool status over the course of the sixth grade is associated with student and classroom levels of…
Schneider, E. Joseph
Examines issues surrounding the nation's concern about its economic well-being and the resulting movement to reform U.S. education. It is argued that it is wrong to blame the nation's economic woes on the educational system or to expect the schools to bail the country out of its doldrums. (SLD)
This report is an evaluation of selected New York City Umbrella Programs funded under a special grant from the New York State Legislature. The 1975-76 Education in Action Program, a community health education program, served 427 elementary and junior high school students and 105 community parents in the Harlem and East Harlem communities. The…
Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne
The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…
Project REAL (Rural Education Aligned for Learning) aims to improve mathematics and science education in grades 5-8 in five rural Ohio school districts identified as in "academic emergency" or on "academic watch." Program goals are to reform curricula to teach skills and concepts, rather than facts; improve students' math and…
Sim, Ko Peng, Ed.; Kam, Ho Wah, Ed.
Derived from the first phase of a research study entitled "The Cognitive and Social Development of Pre-School Children in Singapore" (the IE-BvLF study), the essays in this collection focus on the language, numeracy, cognitive, and social development of approximately 3,000 Singapore children between 1983 and 1986. Following a prologue…
Siperstein, Gary N.
This report evaluated the impact of the Help-Neighborhood Center Program which was designed to inform parents of fifth through eighth grade students about health problems and community concerns. Four thousand elementary and junior high school students and 100 parents participated in workshops on venereal disease, drug abuse, welfare rights, mental…
From 1988 through 1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the New Jersey Department of Health's Environmental Health Service conducted air monitoring in 17 schools in New Jersey to determine the effectiveness of their asbestos c...
Phelps, James L.; Addonizio, Michael F.
Following adoption of a district power equalizing school aid formula intended to achieve equity in the distribution of general revenue, in per pupil expenditure, and in property taxes, significant progress was made toward attaining wealth neutrality that has subsequently been eroded by a depressed state economy. (MJL)
Bardeen, Marjorie; Freeman, Wade; Lederman, Leon; Marshall, Stephanie; Thompson, Bruce; Young, M. Jean
It is time to start a complete re-structuring of the high school science sequence: new content, new instructional materials, new laboratories, new assessment tools, and new teacher preparation. This white paper initiates re-structuring by proposing organization, pedagogy, and content for a new sequence of science courses. The proposal respects the…
In schooling, a learning community is founded on its members, consisting of teachers, children, parents and people who care. As the person with the professional responsibility for building and sustaining a learning community, the teacher is challenged to attend closely to three key areas: classroom environment, curriculum, and social…
Martin, George B.
The materials contained in this school board calendar are intended to help local boards take the appropriate actions required by the state of Oregon at the appropriate times. Many of these board actions involve budget preparation and approval, collective bargaining, and personnel procedures. The calendar suggests activities based on the timeline…
Rebmann, Terri; Turner, James Austin; Kunerth, Allison K.
Working while ill (presenteeism) with symptoms of influenza-like illness can contribute to outbreaks, but little is known about school nurse presenteeism. Missouri Association of School Nurses members (N = 396) were sent a survey in 2013/2014. A chi square test was conducted to compare having a school culture that encourages presenteeism versus…
Peterson, Kristin; Davison, Mark; Wahlstrom, Kyla; Himes, John; Irish, Margaret L.
This report provides Year 2 data comparing two types of school breakfast programs in Minnesota to schools that did not serve breakfast at all (No Breakfast schools): Fast Break to Learning, a universal free breakfast program (Fastbreak schools), and programs with a sliding fee scale (control schools). Data were collected from 30 Fastbreak, 195…
Hecht, Jeffrey B.; And Others
Project Homeroom is an innovative attempt by several Chicago-area schools, International Business Machines, and Ameritech to introduce state-of-the-art computing and telecommunications resources into the educational environment. This report details the second and final year's efforts in three high schools. An evaluation team from the Technological…
Hecht, Jeffrey B.; And Others
This evaluation report describes the first year of an innovative attempt by three Chicago-area high schools, IBM, and Ameritech to introduce computing and telecommunications resources into the educational environment. Information presented in this project report was gathered by the evaluation team in over 32 day-long site visits to the schools,…
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Albuquerque, NM.
Presenting summary and detailed enrollment data, this directory of public schools served by the public assistance program of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) indicates that as of fiscal year 1976, the total number of school districts served by the gIA was 612 with a total enrollment of 1,047,638 of which 120,497 or 12% were American Indians.…
Background In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration. PMID:21864404
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2005
Early in 2005, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) Taskforce on Transition from School collected data on vocational education and training (VET) in Schools from all States and Territories in the following areas: (1) number of students enrolled in VET in Schools programs; (2) industry coverage by…
Wiley, Caroline H.; Good, Thomas L.; McCaslin, Mary
Background/Context: The achievement effects of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs have been studied through the use of input-output models, in which type of CSR program is the input and student achievement is the output. Although specific programs have been found to be more effective and evaluated more than others, teaching practices in…
Carlson, Deven; Scott, Leslie; Planty, Michael; Thompson, Jennifer
This Statistics in Brief examines the status of high school athletes 8 years after their senior year in high school. Using a representative sample of 10th-graders in 1990, who were seniors in 1992, from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), this Brief provides information on the 1990-1992 high school athletes' educational,…
Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, Robert S.; Viger, Roland
Fish in Northern Great Plains streams evolved to survive heat, cold, floods and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflows for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982 - 1999) and three future periods: water years 2021 -2038, 2046 - 2063, and 2071 - 2088. These PRMS model input and output data are intended to accompany a journal article (Chase et al., 2016); they include 2 appendices:1. Appendix 1 - ranges for PRMS parameters for each PRMS model (excel file)2. Appendix 2 - tables 2.1-2.7 containing simulated monthly streamflows, PRMS output (csv file)Chase, K.J., Haj, A.E., Regan, R.S., and Viger, R.J., 2016, Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Volume 7, Pages 69-81, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2016.06.001.
Palmiter, Andrea S.; Arcaira, Erikson R.; White, Richard N.; Reisner, Elizabeth R.
Since the 2003-04 school year, Save the Children, U.S. Programs, has supported programming designed to improve reading skills among struggling students in rural areas. The literacy program includes both afterschool and in-school interventions with small groups of children. These are implemented by well-trained paraprofessionals and are designed to…
Canales, JoAnn; Duron, Susan
This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the…
... Application Deadline for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012; Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of... School Achievement (SRSA) program, CFDA: Number: 84.358A, the U.S. Department of Education (Department) awards grants on a formula basis to eligible local educational agencies (LEAs) to address the...
Guzei, Ilia A.
In honor of the 2014 International Year of Crystallography, the first Wisconsin Crystal Growing Competition was successfully organized and conducted. High school students from 26 schools across the state competed for prizes by growing large crystals of CuSO[subscript4]·5(H[subscript2]O). This paper describes how the event was planned and carried…
The aim was to study effects of an extension of physical education and motor training on motor skills, attention and cognition during a period of three years. The study has two intervention groups (n = 152) that have physical activity and motor training one lesson every school day and one control group (n = 99) that has the school's ordinary…
One hundred years ago, Chocolate Magnate Milton S. Hershey and his wife Catherine signed the deed of trust creating the Hershey Industrial School in the heart of their Pennsylvania farming community. They had no children of their own and wanted to help orphan boys get a good education. The couple eventually left their entire fortune to the school.…
Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry
The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…
National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.
This booklet profiles the four School-to-Careers Company of the Year Award winners judged to be demonstrating clearly the value and importance of these three key employer activities: working directly with students and teachers, building a school-to-careers system in the community, and strengthening company practice. The four winners and their…
Williams, Trevor; And Others
A study examined the educational and occupational plans of Australian fourteen-year-olds as part of program of research on the transition to adulthood. A twenty-item questionnaire was administered to 969 students in 243 schools across Australia. The questionnaire contained items pertaining to respondents' State of residence, school system…
Housden, Terry; Fiedler, Patricia
El Camino's first year as a fundamental high school is described. Students wanting to attend El Camino had to apply and agree to the new fundamental emphasis and school rules. As a result, the composition of El Camino's student body changed to one representing all ability levels. Other major changes at El Camino were: (1) academic emphasis was…
Harvey, Donzel Wayne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the college-readiness rates of Black, Hispanic, White, and Asian graduates of public secondary schools in Texas using archival data from the Texas Education Agency Academic Excellence Indicator System. Data examined were the average ACT and SAT scores for the past 10 school years (i.e., 2001-2002…
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.
This paper provides assistance to Florida school districts regarding the development of their extended school year (ESY) policies and procedures for students with disabilities as required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education (IDEA) Act and Florida statutes. Following a brief section providing background information, 27 questions and…
Council of the Great City Schools, 2008
This report includes quantitative information by individual urban school district for the 2006-2007 school year. Data includes: (1) Total Students; (2) Free/Reduced Price Lunch Eligible Students; (3) Students with Individual Educational Plans; (4) English Language Learners; (5) American Indian/Alaskan Native Students; (6) Asian/Pacific Islander…
Based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in its October 1980 Current Population Survey, this report examines school enrollment rates of 3- and 4-year-olds from three major ethnic groups (black, white, and Spanish origin) and relates this information to characteristics of the children's schools and households. Variables covered in…
Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.
This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…
Sinclair, Beth; Russell, Christina A.; McCann, Colleen; Hildreth, Jeanine L.
Policy Studies Associates (PSA) is conducting a five-year evaluation of the implementation and impact of the national demonstration of a model for expanded learning time developed by "The After-School Corporation" (TASC). This model, called "ExpandED Schools," aims to transform the educational experiences of students in ways…
Florian, Judy E.; Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; Epstein, Ann S.
Since its inception in 1985, the effectiveness and quality of the Michigan School Readiness Program (MSRP), the state's early childhood education program for 4-year-olds at risk of school failure, have never been evaluated. This report details the first evaluation findings for 1995-97. The program is comprised of a child development program for…
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.
The Council of Europe grant for the 1972-73 school year relating to the schooling of migrant workers enabled the study of the underlying causes of the educational backwardness of Turkish children in Retinne (Liege, Belgium). Aim was to find effective solutions to help these students. A special experimental class was conducted on 2 levels: (1)…
Thompson, Aisha R.; Gregory, Anne
Research has identified successful transitions from middle to high school as critical for students' academic success. Identifying risks and protective factors associated with challenge or success in the early years of high school is crucial, especially for African American students who are disproportionately represented in the ranks of adolescents…
Brown, Diane; Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Hugh, Roseann; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Riffer, Morgan
Research for Action's third and final report completes a three-year evaluation study of the Pennsylvania High School Coaching Initiative (PAHSCI). This report presents lessons from the PAHSCI model of school-based instructional coaching and mentoring as a vehicle for job-embedded professional learning. Reporting from an analysis using qualitative…
The history of the Carlisle Indian Boarding School is a microcosm of 500 years of Indian policy. Established through the efforts of career military man Richard Pratt in 1879, the school symbolized the emerging view of assimilation, an important change from earlier attempts at genocide and prior militant attitudes towards the Indians. Long…
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Washington, DC.
An April 2000 telephone survey queried a nationwide sample of 1,000 adults, including 283 parents of children ages 5 to 17 years, concerning school violence and other issues in the news. The vast majority of those surveyed said they believe it is the responsibility of parents to ensure that school shootings, such as occurred at Columbine High…
Navarro, Maria V.
The 2015-2016 school year marks the first administration of the redesigned PSAT, which is composed of two sections: (1) Evidence-based Reading and Writing (EBRW) and (2) Math. This memorandum presents results of 2015-2016 Grade 10 PSAT participation and performance of Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) students. Among 10,859 MCPS first-time…
Hurst, David; Kelly, Dana; Princiotta, Daniel
This issue brief examines the educational outcomes of students who were classified as high school dropouts 8 years after most of their 1988 cohort of 8th graders would have completed high school. Some students who drop out return a short time later to earn a diploma, some may pursue an alternative credential such as a General Educational…
Nichols, Todd; Frazer, Linda
The Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program, where four elementary schools were equipped with computer hardware and software, was made possible by grants from IBM and Apple, Inc. The goals of the program were, in 3 years, to reduce by 50% the number of students not in their age appropriate grade level and those students not achieving…
Provides current-year estimates of selected key statistics for public elementary and secondary schools. Data from the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data indicate enrollment, numbers of teachers, student/teacher ratios, high school graduates, and education revenues and expenditures. (Author/SLD)
Himel, Mabel T.; Hall, Mary Lee; Henderson, Virginia; Floyd, Ruth
Describes the first year of a Professional Development School initiative involving an urban university and local elementary school. The partnership began through the principal's efforts to provide professional development for her teachers and extra hands in the classroom. As interested people became involved, they conveyed the message of the power…
Housden, Terry; Holmes, Lynda
Mesa Verde High School was constructed in 1974 and is the last high school built in the San Juan (California) Unified District. It serves students in grades 9 through 12 and has an open enrollment policy. Mesa Verde operates on a year-round schedule with students divided into three tracks. Basically, each track is in session for 9 weeks and then…
The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in chil...
Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin
Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…
Shepard, Morris A.; Baker, Keith
The purpose of this book is to provide information about year-round schools (YRS) to those thinking about YRS as an educational option for their communities. The book includes a concise history of YRS and case studies of communities that have ventured to change their school calendars. The authors discuss some of the issues that a change to YRS…
Murwin, Scott; Murray, Michael
As part of Project Open (see related documents listed below), unified arts and industrial arts curricula were developed and implemented at Ona Junior High School in West Virginia. The unified arts program combines the four subject areas of art, home economics, music, and industrial arts. It is a two-year required course for all seventh and eighth…
Halperin, Peter J.
Objective: The author reports on a required fourth-year course, Psychiatry in Medicine, which was started in 1999 at Stony Brook Medical School. The aim was to address two important concerns in medical education at Stony Brook and throughout the United States: 1) the failure to recognize psychiatric pathology in outpatient medical settings and 2)…
Fang, Vicky J.; Li, Fu; Zeng, Lingjia; Wu, Joseph T.; Li, Zhongjie; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie
Background The novel influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused 2013 spring and 2013–2014 winter waves of human infections since its first emergence in China in March 2013. Exposure to live poultry is a risk factor for H7N9 infection. Public psychobehavioral responses often change during progression of an epidemic. Methods We conducted population-based surveys in southern China to examine human exposure to live poultry, and population psychological response and behavioral changes in the two waves. In Guangzhou, an urban area of Guangdong province, we collected data using telephone surveys with random digit dialing in May-June 2013 and again in December 2013 to January 2014. In Zijin county, a rural area of the same province, we used door-to-door surveys under a stratified sampling design in July 2013 and again in December 2013 to January 2014. All responses were weighted by age and sex to the respective adult populations. Findings Around half of the urban respondents (53.8%) reported having visited LPMs in the previous year in the first survey, around double that reported in the second survey (27.7%). In the rural surveys, around half of the participants reported raising backyard poultry in the past year in the first survey, increasing to 83.2% participants in the second survey. One third of urban subjects supported the permanent closure of LPMs in the first and second surveys, and factors associated with support for closure included female sex, higher level of worry towards H7N9, and worry induced by a hypothetical influenza-like illness. Conclusions Our study indicated high human exposure to live poultry and low support for permanent closure of markets in both urban and rural residents regardless of increased worry during the epidemic. PMID:26367002
In 1998, George Soros and Herb Sturz seized an opportunity to significantly improve children's lives by founding The After-School Corporation (TASC). They believed that increasing the quality and availability of after-school programs, with the ultimate goal of changing public policy, could transform the potential for many New York City kids who…
Nielson, Dori B.; Lamson, Joe; Love, Catherine; Quinlan, Madalyn
This is Montana's first education profile. The measures in the profile, and the information they contain, provide a clear picture of education in the state. Public school education is provided by more than 460 school districts in this, the U.S.'s fourth largest state in terms of land. With only a few large communities, more than two-thirds of the…
American Indian students as a population are not achieving high academic standards. Yet school failure appears to be acquired rather than inherent at the onset of schooling. Many researchers have reported that American Indian children function at an average range academically until the 4th grade; but by 10th grade, however, they are, on average,…
Strozer, Jan; Juszczak, Linda; Ammerman, Adrienne
The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care's (NASBHC) 2007-2008 Census is the 11th request for data from school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986. The Census: (1) provides a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collects relevant trend data on demographics,…
Moodie, Allan G.
During 1970-71 partial or full semester systems were in operation at different secondary schools. Principals, teachers, students, and parents from schools in each of three categories: partial semester plan, full semester plan with a static timetable schedule, and full semester plan with a rotating timetable schedule, were sent separate…
Juszczak, Linda; Schlitt, John; Moore, Aisha
The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care conducted the 2004-05 Census, the tenth count of school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986, to: (1) provide a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collect up-to-date data on demographics, staffing services, operations,…
School improvement and reform efforts frequently involve the adoption of a new curriculum program. This article examines the factors that influence program selection when schools have freedom to choose as opposed to having programs mandated by district, state, or national education authorities. Survey and document analysis are used to examine the…
Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests. PMID:27672532
Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván
The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling.
Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich
This report presents the value-added models that will be used to measure school and teacher effectiveness in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) in the 2010-2011 school year. It updates the earlier technical report, "Measuring Value Added for IMPACT and TEAM in DC Public Schools." The earlier report described the methods used…
McHugh, Barbara; Stringfield, Sam
This report provides background, implementation, and diverse outcome data from the first 3 years of an ongoing effort to implement a highly specified school reform design in a high-poverty, urban elementary school, Woodson Elementary School, Baltimore (Maryland). The design that is being implemented is the Calvert School model. The Calvert School…
Coulson, John E.
This document summarizes in non-technical terms the preliminary policy-relevant findings of a national evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) Basic and Pilot Programs during the second year of program operations, 1974-75. An attempt is also made to relate the second year results to findings in the first evaluation year, 1973-74. A major…
Gayden, Joyce, Comp.; Thornton, Barbara, Comp.
All materials in this 800-item bibliography are listed by year of publication and are categorized under each year's listing by: books, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, booklets, and reports. The compilation represents part of the research work done in a study of the feasibility of the extended school year in Sough Carolina. (Compiler/EA)
Yen, Isabella Y.
This second year volume of a 3-year course in Chinese includes a textbook, vocabulary, and character lists. A student workbook has also been designed (see FL 002 777 ). The text provided dialogues and practice in vocabulary, translation, questions, writing, and language patterns. Ideas for homework are also included. The book is divided into…
Whittington, Gary; Lowson, Sandra
The Scottish Science and Technology Network (SSTN) is a major collaboration between Careers Scotland and Scottish industry to promote science and technology via an on-line and integrated learning programme. An initial two-year pilot project has grown considerably and has now been running for over 7 years. The SSTN programme is a web-based…
Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark
Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions.
Barzon, L; Papa, A; Lavezzo, E; Franchin, E; Pacenti, M; Sinigaglia, A; Masi, G; Trevisan, M; Squarzon, L; Toppo, S; Papadopoulou, E; Nowotny, N; Ulbert, S; Piralla, A; Rovida, F; Baldanti, F; Percivalle, E; Palù, G
In recent years, West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has been spreading and causing disease outbreaks in humans and animals in Europe. In order to characterize viral diversity, we performed full-length genome sequencing of WNV lineage 2 from human samples collected during outbreaks in Italy and Greece in 2013 and 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these WNV lineage 2 genomes belonged to a monophyletic clade derived from a single introduction into Europe of the prototype Hungarian strain. Correlation of phylogenetic data with geospatial information showed geographical clustering of WNV genome sequences both in Italy and in Greece, indicating that the virus had evolved and diverged during its dispersal in Europe, leading to the emergence of novel genotypes, as it adapted to local ecological niches. These genotypes carried divergent conserved amino acid substitutions, which might have been relevant for viral adaptation, as suggested by selection pressure analysis and in silico and experimental modelling of sequence changes. In conclusion, the results of this study provide further information on WNV lineage 2 transmission dynamics in Europe, and emphasize the need for WNV surveillance activities to monitor viral evolution and diversity.
Hashizume, Masahiro; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu
Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide, and globally licensed vaccines are available. To expedite the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the national immunisation programme, a simple, ecological method to monitor changes in the burden of rotavirus disease may be of great help. Here, we report an application of a time-series analysis on a publicly-available dataset in Japan on the weekly number of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus-positive samples over the last 5 year period between the 36th week of 2009 and the 35th week of 2014 during which rotavirus vaccines became marketed in Japan and presumed to reach an uptake rate of at least 39% as a national average. Compared with the expected number of rotavirus detection based on the preceding four rotavirus seasons, the number of rotavirus detection during the 2013–2014 season was 42.9% (95% CI: 38.6, 47.8). This suggests that the use of rotavirus vaccine had a positive impact on reducing the burden of rotavirus diarrhoea in Japan. This method, because of its simplicity and little cost, should be applicable to early detection of the impact of rotavirus vaccine even in resource-poor countries where the World Health Organization funded and implemented the sentinel surveillance programmes of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases. PMID:26543393
Way, Niobe; Reddy, Ranjini; Rhodes, Jean
A cross-domain latent growth curve model was used to examine the trajectories of change in student perceptions of four critical dimensions of school climate (i.e., teacher support, peer support, student autonomy in the classroom, and clarity and consistency in school rules and regulations) among 1,451 early adolescents from the beginning of sixth through the end of eighth grade; and the effects of such trajectories on the rate of change in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Findings indicated that all of the dimensions of perceived school climate declined over the 3 years of middle school. Furthermore, declines in each of the dimensions of perceived school climate were associated with declines over time in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Moreover, the direction of effects between each dimension of perceived school climate and psychological or behavioral adjustment were often unidirectional rather than bi-directional, underscoring the role of perceived school climate in the psychological and behavioral health of early adolescents. Gender and socioeconomic class differences in these patterns are noted.
Masyagina, Oxana; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Artyukhov, Aleksey; Udalova, Tatiana; Senchenkov, Sergey; Rublev, Aleksey
This research is an attempt to study seasonal translocation patterns of photoassimilated carbon within trees of one of the high latitudes widespread deciduous conifer species Larix gmelinii (Rupr. Rupr). For this purpose, we applied whole-tree labeling by (13)CO2, which is a powerful and effective tool for tracing newly developed assimilates translocation to tissues and organs of a tree. Experimental plot has been established in a mature 105-year-old larch stand located within the continuous permafrost area near Tura settlement (Central Siberia, 64°17'13″N, 100°11'55″E, 148 m a.s.l.). Measurements of seasonal photosynthetic activity and foliage parameters (i.e., leaf length, area, biomass, etc.), and sampling were arranged from early growing season (June 8, 2013; May 14, 2014) until yellowing and senescence of needles (September 17, 2013; September 14, 2014). Labeling by (13)C of the tree branch (June 2013, for 3 branch replicates in 3 different trees) and the whole tree was conducted at early (June 2014), middle (July 2014), and late (August 2013) phase of growing season (for different trees in 3 replicates each time) by three pulses [(CO2)max = 3000-4000 ppmv, (13)CO2 (30 % v/v)]. We found at least two different patterns of carbon translocation associated with larch CO2 assimilation depending on needle phenology. In early period of growing season (June), (13)C appearing in newly developed needles is a result of remobilized storage material use for growth purposes. Then approximately at the end of June, growth processes is switching to storage processes lasting to the end of growing season.
Hall, Minard L.; Steele, Alexander L.; Bernard, Benjamin; Mothes, Patricia A.; Vallejo, Silvia X.; Douillet, Guilhem A.; Ramón, Patricio A.; Aguaiza, Santiago X.; Ruiz, Mario C.
Following 84 years of repose, Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador initiated its present eruptive episode in October 1999, but its PDC activity only began in July 2006. A period of highly energetic Vulcanian eruptions started in 2012, those of 14 July 2013, 18 October 2013, and 1 February 2014 being the most important. These eruptions were well-monitored by a 5-station broadband seismic and acoustic array. Repeated repose intervals of ~ 3.5 months between Vulcanian events (VEI ~ 2) suggest that gases in the ascending juvenile magma experienced sequential pressurization cycles, as magma of preceding eruptive events solidified to form plugs that sealed the conduit. Every 34 months plug failure occurred, abrupt decompression followed, and the resulting Vulcanian explosions are associated with the highest seismic and acoustic energies ever registered anywhere. Small to moderate-sized PDC flows associated with the explosions and fountain collapses were generated and traveled ≤ 7 km down the steep N, NW, and W flanks of Tungurahua's cone at velocities of 11 to 18 m/s, although a small lateral blast and its PDC were clocked at 33 m/s descending the N flank. The explosive fragmentation of the plugs (a dense microcrystalline andesite) and the juvenile magma (a vesiculated glassy andesite) comprise the principal rock fragments of the PDC deposits. Each deposit typically consisting of two layers; a thin upper layer of large segregated and abraded clasts with few fines and a thicker lower layer that is fines-rich with few large clasts. Many deposits were studied and photographed within a few days of their formation, which are presented.
Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf
Summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) produced by a hatchery on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, support a popular sport fishery during June–September each year. Many of these fish return to the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery and are held until they are spawned in December. In the past, fishery managers have released some of the steelhead that return to the hatchery at downstream release sites (hereafter referred to as “recycled steelhead”) to increase angling opportunity. The recycling of summer steelhead is a potential use of hatchery fish that can benefit anglers in the lower Cowlitz River, provided these fish are harvested or return to the hatchery. However, recycled steelhead that are not removed from the river could compete against or spawn with wild winter steelhead, which would be a negative consequence of recycling. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) conducted an evaluation during 1998 and recycled 632 summer steelhead. They determined that 55 percent of the recycled steelhead returned to the hatchery and 15 percent of the fish were harvested by anglers. The remaining 30 percent of recycled fish were not known to have been removed from the river. Recycling has not occurred in recent years because definitive studies have not been conducted to determine the fate of the fish that remain in the lower Cowlitz River after being recycled. The U.S. Geological Survey and WDFW conducted a 2-year study during 2012–2014 to quantify recycled steelhead that (1) returned to the hatchery, (2) were captured by anglers, or (3) remained in the river. All recycled steelhead were marked with a Floy® tag and opercle punch, and 20 percent of the recycled fish were radio-tagged to determine post-release behavior and movement patterns, and to describe locations of tagged fish that remained in the river during the spawning period. During 2012–2013, we recycled 549 steelhead and determined that 50 percent of the fish returned to the hatchery, 18 percent
Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C.
Summer slide, uneven growth of academic skills during the calendar year, captures the fact that the learning gains children make during the school year do not continue at the same pace over the summer, when children are typically not in school. We compared growth of reading skills during the school year and during the summer months in children…
McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, May Kay; Daft, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Michael
In 1998, Congress authorized implementation of a 3-year pilot breakfast program involving 4,300 students in elementary schools in 6 school districts representing a range of economic and demographic characteristics. The program began in the 2000-01 school year. This lengthy report presents the findings from the pilot's first year. The study had two…
Northeast Foundation for Children, Greenfield, MA.
Comprised of excerpts from the Responsive Classroom Newsletter, this book details practices for use during the beginning of the elementary school year to build a foundation for a successful school year. Chapter 1, "The First Six Weeks of School: Building the Foundation for a Successful Year" (Ruth Charney and Marlynn Clayton) introduces…
Magid, Alan D.; Rabold, Jean S.; Stead, William W.
Students entering Duke Medical School in August, 1987 were introduced to several computer-related activities within the context of the Medical Physiology course as part of the Medical Center's effort to test a model for achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS). A questionnaire was administered that sought to measure the extent of prior computer experience, the perceived impact of two physiological computer simulation laboratories, and the desired content of future computer training. The survey showed that 85% had some prior experience: for example, 50% had studied programming, 79% have used word-processing software, 24% own a personal computer, and an additional 25% had access to one. Many students expressed the desire for further training in standard applications and in simulation programs. After lab, about 40% reported improved physiologic understanding but no objective effect of the computer laboratories on exam performance was found.
Curriculum Review, 2007
This article presents the results of a survey by the School Nutrition Association (SNA) on the year-long adoption of wellness policies of 15,000 local schools nationwide. Released September 5, SNA's "From Cupcakes to Carrots: Local Wellness Policies One Year Later" was compiled from a survey of 976 school nutrition directors conducted in May 2007.…
Neuschatz, Michael; McFarling, Mark; White, Susan
This report traces the growth of high school physics in American school over the past twenty years. Highlights of the report include: (1) Enrollments in high school physics continue to grow; (2) Increase in number and proportion of physics teachers; (3) Number of students taking honors, advance placement or second-year physics course has nearly…
Tsushima, William T.; Siu, Andrea M.; Pearce, Annina M.; Zhang, Guangxiang; Oshiro, Ross S.
This research evaluated the 2-year test–retest reliability of the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychological battery, and clarified the need for biennial updated baseline testing of high school athletes. This study compared the baseline test scores of 212 non-concussed athletes that were obtained in Grade 9 and again 2 years later when they were in Grade 11. Regression-based methods indicated that 4 of the 5 ImPACT scores were stable over 2 years, as they fell within the 80% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results suggested that updating baseline testing for high school athletes after 2 years is not necessary. Further research into the consistency of computerized neuropsychological tests over 2 years with high school athletes is recommended. PMID:26572159
Donaldson, Morgaen L., Ed.; Poon, Brian, Ed.
This collection of papers presents the reflections of five beginning public school teachers from the greater Boston area on their first years in teaching. They share lessons garnered from teaching, writing, and reflecting together on their introductory experiences. As their first months in teaching passed, they found themselves working in some…
Roderick, Melissa; Coca, Vanessa; Moeller, Eliza; Kelley-Kemple, Thomas
In a 2010 address to the College Board, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan laid out a vision for high school that advances the Obama administration's goal of the U.S. once again leading the world in educational attainment. There is no grade in which the magnitude and complexity of this shift becomes clearer than in senior year. Historically,…
Shafer, Jeffrey E.
Data collected during the 1989-90 school year reveal that middle schools in Guam exist in name only, with one notable exception. F. B. Leon Guerrero Middle School has implemented an interdisciplinary team model boasting many of the salient features of true middle schools. Leon Guerrero teachers rated the extent their school provided for students'…
Kavcar, Nevzat; Karateke, Ayşen
The study aimed at unit-based determining the physics teacher candidates' views on Physics 9 textbook' content suitable to the 2013 Secondary School Physics Curriculum. 21 teacher candidates enrolled in the final year of the university at 2013-2014 school year constituted the sampling of the study in which scanning model based on qualitative research technique was used by performing document analysis. Data collection tool of the research was teacher candidate files prepared with 51open ended questions including the subject content of the textbook. It was concluded that although the textbook had experimental - application activities and presentation of the subject content was sufficient for knowledge gains of the Curriculum, there are significant insufficiencies in relation to the subject content. It was also concluded that it is necessary to improve the textbook by asking the opinion of the physics teachers and by making use of the research data. Relevant opinion and recommendations were put forward.
Many educators and parents would agree that it is important for parents to spend time in their children's classrooms, to closely monitor homework, or to read to children at home. Try telling that, though, to a 13-year-old, argues Harvard University researcher Nancy E. Hill. In a series of studies and a new book, Hill makes the case that both…
In the fall of 1964, 4,288 students were nominated for participation in the 1st annual competition of the National Achievement Scholarship Program for outstanding Negro students. The students were divided into 3 groups--Scholars, Finalists and Commended. The highest competition status group, the Scholars, were awarded 4-year college scholarships…
When the author started working with teachers and students on classroom multimedia productions a little over 10 years ago, he had not yet encountered the term "media literacy", nor did he realize he had joined a long standing international movement of media literacy educators. Serendipitous exposure to "old-media" texts by Neil Postman and Noam…
Askins (B.E.) and Associates, Lubbock, TX.
A Clovis, New Mexico, project designed to develop over five years a model English-Spanish bilingual program for limited English proficiency students from nursery school through grade 6 did not fully meet its objectives during the 1979-80 school year, the project's fifth and final year. One hundred forty students enrolled in grades 3-6 in two…
Magiati, Iliana; Moss, Joanna; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia
There are few long-term follow-up studies of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) who attended intensive intervention programmes in their pre-school years. Thirty-six children with ASD enrolled in relatively intensive, specialist pre-school programmes (minimum of 15 h intervention per week for 2 years at a mean age of 3.4 years) were…
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
The study reviewed in this paper examined the effect of the "Middle School Physical Activity and Nutrition" ("M-SPAN)" intervention on the physical activity level of middle school students. For this 2-year study, 24 middle schools from six districts in southern California were stratified by school district and then randomly…
ACT, Inc., 2013
This manual contains information about the American College Test (ACT) Plan® program. The principal focus of this manual is to document the Plan program's technical adequacy in light of its intended purposes. This manual supersedes the 2011 edition. The content of this manual responds to requirements of the testing industry as established in the…
Hesthaven, Jan S.; Janhunen, Salomon; Cazeaux, Paul
Initially a separate orthogonal expansion for the low-k components and FEM for high-k components was considered, or a multi-scale FEM method, but a more attractive hybrid FDM/FEM model for parallel computations has been devised with minimal impact to formerly developed code. This system involves using Lagrange polynomials along magnetic field lines to establish a FDM discretization of the toroidal contributions to the perpendicular Laplacian, which is the operator of importance in gyrokinetic solution of the vector potential. The method was found analytically to be stable, due to some dissipation from varying field-line lengths. The accuracy of this method has been evaluated using the method of manufactured solutions (with Bei Wang of Princeton University), whereby we find that for a Poisson problem the maximum error roughly diminishes linearly as a function of the grid resolution (uniformly refined), whereas the L2 norm as square root of the resolution improvement. Most of the error appears to be contributed near boundaries and where the FEM grid has anisotropy, so we are trying to improve this analysis using improved tessellations obtained from Mark Shepard, and publish the results as soon as the problems with the grid have been eliminated.
Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret
Intended for parents of 10- to 15-year-olds, this book is a guide to mastering the ups and downs of early adolescence. The book draws together the latest information from experts, supported and advised by the National Middle School Association, and insights from surveys of parents, teachers, and the children themselves to cover every facet of the…
Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dilouya, Barry; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Adams, Gerald
The present study investigates the characteristics which differentiate between first-year university students who maintain their high school averages (Maintainers: n = 165) and those whose averages decrease at least one letter grade (Decliners: n = 435). The 600 students entered first year at one of six Canadian Universities, which varied in size…
Welsh, Megan E.; Miller, Faith G.; Kooken, Janice; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; McCoach, D. Betsy
During the first year of school, student success hinges on learning not only new academic skills, but also behavioral expectations and developing self-regulation skills in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate development in behavioral regulation during the kindergarten year. The authors used multilevel models to explore the…
Malizia, Guglielmo; Cicatelli, Sergio
This book delineates the evolution of the Study Centre for Catholic Schools (CSSC) in its first ten years of existence since its foundation in 1998 by the Italian Bishops' Conference. The volume is divided into three main sections. The first outlines the context and the activity of the CSSC during ten years: the role, the functions, the tasks and…
Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…
Schaeffer, Gary A.; And Others
A primary school drug abuse prevention program was evaluated. The program consisted of 2 years of Magic Circle on the Human Development Program (designed to positively influence students' social and emotional development via a teacher-led discussion of a particular topic) and 1 year of Jigsaw (a structured peer teaching method in which students…
Cryer, James D.
In an effort to understand the positive and negative experiences that principals encounter as they navigate through their first year of administrative duties at the middle school level, this research study examined what events happened during their first year that encouraged the individual to stay in the position or discouraged the individual to…
Kelly, Angela M.; Gningue, Serigne M.; Qian, Gaoyin
This study explored the challenges facing 1st-year alternatively certified teachers of mathematics and science in urban middle schools. Four teachers, participants in a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Robert Noyce Scholarship Program, were followed from preservice training through their 1st year of teaching, having taken part in…
Halle, Tamara G.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Wandner, Laura D.; Chien, Nina C.
This study uses the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) data from 1997 to investigate the degree to which child, family, classroom, teacher, and Head Start program characteristics are related to children's school readiness and continued development over the four-year-old Head Start year. Latent class analyses were used to examine the…
Mentoring first-year superintendents in Missouri began as an informal process with the pairing of a veteran superintendent (mentor) with a first-year superintendent (protege) by the Missouri Association of School Administrators (MASA). The adoption of the Career Continuous Professional Certification by the Missouri State Board of Education…
The aim of this study is to determine the positive/negative teacher behaviours which teacher candidates observed during their primary and secondary school years and the effects of these behaviours on themselves. The research was conducted in the spring term of 2012-2013 academic year with 88 teacher candidates (52 females and 36 males), studying…
The current paper examines teaching practices in three first-grade primary classrooms (age range from five years and nine months old to six years and nine months old) in Greek Cypriot public schools, exploring whether the wider changes in critical literacy education declared on a policy level are influencing classroom literacy practices. Greek…
Pratinidhi, A K; Kurulkar, P V; Garad, S G; Dalal, M
A study on school dropouts from primary and secondary school children was undertaken in September '91 from 16 schools at the headquarters of 8 Primary Health Centres, where 172 school dropouts were identified. A home visit was paid and information about socio-economic and cultural aspects was collected and a psychological screening was undertaken. Although there was no significant difference in overall dropout rates for both sexes, it increased sharply at 11 years of age in girls. The majority of children dropped out due to financial problems or unsatisfactory scholastic performance, and 142 (82.5%) of the 172 children studied were poor performers in one or more function tests. Maximum difficulty was observed in concept formation 87 (50.5%), followed by numerical ability in 78 (45%). Identification of children with learning difficulties and intervention using special educational methods within the framework of existing network of primary and secondary schools in rural areas is suggested.
Barai, A.; Carvalho Neto, J. T.; Garrido, D.; Ityanagui, G.; Navi, M.
This paper describes the interaction and partnership experience between a school and one of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)campi, both located in Araras, SP, aiming to teach and promote astronomy and astronautics knowledge among students of the first five years of Elementary Education. This initiative made use of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as a motivating event for the theme exploration. The actions were divided into two fronts: an improvement course for the school teachers conducted by university professors and lectures for students by UFSCar students under the guidance of university teachers and the school coordinators. By the observed results, we noticed the importance of narrowing the distance school-university, promoting learning for both institutions and helping to raise the level of education from elementary school to college.
Dickinson, George E
The objective of this study was to examine US medical school offerings on end-of-life issues between 1975 and 2010. Data were obtained from a mailed survey to the US medical schools in 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Survey response rates for the 8 points in time (in percentages) were 95, 96, 90, 90, 93, 92, 81, and 79, respectively. Between 1975 and 2010, the overall offerings in death and dying increased so that 100% of US medical schools, beginning in 2000, offered something on death and dying. A multidisciplinary-team approach continued over the 35-year period. Palliative care is offered to some extent in 99% of US medical schools today. Numerous end-of-life topics are currently covered in the curriculum. Increased attention to end-of-life issues in medical schools should enhance medical students' relationship with terminally ill patients and their families.
Huffman, George Eugene
The purpose of this study was to analyze demographic and school data, as well as data on the perceptions of teachers regarding the impact that a modified year-round school calendar has on student achievement, student behavior, and teacher efficacy. Prior research and literature examined the impact of year-round school calendars on student…
Yates, Donald W.
This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …
Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie
In the 2013-14 school year, TASC entered the third year of its national demonstration of ExpandED Schools. Ten elementary and middle schools in New York City, Baltimore and New Orleans continued their partnerships with youth-serving community organizations, such as settlement houses or community development corporations. Together, principals,…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2012
The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) is a system of related questionnaires that provide descriptive data on the context of elementary and secondary education and policymakers a variety of statistics on the condition of education in the United States. The SASS system covers a wide range of topics from teacher demand, teacher and principal…
The Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I program, Summer Reading Remediation for Incoming Pupils 1975, had two goals: to improve reading skills by supplying an intensive program of remediation in reading and to orient incoming students to their new school environment and its staff. Participating in the program were 2807 ninth and tenth grade…
Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J
We examined the associations between the physical, social and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height(m)2) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity. PMID:21474361
Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J
We examined the associations between the physical, social, and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height (m(2))) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity.
Corriveau, Nicole; Eagle, Taylor; Jiang, Qingmei; Rogers, Robert; Gurm, Roopa; Aaronson, Susan; Mitchell, Lindsey; DuRussel-Weston, Jean; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Eagle, Kim A.
Objectives. We determined the sustainability of effects of a school-based intervention to improve health behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors among middle school children. Methods. We administered a questionnaire and health screenings to 5 schools in Ann Arbor and 2 schools in Ypsilanti, Michigan. We assessed demographics, physiological factors, diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors from 1126 students who received a health curriculum (Project Healthy Schools) in the fall of sixth grade in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We administered the questionnaire and screening again in the spring and each subsequent spring through ninth grade to all available, consenting students. Results. In the 4 years following the school-based intervention, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides improved, and for most years systolic and diastolic blood pressure improved. Serum glucose and body mass index did not change. Physical activity increased and sedentary behaviors diminished. Conclusions. Project Healthy Schools is associated with sustainable improvements in both cardiovascular parameters and healthy behaviors. PMID:26469650
Bonza, John E; Fields, Sarah K; Yard, Ellen E; Dawn Comstock, R
Context: The shoulder is one of the most commonly injured body sites among athletes. Little previous research describes shoulder injury patterns in high school athletes. Objective: To describe and compare shoulder injury rates and patterns among high school athletes in 9 sports (football, soccer, basketball, baseball, and wrestling for boys and soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball for girls). Design: Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting: Injury data were collected from 100 nationally representative US high schools via High School Reporting Information Online. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes from participating high schools injured while involved in a school-sanctioned practice or competition in 1 of the above sports during the 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 school years. Main Outcome Measure(s): Shoulder injury rates, diagnoses, severity, and mechanisms. Results: During the 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 school years, athletes in this study sustained 805 shoulder injuries during 3 550 141 athlete-exposures (AEs), for an injury rate of 2.27 shoulder injuries per 10 000 AEs. This corresponds to an estimated 232 258 shoulder injuries occurring nationwide during this time. Shoulder injuries were more likely to occur during competition than practice (rate ratio = 3.01, 95% confidence interval = 2.62, 3.46). Shoulder injury rates per 10 000 AEs were highest in football (5.09), wrestling (4.34), and baseball (1.90). Common shoulder injury diagnoses included sprains/strains (39.6%), dislocations/separations (23.7%), contusions (11.5%), and fractures (6.6%). Although 44.8% of athletes sustaining a shoulder injury returned to play in less than 1 week, 22.9% were out of play for more than 3 weeks, and 6.2% of shoulder injuries required surgery. Common mechanisms of shoulder injury included player-to-player contact (57.6%) and contact with the playing surface (22.8%). Conclusions: High school shoulder injury rates and patterns varied
Mayer, G R; Butterworth, T; Nafpaktitis, M; Sulzer-Azaroff, B
Vandalism is a major problem facing educators and taxpayers alike. The present investigation analyzed how vandalism costs and student disruption were related to the implementation of a training and consultation package designed to increase the reinforcing ambience of the school. A positive environment, it was posited, would displace previous events that may have set the occasion for vandalism, with cues to promote productive school performance. Eighteen elementary and junior high schools were involved over a 3-year period. Using a delayed treatment control design, treatment was delivered following either 4 or 13 months of baseline. During treatment, teams of school personnel attended training workshops in behavioral strategies for reducing vandalism and disruption by students in school. Each team also met regularly on its campus to plan and implement programs on a schoolwide basis. To demonstrate that reinforcing procedures were actually implemented and accompanied by change in student performance, these variables were periodically probed throughout the study. Project staff also provided consultation. Vandalism costs decreased significantly (p less than .05) more in treatment than control schools, with an average reduction of 78.5% for all project schools. Rates of praise delivered by project teachers and other randomly selected teachers in the school increased significantly (p less than .05), and rates of off-task behavior by students decreased significantly (p less than .05) following treatment. The staff development model used in this study appeared to be both feasible and economical. PMID:6654768
Background Loneliness is negatively related to good health and wellbeing, especially among girls. There is little research, however, on factors that may ease the burdens of loneliness in the school setting. Thus, we explored the relationship between girls’ loneliness and later school wellbeing adjusted for other adversities. Furthermore, we assessed the significance of having someone whom the girl trusted by investigating possible modifying influences on the addressed association. Methods Altogether, 119 girls in grades 1–8 provided baseline data and answered the same set of questions two years later. Logistic regression models including perceived academic problems, victimisation by bullying, loneliness and trusted others were tested with bad versus good school wellbeing two years later as outcome using SPSS. Results In the multivariable analysis of loneliness, academic problems, and victimisation, loneliness was the only variable showing a strong and negative contribution to later school wellbeing. Next, demonstrated in separate models; the inclusion of having a trusted class advisor fully attenuated the association of loneliness with later school wellbeing. In contrast, other trusted teachers, trusted parents, or trusted students did not affect the association. Conclusions Loneliness in girls strongly predicted school wellbeing two years later. However, having a class advisor whom the girl trusted to contact in hurtful situations clearly reduced the burden of loneliness. This finding highlights the clinical importance of stability, long-lasting relations, and trust that main teachers may represent for lonely girls. PMID:24712912
Nurelhuda, Nazik Mostafa; Trovik, Tordis Agnete; Ali, Raouf Wahab; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal
Background Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in the past decades in Sudan rendering it difficult to understand the status and pattern of oral health. Methods A school-based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling in Khartoum state, Sudan. Data was collected through interviews and clinical examination by a single examiner. DMFT was measured according to WHO criteria. Gingival index (GI) of Loe & Silness and Plaque index (PI) of Silness & Loe were used. Results The mean DMFT for 12-year-olds was found to be 0.42 with a significant caries index (SiC) of 1.4. Private school attendees had significantly higher DMFT (0.57) when compared to public school attendees (0.4). The untreated caries prevalence was 30.5%. In multivariate analysis caries experience (DMFT > 0) was found to be significantly and directly associated with socioeconomic status. The mean GI for the six index teeth was found to be 1.05 (CI 1.03 – 1.07) and the mean PI was 1.30 (CI 1.22 – 1.38). Conclusion The prevalence of caries was found to be low. The school children with the higher socioeconomic status formed the high risk group. PMID:19527502
Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine
The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…
Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.
Two hundred and five (103 female and 102 male) children enrolled in school years 1 and 2 in the UK (mean age 6 years 1 month at Time 1) were tested twice over a 1-year period. The children reported the promise keeping and secret keeping behaviours of classmates (all peers and same-gender peers) and provided friendship nominations (Time 2 only).…
Gariépy, Geneviève; Janssen, Ian; Sentenac, Mariane; Elgar, Frank J
Insufficient sleep is a serious problem in adolescents and school start time is thought to be a key contributor. This study provided the first comprehensive assessment of school start times across Canada and examined whether school start times were associated with sleep duration and tiredness among adolescents. We collected information on school start times from 362 schools that participated in the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. We calculated sleep duration from weekday bedtime and wake time reported by 29 635 students (aged 10-18 years). We classified weekday sleep as sufficient if it met national recommendations, and used data on self-reported tiredness at school in the morning. Random-effects regression models estimated the association of school start time with sleep duration, sleep sufficiency and tiredness. On average, schools started at 08:43 hours. Students slept an average of 8:36 h on weekdays and 69% met sleep duration recommendations, but 60% reported feeling tired in the morning. Every 10-min delay in school start time corresponded with 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.5] additional minutes of sleep, a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) greater probability of sufficient sleep and a 2.1% (95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) smaller probability of feeling tired at school in the morning. Students from schools that started later slept longer, were more likely to meet sleep recommendations and were less likely to report feeling tired in the morning. The study adds weight to the mounting evidence that delaying school start time benefits adolescent sleep.
Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark
Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, we charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children’s developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across the early school years. Two-hundred and thirty-four kindergarten children (129 girls and 105 boys; mean age of 6.0 years (SD = .50) at Wave 1) and their parents participated in this multimethod, three-year longitudinal investigation. As expected, latent class analyses extracted three primary typologies of functioning including: (a) cohesive, (b) enmeshed, and (c) disengaged families. Furthermore, family patterns were differentially associated with children’s maladaptive adjustment trajectories in the school context. The findings highlight the developmental utility of incorporating pattern-based approaches to family functioning. PMID:20636698
Pegrum, Mark; Oakley, Grace; Lim, Cher Ping; Xiong, Xi Bei; Yan, Hanbing
This paper reflects on a 2013-2014 Australia-China Council project in which school students in Australia and China produced and shared digital stories about their everyday lives and local cultures, with students being invited to give feedback on the language and content of the stories produced by their overseas peers. The main lessons learned…
Stillwell, Robert; Sable, Jennifer
This report presents the number of high school completers, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and the dropout data for grades 9-12 for public schools in school year 2009-10. State Education Agencies (SEAs) report annual counts of completers, dropouts, and enrollments to the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of…
This report summarizes the work undertaken by the Berkeley Unified School District's (BUSD) project to define a collaborative leadership planning/training model to combat school resegregation. In 1972, four years after full desegregation, the BUSD experienced a marked shift in the school population and its distribution. In 1976, the BUSD committed…
Stillwell, Robert; Sable, Jennifer
This report presents the number of high school completers, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and the dropout data for grades 9-12 for public schools in school year 2009-10. State Education Agencies (SEAs) report annual counts of completers, dropouts, and enrollments to the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of…
Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth
The Gun-Free Schools Act (GFSA) requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) have a law that requires all local educational agencies (LEAs) in the state or outlying area to expel from school for at least one year any student found bringing a firearm to school. Their…
This report presents the number of high school graduates, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and the dropout data for grades 9 through 12 for public schools in school year 2007-08. The counts of graduates, dropouts, and enrollments by grade are from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) nonfiscal…
Martin, Tammy Faith
The purpose of this study was to examine principal leadership styles and their influence on school performance as measured by adequate yearly progress at selected Title I schools in South Carolina. The main focus of the research study was to complete descriptive statistics on principal leadership styles in schools that met or did not meet adequate…
This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2010-11 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported…
This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and the territories in the 2009-10 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by…
This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2008-09 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported…
Stillwell, Robert; Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris
This report presents the number of high school graduates, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and the dropout data for grades 9-12 for public schools in school year 2008-09. State Education Agencies report these counts of graduates, dropouts, and enrollments to the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data…
Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu.
The Honolulu Primary Counseling Project (HPCP) is a pilot, 3-year juvenile delinquency prevention program which emphasizes early identification of and intervention in children's adjustment and pre-delinquent behavior problems. The ultimate goal is to decrease the incidence of juvenile crimes. The project had three broad project goals: (1) to…
Wentling, Tim L.; And Others
An evaluation described Tech Prep prototypes as they were implemented in five different Indiana sites and assessed their effectiveness. Evaluation procedures included: (1) collection and analysis of data from students involved in Tech Prep for the first time in 1990-91 and students involved for the second year; (2) analysis of prototype project…
Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedín; Bentham, Graham; Griffin, Simon J
The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between Fat Mass Index (FMI, calculated as fat mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and objectively computed environmental indicators describing access to food outlets and physical activity facilities, the safety and connectivity of the road network, and the mix of land uses present were investigated. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were fitted with log-transformed FMI as the outcome, and stratification by gender and mode of travel to school. Among girls, better access to healthy food outlets (supermarkets and greengrocers) in the home environment was associated with lower FMI while better access to unhealthy outlets (takeaways and convenience stores) around homes and schools was associated with higher FMI. Also in girls, a higher proportion of accessible open land and a lower mix of land uses around the school were associated with higher FMI. Among boys the presence of major roads in the home neighbourhood was associated with higher FMI among non-active travellers, while major roads in the school neighbourhood were associated with lower FMI among active travellers. No significant associations were seen between FMI and any of the route characteristics. While the relative paucity of associations provides few indicators for the design of effective interventions, there was some evidence that environmental characteristics may be more important among active travellers than non-active travellers, and among girls than boys, suggesting that future interventions should be sensitive to such differences.
In recent years, lean economic conditions have led to state and local agency budget cuts, including reductions to elementary and secondary education. To compensate for less state funding and decreasing local revenues, many state legislatures have passed policy and funding bills that give school systems more latitude in making finance and program…
Hoffman, Lee; Sable, Jennifer
This report presents information about public elementary and secondary education for the 2003-04 school year. The data were provided by state education agencies through the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system, a universe data collection that includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense…
Hoffman, Lee; Sable, Jennifer; Naum, Julia; Gray, Dell
This report presents information about public elementary and secondary education for the 2002-03 school year. The data were provided by state education agencies through the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Discussion of data is limited to the 50 states and the District of Columbia and excludes the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of…
Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin
The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.
After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.
Galvão, Dulce Maria Pereira Garcia; Silva, Isília Aparecida
To review the curricula and content of 1st- through 5th-year elementary school science textbooks with respect to the presence or absence of terms related to breastfeeding, we conducted a descriptive study analyzing the curricula and 16 textbooks of 25 public schools in 03 municipalities of São Paulo between September 2010 and February 2011. In particular, we defined essential concepts to teach and explain breastfeeding to children. We found that no block themed curriculum explicitly addressed the theme of breastfeeding. Nine of the sixteen predefined concepts were present in eight of the sixteen textbooks adopted. From the analysis, we identified a new category: Support and help the family. Three textbooks used illustrations associated with artificial feeding. In the program and textbooks, there are several opportunities to introduce this topic. We advise integrating this content into all science textbooks in the early years of elementary school.
Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Willford, Jennifer A; Severtson, Stevan G; Day, Nancy L
The relation between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and school achievement was evaluated in a sample of 524 14-year-olds. Women were recruited during pregnancy and assessed, along with their offspring, at multiple phases from infancy to early adulthood. The sample represents a low-income population. Half of the adolescents are male and 55% are African American. School achievement was assessed with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Screener (Psychological Corporation, 1992). A significant negative relation was found between PME and 14-year WIAT composite and reading scores. The deficit in school achievement was mediated by the effects of PME on intelligence test performance at age 6, attention problems and depression symptoms at age 10, and early initiation of marijuana use. These findings suggest that the effects of PME on adolescent achievement are mediated by the earlier negative effects of PME on child characteristics. The negative impact of these characteristics on adolescent achievement may presage later problems in early adulthood.
Pini, A; Merk, H; Carnahan, A; Galanis, I; VAN Straten, E; Danis, K; Edelstein, M; Wallensten, A
In 2013-2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden developed a web-based participatory surveillance system, Hӓlsorapport, based on a random sample of individuals reporting symptoms weekly online, to estimate the community incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal (AGI), acute respiratory (ARI) and influenza-like (ILI) illnesses and their severity. We evaluated Hӓlsorapport's acceptability, completeness, representativeness and its data correlation with other surveillance data. We calculated response proportions and Spearman correlation coefficients (r) between (i) incidence of illnesses in Hӓlsorapport and (ii) proportions of specific search terms to medical-advice website and reasons for calling a medical advice hotline. Of 34 748 invitees, 3245 (9·3%) joined the cohort. Participants answered 81% (139 013) of the weekly questionnaires and 90% (16 351) of follow-up questionnaires. AGI incidence correlated with searches on winter-vomiting disease [r = 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·69-0·89], and ARI incidence correlated with searches on cough (r = 0·77, 95% CI 0·62-0·86). ILI incidence correlated with the web query-based estimated incidence of ILI patients consulting physicians (r = 0·63, 95% CI 0·42-0·77). The high response to different questionnaires and the correlation with other syndromic surveillance systems suggest that Hӓlsorapport offers a reasonable representation of AGI, ARI and ILI patterns in the community and can complement traditional and syndromic surveillance systems to estimate their burden in the community.
For veteran principals, new principals, and aspiring principals, this book is a valuable resource for building instructional momentum during the beginning of the school year. Educational leadership expert Shawn Joseph guides administrators through five key areas: (1) Vision; (2) Instructional Leadership; (3) Politics; (4) Data; and (5) Planning.
Takala, Marjatta; Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta
In this follow-up study, development of co-teaching was studied in four different schools in Helsinki, Finland. Teachers, altogether 54, 51 and 26, respectively, responded to an electronic questionnaire three times during one year. The attitudes towards co-teaching were positive although the frequency of co-teaching remained low. Co-teaching was…
Suppes, Patrick; Ihrke, Constance
Reported is the description of the fourth year (1966-67) of a longitudinal study of the accelerated program involving 30 bright students in elementary school mathematics. This report was written to be as homogeneous as possible with earlier reports by Suppes and Hansen (1965), Suppes (1966), and Suppes and Ihrke (1967). Tables and figures in this…
Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Despite the importance of learning abilities and disabilities in education and child development, little is known about their genetic and environmental origins in the early school years. We report results for English (which includes reading, writing, and speaking), mathematics, and science as well as general cognitive ability in a large and…
Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan
This study provided a basis for answering the following essential question: Does the years of experience affect teachers' classroom management approaches? Data were collected from 268 primary school teachers. The findings of this study demonstrated that experienced teachers are more likely to prefer to be in control in their classrooms than…
Hernandez, Victor; McGee, Steven; Reese, Debbie Denise; Kirby, Jennifer; Martin, Judy
The briefs in the NES Evaluation Briefs series provide updates on evaluation results relevant to the design, implementation, and impact of the NES program. This Brief highlights how the program was implemented in Year 1. The Brief provides contextual information about participating schools, organizational approaches to participation, strategic…
Gibson, Howard; England, Jennifer
The paper highlights problems surrounding the Year 1 Phonics Screening Check that has accompanied the legislative framework for synthetic phonics in English primary schools. It investigates the inclusion of pseudowords and raises questions regarding their generation and categorization, the rationale for their inclusion and the assumption that the…
Division of Manpower Development and Training. , BAVT.
This curriculum guide will aid administrators, supervisors, and teachers in post-high school institutions in planning and implementing programs designed to train recreation program leaders. Contents of the suggested 2-year curriculum cover: (1) background of the program, (2) general considerations such as selection of students, faculty, advisory…
Thompson, David C.
In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for both teachers and students, this bulletin presents specific information about the design, parts, and scoring of the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test for the 1985-86 school year in Alberta, Canada. General information is presented regarding the (1) purpose and nature of the Achievement Testing Program (ATP), (2) students…
Sobeck, Emily Eyrolles
Extended school year (ESY) is a summer program available for students with disabilities who meet specific qualifying criteria. Teachers are often hesitant to accept the position of the ESY teacher due to the ambiguities and demands of the position. The purpose of this article is to briefly share the impetus and focus of ESY and give special…
Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…
Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion; Ghazarian, Sharon R.
There is relatively little research on the role of teacher expectations in the early school years or the importance of teacher expectations as a predictor of future academic achievement. The current study investigated these issues in the reading and mathematic domains for young children. Data from nearly 1,000 children and families at 1st, 3rd,…
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
A 2-YEAR POST-SECONDARY CURRICULUM FOR TECHNICIANS IS PRESENTED. IT IS DESIGNED TO AID SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PLAN AND DEVELOP NEW PROGRAMS OR EVALUATE EXISTING PROGRAMS. IT WAS PREPARED PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION CONTRACT BY THE INSTRUMENT SOCIETY OF AMERICA AFTER A NATIONAL SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION…
Chojnacki, Gregory; Eno, Jared; Liu, Feng; Meyers, Coby; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie
Recent work that has examined the impact of what are variously called periodic, interim, benchmark, or diagnostic assessments, typically administered three or four times during a school year, has produced mixed findings. For instance, one study reported small significant effects in mathematics in grades 3-8, but not in reading (Carlson et al.,…
The aim of this study is to investigate students' conceptions about proof in mathematics and mathematics teaching. A five-point Likert-type questionnaire was administered in order to gather data. The sample of the study included 33 first-year secondary school mathematics students (at the same time student teachers). The data collected were…
Baratta, Anthony N.
This document presents a description and evaluation of the Skills Remediation in Reading for Optional Assignment Program (TOPS) conducted for 4,569 students in 27 high schools in New York City. The participants were Title I optional assignment students in grades 9 through 12, whose reading ability was a minimum of two years below grade level based…
This paper reports findings on the changes in students' understandings of the concept of matter during an academic year, for students from grade 3 through high school chemistry. The instrument for measuring students' understandings of matter consists of three forms: one for grades 3-6, one for grades 7-9, and one for grades 10-12. The three forms…
Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri
Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…
Darby, Alexa; Mihans, Richard; Gonzalez, Kirsten; Lyons, Mary; Goldstein, Julie; Anderson, Kelly
This study examined first-year teachers' (FYTs) experiences at high poverty and non-high poverty schools, exploring their emotional responses to critical incidents. Twenty-eight FYTs were interviewed. The results highlighted the influence of FYT's interactions with students, coworkers, administrators, and parents on their emotions. FYTs at high…
Nakazawa, Chie; Takahira, Sayuri; Muramatsu, Yasuko; Kawano, Ginko; Fujiwara, Chika; Takahashi, Michiko; Ikegami, Toru
This paper presents the results of a 2-year study conducted in Japanese junior high schools to examine the changes in attitude towards science with regard to gender difference. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) identifies Japan as the country with the largest gender gap in "liking science." The results of the…
Turner, Julianne C.; Christensen, Andrea; Kackar-Cam, Hayal Z.; Trucano, Meg; Fulmer, Sara M.
All teachers (N = 32) at one middle school participated in a university-led intervention to improve student engagement. Teachers discussed four principles of motivation and related instructional strategies. Teachers enacted instructional strategies in their classrooms. We observed six randomly selected teachers and their students over 3 years.…
Whitley, Alfred C.
This paper presents a model of a successful student scheduling pattern for a 45-15 year-round middle school (grades 6-8). The model allows for scheduling 100 percent of resource lab teaching time for all the student population in attendance at any one time, and formulates a house design and team teaching structure that facilitates smooth ingress…
Robelen, Erik W.
This article reports on what has become of the federal schools legislation President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law 40 years ago. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) has been amended and rewritten many times since April 11, 1965, the day Mr. Johnson stood before the former one-room schoolhouse in Stonewall, Texas, he once attended…
Blowers, E. A.
Follow-up of 34 pupils (age range 6-22 originally) who had attended a university-sponsored tutoring program 5 years earlier is discussed in terms of persistence and nature of the problems, and characteristics of subgroups including graduates from academic high school programs, graduates from non-academic programs, drop-outs, and a reportedly…
Murphy, H. F.; Wilkinson, J. E.
Using a test-observe-test design with a sample of 29 4-year-old children, this study examined the relationship between children's activity choices in a typical progressive nursery school and their intellectual performance, socioeconomic status (SES), and sex. An attempt was made to identify those experiential factors associated with changes in…
Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile
Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…
Kottler, Ellen; Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Cary J.
This book presents practical strategies to help secondary teachers succeed in their first year of teaching. The 16 chapters include the following: (1) Learning Your Way Around the School (getting oriented, making friends, learning rules and traditions, meeting others); (2) Organizing Your Room (taking inventory and assessing flow, movement, space,…
Koch, Janice, Ed.; Irby, Beverly, Ed.
In this volume, gender and schooling in the early years addresses a broad range of issues including, but not limited, to gender equity in education. We explore, for example, the complex world of play in Fromberg's chapter and are reminded that for young children, play involves issues of power and hierarchy in ways that parallel the role of gender…
Conard, Scott; And Others
A study investigated drug use by fourth-year medical students in 13 schools and compared drug use patterns with those of an age- and sex-matched cohort. Medical students reported less use of marijuana, cocaine, cigarettes, LSD, barbiturates, and amphetamines, similar use of opiates, and slightly more use of tranquilizers and alcohol. (MSE)
Weisbender, Leo; And Others
This second annual year-end report summarizes the efforts of administrators, teachers, and students in the Los Angeles Unified School District on behalf of children whose primary language is not English. It documents the district's response to the January 1974 Supreme Court decision in Lau v. Nichols. The response is embodied in programs for…