Science.gov

Sample records for 2013-this study investigated

  1. Toxicologic Studies for Investigational New Drugs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This annual report presents the results of three toxicological studies on an investigational new drug completed from 15 September 1981 through 30...Investigational New Drug Applications for Phase I and early Phase II clinical studies. One drug (WR 6026-2HCl) has been tested for Walter Reed Army

  2. The ten-ecosystem study investigation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    With the continental United States divided into ten forest and grassland ecosystems, the Ten Ecosystem Study (TES) is designed to investigate the feasibility and applicability of state-of-the-art automatic data processing remote sensing technology to inventory forest, grassland, and water resources by using Land Satellite data. The study will serve as a prelude to a possible future nationwide remote sensing application to inventory forest and rangeland renewable resources. This plan describes project design and phases, the ten ecosystem, data utilization and output, personnel organization, resource requirements, and schedules and milestones.

  3. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  4. Recent Studies Investigating Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. J.

    2009-05-01

    The metropolitan areas of Mexico City and Atlanta have very different emissions and meteorology, yet in both cities secondary organic aerosol (SOA) comprises a significant fraction of fine particle mass. SOA in Mexico City is predominately from anthropogenic emissions and a number of studies have investigated the role of dicarbonyl partitioning to aerosol liquid water as a SOA formation route [Volkamer et al., 2006; 2007]. Hennigan et al. [2008] noted a high correlation between SOA (measured as water-soluble organic carbon) and fine particle nitrate in Mexico City and used this to estimate the volatility of both species during periods of rapidly decreasing RH in late morning. Secondary aerosol may also form when particles are much drier. In Mexico City, both nitrate and SOA were also frequently observed and highly correlated in late afternoon when RH was below 30 percent. A thermodynamic model could reproduce the observed morning nitrate under high RH when equilibrium was between nitric acid and dissolved nitrate, whereas equilibrium between vapor and crystalline ammonium nitrate was predicted in the afternoon [Fountoukis et al., 2007]. By analogy, these results may suggest two different SOA partitioning mechanisms in Mexico City, occurring at different times of the day. In contrast, measurements suggest that SOA in the southeastern United States is largely from biogenic precursors, and there is evidence that liquid water also plays a role. The stability of dissolved organic aerosol in response to loss of liquid water is currently being investigated and preliminary data suggest that like Mexico City, there is some degree of volatility. Recent experiments comparing data from rural-urban sites shows that there are periods when anthropogenic emissions also substantially contribute to SOA in the Atlanta metropolitan region. However, the mechanisms, or organic precursors involved, are yet to be determined. Results from these various ongoing studies will be presented

  5. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2016-10-19

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg(-1)), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg(-1) (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg(-1)), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg(-1), min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg(-1)) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg(-1). The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg(-1), with the average of 254 Bq kg(-1), measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P2O5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content.

  6. Investigating Adaptive Grieving Styles: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an evolution in the understanding of the nature of grief since S. Freud's initial work, Mourning and Melancholia (1917/1953). Mental health practitioners and researchers have established new models to aid in the conceptualization and treatment of grief issues. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of experts in the…

  7. The Translatability of Metaphor: Study and Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghbban, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The appropriate handling of the metaphorical meaning during translation, along with maximizing its level of equivalence in the target language, is going to be my central focus through the course of this dissertation. Unlike many contributions that attempt to reconcile the problem of translating metaphor, this study has come to approach the subject…

  8. Rotating Stall Investigations. Volume 2. Experimental Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    clear rotating stall once it has started. Separate tests were performed to study the response of the rotating stall control system when a simulated ...days. Each data set was fitted with two curves using the method of least squares. One curve assumed a 9/5 power law for the aerodynamic losses and...these curves which are shown in Fig. 2 fitted to the total torque data. The linear portions of the least square fits to the three sets of data are

  9. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continuing study and investigation. 431.713 Section... Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  10. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continuing study and investigation. 431.713 Section... Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  11. Watching MOOCs Together: Investigating Co-Located MOOC Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Verma, Himanshu; Skevi, Afroditi; Zufferey, Guillaume; Blom, Jan; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that massive open online course (MOOC) students prefer to study in groups, and that social facilitation within the study groups may render the learning of difficult concepts a pleasing experience. We report on a longitudinal study that investigates how co-located study groups watch and study MOOC videos together. The study was…

  12. NASA selects scientific investigations for Earth dynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Forty two domestic investigators affiliated with U.S. universities, governmental agencies, or private concerns and 14 investigators from France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Venezuela, and Canada were selected to use precise geodetic data obtained by laser ranging and very long base interferometry in a study of the Earth's tectonic plate movement, crustal deformation, and rotational dynamics. The studies to be made and the principal investigators for each are listed.

  13. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  14. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  15. Teachers' Practices of Inquiry When Teaching Investigations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    Teacher practices are essential for supporting learners in scientific inquiry practices of framing research questions, designing and conducting investigations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. This study examines instructional practices of two Grade 11 Physical Science teachers engaged in teaching practical investigations. Data were…

  16. Investigating Science Collaboratively: A Case Study of Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinicola, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of one urban middle school group of students who were investigating scientific phenomena were analyzed; this study was conducted to discern if and how peer interaction contributes to learning. Through a social constructivist lens, case study methodology, we examined conceptual change among group members. Data about science talk was…

  17. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION State Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  18. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  19. Two Concepts of Radiation: A Case Study Investigating Existing Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotz, Thomas; Hopf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual Change is a widely accepted theoretical framework for science education. Setting up successful learning and teaching arrangements in this framework necessarily entails including students´ preconceptions into the construction of those arrangements. In order to provide a basis for such arrangements this study investigated and explored…

  20. Local Studies Collections Online: An Investigation in Irish Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Lara; Tedd, Lucy A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate how public libraries in Ireland are using their websites to present local studies collections online. Design/methodology/approach: All the websites of public libraries in Ireland were evaluated against a checklist of 50 criteria by one of the authors. An analytic description was provided of the four…

  1. Highway Traffic Accident Investigation and Reporting: Student Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This study guide for students in a basic training program for accident investigation is intended for use with lesson plans for the instructor and a manual for administrators and planners, available as VT 019 457 and VT 019 455, respectively. As part of a curriculum package developed by the Center for Vocational and Technical Education after a…

  2. Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study; UST and AST Site Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    Investigation Sampling Point Locations Load Line 1 4-5 UST and AST Investigation Summary 4-6 AST/UST Investigation Detections above NDEQ Cleanup Levels...Sampling Point Locations Load Line 2 4-10 AST/UST Investigation Detections above NDEQ Cleanup Levels in Soil at Load Line 2 4-11 AST/UST...Investigation Sampling Point Locations Load Line 3 4-12 AST/UST Investigation Detections above NDEQ Cleanup Levels in Soil at Load Line 3 DAAA15-91-D-0014 iii

  3. GaN surface states investigated by electrochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We present a systematic study of electrochemically active surface states on MOCVD-grown n-type GaN in aqueous electrolytes using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy over a wide range of potentials and frequencies. In order to alter the surface states, the GaN samples are either etched or oxidized, and the influence of the surface treatment on the defect-mediated charge transfer to the electrolyte is investigated. Etching in HCl removes substoichiometric GaO x , and leads to a pronounced density of electrochemically active surface states. Oxidation effectively removes these surface states.

  4. National guidelines for outbreak investigation: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, M; Rezaee, S; Shirazi, A Raigan; Naghmachi, M; Shirazi, K Karimzadeh; Jamshidi, A; Jafari, J

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports an independent epidemiological study to evaluate the validity of the results of an official investigation into an outbreak of gastroenteritis at a university campus in Yasuj, central-south Islamic Republic of Iran. The official report of the outbreak by the Department for Disease Control at the provincial health centre found only 65 cases over a 5-day period, all females, living in the student halls of residence. This contrasts with a questionnaire survey of 963 students at the same university, which found 395 students (192 males and 203 females), living in residences and at home, who reported at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom over a 12-week period. Within this period at least 2 outbreaks occurred. Such a large discrepancy between the official report and the current study suggests that the health services and the public may have been misled about the proper response to the outbreak.

  5. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi, H.; Zamani, H.

    2010-06-01

    To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1). Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2). Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3). Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4). Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one material with

  6. Learning to Do Through Investigative Projects: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Pratibha

    2005-10-01

    In India, the likelihood of a girl student opting out of a physics course only because of gender issues is remote. Even though no special care is taken to attract women, a large percentage of the top-ranking students opt to major in physics. However, subtle forces operate in higher academia. The number of women in teaching and research institutes continues to be dismally low. The confidence and motivation of women students shows a distinct attenuation at the tertiary level. Inasmuch as the undergraduate years lay the foundation for a career in physics, there is a critical need to create learning experiences for women students that would enhance their motivation, nurture talent, and generate confidence in their capacity to make a creative contribution. The author has spent several years teaching at a women's college and in a university department with few women on the faculty. She has coordinated the Learning Through Investigative Projects program for undergraduate students of both genders. In a dual-pronged strategy, students are constructively engaged in open-ended investigative projects and assigned specific tasks. The touchstone of this program is the ambience in which the projects are carried out and the cognitive changes it effects in students as they are weaned away from the prevalent transmissionist mode of teaching and led to a constructivist paradigm of learning. They acquire an ability to work independently. The program and the underpinning pedagogic model have been very successful in capacity building and have influenced many students to choose careers in physics and academia. I present a case study of the work carried out under Project Science Online, in which students helped develop a microcomputer-based laboratory.

  7. A study to investigate the importance of purses as fomites

    PubMed Central

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela D; Deerpaul, Shailendra; Permal, G. Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Purses hardly get washed and are discarded, mostly, when they are no longer usable. This study aims to investigate whether women's and men's purses can serve as fomites. Materials and Methods: A total of 145 purses from 80 women and 65 men were swabbed and cultured. The bacteria were identified by gram staining and with the standard biochemical tests. Results: A total of 138 purses (95.2%) showed bacterial contamination, out of which 49.4% had a single growth and 50.7% had mixed growth. The material of the purse was found to affect bacterial growth. Synthetic purses showed higher mean colony-forming unit (CFU) counts (P < 0.05). Micrococcus (64.8%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (64.1%) were the most common bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (13.8%). Micrococcus was found with a higher prevalence on men's purses, while Bacillus spp. were more prominent on women's purses (P < 0.05). The difference between the rates of bacterial growth from the purses of women and of men was found to be statistically significant (57.2% and 44.7%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean CFU count was higher for men's purses than for women's purses (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Purses from both men and women are potential vectors for transmission of diseases across the community. The use of synthetic purses should be discouraged, as they contribute to increased bacterial colonization. PMID:26261804

  8. 78 FR 23941 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... the Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications pilot program to May 8... ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including...

  9. Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    -shaped plasma bubbles. The second topic was pursued because the inability to predict the day-to-day occurrence of plasma bubbles indicated inadequate knowledge of the physics of plasma bubbles. An understanding of bubble formation requires an understanding of the roles of the various terms in the linearized growth rate of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In our study, we examined electric-field perturbations found in SM-D EFI data and found that the seeding is more likely to be produced in the E region rather than the F region. The results of this investigation are presented in the Appendix of this report and will be submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  10. A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that

  11. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes radiation hardness for baryonic matter studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushpil, V.; Mikhaylov, V.; Ladygin, V. P.; Kugler, A.; Kushpil, S.; Svoboda, O.; Tlustý, P.

    2016-01-01

    Modern avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with high gain are good device candidates for light readout from detectors applied in relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments. The results of the investigations of the APDs properties from Zecotek, Ketek and Hamamatsu manufacturers after irradiation using secondary neutrons from cyclotron facility U120M at NPI of ASCR in Řež are presented. The results of the investigations can be used for the design of the detectors for the experiments at NICA and FAIR.

  12. Investigating the Use of Coherence Analysis on Mandibular Electromyograms to Investigate Neural Control of Early Oromandibular Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Price, Christiana M.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical method for investigating differences in neural control of jaw movement across oromandibular behaviours is to compute the coherence function for electromyographic signals obtained from mandibular muscle groups. This procedure has been used with adults but not extended to children. This pilot study investigated if coherence analysis…

  13. Investigation of Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes towards Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…

  14. Assessing Investigative Skills in History: A Case Study from Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Recent changes in the history syllabi stress the importance of developing an investigative/enquiry method of learning involving the framing of questions, subsequent research, and the presentation of findings. Scotland has made several attempts to assess not only the end result (the paper) but also the process itself and now uses an extended essay…

  15. A Gender Study Investigating Physics Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    2011-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively…

  16. An Exploratory Investigation of Study-Abroad Online Information Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Shasha; Khong, Kok Wei

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on the factors involved in the decision-making process on study abroad, little attention has been paid to the initial stage when students process information. This qualitative study aims to map out the cues involved when Chinese students process study-abroad information from an information-processing perspective. Findings…

  17. Guest Investigator Studies with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestrand, W. T.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulative all-sky survey by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), composed of data acquired during the first three years of the mission, included a number of regions of very limited exposure. The most glaring deficiency in coverage was toward the region of the South Galactic Pole (SGP), which received significantly less exposure than other directions- by a factor of at least 2 to 3. Furthermore, nearly all of the SGP exposure was accumulated during the first year of the mission. Since blazars are known to be time-variable, and of unknown duty cycle, a pointing of the CCRO in that direction was considered highly desirable, and long overdue. In addition, data gathered from a pointing toward the SGP and its comparison with comprehensive data available for the North Galactic Pole would be extremely valuable to investigators studying the extragalactic diffuse emission. The reasons outlined above prompted our initiation of a Cycle 4 campaign to systematically search with EGRET and COMPTEL for gamma-ray emission from sources near the South Galactic Pole. The Cycle 4 SGP campaign consisted of tnvo 14-day observations separated in in time by approximately 10 months. The temporal separation of the observations was requested to allow a test for possible variations in the detected sources. Our primary targets were 38 FSRQs which lie within 30 degrees of the SGP, and which satisfy the basic criteria for candidate gamma-ray AGNs,flat-spectrum radio sources, many of which exhibit blazar-type properties). These targets were selected from the standard references, and from the available on-line databases (e.g., the NASA Extragalactic Database, NED), as the most promising AGN targets in the vicinity of the SGP. A 30 radius from the SGP was chosen as the boundary of our survey, since the selected targets would then fall within the most sensitive portion of the fields of view of EGRET and COMPTEL (i.e., within a 30 zenith angle), for a CGRO pointing directed exactly at the SGP

  18. Investigation of Poultry Waste for Anaerobic Digestion: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Christopher R.

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a biological conversion technology which is being used to produce bioenergy all over the world. This energy is created from biological feedstocks, and can often use waste products from various food and agricultural processors. Biogas from AD can be used as a fuel for heating or for co-generation of electricity and heat and is a renewable substitute to using fossil fuels. Nutrient recycling and waste reduction are additional benefits, creating a final product that can be used as a fertilizer in addition to energy benefits. This project was conducted to investigate the viability of three turkey production wastes as AD feedstock: two turkey litters and a material separated from the turkey processing wastewater using dissolved air flotation (DAF) process. The DAF waste contained greases, oils and other non-commodity portions of the turkey. Using a variety of different process methods, types of bacteria, loading rates and food-to-microorganism ratios, optimal loading rates for the digestion of these three materials were obtained. In addition, the co-digestion of these materials revealed additional energy benefits. In this study, batch digestion tests were carried out to treat these three feedstocks, using mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, using loading rates of 3 and 6 gVS/L They were tested separately and also as a mixture for co-digestion. The batch reactor used in this study had total and working volumes of 1130 mL and 500 mL, respectively. The initial organic loading was set to be 3 gVS/L, and the food to microorganism ratio was either 0.6 or 1.0 for different treatments based on the characteristics of each material. Only thermophilic (50 +/- 2ºC) temperatures were tested for the litter and DAF wastes in continuous digestion, but mesophilic and thermophilic batch digestion experiments were conducted. The optimum digestion time for all experiments was 14 days. The biogas yields of top litter, mixed litter, and DAF waste under

  19. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  20. Policy Forum: Studying Eyewitness Investigations in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Robyn; Jacoby, Larry L.; Kahneman, Daniel; Lempert, Richard; Roediger, Henry L.; Rosenthal, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article considers methodological issues arising from recent efforts to provide field tests of eyewitness identification procedures. We focus in particular on a field study (Mecklenburg 2006) that examined the “double blind, sequential” technique, and consider the implications of an acknowledged methodological confound in the study. We explain why the confound has severe consequences for assessing the real-world implications of this study. PMID:17610149

  1. Investigating the Effectiveness of a Study Skills Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikhwari, T. D.; Pillay, J.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the school system in South Africa is continually producing learners who are inadequately prepared for higher education studies, particularly schools in disadvantaged environments. The University of Venda (UNIVEN) is situated in an educationally disadvantaged environment. Most of the students who enroll at this…

  2. An Investigation on Teaching Materials Used in Social Studies Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the teaching materials employed during social studies lessons on the basis of certain variables. Specifically, the researcher tried to find out whether teachers' gender, service length, having a personal computer, receiving an in-service training regarding the use of teaching materials, having an interest on…

  3. An Investigation of Factors Determining the Study Abroad Destination Choice: A Case Study of Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the field of education abroad have mainly focused on the factors influencing the mobility of international students from developing to developed countries and very few have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the flow of international students to the Asia Pacific region. As a piece of country-specific…

  4. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  5. A study of EWOD-driven droplets by PIV investigation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Bottausci, Frederic; Fowler, Jesse D; Bertozzi, Andrea L; Meinhart, Carl; Kim, Chang-Jin C J

    2008-03-01

    Despite the recent interest in droplet-based microfluidics using electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD), fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics remains limited to two-dimensional (2D) reduction of the Navier-Stokes equation. Experimental data are in dire need to verify the predictions and advance the field. We report an investigation of the flow inside droplets actuated by EWOD in air using micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV). Using the continuity equation, we reconstruct the 3D velocity field from the 2D PIV experimental data. We present some fundamental findings and build valuable insights that will help design sophisticated EWOD microfluidic devices. For example, the results confirm that efficient mixing in a droplet may be achieved by moving the droplet along an irreversible pattern that breaks the symmetry of the two circulating inner flows.

  6. An investigative study of polymer adsorption onto montmorillonite clay

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, C.L.; Lochhead, R.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Few studies have been geared towards the study of the mechanisms governing stabilization and flocculation of polymers and clay particles. The overall goal of this research is to relate these mechanisms to properties above and below the critical overlap concentration, c*, of the polymer/clay species. Initially, phase behavior and sedimentation studies were conducted to screen for anionic, cationic and nonionic polymers capable of both flocculation and restabilization. As a result three polymers were selected for further testing: polyacrylamide, poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) and poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Polyacrylamide and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) have been synthesized and characterized by viscometry and {sup 13}C NMR. C* of the polymers was determined by viscometry via Huggins` plots and dynamic light scattering measurements have shown variations in the mean particle size as a function of polymer concentration.

  7. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study.

    PubMed

    Toppi, Jlenia; Borghini, Gianluca; Petti, Manuela; He, Eric J; De Giusti, Vittorio; He, Bin; Astolfi, Laura; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans' degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i) characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii) to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level.

  8. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Manuela; He, Eric J.; De Giusti, Vittorio; He, Bin; Astolfi, Laura; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans’ degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i) characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii) to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level. PMID:27124558

  9. A study of methods to investigate nozzle boundary layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Laura L.

    1991-05-01

    To further investigate nozzle flow, numerical computations are employed. The computations produce complete flow velocity and temperature fields within the nozzle. As a check, these results can be compared with experimental data at the wall. Once an accurate numerical scheme has been validated, it can be used as a design tool to predict the performance of other nozzle designs without the cost of experimental testing. Typically, the numerical analysis assumes either a laminar boundary layer or a fully turbulent boundary layer which is steady and two-dimensional. Boundary layer transition is not considered. Computing both the completely laminar boundary layer and the completely turbulent boundary layer conditions gives the minimum and maximum wall heat flux possible for a specified geometry. When the experimental heat flux measurements lie between these two values, the nature of the boundary layer is unknown. The boundary layer may have transitioned from laminar to turbulent; three-dimensional structures may be present in the boundary layer, or the inlet flow conditions may not be correctly specified in the computation.

  10. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  11. The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

  12. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 8th Grade - Beach Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary children in grade eight prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  13. Investigating Reported Data Practices in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…

  14. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study/Interim Response Actions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-25

    BASESEOLIECHNICAL.EROGRAL.ELAN 1- 12 1.4.1 Assumptions 1- 12 1.4.2 RI/FS Process 1-13 1.4.3 Records of Decision 1-22 2.0 RI/EA/FS PROCESS 2-1 2.1 OVERVIEW 2-1 2.2...oL.Basin.I 3-6 3.3.1.4 Clasure-oLAbandoned..Weliiaon-.BIA 3-7 3.3.1.5 laasts &lirk-rauud.. atar -antercept and-.Ireatment-.SYstem 3-7 3.3.2 Soils and...10 5.4 UEASIIIIILSIUDLSCHEDULE 5- 12 5.4.1 Onpost Feasibility Study 5- 12 5.4.2 Onpost Feasibility Study Deadlines 5- 12 5.4.3 Onpost RI/FS Report

  15. Bicycling crash characteristics: An in-depth crash investigation study.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Stevenson, Mark; Newstead, Stuart; Cameron, Peter; Judson, Rodney; Edwards, Elton R; Bucknill, Andrew; Johnson, Marilyn; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study. Crashes commonly occurred during daylight hours and in clear weather conditions. Two-thirds of crashes occurred on-road (69%) and were a combination of single cyclist-only events (56%) and multi-vehicle crashes (44%). Of the multi-vehicle crashes, a motor vehicle was the most common impact partner (72%) and distinct pre-crash directional interactions were observed between the cyclist and motor vehicle. Nearly a quarter of on-road crashes occurred when the cyclist was in a marked bicycle lane. Of the 31% of crashes that were not on-road, 28 (15%) occurred on bicycle paths and 29 (16%) occurred in other locations. Crashes on bicycle paths commonly occurred on shared bicycle and pedestrian paths (83%) and did not involve another person or vehicle. Other crash locations included mountain bike trails (39%), BMX parks (21%) and footpaths (18%). While differences in impact partners and crash characteristics were observed between crashes occurring on-road, on bicycle paths and in other locations, injury patterns and severity were similar. Most cyclists had returned to work at 6 months post-injury, however only a third of participants reported a complete functional recovery. Further research is required to develop targeted countermeasures to address the risk factors identified in this study.

  16. Investigation of structural and surface potential studies of CZTS nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Navnita; Varandani, Deepak; Mehta, Bodh Raj

    2017-04-01

    Copper zinc tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4) known as CZTS is a potential absorber layer due to its non toxicity and earth abundant availability of its constituent elements. CZTS nanorods are successfully synthesized using hydrothermal route and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) techniques. XRD and Raman it confirm that the synthesized CZTS samples are in keseterite phase without any impurities. From FESEM and EDAX, the elemental ratio is observed to 1.81:0.90:0.85:3.71. Raman study shows the peak position at 287, 339, and 372 cm-1 which corresponds to CZTS pure phase without any impurity peak. Surface potential and work function of CZTS nanorods (NRs) has been derived by KPFM data. KPFM shows that with an increase in diameter of CZTS nanorods surface potential decreases indicating enhancement of p-type conductivity with decrease in NR diameter. The value of surface potential is found to be 496 and 486 mV NRs with diameter 40 and 60 nm, respectively. The results are explained on the basis of Oxygen induced passivation of surface states in NRs diameter. The results of the study are important for potential applications of CZTS NRs in the field of optoelectronic and solar cells.

  17. [A STUDY INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS OF INTERNET ADDICTION].

    PubMed

    Puharić, Zrinka; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Petričević, Nina; Jurišić, Irena

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of Internet use among elementary school eighth-graders in the Bjelo- var-Bilogora County, to evaluate gender and sociodemographic differences, and to examine predictors for Internet addiction. The study included 437 (female 51%) eighth-graders, mean age 13.8 ± 0.5 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the participants' Internet use, the functions for which they used Internet, their parents' attitude towards the child's Internet use, and their signs of Internet addiction. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate predictors for Internet addiction. The majority of children (71.5%) reported using Internet every day. Considering important risk factors of Internet addiction development, we found that 32% of children almost always stayed on-line longer than intended, 13% of boys and 4% of girls almost always neglected chores to spend more time on-line and 51.7% of children thought their life would be boring and uninteresting without the Internet. There was no significant difference between urban and rural students. In terms of the function for which they used the Internet, they were mostly engaged in on-line community/chat websites (70%), to listen to music and watch movies (81 %), and boys in gaming websites. Most of the students (43.4%) spent 1-2 hours daily on-line, 26.2% of students spent 3-4 hours on-line, and 9% spent more than 5 hours daily on-line. In conclusion, more public health preventive measures should be conducted to raise public awareness and concern about the negative effect of Internet use and Internet addiction, especially in the young population.

  18. Catalog of Completed Studies, US Army Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-10

    Environment Substudy: AD A139001 Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing on the Performance of Basic Medical Tasks (HCSD Report #83-001) 8 DATE TITLE...Contact urticaria to parabens , Arch. Dermatol, 1979, 115:1231-1232. *13 Smith, E. B., Padilla, R. S., McCabe, J. M., Becker, L. E., Benzoyl...Chemical Environment . --3-Report #83-001. Ft. Sam Houston, TX: Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity, December 1982. 19 Penetar, D. M

  19. Proceedings of the remedial investigation/feasibility study workshop. [HAZWRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this workshop was to familiarize Department of Energy (DOE) personnel and contractors with all aspects of developing, managing, and conducting an RI/FS, based on HAZWRAP SCO experience in similar activities as part of the Installation Restoration program (IRP). The HAZWRAP SCO participation in Department of Defense (DOD) restoration activities provides an opportunity to develop capability and experience which are transferable to DOE activities. Paul Franco, Program Manager for the IRP, provided an overview of the IRP experience in conducting an RI/FS for a National Priorities List (NPL) site and a non-NPL site. A non-NPL site does not require an RI/FS by regulation; however, the RI/FS process can be used to determine whether to proceed with a feasibility study or terminate the action with a decision document. Al Porell, Program Manager for ICP, discussed the use of decision documents to remove non-NPL sites from regulatory consideration. DOE-Idaho has used similar documentation to remove numerous sites from their list of potential remedial action sites. Mr. Porell also discussed the use of the Technical Review Committee (TRC), which is established to coordinate activities during the RI/FS process. The TRC includes state, local, and federal authorities, and Air Force installation personnel.

  20. Dual-Mission Large Aircraft Feasibility Study and Aerodynamic Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri

    1997-01-01

    A Dual-Mission Large Aircraft, or DMLA, represents the possibility of a single aircraft capable of fulfilling both a Global Reach Aircraft (GRA) and Very Large Transport (VLT) roles. The DMLA, by combining the GRA and VLT into a single new aircraft, could possibly lower the aircraft manufacturer's production costs through the resulting increase in production quantity. This translates into lower aircraft acquisition costs, a primary concern for both the Air Force and commercial airlines. This report outlines the first steps taken in this study, namely the assessment of technical and economic feasibility of the DMLA concept. In the course of this project, specialized GRA and VLT aircraft were sized for their respective missions, using baseline conventional (i.e., lacking advanced enabling technologies) aircraft models from previous work for the Air Force's Wright Laboratory and NASA-Langley. DMLA baseline aircraft were then also developed, by first sizing the aircraft for the more critical of the two missions and then analyzing the aircraft's performance over the other mission. The resulting aircraft performance values were then compared to assess technical feasibility. Finally, the life-cycle costs of each aircraft (GRA, VLT, and DMLA) were analyzed to quantify economic feasibility. These steps were applied to both a two-engine aircraft set, and a four-engine aircraft set.

  1. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Lutz, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    significantly exceeded QE limits for extended time periods for the low frequency STSBO sequence evaluated in this study. It is recognized that the core damage frequency (CDF) of the sequence evaluated in this scoping effort would be considerably lower if evaluations considered new FLEX equipment being installed by industry. Nevertheless, because of uncertainties in instrumentation response when exposed to conditions beyond QE limits and alternate challenges associated with different sequences that may impact sensor performance, it is recommended that additional evaluations of instrumentation performance be completed to provide confidence that operators have access to accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems for a broad range of challenges associated with risk important severe accident sequences.

  2. 78 FR 60291 - Investigational Device Exemptions for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDEs) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain... facilitate early feasibility studies of medical devices, using appropriate risk mitigation strategies, under the IDE regulations. Early feasibility studies allow for limited early clinical evaluations of...

  3. [The choice of the type of design in the clinical investigation studies. Case and control studies].

    PubMed

    Posada de la Paz, M

    2004-09-01

    Case-control studies are appropriate designs in neurology sciences to search for risk factors that have already occurred in a group of patients. In them, the subjects are selected on the basis of whether they have the disease or not and then they are compared in regards to the risk factor or prognosis investigated. These sorts of designs can be performed in a shorter and cheaper way than the regular cohort studies. They are appropriate for the evaluation of rare diseases and can examine multiple etiological factors for a single disease. On the contrary, they are not so efficient when rare exposures are involved. Incidence rates in exposed and non-exposed subjects cannot be calculated and on some occasions, the timing between exposure and outcome can be very difficult to establish. The Odds Ratio and its confident intervals is the measurement used for estimating the risk strength in this design. The clinical neurologist should be familiar with these terms, given the frequency of case-control studies described in neurology science literature, and should know their principal advantages and limitations.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  5. 49 CFR 171.21 - Assistance in investigations and special studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assistance in investigations and special studies... Authorization § 171.21 Assistance in investigations and special studies. (a) A shipper, carrier, package owner... Transportation makes an inquiry of a person required to complete an incident report in connection with a study...

  6. 49 CFR 171.21 - Assistance in investigations and special studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assistance in investigations and special studies... Authorization § 171.21 Assistance in investigations and special studies. (a) A shipper, carrier, package owner... Transportation makes an inquiry of a person required to complete an incident report in connection with a study...

  7. 49 CFR 390.15 - Assistance in investigations and special studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assistance in investigations and special studies... Assistance in investigations and special studies. (a) Each motor carrier and intermodal equipment provider... entities or insurers. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2126-0009)...

  8. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  9. An Investigation of Turkish Elementary Social Studies Textbooks in Terms of Social Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Social emotional learning (SEL) is very important to the well-being of students and their academic achievement in school. The purpose of this study was to search any relation between social studies text books [SSTB] and social emotional learning. This study was conducted as a qualitative study. 9 SSTBs were investigated by 21 fourth grade…

  10. Investigating the Facilitator's Role during the Lesson Study Process in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Stephanie Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Lesson study, a teaching and learning strategy used in Japan, is a new area of consideration for teacher professional development in the United States. An important component of the lesson study process is the role of the facilitator. The intent of this study was to investigate the role of the facilitator in the lesson study process relative to…

  11. 76 FR 70152 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is soliciting nominations from sponsors of innovative...

  12. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  13. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  14. Investigating the Effectiveness of Individualized Feedback to Rating Behavior--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of individualized feedback on rater behavior has been investigated in several previous studies (e.g. Elder, Knoch, Barkhuizen, & von Randow, 2005; Lunt, Morton, & Wigglesworth, 1994; O'Sullivan & Rignall, 2007; Wigglesworth, 1993). The findings of these studies are somewhat inconclusive. However, all of these studies investigated…

  15. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  16. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Detailed Aggregate Resources Study. Pahroc Study Area, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    introduced in 1977 with the investigation of Department of Defense (DoD) and BLM lands in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico , and Texas (FN-TR-20D...Cons. Report for BMO, (FN-TR-37-a) 45 p. Gile, L. H., 1961, A classification of Ca horizons in soils in a desert region, Dona Ana County, New Mexico ...THIS SHEET ~ LEVEL INVENTORY 2 DOCUMENT iDENTIFICATION q [ ~fmr puW roloo" and o f Ik DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ACCESSION FOR NTIS GRAil DulC TAB DT72

  17. Metaanalysis of Validity Studies Published Between 1964 and 1982 and the Investigation of Study Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed published validation studies for the years 1964-1982 of the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology. Results indicated minimal differences across study designs in the average validity coefficient and found selection ratios, standard deviations, reliabilities, predictor and criterion intercorrelations to be rarely and…

  18. Guidance on preparing an investigational new drug application for fecal microbiota transplantation studies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Colleen R; Kunde, Sachin S; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for Clostridium difficile infections that are refractory to antibiotic therapy. Because of the important roles of the microbiota in the function of the gastrointestinal tract and other aspects of human physiology, there is a growing interest in studying FMT for other clinical indications. The US Food and Drug Administration regulates clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FMT. Studies of FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection or other indications could require submission of an investigational new drug application. Most academic physicians and investigators do not have the regulatory experience necessary to undertake this process. We provide guidance to researchers on the preparation and submission of investigational new drug applications to study FMT.

  19. Investigating Relational Aggression and Bullying for Girls' of Color in Oklahoma: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Gayle L.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research study, applying aspects of van Manen's framework for hermeneutic phenomenological research, was conducted to investigate the narratives of relationally aggressive girls of color. The study focused on nine adolescent girls of color who were ages 14-17 years old and exhibited aggressive/bullying behaviors representing the…

  20. A Naturalistic Investigation of Media Multitasking While Studying and the Effects on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of multiple digital media technologies, including social networking platforms, by students while preparing for an examination (media multitasking) and the subsequent effects on exam performance. The level of media multitasking (number of simultaneous media technologies) and duration of study were used as…

  1. Curricula in Schools of Librarianship and Information Studies: An Investigation of Constraints and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davinson, Donald; Roberts, Norman

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken in 1984 in 14 schools of librarianship and information studies (SLIS) in England and Wales. The extent to which information technology concepts have been incorporated into SLIS syllabuses was studied in conjunction with SLIS heads and by examination of curriculum statements. Six sources are given. (Author/EJS)

  2. Investigating Trainee Music Teachers' Beliefs on Musical Abilities and Learning: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study investigating trainee teachers' beliefs about music abilities and learning. The study employed two questionnaires: the "Music abilities beliefs questionnaire" (MABQ) and the "Music learning beliefs questionnaire" (MLBQ) which were specially designed to reveal the beliefs of trainee teachers of primary…

  3. WILCOX COUNTY, ALABAMA--A STUDY OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND EDUCATIONAL BANKRUPTCY. REPORT OF AN INVESTIGATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROADUS, JAMES; AND OTHERS

    THE REQUEST FOR THIS INVESTIGATION BY THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION COMMISSION ON PROFESSIONAL RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES RESULTED FROM THE FIRING OF NINE NEGRO TEACHERS IN WILCOX COUNTY. THE STUDY ITSELF IS MORE INCLUSIVE, INCORPORATING THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS OF SEPARATE STUDIES IN POVERTY, SCHOOL FINANCE,…

  4. Summer Study: A Two Part Investigation of the Impact of Exposure to Schooling on Achievement Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane Lisa

    This thesis is composed of two studies which look at the impact of exposure to schooling on achievement growth of children. Both use data from the National Follow Through Evaluation. The first study investigates the hypothesis that the difference in achievement growth between poor and non-poor children is greater during the summer months than…

  5. Learning Social Studies via Objects in Museums: Investigation into Turkish Elementary School Students' Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya; Filiz, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Based on a descriptive phenomenological research design, this study investigated Turkish elementary school students' experiences in learning social studies via objects in museums. After students visited four different museums during the teaching of three thematic units at sixth grade level, their lived experiences were elicited. Purposeful…

  6. Investigating Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development: A Comparative Study of Two Universities of Quetta, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Irum; Pathan, Zahid Hussain

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University (SBKWU) and University of Balochistan (UOB), Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The…

  7. Combining clinical studies and analogue experiments to investigate cognitive mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ehring, Thomas; Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Research into cognitive mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically comprises two types of studies. The first group of studies is conducted with survivors of traumatic events and assesses the association between PTSD and cognitive variables with questionnaires and/or information processing paradigms. In the second group of studies, healthy non-traumatized individuals are exposed to an analogue stressor (e.g., a stressful film) and cognitive variables of interest are usually experimentally manipulated to investigate their effects on analogue PTSD symptoms. This review illustrates how studies of trauma survivors and analogue studies with non-traumatized populations can be usefully combined. Two examples for this approach are presented: (1) research into the role of perceptual priming for trauma-related stimuli and (2) research into trauma-related rumination. The advantages and limitations of both types of studies are discussed and it is argued that a combination of both approaches is needed to investigate cognitive mechanisms in PTSD. PMID:23814633

  8. A School-Based Study on Situational Interest of Investigative Study in Senior Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yat-yin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from the interview data of a research aiming at studying how to trigger students' situational interest in physics and its implications on learning and teaching in the New Senior Secondary (NSS) physics curriculum. 49 students from a boys' school were invited to write one to three learning experiences in physics that…

  9. Wind Turbine Acoustic Investigation: Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Stephen E.; Rand, Robert W.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound that is capable of disturbing local residents and is reported to cause annoyance, sleep disturbance, and other health-related impacts. An acoustical study was conducted to investigate the presence of infrasonic and low-frequency noise emissions from wind turbines located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. During the…

  10. 40 CFR 300.430 - Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy. 300.430 Section 300.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... human health and the environment. Remedial actions are to be implemented as soon as site data...

  11. 40 CFR 300.430 - Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy. 300.430 Section 300.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... human health and the environment. Remedial actions are to be implemented as soon as site data...

  12. The Power of Natural Selection: A Guided Investigation of Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachly, William

    2010-01-01

    I describe a quantitative approach to three case studies in evolution that can be used to challenge college freshmen to explore the power of natural selection and ask questions that foster a deeper understanding of its operation and relevance. Hemochromatosis, the peppered moth, and hominid cranial capacity are investigated with a common algebraic…

  13. 77 FR 13343 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... Program AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... submission of nominations from sponsors of innovative device technologies to participate in a pilot...

  14. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  15. USE OF DISCUSSION GROUPS TO INVESTIGATE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of Discussion Groups to Investigate Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health
    DT Lobdell*, S Gutter+, P Mendola* (*US EPA, NHEERL; +UNC Chapel Hill)

    Much of what is known about successful recruitment and retention o...

  16. Meta-Analysis of Studies Investigating the Effects of Father Absence on Children's Cognitive Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A meta-analysis was conducted of 137 studies investigating the effects of father absence due to employment, military service, death, divorce, separation, or desertion on children's cognitive performance as assessed by scores on standardized intelligence, scholastic aptitude, and academic achievement tests and school grades. Aggregation of the…

  17. Investigating Lebanese Grade Seven Biology Teachers Mathematical Knowledge and Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raad, Nawal Abou; Chatila, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Lebanese grade 7 biology teachers' mathematical knowledge and skills, by exploring how they explain a visual representation in an activity depending on the mathematical concept "Function". Twenty Lebanese in-service biology teachers participated in the study, and were interviewed about their explanation for the…

  18. Integrating iPad Technology into the Classroom: A Study Investigating the Experiences Educators Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Kristin Jacobson

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological case study was designed to investigate the experiences educators encounter when implementing iPad technology into middle school math classrooms at a middle school in Northeast Texas. The growing popularity of the iPad mobile device has made the technology an attractive tool that can be implemented into K-12 classrooms,…

  19. Investigating Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Fast-Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative…

  20. Investigating Parents' Attitudes towards Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikelic Preradovic, Nives; Lešin, Gordana; Šagud, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of parents in Croatia towards advantages and disadvantages of computer use in general as well as their children's computer use and to reveal parents' concerns and opinions about digital technology (DT) education in kindergarten. The paper reports on research findings from one of the large public…

  1. Investigating Students' Critical Thinking in Weblogs: An Exploratory Study in a Singapore Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential competency in the new information age. But research shows that students commonly lack critical thinking skills and hence promoting students' critical thinking becomes crucial. This exploratory study investigated the extent to which secondary school students' critical thinking could be promoted by writing…

  2. Waste Management Plan for the Oak Ridge National Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project Quality Assurance Plan, this Waste Management Plan establishes clear lines of responsibility and authority, documentation requirements, and operational guidance for the collection, identification, segregation, classification, packaging, certification, and storage/disposal of wastes. These subjects are discussed in the subsequent sections of this document.

  3. Investigation of Effects of Face Rotation on Race Processing: An ERPs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalan, Benoit; Veujoz, Mathieu; Boitout, Alexis; Leleu, Arnaud; Camus, Odile; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recent ERP research has indicated that the processing of faces of other races (OR) and same race (SR) as the perceiver differs at the perceptual level, more precisely for the N170 component. The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the race-of-face processing across multiple orientations. Event-related brain potentials…

  4. Investigation on the need of multiple dose bioequivalence studies for prolonged-release generic products.

    PubMed

    García-Arieta, Alfredo; Morales-Alcelay, Susana; Herranz, Marta; de la Torre-Alvarado, José María; Blázquez-Pérez, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, Ma Luisa; Alvarez, Covadonga

    2012-02-28

    In the European Union multiple dose bioequivalence studies are required for the approval of generic prolonged-release products, but they are not required by the US-FDA. In order to investigate if the multiple dose bioequivalence studies are necessary, the bioequivalence studies assessed in the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Care Products in the last 10 years were searched to find all reasons for rejection and identify those cases where the multiple dose study had failed to show bioequivalence and the single dose study had shown bioequivalence. In these latter cases, the plasma concentration at the end of the dosing interval (C(τ)) in the single dose study was assessed to investigate its sensitivity to predict non-bioequivalence in the steady state. The search identified six cases where the non-equivalence in the multiple dose study was not detected by the corresponding single dose study. C(τ) was not able to detect the difference in five cases and in general it was more variable than conventional metrics. In conclusion, the multiple dose bioequivalence study is necessary to ensure therapeutic equivalence and the use of C(τ) would be counterproductive, increasing the sample size of the studies without enough sensitivity to detect differences in the steady state.

  5. A Laboratory Study Investigating the Feasibility of Applying Calcite-Type Coatings to Segregated Ballast Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A LABORATORY STUDY INVESTIGATIING THE FEASIBILITY OF APPLYING CALCITE -TYPE COATINGS TO SEGREGATED BALLAST TANKS AUGUST, 1981 Prepared by: Ocean City...Laboratory Study Investigating The Feasibility of Applying Calcite -Type Coatings to Segregated Ballast Tanks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Executive Summary List of Figures I. Conclusions II. Introduction III. Background-The Development and Use of Calcite -Type Coatings IV. Experimental

  6. Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors.

  7. A descriptive study of sexual homicide in Canada: implications for police investigation.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Martineau, Melissa

    2013-12-01

    Few empirical studies have been conducted that examine the phenomenon of sexual homicide, and among these studies, many have been limited by small sample size. Although interesting and informative, these studies may not be representative of the greater phenomenon of sexual murder and may be subject to sampling bias that could have significant effects on results. The current study aims to provide a descriptive analysis of the largest sample of sexual homicide cases across Canada in the past 62 years. In doing so, the study aims to examine offender and victim characteristics, victim targeting and access, and modus operandi. Findings show that cases of sexual homicide and sexual murderers included in the current study differ in many aspects from the portrait of the sexual murderer and his or her crime depicted in previous studies. The authors' results may prove useful to the police officers responsible for the investigation of these crimes.

  8. Study to Develop Unified Investigative Capability and Policy Among the CVS, MEP, PSS, and RBS Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    on the open market . 1-76 EXHIBIT 1-24 Accident Reoorting and Investigating Drogression ("Sieving" Process) BAR’s 29,000 per year Investigations =2,000...statistical finding of component failure o done by independent (private) contractor o study and test components bought on ooen market 1-77 OIL POLLUTION...3. Dastait 01eemle. vesSety Staisic trac Reaquf.Ltseffie Ntic o cc" Of &"ar S .Doep ros s elte KRI Annualate Datat 111-9 MSIS Implementation EXHIBIT

  9. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  10. Experimental investigation of solid by-product as sensible heat storage material: Characterization and corrosion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Faik, Abdessamad; Mani, Karthik; Rodriguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of water cooled electrical arc furnace (EAF) slag used as filler material in the storage tank for sensible heat storage application was demonstrated in this study. The physicochemical and thermal properties of the tested slags were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser flash analysis, respectively. In addition, the chemical compatibility between slags and molten nitrate salt (60 wt. % NaNO3 and 40 wt. % KNO3) was investigated at 565 °C for 500 hrs. The obtained results were clearly demonstrated that the slags showed a good corrosion resistance in direct contact with molten salt at elevated temperature. The present study was clearly indicated that a low-cost filler material used in the storage tank can significantly reduce the overall required quantities of the relatively higher cost molten salt and consequently reduce the overall cost of the electricity production.

  11. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of... § 404.29 Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be... effort for an appraisal investigation or feasibility study should be scaled to take into...

  12. 43 CFR 404.25 - How can I request Reclamation to review an appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was not completed under this program? 404.25 Section 404... review an appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was not completed under this program? (a) To request Reclamation to review an appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was not completed...

  13. 43 CFR 404.36 - Will Reclamation reimburse me for the cost of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study that was not completed under § 404.11(a) or (b... Reclamation reimburse me for the cost of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study that was not... appraisal investigations and feasibility studies that are completed under the program pursuant to §...

  14. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of... § 404.29 Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be... effort for an appraisal investigation or feasibility study should be scaled to take into...

  15. 43 CFR 404.36 - Will Reclamation reimburse me for the cost of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study that was not completed under § 404.11(a) or (b... Reclamation reimburse me for the cost of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study that was not... appraisal investigations and feasibility studies that are completed under the program pursuant to §...

  16. 43 CFR 404.25 - How can I request Reclamation to review an appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was not completed under this program? 404.25 Section 404... review an appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was not completed under this program? (a) To request Reclamation to review an appraisal investigation or feasibility study that was not completed...

  17. Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Stage 5. Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study Comprehensive CERCLA Workplan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-17

    Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) Section 121(d) of CERCLA as amended by Superfund Amendments and Reathorization Act (SARA...INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM (IRP) STAGE 5 REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION/FEASIBILITY STUDY COMPREHENSIVE CERCLA WORKPLAN FINAL DTIC F 1.-. FCT E FOR AUG 2 7 1990...TITLE (incluce Security cawfkaton) Comprehensive CERCLA Workplan ERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Radian Corporation TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME ?OVERED 14. DATE OF

  18. Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

  19. A study of sexual dimorphism in permanent mandibular canines and its implications in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, N; Guha, R

    2011-06-01

    Teeth are well preserved after death and they exhibit remarkable sexual dimorphism. Hence, they provide excellent materials for forensic investigations intended for identification of sex. Present study was undertaken on permanent mandibular canines of 90 male and 90 female subjects of age group 17-23 years. The mesiodistal width for right and left mandibular canines and intercanine distance were measured. Subsequently, canine index was calculated for both sides. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in all parameters except intercanine distance. All the results were compared with previous studies and discussed in the light of genetic, evolutionary and metabolic reasons for sexual dimporhism.

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  1. An investigation into the demographics and motivations of students studying for a chiropractic degree

    PubMed Central

    Yalden, Philip; Cunliffe, Christina; Hunnisett, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective This research aimed to investigate motivations for studying chiropractic, and to determine what students look for in a course/college and potential barriers to studying chiropractic. Methods The study design was a cross-sectional survey. Following IRB/Ethical approval, a paper-based questionnaire was distributed to students at McTimoney College of Chiropractic. Demographic data were compared to another chiropractic college in the United Kingdom. Results The questionnaire response rate was 70.8% (n = 121). Motivating factors for studying chiropractic included a desire to help others (54.5%, n = 66), with 44.6% (n = 54) attracted by chiropractic's holistic, drugless approach to health. Previous help from chiropractic influenced 55.4% (n = 67) and 22.3% (n = 27) felt chiropractic had “changed their life.” Just over half of the respondents (55.4%, n = 67) viewed the ability to work while studying as extremely important and 73.6% (n = 89) said they could not have studied chiropractic without this. Conclusion Previous help from chiropractic care was a common motivation for studying chiropractic. The ability to work while studying was seen as vital by many students and, without it, the vast majority felt they could not have studied chiropractic. PMID:23957323

  2. An investigation into the demographics and motivations of students studying for a chiropractic degree.

    PubMed

    Yalden, Philip; Cunliffe, Christina; Hunnisett, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective : This research aimed to investigate motivations for studying chiropractic, and to determine what students look for in a course/college and potential barriers to studying chiropractic. Methods : The study design was a cross-sectional survey. Following IRB/Ethical approval, a paper-based questionnaire was distributed to students at McTimoney College of Chiropractic. Demographic data were compared to another chiropractic college in the United Kingdom. Results : The questionnaire response rate was 70.8% (n = 121). Motivating factors for studying chiropractic included a desire to help others (54.5%, n = 66), with 44.6% (n = 54) attracted by chiropractic's holistic, drugless approach to health. Previous help from chiropractic influenced 55.4% (n = 67) and 22.3% (n = 27) felt chiropractic had "changed their life." Just over half of the respondents (55.4%, n = 67) viewed the ability to work while studying as extremely important and 73.6% (n = 89) said they could not have studied chiropractic without this. Conclusion : Previous help from chiropractic care was a common motivation for studying chiropractic. The ability to work while studying was seen as vital by many students and, without it, the vast majority felt they could not have studied chiropractic.

  3. [Questionnaire for Investigating Therapeutic Alliance in Forensic Setting (FTBF): Results of a Pilot Study].

    PubMed

    Vasic, N; Dudeck, M; Knein, A M; Rasche, K; Mentel, R; Streb, J; Connemann, B J; Sosic-Vasic, Z; Otte, S

    2015-12-01

    The relation between patient and therapist has a substantial effect on the success of psychotherapy. So far, in German-speaking regions questionnaires translated from English have been used, particularly for studying outpatients. Studies investigating and concerned with specialised features of hospitalised forensic psychiatry patients are sparse. The preliminary results of this study evaluating a recently developed questionnaire aimed to investigate the quality of the therapeutic relationship in forensic psychiatry ("Fragebogen zur therapeutischen Beziehung in der Forensik, FTBF") are reported. The data were collected both in general and forensic psychiatry departments. Factor analyses yielded two essential factors, namely "positive emotional aspects" (12 items, main features trust, respect, helpfulness, harmony, and sympathy; Cronbach's α = .933) and "negative emotional aspects" (4 items, main features power divide and punishment; Cronbach's α = .805). Forensic patients experienced power divide and punishment tendencies more intensively than general psychiatry patients (p < 0.001). Our questionnaire therefore demonstrates not only excellent reliabilities but also differential validity, enabling a differentiation between general and forensic psychiatry patients. Studies with larger samples would enable conclusions about the impact of the therapists' perspective, specific diagnostic subgroups and different psychotherapeutic orientations, on the patient-therapist relationship in forensic psychiatry.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

  5. EXAFS investigations of metal organic molecules with the goal of studying homogeneously catalytic systems in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, T. S.; Hörner, W.; Hückmann, S.; Kolb, U.; Abraham, I.; Bertagnolli, H.

    1995-02-01

    The investigations of Grignard compounds are very instructive for understanding the principles of getting structural information on highly complex and simultaneously metal activated systems by means of EXAFS spectroscopy. The structural investigations of a model system for Friedel-Crafts alkylation and some metal complexes (metal = Zr, Mo, W, Re), which activate carbonyl groups selectively with respect to the subsequent ring cleavage of axially prosterogenic biaryl lactones, are reported. As an actual field of metal organic research temperature dependent in situ EXAFS studies of the CH-activation of substituted olefins are presented. It was possible to observe the course of the rearrangement reaction of an iridium olefin complex to the corresponding hydrido (vinyl) iridium complex.

  6. Punctuation and Implicit Prosody in Silent Reading: An ERP Study Investigating English Garden-Path Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Drury, John E.; Baum, Shari R.; Valeriote, Hope; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit) prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 × 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party vs. John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party). The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011). In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading. PMID:27695428

  7. A Study to Investigate the Sleeping Comfort of Mattress using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Yoshio

    Sleep is an essential physiological activity for human beings and many studies have so far investigated sleeping comfort of mattresses. The appropriate measurement of stress distribution within the human body would provide valuable information to us. For the appropriate measurement to estimate stress distribution within the human body, numerical analysis is considered one of the most desirable techniques, and Finite Element Method (FEM), which is widely accepted as a useful numerical technique, was utilized in this study. Since human body dimensions have individual differences, however, it is presumed that the way of the internal stress distribution also changes due to the differences and that the mattress preference varies among different body forms. Thus, we developed three human FEM models reproducing the body forms of three types of male subjects, and investigated the sleeping comfort of mattress based on the relationship between FEM analysis findings and sensory testing results. In comparison with the results of both FEM analysis and sensory testing in the neck region, we found, the sensory testing results corresponded to the FEM analysis findings, and it was possible to estimate subjects' preferences of mattress and comfort in the neck region using the FEM analysis. In this study, we believe, the FEM analysis managed to quantify the subjects' preferences for mattress and to prove itself that it is the valuable tools to examine the sleeping comfort of mattress.

  8. The guanidine and benzoic acid (1:1) complex. The polarized vibrational studies and theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, M.; Dudzic, D.

    2015-03-01

    The structure of guanidinium benzoate was discovered by Silva et al. On the basis of these X-ray crystallographic studies the detailed DFT investigation are performed. According to this result the infrared spectrum for one theoretical molecule was calculated. On the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis the clear-cut assignments of observed bands were performed. For the calculated molecule with energy minimum the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were obtained. The energy difference between HOMO and LUMO was analyzed. According to theoretical calculations the direction of dipole moments (TDM) for bands observed in infrared spectra are analyzed. Verification of theoretical TDM behaviors is performed on the basis of experimental polarized specular reflection infrared spectra. The detailed assignments of observed bands is presented. Both theoretical and experimental spectra are compared. Crucial role of three different hydrogen bonds is studied in detail. Additionally, on the basis of differential scanning calorimetric study no phase transition was found in investigated crystal in the range 100-400 K.

  9. A Quantitative Study Investigating Supervisory Style, Satisfaction with Supervision and Self-Efficacy among Female Clinical Training Supervisees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova-Nirenberg, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    This non-experimental quantitative study investigated the relationship between supervisory style, satisfaction with supervision, and the level of self-efficacy reported by the study participants. The study was based on counselor supervision theories found in the literature. The study investigated whether there was a difference between traditional…

  10. Media Studies: An Investigation and Examination of Selected Media Studies on What Constitutes a Media Studies Program in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partovi, Parvis Paul

    2011-01-01

    The 21st century is rapidly becoming the age of new and oftentimes confusing innovations in media, so much so that it is frequently referred to as the "new media" (Beach, 2007). It has become evident that we live in an era with extremely complex, and rapidly changing media scenes. Media studies now appears in major institutions of higher education…

  11. Optical investigation of osteoarthritic human cartilage (ICRS grade) by confocal Raman spectroscopy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grønhaug, Kirsten M; Afseth, Nils K; Isaksen, Vidar; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Drogset, Jon O; Lilledahl, Magnus B

    2015-10-01

    Biomolecular changes in the cartilage matrix during the early stage of osteoarthritis may be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The objective of this investigation was to determine vibrational spectral differences among different grades (grades I, II, and III) of osteoarthritis in human osteoarthritic cartilage, which was classified according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading system. Degenerative articular cartilage samples were collected during total joint replacement surgery and were classified according to the ICRS grading system for osteoarthritis. Twelve cartilage sections (4 sections of each ICRS grades I, II, and III) were selected for Raman spectroscopic analysis. Safranin-O/Fast green was used for histological staining and assignment of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grade. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data analysis. Spectral analysis indicates that the content of disordered coil collagen increases significantly during the early progression of osteoarthritis. However, the increase was not statistically significant during later stages of the disease. A decrease in the content of proteoglycan was observed only during advanced stages of osteoarthritis. Our investigation shows that Raman spectroscopy can classify the different stage of osteoarthritic cartilage and can provide details on biochemical changes. This proof-of-concept study encourages further investigation of fresh cartilage on a larger population using fiber-based miniaturized Raman probe for the development of in vivo Raman arthroscopy as a potential diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis.

  12. Work plan addendum for the remedial investigation and feasibility study of the Salmon Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document is intended as an addendum to the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the Salmon Site (SS) (formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site) Lamar County, Mississippi. The original work plan - Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study of the Tatum Dome Test Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (herein after called the Work Plan) was approved by the state of Mississippi in 1992 and was intended as the operative document for investigative activities at the Tatum Dome Test Site. Subsequent to the approval of the document a series of activities were undertaken under the auspices of the work plan. This document is organized in the same manner as the original work plan: (1) Introduction; (2) Site Background and History; (3) Initial Evaluation; (4) Data Quality Objectives; (5) RI/FS Tasks; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Management; and (8) Reference. This addendum will identify changes to the original work plan that are necessary because of additional information acquired at the SS. This document is not intended to replace the work plan, rather, it is intended to focus the remaining work in the context of additional site knowledge gained since the development of the original work plan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a focused and phased site characterization as a part, of the RI/FS. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The SS is not listed on the NPL, but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA.

  13. Study on the conformation changes of Lysozyme induced by Hypocrellin A: The mechanism investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fei; Huang, He-Yong; Zhou, Lin; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Liu, Zheng-Ming

    2012-11-01

    The interactions between Lysozyme and Hypocrellin A are investigated in details using time-resolved fluorescence, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The results of time-resolved fluorescence suggest that the quenching mechanism is static quenching. FTIR and CD spectroscopy provide evidences of the reducing of α-helix after interaction. Hypocrellin A could change the micro-environmental of Lysozyme according to hydrophobic interaction between the aromatic ring and the hydrophobic amino acid residues, and the altered polypeptide backbone structures induce the reduction of α-helical structures. Moreover, TGA study further demonstrates the structure changes of Lysozyme on the effect of Hypocrellin A. This study could provide some important information for the derivatives of HA in pharmacy, pharmacology and biochemistry.

  14. Speech research: Studies on the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, A. M.

    1982-03-01

    This report is one of a regular series on the status and progress of studies on the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation and practical applications. Manuscripts cover the following topics: Speech perception and memory coding in relation to reading ability; The use of orthographic structure by deaf adults: Recognition of finger-spelled letters; Exploring the information support for speech; The stream of speech; Using the acoustic signal to make inferences about place and duration of tongue-palate contact. Patterns of human interlimb coordination emerge from the the properties of nonlinear limit cycle oscillatory processes: Theory and data; Motor control: Which themes do we orchestrate? Exploring the nature of motor control in Down's syndrome; Periodicity and auditory memory: A pilot study; Reading skill and language skill: On the role of sign order and morphological structure in memory for American Sign Language sentences; Perception of nasal consonants with special reference to Catalan; and Speech production Characteristics of the hearing impaired.

  15. Investigation of surface tension driven convection as a feasibility study for a micro-gravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The work performed for the feasibility study of a microgravity surface tension driven convection experiment was reviewed. An experimental investigation of the onset of convection in shallow fluid layers heated uniformly from below and cooled from above by an air layer was made. Results are discussed in relation to the formation of Benard cells. The onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection in thin fluid layers heated uniformly from below were studied experimentally. It was found that in thin fluid layers the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection is preceded by subcritical convective motions. Secondly, it was found that the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection in non-Boussinesq fluid layers takes place in the form of hexagonal cells at Rayleigh numbers larger than the critical Rayleigh number R sub C = 1708 which determines the onset of convection in Boussinesq fluid layers.

  16. An investigation of model forensic bone in soil environments studied using infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Howes, Johanna M; Stuart, Barbara H; Thomas, Paul S; Raja, Sophil; O'Brien, Christopher

    2012-09-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to examine changes to bone chemistry as a result of soil burial. Pig carcasses were buried as part of a controlled field study, and pig bone was used in soil environments established in the laboratory. The variables of species type, bone pretreatment, soil type and pH, moisture content, temperature, and burial time were investigated. The crystallinity index (CI) and the organic and carbonate contents of the bones were monitored. The data revealed decreasing trends in the organic and carbonate contents and an increase in the CI of the bone with burial time. An acidic soil environment and soil type are the factors that have the most influence on bone chemistry as a result of burial. The study demonstrates the potential of infrared spectroscopy as a straightforward method of monitoring the changes associated with aging of bones in a variety of soil environments.

  17. Site study plan for Playa investigations, Deaf Smith County, Texas: Salt Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-02

    This plan defines the purpose and objectives of the Playa Investigation Study, presents a plan of work to provide the information necessary to resolve issues, and discusses the rationale for test method selection. The required information will be obtained from existing well drilling records, describing and testing of soil and rock samples recovered from project test holes, geophysical well logs, seismic surveys, and shallow test pits excavated at ground surface. There have been numerous, often conflicting, theories presented to explain the origin(s) of the playas of the Texas High Plains. The primary purpose of this study is to establish if existing playas and playa alignments are related to deeper subsurface structure, such as faulting or salt dissolution, the potential for future playa development, and the significance of existing and/or future playas on siting a repository in Deaf Smith County, Texas. 11 refs.

  18. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  19. Theoretical investigation of loratadine reactivity in order to understand its degradation properties: DFT and MD study.

    PubMed

    Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J; Abramović, Biljana F

    2016-10-01

    Antihistamines are frequently used pharmaceuticals that treat the symptoms of allergic reactions. Loratadine (LOR) is an active component of the second generation of selective antihistaminic pharmaceutical usually known as Claritin. Frequent usage of this type of pharmaceuticals imposes the need for understanding their fundamental reactive properties. In this study we have theoretically investigated reactive properties of LOR using both density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. DFT study is used for collecting information related to the molecule stability, structure, frontier molecular orbitals, quantum molecular descriptors, charge distribution, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, charge polarization, and local reactivity properties according to average local ionization energy surfaces. Based on these results, N24 atom of pyridine ring and oxygen atom O1 were identified with nucleophilic nature. In order to collect the information necessary for the proposition of degradation compounds we also calculated bond dissociation energies (BDE) for hydrogen abstraction and single acyclic bonds as well. According to BDE, the oxidation is likely to occur in the piperidine and cycloheptane rings. MD simulations were used in order to understand the interactions with water through radial distribution functions (RDF). Based on RDFs the most important interactions with solvent are determined for carbon atom C5, chlorine atom Cl15, and oxygen atom O1. Collected results based on DFT calculations and MD simulations provided information important for suggestion of possible degradation compounds. Covalent and noncovalent interactions between LOR and (•)OH have also been investigated.

  20. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Blair, Patrick J; Carroll, Darin S; Mills, James N; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G; Glabman, Raisa A; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  2. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process, elements and techniques guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The purpose of the RI/FS, to assess the risk posed by a hazardous waste site and to determine the best way to reduce that risk, and its structure (site characterization, risk assessment, screening and detailed analysis of alternatives, etc.) is defined in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and further explained in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA (Interim Final) 540/G-89/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988. Though issued in 1988, the EPA guidance remains an excellent source of information on the conduct and structure of an RI/FS. This document makes use of supplemental RI/FS-related guidance that EPA has developed since its initial document was issued in 1988, incorporates practical lessons learned in more than 12 years of experience in CERCLA hazardous site remediation, and drawing on those lessons, introduces the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER), developed by DOE as a way to proceed quickly and efficiently through the RI/FS process at DOE facilities. Thus as its title implies, this guidance is intended to describe in detail the process and component elements of an RI/FS, as well as techniques to manage the RI/FS effectively.

  3. An fMRI Study Investigating Adolescent Brain Activation by Rewards and Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Hee; Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the adolescent brain activation patterns in response to performance feedback (PF), social reward (SR) and monetary reward (MR) and their association with psychological factors. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while middle school boys (n=15) performed tests pertained to PF, SR and MR. The brain activation pattern in each condition was investigated, and the extent of brain activation in each of the three conditions was compared at once. Results The caudate and the dorsal prefrontal area were activated in all three conditions. Furthermore, the cuneus showed significantly greater activation in the PF condition than the SR or MR condition. And the self - related areas, such as the right precentral gyrus and paracenral lobule, were more activated in the SR condition than the PF or MR condition. The left middle frontal gyrus was more activated in the MR condition than the PF or SR condition. Conclusion Not only various reward stimuli but also feedback stimulus might commonly activate dorsal prefrontal and subcortical area in adolescents. Moreover, several different brain activation patterns were also observed in each condition. The results of this study could be applied to planning of learning and teaching strategy for adolescents in various ways. PMID:23482680

  4. Physiological and Proteomic Investigations to Study the Response of Tomato Graft Unions under Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Wei, Hao; Chen, Yuze; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is an established practice for asexual propagation in horticultural and agricultural crops. The study on graft unions has become of interest for horticulturists using proteomic and genomic techniques to observe transfer of genetic material and signal transduction pathways from root to shoot and shoot to root. Another reason to study the graft unions was potentially to observe resistance against abiotic stresses. Using physiological and proteomic analyses, we investigated graft unions (rootstock and scions) of tomato genotypes exposed to standard-normal (23/23 and 25/18°C day/night) and high-low temperatures (30/15°C day/night). Results Graft unions had varied responses to the diverse temperatures. High-low temperature, but not standard-normal temperature, induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of H2O2 and O2-1 in rootstock and scions. However, the expression of many cell protection molecules was also induced, including antioxidant enzymes and their immunoblots, which also show an increase in their activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The graft interfaces thus actively defend against stress by modifying their physiological and proteomic responses to establish a new cellular homeostasis. As a result, many proteins for cellular defense were regulated in graft unions under diverse temperature, in addition to the regulation of photosynthetic proteins, ion binding/transport proteins, and protein synthesis. Moreover, biomass, hardness, and vascular transport activity were evaluated to investigate the basic connectivity between rootstock and scions. Conclusions Our study provides physiological evidence of the grafted plants’ response to diverse temperature. Most notably, our study provides novel insight into the mechanisms used to adapt the diverse temperature in graft unions (rootstock/scion). PMID:27310261

  5. Investigating Autism-Related Symptoms in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jeffrey A.; Hodgetts, Sandra; Mackenzie, Michelle L.; Haqq, Andrea M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II). General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE) diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL) and eight uniparental disomy (UPD) (with a total of 6 female UPD cases). Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS) and observational assessment (ADOS-2) was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS. PMID:28264487

  6. SENIORLAB: a prospective observational study investigating laboratory parameters and their reference intervals in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Martin; Nydegger, Urs; Risch, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In clinical practice, laboratory results are often important for making diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic decisions. Interpreting individual results relies on accurate reference intervals and decision limits. Despite the considerable amount of resources in clinical medicine spent on elderly patients, accurate reference intervals for the elderly are rarely available. The SENIORLAB study set out to determine reference intervals in the elderly by investigating a large variety of laboratory parameters in clinical chemistry, hematology, and immunology. Methods/design: The SENIORLAB study is an observational, prospective cohort study. Subjectively healthy residents of Switzerland aged 60 years and older were included for baseline examination (n = 1467), where anthropometric measurements were taken, medical history was reviewed, and a fasting blood sample was drawn under optimal preanalytical conditions. More than 110 laboratory parameters were measured, and a biobank was set up. The study participants are followed up every 3 to 5 years for quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The primary aim is to evaluate different laboratory parameters at age-related reference intervals. The secondary aims of this study include the following: identify associations between different parameters, identify diagnostic characteristics to diagnose different circumstances, identify the prevalence of occult disease in subjectively healthy individuals, and identify the prognostic factors for the investigated outcomes, including mortality. Discussion: To obtain better grounds to justify clinical decisions, specific reference intervals for laboratory parameters of the elderly are needed. Reference intervals are obtained from healthy individuals. A major obstacle when obtaining reference intervals in the elderly is the definition of health in seniors because individuals without any medical condition and any medication are rare in older adulthood. Reference

  7. TAC-TIC therapy with premature infants: a series of investigative studies.

    PubMed

    de Róiste, Aine

    2004-12-01

    This article provides a synopsis of a series of studies exploring the effects of TAC-TIC (Touching And Caressing-Tender In Caring) therapy with premature infants. Study 1 looked at the short and long-term effects and found enhanced mental development in the stroked infants at 15 months. In study 2 the physiological effects of an abbreviated version of TAC-TIC with high-risk ventilated infants were examined and it was concluded that TAC-TIC exerted no harm to these vulnerable infants. The behavioural reactions of a sample of premature and low birthweight infants to TAC-TIC and parental responses to administering it were explored in study 3. The infants were found to respond predominantly with arm and leg movements to TAC-TIC while fathers and mothers reported enjoying performing TAC-TIC and elicited a similar pattern and frequency of behavioural reactions. In study 4 the question of whether TAC-TIC benefits preterm infant learning and/or sucking behaviour was investigated. The conclusion reached was that TAC-TIC may potentially benefit cognitive performance within the neonatal period and that this may be an early indicator of long-term cognitive gains reported by previous studies. Using a matched subjects design, study 5 explored the impact of TAC-TIC upon the digestive system by analysing gastric aspirates before and after TAC-TIC and a control period of time. It was concluded that TAC-TIC appeared to induce a more suitable stomach environment for digestion.

  8. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings.

    PubMed

    Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; García-González, Ignacio; Eilmann, Britta; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Gärtner, Holger; Eckstein, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between taxa or within taxa on contrasting sites or along environmental gradients. Yet, a gap exists regarding the study of hydraulic adjustments in response to environmental changes over the lifetimes of plants. In trees, dated tree-ring series are often exploited to reconstruct dynamics in ecological conditions, and recent work in which wood-anatomical variables have been used in dendrochronology has produced promising results. Environmental signals identified in water-conducting cells carry novel information reflecting changes in regional conditions and are mostly related to short, sub-annual intervals. Although the idea of investigating environmental signals through wood anatomical time series goes back to the 1960s, it is only recently that low-cost computerized image-analysis systems have enabled increased scientific output in this field. We believe that the study of tree-ring anatomy is emerging as a promising approach in tree biology and climate change research, particularly if complemented by physiological and ecological studies. This contribution presents the rationale, the potential, and the methodological challenges of this innovative approach.

  9. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  10. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  11. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  12. Satellite remote sensing and multiscale geophysical investigations for geoarcheology: case studies from Perù

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Delle Rose, Marco; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Rizzo, Enzo; Romano, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing as well as geophysical techniques proved to be successful tools for characterizing archaeological areas. In order to provide useful information on the presence of buried structures and the iteration between the aqueducts (Puquios) and the local hydrogeological setting, a multi-disciplinary and multi-scale approach based on the integration of satellite remote sensing and geophysical techniques was applied in different sites of Perù. Such investigations were carried out by the Italian mission ITACA, funded by the Italian Ministry Affairs and composed of researchers of two institutes of CNR (IMAA and IBAM), which provides a scientific support for archaeological research, since 2007. In detail, the archaeological Cahuachi site (0-400 AD) was investigated by geoelectrical and georadar prospecting, in order to highlight buried structures and platforms. The detection and characterization of perhispanic aqueducts and canals were the main aims in the Nasca drainage basin and in the Ceremonial Centre of Pachacamac (500-1400 ADF). Finally, the integration of all data acquired by the different remote sensing techniques allowed for spatially characterizing the archaeological features, thus providing important information for the planning of next archaeological excavations and glimpses into the use and management of water resources by prehispanic civilizations. References Lasaponara R., Masini N., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2011. New discoveries in the Piramide Naranjada in Cahuachi (Peru) using satellite, Ground Probing Radar and magnetic investigations, Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(9), 2031-2039, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.12.010 Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10

  13. Morphological study of human sweat ducts for the investigation of THz-wave interaction (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.

  14. Investigating the relationship of lightning activity and rainfall: A case study for Crete Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship of lightning activity and rainfall is investigated for rain events of variable intensity. Rain data from 22 gauging stations over the island of Crete and lightning activity from the Global Lightning Network including both cloud-to-ground and some cloud flashes are analyzed for the period September 2012 to June 2014. Local thunderstorms' characteristics are investigated both individually as well as in groups according to the results of k-means clustering algorithm in 3 dimensions (space (x, y) and time (t)) in which the number of clusters is decided by G-means algorithm. Correlation of non-zero pairs of rain intensity and number of flashes is examined at various time intervals, time lags and effective radii. Also, correlation of flash count within 50 km radius around the stations is examined for the rain events of maximum hourly intensity for each gauging station. The highest coincidence of lightning clusters with intense rain events reaches 60% when gauges are 25-30 km from the cluster center. Maximum correlation within non-zero pairs of rain intensity and flashes number is obtained for more intense rain (99th percentile) and for increased flash count within the searching area (more than 10 flashes). Also, correlation is stronger for shorter time windows. The findings of this study improve the understanding of thunderstorm events and could provide staple information for the improvement of forecasting extreme events.

  15. An analytical and experimental study to investigate flutter suppression via piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    The objective was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of adaptive material plate actuators for suppressing flutter. The validity of analytical modeling techniques for piezoelectric materials was also investigated. Piezoelectrics are materials which are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two degree of freedom wind tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid airfoil and a flexible mount system which permitted a translational and a rotational degree of freedom. It was designed such that flutter was encounted within the testing envelope of the wind tunnel. Actuators, made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs of the mount system. Each degree of freedom was controlled by a separate leaf spring. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. Plant characteristics were determined from this model and verified by open loop experimental tests. A flutter suppression control law was designed and implemented on a digital control computer. Closed loop flutter testing was conducted. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. It demonstrates that small, carefully placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  16. Spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical investigations of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ujval; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Khajuria, Yugal

    2015-04-05

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile have been carried out and investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges, natural atomic charges and thermodynamic properties in the ground state have been investigated by using Hartree Fock Theory (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Both HF and DFT methods yield good agreement with the experimental data. Vibrational modes are assigned with the help of Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the spectral range of 190-800nm and the results are compared with the calculated values using TD-DFT approach. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results obtained from the studies of Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) are used to calculate molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electron chemical potential and global electrophilicity.

  17. Spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical investigations of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ujval; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K.; Kant, Rajni; Khajuria, Yugal

    2015-04-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile have been carried out and investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges, natural atomic charges and thermodynamic properties in the ground state have been investigated by using Hartree Fock Theory (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Both HF and DFT methods yield good agreement with the experimental data. Vibrational modes are assigned with the help of Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the spectral range of 190-800 nm and the results are compared with the calculated values using TD-DFT approach. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results obtained from the studies of Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) are used to calculate molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electron chemical potential and global electrophilicity.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  19. Investigation of acute effects of graphene oxide on wastewater microbial community: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farid; Rodrigues, Debora F

    2013-07-15

    The market for graphene-based products, such as graphene oxide (GO), is projected to reach nearly $675 million by 2020, hence it is expected that large quantities of graphene-based wastes will be generated by then. Wastewater treatment plants will be one of the ultimate repositories for these wastes. Efficient waste treatment relies heavily on the functions of diverse microbial communities. Therefore, systematic investigation of any potential toxic effects of GO in wastewater microbial communities is essential to determine the potential adverse effects and the fate of these nanomaterials in the environment. In the present study, we investigate the acute toxicity, i.e. short-term and high load, effect of GO on the microbial functions related to the biological wastewater treatment process. The results showed that toxic effects of GO on microbial communities were dose dependent, especially in concentrations between 50 and 300mg/L. Bacterial metabolic activity, bacterial viability, and biological removal of nutrients, such as organics, nitrogen and phosphorus, were significantly impacted by the presence of GO in the activated sludge. Furthermore, the presence of GO deteriorated the final effluent quality by increasing the water turbidity and reducing the sludge dewaterability. Microscopic techniques confirmed penetration and accumulation of GO inside the activated sludge floc matrix. Results demonstrated that the interaction of GO with wastewater produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be one of the responsible mechanisms for the toxic effect of GO.

  20. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  1. Relatives' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy: a study from South Delhi.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Rautji, R; Dogra, T D

    2008-04-01

    Relatives of deceased persons on whose bodies a medico-legal autopsy had been performed at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India were personally asked to complete a questionnaire. The aim of study was to determine surviving family members' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy. The majority of the relatives showed a positive attitude towards forensic autopsy but were not aware of the detailed procedure of the autopsy. They wanted sufficient information to be provided before the autopsy. They showed a great interest in autopsy results i.e. the cause of death. It was concluded that sufficient relevant explanations given before the autopsy improves the relatives' acceptance and helps alleviate the suffering of the bereaved. The experience and opinions of relatives may help an autopsy surgeon in more effective management of medico-legal cases.

  2. Final proposed plan, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, task order 1, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Army is proposing a cleanup plan, referred to as a preferred alternative, to address outdoor contamination at the MTL Superfund site in Watertown, Massachusetts. The Proposed Plan recommends one of the cleanup options from among those that were evaluated during the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) performed for the site. The Army is publishing this Proposed Plan to provide opportunity for public review and comment on the cleanup alternatives, known as remedial alternatives, under consideration for the site. The Army is soliciting comments on the proposed level of cleanup and will consider public comments as part of the final decision-making process for selecting the cleanup remedy for the site.

  3. A study to investigate phase transitions and nucleation kinetics of nickel and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, F. A.; Yildiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the homogeneous nucleation kinetics of copper and nickel system during cooling process using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The calculation is carried out for a different number of atoms consisting of 500, 2048, 8788 and 13,500 based on embedded atom method (EAM). It is observed that the melting points for the both model increases with increasing the size of systems (i.e. the number of atoms) as expected from Parrinello and Rahman MD method. The interfacial free energies and critical nucleus radius of nickel and copper are also determined by molecular dynamics, and the results are consistent with the classical nucleation theory. The structural development and phase transformation are also determined from the radial distribution function (RDF) and local bond orientational order parameters (LBOO).

  4. Investigating the effects of ICT on innovation and performance of European hospitals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Loukis, Euripidis N

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. This paper presents an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of 'soft' ICT investment), while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures.

  5. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  6. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF A TREATMENT MANUAL FOR VIDEO GAME ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Ståle; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Hellandsjø; Molde, Helge

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a manualized therapy for video game addiction in 12 males, ages 14-18 yr. The manual was based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, short-term strategic family therapy, solution-focused therapy, and motivational interviewing. Treatment response was reported by the patients, their mothers, and the therapists. The patients reported moderate (but statistically non-significant) improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The mothers, however, reported large effects and statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The therapists reported marked or moderate treatment response in six of the 12 patients. The ratings of change by mothers converged well with the views of change of both the patients and therapists, whereas the convergence of views on change between the two latter sources was far lower.

  7. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization.

  8. Time will tell: a retrospective study investigating the relationship between insomnia and objectively defined punctuality.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Kyle, Simon D; Endres, Dominique; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Primary insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting approximately 3% of the general population. Studies suggest that personality traits such as perfectionism and neuroticism might be implicated in the aetiology of the disorder. However, to date, no study has investigated behavioural indicators of these factors in a hypothesis-driven manner. In the present study, we assessed punctuality as a behavioural indicator of perfectionism and neuroticism in 635 consecutive clinical patients of the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical Center. The primary aim was to compare primary insomnia patients (n = 148) with another group of patients with other sleep-related diagnoses (n = 487). Primary insomnia patients arrived on average 4 min earlier when compared to other patients (P = 0.041). However, this effect failed to reach statistical significance when correcting for the influence of potential confounding variables. Of note, we found a strong relationship between polysomnographic sleep parameters and punctuality. That is, short sleep duration was associated significantly with early arrival times at the sleep laboratory (P = 0.023). These findings support the proposal that personality traits, which we predict underlie obsessive punctuality, may be involved in the aetiology of objectively defined sleep disturbances. Clinical implications of the current results for cognitive behavioural treatments of insomnia are discussed.

  9. Early Investigational Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: From Animal Studies to Phase II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Nelson; Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most common gastrointestinal disorders which include evidence of dysmotility include: gastroparesis, the lower functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with altered bowel function [such as chronic (functional) diarrhea, chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC)], and opioid induced constipation (OIC). These conditions, which are grouped as gastrointestinal motility and functional disorders, are characterized by abnormal motor, sensory, or secretory functions that alter bowel function and result in a significant disease burden, since currently available treatments do not completely alleviate symptoms. New drugs are being developed for these disorders, targeting mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases, specifically, motor function, intestinal secretion and bile acid modulation. Areas Covered The article provides a brief overview of motility disorders and the drugs approved and currently available for these indications. It also provides an evaluation of the efficacy, safety and possible mechanisms of the drugs currently under investigation for the treatment of gastroparesis, chronic diarrhea, CIC and OIC, based on animal to phase II studies. Medications with complete phase III trials are excluded from this discussion. Expert opinion Treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders requires the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, biomarkers to identify subgroups of these disorders, and robust pharmacological studies from animal to phase II studies. These are prerequisites for the development of efficacious medications and individualizing therapy in order to enhance the treatment of these patients. PMID:25971881

  10. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  11. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  12. A Case Study Investigating Secondary Science Teachers' Perceptions of Science Literacy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Phyllis Ann

    This project study addressed the lack of inclusion of discipline literacy pedagogy in secondary classrooms in a rural school district in eastern North Carolina. Discipline literacy practices are recommended in the Common Core Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. The district had implemented content area reading strategies across content areas, yet no significant progress in secondary students' reading abilities had been demonstrated in statewide or national assessments. The conceptual framework that drove this study was disciplinary literacy, founded by the literacy research of Shanahan, Shanahan, and Zygouris-Coe. Within a qualitative case study method, this investigation of 8 secondary science teachers' experiences teaching literacy during content instruction focused on practices of embedding science-specific reading strategies into lessons and factors that influence teachers' decisions to participate in professional development to advance their learning of discipline-specific literacy methods. Data were collected and triangulated using a focus group and 8 individual interviews. Data from both methods were analyzed into codes and categories that developed into emergent themes. Findings from the focus group and individual interviews revealed that the science teachers possessed limited knowledge of science-specific reading strategies; used random, general literacy practices; and had completed inadequate professional development on science-related topics. Positive change may occur if district leaders support teachers in expanding their knowledge and application of discipline literacy strategies through participation in discipline literacy-focused professional development. The study may provide educators and researchers a deeper understanding of disciplinary literacy and increase research on the topic.

  13. MO-G-BRF-09: Investigating Magnetic Field Dose Effects in Mice: A Monte Carlo Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A; Guindani, M; Followill, D; Melancon, A; Hazle, J; Court, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In MRI-linac treatments, radiation dose distributions are affected by magnetic fields, especially at high-density/low-density interfaces. Radiobiological consequences of magnetic field dose effects are presently unknown; therefore, preclinical studies are needed to ensure the safe clinical use of MRI-linacs. This study investigates the optimal combination of beam energy and magnetic field strength needed for preclinical murine studies. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 was used to simulate the effects of a magnetic field when irradiating a mouse-sized lung phantom with a 1.0cmx1.0cm photon beam. Magnetic field effects were examined using various beam energies (225kVp, 662keV[Cs-137], and 1.25MeV[Co-60]) and magnetic field strengths (0.75T, 1.5T, and 3T). The resulting dose distributions were compared to Monte Carlo results for humans with various field sizes and patient geometries using a 6MV/1.5T MRI-linac. Results: In human simulations, the addition of a 1.5T magnetic field caused an average dose increase of 49% (range:36%–60%) to lung at the soft tissue-to-lung interface and an average dose decrease of 30% (range:25%–36%) at the lung-to-soft tissue interface. In mouse simulations, the magnetic fields had no effect on the 225kVp dose distribution. The dose increases for the Cs-137 beam were 12%, 33%, and 49% for 0.75T, 1.5T, and 3.0T magnetic fields, respectively while the dose decreases were 7%, 23%, and 33%. For the Co-60 beam, the dose increases were 14%, 45%, and 41%, and the dose decreases were 18%, 35%, and 35%. Conclusion: The magnetic field dose effects observed in mouse phantoms using a Co-60 beam with 1.5T or 3T fields and a Cs-137 beam with a 3T field compare well with those seen in simulated human treatments with an MRI-linac. These irradiator/magnet combinations are suitable for preclinical studies investigating potential biological effects of delivering radiation therapy in the presence of a magnetic field. Partially funded by Elekta.

  14. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the ecological assessment task, Kingfisher Study

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation Ecological Assessment Task, Kingfisher Study, including information that will contribute to safe completion of the project. The report includes historical background; a site map; project organization; task descriptions and hazard evaluations; controls; and monitoring, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and medical surveillance program requirements. The report also includes descriptions of site personnel and their certifications as well as suspected WAG 2 contaminants and their characteristics. The primary objective of the WAG 2 Kingfisher Study is to assess the feasibility of using kingfishers as biological monitors of contaminants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Kingfisher sample collection will be used to determine the levels of contaminants and degree of bioaccumulation within a common piscivorous bird feeding on contaminated fish from streams on the ORR.

  15. Investigating the Influence Relationship Models for Stocks in Indian Equity Market: A Weighted Network Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharjee, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    The socio-economic systems today possess high levels of both interconnectedness and interdependencies, and such system-level relationships behave very dynamically. In such situations, it is all around perceived that influence is a perplexing power that has an overseeing part in affecting the dynamics and behaviours of involved ones. As a result of the force & direction of influence, the transformative change of one entity has a cogent aftereffect on the other entities in the system. The current study employs directed weighted networks for investigating the influential relationship patterns existent in a typical equity market as an outcome of inter-stock interactions happening at the market level, the sectorial level and the industrial level. The study dataset is derived from 335 constituent stocks of ‘Standard & Poor Bombay Stock Exchange 500 index’ and study period is 1st June 2005 to 30th June 2015. The study identifies the set of most dynamically influential stocks & their respective temporal pattern at three hierarchical levels: the complete equity market, different sectors, and constituting industry segments of those sectors. A detailed influence relationship analysis is performed for the sectorial level network of the construction sector, and it was found that stocks belonging to the cement industry possessed high influence within this sector. Also, the detailed network analysis of construction sector revealed that it follows scale-free characteristics and power law distribution. In the industry specific influence relationship analysis for cement industry, methods based on threshold filtering and minimum spanning tree were employed to derive a set of sub-graphs having temporally stable high-correlation structure over this ten years period. PMID:27846251

  16. Investigating the Interaction of Fe Nanoparticles with Lysozyme by Biophysical and Molecular Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Zahra; Taheri, Saba; Zeinabad, Hojjat Alizadeh; Pishkar, Leila; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Rahimi, Arash; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Herein, the interaction of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) with iron nanoparticle (Fe NP) was investigated by spectroscopic and docking studies. The zeta potential analysis revealed that addition of Fe NP (6.45±1.03 mV) to HEWL (8.57±0.54 mV) can cause to greater charge distribution of nanoparticle-protein system (17.33±1.84 mV). In addition, dynamic light scattering (DLS) study revealed that addition of Fe NP (92.95±6.11 nm) to HEWL (2.68±0.37 nm) increases suspension potential of protein/nanoparticle system (51.17±3.19 nm). Fluorescence quenching studies reveled that both static and dynamic quenching mechanism occur and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interaction give rise to protein-NP system. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy of HEWL in the presence of Fe NP showed that the emission maximum wavelength of tryptophan (Trp) residues undergoes a red-shift. ANS fluorescence data indicated a dramatic exposure of hydrophobic residues to the solvent. The considerable reduction in melting temperature (T(m)) of HEWL after addition of Fe NP determines an unfavorable interaction system. Furthermore circular dichoroism (CD) experiments demonstrated that, the secondary structure of HEWL has not changed with increasing Fe NP concentrations; however, some conformational changes occur in tertiary structure of HEWL. Moreover, protein–ligand docking study confirmed that the Fe NP forms hydrogen bond contacts with HEWL. PMID:27776180

  17. Investigating the Influence Relationship Models for Stocks in Indian Equity Market: A Weighted Network Modelling Study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Biplab; Shafi, Muhammad; Acharjee, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    The socio-economic systems today possess high levels of both interconnectedness and interdependencies, and such system-level relationships behave very dynamically. In such situations, it is all around perceived that influence is a perplexing power that has an overseeing part in affecting the dynamics and behaviours of involved ones. As a result of the force & direction of influence, the transformative change of one entity has a cogent aftereffect on the other entities in the system. The current study employs directed weighted networks for investigating the influential relationship patterns existent in a typical equity market as an outcome of inter-stock interactions happening at the market level, the sectorial level and the industrial level. The study dataset is derived from 335 constituent stocks of 'Standard & Poor Bombay Stock Exchange 500 index' and study period is 1st June 2005 to 30th June 2015. The study identifies the set of most dynamically influential stocks & their respective temporal pattern at three hierarchical levels: the complete equity market, different sectors, and constituting industry segments of those sectors. A detailed influence relationship analysis is performed for the sectorial level network of the construction sector, and it was found that stocks belonging to the cement industry possessed high influence within this sector. Also, the detailed network analysis of construction sector revealed that it follows scale-free characteristics and power law distribution. In the industry specific influence relationship analysis for cement industry, methods based on threshold filtering and minimum spanning tree were employed to derive a set of sub-graphs having temporally stable high-correlation structure over this ten years period.

  18. The solution, solid state stability and kinetic investigation in degradation studies of lercanidipine: study of excipients compatibility of lercanidipine.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nitin; Amin, Saima; Singla, Neelam; Kohli, Kanchan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the stability of lercanidipine in solution state and solid state and explore the compatibility of drug with oils, surfactants and cosurfactants as excipients. The effect of pH on the degradation in solution state was studied through pH-rate profile of lercanidipine in constant ionic strength buffer solutions in pH range 1-8 which gives the pH of maximum stability. Powdered lercanidipine was stored under 40°C/0%~75% relative humidities (RH) or 0% RH/5~50°C to study the influence of RH and temperature on the stability of lercanidipine in solid state. Binary mixtures of lercanidipine and different excipients were stored at 40°C/75% RH, 40°C and at room temperature for excipient compatibility evaluation. The degradation of lercanidipine at different pH appears to fit a typical first-order reaction, but in solid state, it does not fit any obvious reaction model. Moisture content and temperature both play important roles affecting the degradation rate. Lercanidipine exhibits good compatibility with surfactants, cosurfactants and oils as excipients under stressed conditions of different storage temperature in a 3-week screening study. Moreover, the proposed high-performance liquid chromatography method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of the acidic and alkaline degradation processes of lercanidipine at different temperatures.

  19. Investigating silent strokes in hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study (ISSYS): rationale and protocol design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Silent brain infarcts are detected by neuroimaging in up to 20% of asymptomatic patients based on population studies. They are five times more frequent than stroke in general population, and increase significantly both with advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, they are independently associated with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Despite these numbers and the clinical consequences of silent brain infarcts, their prevalence in Mediterranean populations is not well known and their role as predictors of future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in hypertensive remains to be determined. ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study) is an observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study aimed to: 1- determine the prevalence of silent cerebrovascular infarcts in a large cohort of 1000 hypertensives and to study their associated factors and 2-to study their relationship with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Methods/Design Cohort study in a randomly selected sample of 1000 participants, hypertensive aged 50 to 70 years old, with no history of previous stroke or dementia. On baseline all participants will undergo a brain MRI to determine the presence of brain infarcts and other cerebrovascular lesions (brain microbleeds, white matter changes and enlarged perivascular spaces) and will be also tested to determine other than brain organ damage (heart-left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney-urine albumin to creatinine ratio, vessels-pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index), in order to establish the contribution of other subclinical conditions to the risk of further vascular events. Several sub-studies assessing the role of 24 hour ambulatory BP monitoring and plasma or genetic biomarkers will be performed. Follow-up will last for at least 3 years, to assess the rate of further stroke/transient ischemic attack, other cardiovascular events and cognitive decline, and their

  20. Investigating the use of appropriation in the writing of a child with autism: A case study.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jamie; Weill, Christine; Damico, Jack

    This case study investigated how a 10year old child with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), Kameron (pseudonym), utilized appropriation as a writing strategy in the context of group therapy. Using the same questions as Lensmire and Beals (1994) in their study of a typically developing third-grader, written products were collected over the course of one semester and analyzed, along with video, audio, and participant observation data, to consider the following questions: 1) Where did the material come from? 2) What was taken? and 3) How was it used? Analysis of the process of Kameron's writing revealed utilization of appropriation as a strategy for 2 of the 4 written products. Material was appropriated from both adult authored texts performed via read alouds and from topics and values located in the local peer culture. Kameron's appropriation of shared experiences provided substance to initiate and engage in a shared peer culture. Increased engagement in the writing process and fewer off task behaviors were noted when appropriations were evidenced compared to the writing pieces where no appropriation occurred. The results demonstrate the powerful implications of both a process oriented and strength-based approach to writing and greater social awareness than expected in children with ASD.

  1. XAFS investigation of polyamidoxime-bound uranyl contests the paradigm from small molecule studies

    DOE PAGES

    Mayes, Richard T.; Piechowicz, Marek; Lin, Zekai; ...

    2015-11-12

    In this study, limited resource availability and population growth have motivated interest in harvesting valuable metals from unconventional reserves, but developing selective adsorbents for this task requires structural knowledge of metal binding environments. Amidoxime polymers have been identified as the most promising platform for large-scale extraction of uranium from seawater. However, despite more than 30 years of research, the uranyl coordination environment on these adsorbents has not been positively identified. We report the first XAFS investigation of polyamidoxime-bound uranyl, with EXAFS fits suggesting a cooperative chelating model, rather than the tridentate or η2 motifs proposed by small molecule and computationalmore » studies. Samples exposed to environmental seawater also display a feature consistent with a μ2-oxo-bridged transition metal in the uranyl coordination sphere, suggesting in situ formation of a specific binding site or mineralization of uranium on the polymer surface. These unexpected findings challenge several long-held assumptions and have significant implications for development of polymer adsorbents with high selectivity.« less

  2. XAFS investigation of polyamidoxime-bound uranyl contests the paradigm from small molecule studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Richard T.; Piechowicz, Marek; Lin, Zekai; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Lin, Wenbin; Abney, C. W.; Bryantsev, V. S.

    2015-11-12

    In this study, limited resource availability and population growth have motivated interest in harvesting valuable metals from unconventional reserves, but developing selective adsorbents for this task requires structural knowledge of metal binding environments. Amidoxime polymers have been identified as the most promising platform for large-scale extraction of uranium from seawater. However, despite more than 30 years of research, the uranyl coordination environment on these adsorbents has not been positively identified. We report the first XAFS investigation of polyamidoxime-bound uranyl, with EXAFS fits suggesting a cooperative chelating model, rather than the tridentate or η2 motifs proposed by small molecule and computational studies. Samples exposed to environmental seawater also display a feature consistent with a μ2-oxo-bridged transition metal in the uranyl coordination sphere, suggesting in situ formation of a specific binding site or mineralization of uranium on the polymer surface. These unexpected findings challenge several long-held assumptions and have significant implications for development of polymer adsorbents with high selectivity.

  3. Neuroticism and the brain: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies investigating emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Servaas, Michelle N; van der Velde, Jorien; Costafreda, Sergi G; Horton, Paul; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2013-09-01

    Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for mood disorders. Neuroimaging findings related to neuroticism have been inconsistent across studies and hardly integrated in order to construct a model of the underlying neural correlates of neuroticism. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative summary of the literature, using a parametric coordinate-based meta-analysis (PCM) approach. Data were pooled for emotion processing tasks investigating the contrasts (negative>neutral) and (positive>neutral) to identify brain regions that are consistently associated with neuroticism across studies. Significant negative and positive correlations with neuroticism were found only for the contrast (negative>neutral) after multiple comparisons correction. Differences in brain activation were found to be associated with neuroticism during fear learning, anticipation of aversive stimuli and the processing and regulation of emotion. The relationship between neuroticism and these three psychological processes and their corresponding neural correlates is discussed. Furthermore, the meta-analytic findings are incorporated into a general model of emotion processing in neuroticism.

  4. Mars topography investigated through the wavelet leaders method: A multidimensional study of its fractal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliège, Adrien; Kleyntssens, Thomas; Nicolay, Samuel

    2017-02-01

    This work examines the scaling properties of Mars topography through a wavelet-based formalism. We conduct exhaustive one-dimensional (both longitudinal and latitudinal) and two-dimensional studies based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data using the multifractal formalism called Wavelet Leaders Method (WLM). This approach shows that a scale break occurs at approximately 15 km, giving two scaling regimes in both 1D and 2D cases. At small scales, these topographic profiles mostly display a monofractal behavior while a switch to multifractality is observed in several areas at larger scales. The scaling exponents extracted from this framework tend to be greater at small scales. In the 1D context, these observations are in agreement with previous works and thus suggest that the WLM is well-suited for examining scaling properties of topographic fields. Moreover, the 2D analysis is the first such complete study to our knowledge. It gives both a local and global insight on the scaling regimes of the surface of Mars and allows to exhibit the link between the scaling exponents and several famous features of the Martian topography. These results may be used as a solid basis for further investigations of the scaling laws of the Red planet and show that the WLM could be used to perform systematic analyses of the surface roughness of other celestial bodies.

  5. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE ADSORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-10-01

    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  6. A field study investigating effects of landmarks on territory size and shape

    PubMed Central

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S.; Eason, Perri K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how landmarks affect territories' fundamental characteristics. In this field study, we investigated effects of landmarks on territory size, shape and location in a cichlid fish (Amatitlania siquia). We provided cans as breeding sites and used plastic plants as landmarks. During 10 min trials, we recorded locations where residents chased intruders and used those locations to outline and measure the territory. In two experiments, we observed pairs without landmarks and with either a point landmark (one plant) or linear landmark (four plants) placed near the nest can. We alternated which trial occurred first and performed the second trial 24 h after the first. Territories were approximately round without landmarks or with a point landmark but were significantly more elongated when we added a linear landmark. Without landmarks, nests were centrally located; however, with any landmark, pairs set territory boundaries closer to the landmark and thus the nest. Territory size was significantly reduced in the presence of any landmark. This reduction suggests that a smaller territory with well-defined boundaries has greater benefits than a larger territory with less well-defined borders. PMID:24759367

  7. A field study investigating effects of landmarks on territory size and shape.

    PubMed

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Eason, Perri K

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how landmarks affect territories' fundamental characteristics. In this field study, we investigated effects of landmarks on territory size, shape and location in a cichlid fish (Amatitlania siquia). We provided cans as breeding sites and used plastic plants as landmarks. During 10 min trials, we recorded locations where residents chased intruders and used those locations to outline and measure the territory. In two experiments, we observed pairs without landmarks and with either a point landmark (one plant) or linear landmark (four plants) placed near the nest can. We alternated which trial occurred first and performed the second trial 24 h after the first. Territories were approximately round without landmarks or with a point landmark but were significantly more elongated when we added a linear landmark. Without landmarks, nests were centrally located; however, with any landmark, pairs set territory boundaries closer to the landmark and thus the nest. Territory size was significantly reduced in the presence of any landmark. This reduction suggests that a smaller territory with well-defined boundaries has greater benefits than a larger territory with less well-defined borders.

  8. Compounding solutions for exotic and nondomesticated fauna in australia: an investigative study.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Alison; Bolitho, Richard; Gusti, Kane; Yim, Crystal; Testa, Chris; Hattingh, Laetitia

    2009-01-01

    Veterinarians face many challenges during routine administration of medication to animals. This study investigated the nature of the problems that veterinarians encounter in practice and assessed the potential benefit of pharmaceutical compounding interventions for exotic and nondomesticated fauna. The research was conducted at three large wildlife theme parks on the Gold Coast, Australia, using a multi-method design of qualitative techniques including semi-structured interviews accompanied by field note observations. Themes identified through the data analysis related to: the enthusiasm of veterinarians towards pharmaceutical compounding; medicated foods commonly being employed in practice; a lack of suitable commercially available medications; time constraint problems and incompatibilities between feeding and dosing intervals. A decisive factor identified in the uptake of compounding in veterinary care was the net cost of the compounding procedure when compared to the figurative "value" of the animal. In conlusion, the study found that pharmaceutical compounding would be able to deliver more effective solutions than current techniques employed for a majority of veterinary medication problems in the area of exotic and nondomesticated veterinary practice. Pharmacists therefore have opportunity to diversify their business model while providing an important service to the community.

  9. Investigating Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products: a segmentation study.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kapirti, A

    2003-05-01

    The present study aims at gaining a first insight into Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products. Although Greece, and in particular Crete, have enjoyed a great popularity in terms of the Mediterranean diet, there has been an almost complete lack of low-fat-related surveys concerning the Greek food consumer. Using this as a research trigger, the current investigation evolves around the conflict between 'sensory appeal' and 'healthiness' of low-fat products, widely described in the international literature. Other crucial factors examined are consumers' awareness, occasional use and conscious purchase of, and willingness to pay for, food products with the 'low-fat' claim. Overall, the study has the objective to segment the Greek market in terms of users' perceptions of light products and to identify a number of well-described clusters with clear-cut socio-demographic and behavioural profile. Three clusters are identified, comprised of consumers with favourable attitudes towards low-fat foods and willing to pay premiums to purchase them.

  10. Investigating brain connectivity heritability in a twin study using diffusion imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Rose, Stephen; Fripp, Jurgen; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Salvado, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Heritability of brain anatomical connectivity has been studied with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) mainly by modeling each voxel's diffusion pattern as a tensor (e.g., to compute fractional anisotropy), but this method cannot accurately represent the many crossing connections present in the brain. We hypothesized that different brain networks (i.e., their component fibers) might have different heritability and we investigated brain connectivity using High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) in a cohort of twins comprising 328 subjects that included 70 pairs of monozygotic and 91 pairs of dizygotic twins. Water diffusion was modeled in each voxel with a Fiber Orientation Distribution (FOD) function to study heritability for multiple fiber orientations in each voxel. Precision was estimated in a test–retest experiment on a sub-cohort of 39 subjects. This was taken into account when computing heritability of FOD peaks using an ACE model on the monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Our results confirmed the overall heritability of the major white matter tracts but also identified differences in heritability between connectivity networks. Inter-hemispheric connections tended to be more heritable than intra-hemispheric and cortico-spinal connections. The highly heritable tracts were found to connect particular cortical regions, such as medial frontal cortices, postcentral, paracentral gyri, and the right hippocampus. PMID:24973604

  11. INVESTIGATION OF EXISTING POLICIES CONTRIBUTION TO PROMOTING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION -A CASE STUDY IN TOKYO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijioka, Yasuaki; Oka, Kazutaka; Takano, Saneyuki; Yoshikawa, Minoru; Ichihashi, Arata

    The impacts of global warming are already appearing in various regions of the world. Therefore, in addition to strongly promoting mitigation policies, it is an urgent need to study and implement adaptation policies from a long-term perspective in preparation for some possible negative impacts. The Japanese Government has long promoted various countermeasures for disaster prevention, environmental management, food production and protection of the nation's health. These counterm easures are considered to have potential effects asclimate change adaptation. This study investigated to what extent the existing policies for Tokyo can contribute to its climate change adaptation on the basis of comprehensively organizing targeted fields an dindicators in which adaptation policies should be taken. Research results indicated that the existing policies could be useful as climate change adaptation in many fields and indicators. Furthermore, the present problems were clarified accompanied with implementation of climate change adaptation at the municipalities' level, and solutions were proposed on how to use scientific knowledge to solve the problems.

  12. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    SciTech Connect

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  13. Injury-related mortality in South Africa: a retrospective descriptive study of postmortem investigations

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Megan; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Laubscher, Ria; Abrahams, Naeemah; Msemburi, William; Lombard, Carl; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate injury-related mortality in South Africa using a nationally representative sample and compare the results with previous estimates. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of medico-legal postmortem investigation data from mortuaries using a multistage random sample, stratified by urban and non-urban areas and mortuary size. We calculated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates for external causes of death. Findings Postmortem reports revealed 52 493 injury-related deaths in 2009 (95% confidence interval, CI: 46 930–58 057). Almost half (25 499) were intentionally inflicted. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 population were as follows: all injuries: 109.0 (95% CI: 97.1–121.0); homicide 38.4 (95% CI: 33.8–43.0; suicide 13.4 (95% CI: 11.6–15.2) and road-traffic injury 36.1 (95% CI: 30.9–41.3). Using postmortem reports, we found more than three times as many deaths from homicide and road-traffic injury than had been recorded by vital registration for this period. The homicide rate was similar to the estimate for South Africa from a global analysis, but road-traffic and suicide rates were almost fourfold higher. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative sample of injury-related mortality in South Africa. It provides more accurate estimates and cause-specific profiles that are not available from other sources. PMID:26229201

  14. A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Therapy Modality Outcomes for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D.; Brausch, Amy M.; Montgomery, Brad S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the independent effects of different treatment elements on a number of secondary problems related to childhood and adolescent sexual abuse, as well as investigate a number of different moderators of treatment effectiveness. Method: Twenty-eight studies that provided treatment outcome…

  15. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior... or feasibility study? Yes. If Reclamation determines that a community or groups of communities to be..., to the maximum extent practicable, expedite appraisal investigations and reports and...

  16. Investigating Neovascularization in Rat Decellularized Intestine: An In Vitro Platform for Studying Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Lindsey; English, William R.; Chong, Chuh K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges currently faced by tissue engineers is the loss of tissues postimplantation due to delayed neovascularization. Several strategies are under investigation to create vascularized tissue, but none have yet overcome this problem. In this study, we produced a decellularized natural vascular scaffold from rat intestine to use as an in vitro platform for neovascularization studies for tissue-engineered constructs. Decellularization resulted in almost complete (97%) removal of nuclei and DNA, while collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and laminin content were preserved. Decellularization did, however, result in the loss of elastin and fibronectin. Some proangiogenic factors were retained, as fragments of decellularized intestine were able to stimulate angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. We demonstrated that decellularization left perfusable vascular channels intact, and these could be repopulated with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Optimization of reendothelialization of the vascular channels showed that this was improved by continuous perfusion of the vasculature and further improved by infusion of human dermal fibroblasts into the intestinal lumen, from where they invaded into the decellularized tissue. Finally we explored the ability of the perfused cells to form new vessels. In the absence of exogenous angiogenic stimuli, Dll4, a marker of endothelial capillary-tip cell activation during sprouting angiogenesis, was absent, indicating that the reformed vasculature was largely quiescent. However, after addition of vascular endothelial growth factor A, Dll4-positive endothelial cells could be detected, demonstrating that this engineered vascular construct maintained its capacity for neovascularization. In summary, we have demonstrated how a natural xenobiotic vasculature can be used as an in vitro model platform to study neovascularization and provide information on factors that are critical for efficient

  17. 'I live for today': a qualitative study investigating older people's attitudes to advance planning.

    PubMed

    Samsi, Kritika; Manthorpe, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports investigation of prevalent understandings and systems of beliefs that underpin older people's attitudes towards making plans for their future. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) enables adults with capacity to make plans and decisions in advance, to arrange proxy decision-making and provides safeguards for those who might lose the capacity to make decisions for themselves in the future. This study explored the attitudes of a diverse sample of 37 self-declared well older people living in the community in England about their views on drawing up statements of wishes and documenting their decision-making preferences. The study was conducted in early 2009. Findings revealed that most individuals had a personal tendency or preference towards planning, guided by personality, beliefs, living situation and the relevancy of planning to their situation. Financial plans and funeral arrangements were most commonly drawn up with an absence of health and social care plans, which participants tended to postpone considering. Housing and residential care were important for all. Overall, few participants had heard of the MCA and most were unsure where to turn for support. Participants appreciated support when discussing these issues; some turned to family, while others felt professionals were a more appropriate source of advice. The family doctor was cited as trustworthy and a potential place to begin inquiries. Conceptualising onset of certain debilitating conditions also encouraged participants to think about planning for them. This study has implications for public education campaigns and health-related information that could potentially impact on many older people who are interested in making plans but are unaware that legal safeguards and practical support are available to aid this.

  18. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A comprehensive investigation of halogenated plasmas: From mechanistic studies to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ina Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Cl4) plasmas, including gas-phase and SiCl2 gas-surface interaction data collected for SiCl4 and SiCl4/H 2 plasma systems. Initial IRIS investigations of SiCl2 molecules during SiCl4 plasma processing of Si demonstrate that there is significant SiCl2 surface production in the parameter range studied. Higher values correspond to systems where etching is the dominant process.

  20. Characterizing semantic mappings adaptation via biomedical KOS evolution: a case study investigating SNOMED CT and ICD.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Mappings established between Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) increase semantic interoperability between biomedical information systems. However, biomedical knowledge is highly dynamic and changes affecting KOS entities can potentially invalidate part or the totality of existing mappings. Understanding how mappings evolve and what the impacts of KOS evolution on mappings are is therefore crucial for the definition of an automatic approach to maintain mappings valid and up-to-date over time. In this article, we study variations of a specific KOS complex change (split) for two biomedical KOS (SNOMED CT and ICD-9-CM) through a rigorous method of investigation for identifying and refining complex changes, and for selecting representative cases. We empirically analyze and explain their influence on the evolution of associated mappings. Results point out the importance of considering various dimensions of the information described in KOS, like the semantic structure of concepts, the set of relevant information used to define the mappings and the change operations interfering with this set of information.

  1. Investigation of excited states in 47Ca through a high-statistics beta-decay study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jenna; Griffin Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in nuclear many-body calculation methods have extended the application of ab initio interactions to the calcium isotopes (e.g. Refs.). Detailed nuclear data for these isotopes are necessary to evaluate the many-body calculation methods and to test the predictive power of the interactions. Transfer reactions from 48Ca have identified many excited states of 47Ca, but only four states have been identified in previous beta-decay experiments. High-statistics beta-decay studies using modern detection systems can provide detailed information on level energies, branching ratios, and spin/parity assignments, while comparison to other population methods can yield information about the structure of these states. A recent experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC used the GRIFFIN spectrometer to investigate the levels populated by beta decay in more detail. The decay scheme has been considerably extended and angular correlations between cascading gamma-ray transitions allow spin and parity assignments to be made for some of the observed excited states. An overview of the experimental apparatus as well as a discussion of the results from preliminary analysis will be presented.

  2. An Investigation of Cancer Rates in the Argentia Region, Newfoundland and Labrador: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Godwin, Marshall; Peach, Mandy; Fortier, Jacqueline; Bornstein, Stephen; Buehler, Sharon; McCrate, Farah; Pike, Andrea; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Cullen, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Argentia region of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was home to a US naval base during a 40-year period between the 1940s and the 1990s. Activities on the base resulted in contamination of the soil and groundwater in the region with chemicals such as heavy metals and dioxins, and residents have expressed concern about higher rates of cancer in their community. This study investigated the rate of cancer diagnosis that is disproportionately high in the Argentia region. Methods. Cases of cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were obtained for the Argentia region, two comparison communities, and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates of cancer diagnosis were calculated and compared. The crude incidence rate was adjusted for differences in age demographics using census data, and age-standardized incidence rates were compared. Results. Although the Argentia region had a higher crude rate of cancer diagnosis, the age-standardized incidence rate did not differ significantly from the comparison communities or the provincial average. Argentia has an aging population, which may have influenced the perception of increased cancer diagnosis in the community. Conclusions. We did not detect an increased burden of cancer in the Argentia region. PMID:26633979

  3. Investigating graph comprehension in students with dyslexia: an eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunjung; Lombardino, Linda J; Cowles, Wind; Altmann, Lori J

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine graph comprehension in college students with developmental dyslexia. We investigated how graph types (line, vertical bar, and horizontal bar graphs), graphic patterns (single and double graphic patterns), and question types (point locating and comparison questions) differentially affect graph comprehension of students with and without dyslexia. Groups were compared for (1) reaction times for answering comprehension questions based on graphed data and (2) eye gaze times for specific graph subregions (x-axis, y-axis, pattern, legend, question, and answer). Dyslexic readers were significantly slower in their graph comprehension than their peers with group differences becoming more robust with the increasing complexity of graphs and tasks. In addition, dyslexic readers' initial eye gaze viewing times for linguistic subregions (question and answer) and total viewing times for both linguistic (question and answer) and nonlinguistic (pattern) subregions were significantly longer than their control peers' times. In spite of using elementary-level paragraphs for comprehension and simple graph forms, young adults with dyslexia needed more time to process linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. These findings are discussed relative to theories proposed to address fundamental processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia.

  4. Experimental Guidelines for Studies Designed to Investigate the Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Hudson, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance. PMID:20190346

  5. An investigation of the auditory perception of western lowland gorillas in an enrichment study.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Jake S

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has highlighted the varied effects of auditory enrichment on different captive animals. This study investigated how manipulating musical components can influence the behavior of a group of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bristol Zoo. The gorillas were observed during exposure to classical music, rock-and-roll music, and rainforest sounds. The two music conditions were modified to create five further conditions: unmanipulated, decreased pitch, increased pitch, decreased tempo, and increased tempo. We compared the prevalence of activity, anxiety, and social behaviors between the standard conditions. We also compared the prevalence of each of these behaviors across the manipulated conditions of each type of music independently and collectively. Control observations with no sound exposure were regularly scheduled between the observations of the 12 auditory conditions. The results suggest that naturalistic rainforest sounds had no influence on the anxiety of captive gorillas, contrary to past research. The tempo of music appears to be significantly associated with activity levels among this group, and social behavior may be affected by pitch. Low tempo music also may be effective at reducing anxiety behavior in captive gorillas. Regulated auditory enrichment may provide effective means of calming gorillas, or for facilitating active behavior. Zoo Biol. 35:398-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Experimental study of vortex ring interactions with a flexible beam; investigating the role of viscous effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirnia, Alireza; Hu, Jiacheng; Peterson, Sean; Erath, Byron

    2016-11-01

    Energy can be extracted from flow instabilities in the environment for powering low consumption devices. When vortices pass tangentially over a flexible beam the lower pressure in the vortex core causes the beam to deflect, and induces sustained oscillations which can be converted into energy via piezoelectric materials. The beam dynamics can be parameterized according to the beam properties (nondimensional mass and stiffness ratios) as well as the vortex properties (size, vortex circulation strength and advection velocity). Recently, inviscid models have been developed to solve this fluid-structure interaction problem but they do not capture viscous interactions; features that become more prominent when the beam is positioned close to the vortex core. In this study the interaction of a vortex ring passing tangentially over a flexible beam as a function of circulation strength, beam properties, and offset distance are investigated to identify how viscous interactions influence the energy exchange process. Particle image velocimetry is acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The velocity and pressure fields, and transient beam dynamics are compared and contrasted with an inviscid model to identify the role of viscous interactions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  7. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing "live" process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  8. Characterizing Semantic Mappings Adaptation via Biomedical KOS Evolution: A Case Study Investigating SNOMED CT and ICD

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Julio Cesar Dos; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Mappings established between Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) increase semantic interoperability between biomedical information systems. However, biomedical knowledge is highly dynamic and changes affecting KOS entities can potentially invalidate part or the totality of existing mappings. Understanding how mappings evolve and what the impacts of KOS evolution on mappings are is therefore crucial for the definition of an automatic approach to maintain mappings valid and up-to-date over time. In this article, we study variations of a specific KOS complex change (split) for two biomedical KOS (SNOMED CT and ICD-9-CM) through a rigorous method of investigation for identifying and refining complex changes, and for selecting representative cases. We empirically analyze and explain their influence on the evolution of associated mappings. Results point out the importance of considering various dimensions of the information described in KOS, like the semantic structure of concepts, the set of relevant information used to define the mappings and the change operations interfering with this set of information. PMID:24551341

  9. A Density Functional Theory Study of a Calcium- Montmorillonite: A First Investigation for Medicine Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi Kencana Wungu, Triati; Fauzan, Muhammad Rifqi Al; Widayani; Suprijadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we performed structural geometry and electronic properties calculations of calcium - based clay mineral for medicine application using first principles calculation by means of Density Functional Theory. Here, a kind of clay mineral used was Ca- montmorillonite and it is applied as an absorber of dangerous metal contained in a human body, such as Pb, which causes osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease associated with bone mass decreases. Since montmorillonite has ability to exchange its cation (Ca+2), therefore, it plays an important role in preventing or/and cure human bone from osteoporosis. In order to understand how Ca-montmorillonite can do detoxification in the human body, we firstly investigated the mechanism of Pb adsorption on the surface of Ca-montmorillonite in an atomic level point of view. We found that the repulsive interactions between H of OH groups with Ca and Pb yielding the rotation of the H of OH groups of montmorillonite. A relatively small movement of Ca was observed when Pb is adsorbed and the band gap of Ca- montmorillonite becomes 1.87 eV narrow.

  10. Investigating word learning in fragile X syndrome: a fast-mapping study.

    PubMed

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-07-01

    Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative to younger typically developing boys and age-matched boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Task performance exceeded chance levels for all groups; however, boys with FXS outperformed boys with ASD, despite having lower levels of nonverbal cognition. Memory task demands significantly impacted performance only for boys with typical development. For boys with FXS or ASD, fast-mapping uniquely accounted for small but significant variance in concurrent levels of vocabulary comprehension as did chronological age and nonverbal IQ, but not autism severity. Understanding the fast-mapping process has implications for designing interventions to support word learning and language acquisition in these populations.

  11. Crystal structure study and investigation of solid-state cyclization for AMG 222, a channel hydrate.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Y-H; Nagapudi, Karthik; Liu, Jodi; Staples, Richard J; Jona, Janan

    2013-01-30

    In this study, we investigate the solid-state structure and stability of AMG 222 (5-(2-[2-(2-cyano-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethylamino]-propyl)-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene-2,8 dicarboxylic acid bisdimethylamide), a small molecule DPP-IV inhibitor. Crystal structure of AMG 222 has been solved from single crystal X-ray analysis. Crystallographic data are as follows: monoclinic, P2(1) (no. 4), a=9.0327(5)Å, b=18.6177(8)Å, c=21.4927(10)Å, β=90.126(3)°, V=3614.4(3)Å(3), Z=4. Based on single crystal structure, AMG 222 is a pentahydrate with the water molecules sitting in channels formed by the drug framework. There are three distinct crystal structures of AMG 222 between 0 and 95% relative humidity (RH), namely the anhydrate, hemihydrate, and pentahydrate forms. Solid-state stability of the GMP batch showed a high level of cyclized degradation product. It was postulated that the degradation was promoted by increased amorphous content generated as a result of excessive drying that was employed to remove residual crystallization solvent. Material produced using a modified procedure using a humidified nitrogen purge had lower amorphous content and lower levels of cyclic degradation when compared to the GMP batch.

  12. Doxorubicin liposomes as an investigative model to study the skin permeation of nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Cedar H A; Patel, Ketan; Singh, Mandip

    2015-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop an innovative investigative model using doxorubicin as a fluorophore to evaluate the skin permeation of nanocarriers and the impact of size and surface characteristics on their permeability. Different doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with mean particle size <130 nm and different surface chemistry were prepared by ammonium acetate gradient method using DPPC, DOPE, Cholesterol, DSPE-PEG 2000 and 1,1-Di-((Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl) pyrrolidin-1-ium chloride (CY5)/DOTAP/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) as the charge modifier. There was minimal release of doxorubicin from the liposomes up to 8h; indicating that fluorescence observed within the skin layers was due to the intact liposomes. Liposomes with particle sizes >600 nm were restricted within the stratum corneum. DOTAP (p<0.01) and CY5 (p<0.05) liposomes demonstrated significant permeation into the skin than DOPA and PEG liposomes. Tape stripping significantly (p<0.01) enhanced the skin permeation of doxorubicin liposomes but TAT-decorated doxorubicin liposomes permeated better (p<0.005). Blockage of the hair follicles resulted in significant reduction in the extent and intensity of fluorescence observed within the skin layers. Overall, doxorubicin liposomes proved to be an ideal fluorophore-based model. The hair follicles were the major route utilized by the liposomes to permeate skin. Surface charge and particle size played vital roles in the extent of permeation.

  13. Investigating Women’s Experiences of Asthma Care in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Chervonne; Williamson, Graham R; Knight, Beatrice; Daly, Mark; Halpin, David M.G

    2014-01-01

    Background : Most asthmatic women have normal pregnancies and complications are infrequent when their asthma is well-controlled. Symptom control and medical treatment are concerning to pregnant asthma suffers, as is the impact that their illness and treatment might have on their unborn baby. The aim was to investigate in a qualitative study the thoughts and feelings of women’s experiences of asthma in pregnancy. Twenty-two women with asthma who had a pregnancy within two years were asked to participate. Seven women were interviewed when data saturation was achieved. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the ‘Framework’ Method, independently analysed by two researchers and consensus reached concerning the construction of themes. The key themes that emerged were Asthma and pregnancy; Pregnancy and post-natal experiences; and Health professionals. These findings are globally interesting because of the prevalence of maternal asthma and they illustrate participants’ experiences concerning their asthma care and their views on its improvement. Pregnant asthmatic women have concerns about their care and treatment which might be alleviated by outreach, joint working between respiratory doctors and nurse specialists, midwives and General Practice nurses. Targeted educational activities could form a part of this care delivery. PMID:25538796

  14. A Three Generation Study with Effect of Imidacloprid in Rats: Biochemical and Histopathological Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the dose-dependent toxic effects of imidacloprid on the female ratsthat were treated through three generations (F0, F1, and F2). F2 female rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment to see the long-term effect of imidacloprid. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups of 6 each. Group I served as control. Group II served as treated I and given 1/45th LD50 (10 mg/kg/day) of imidacloprid. Group III served as treated II and given 1/22th LD50 (20 mg/kg/day) of imidacloprid. After 60 days, oral administration of imidacloprid females were mated with normal males to get F1 and F2 generation. F2 generation female rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. Biochemical and a histopathological investigation was done for three groups of F2 generation and statistically analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Average feed intake of F2 female rats was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) at 20 mg/kg/day dose of imidacloprid. There was a significant increase in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, AKP, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Group III rats of F2 generation. There was a significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in plasma and brain of both the imidacloprid treated groups. Tissue samples of liver, kidney, and brain of females of F2 generation showed histopathological condition. Conclusion: The results indicated that imidacloprid at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw/day exerts significant toxicological effects on biochemical and histological studies of F2 generation females as compare to 10 mg/kg bw/day. PMID:26862272

  15. The study of polymers in geometrically confined states by the thermal analysis, the spectroscopic study, and the morphological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolin

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of the different geometrically confined states of polyacrylamide (PAL) in bulk film, single chain globules, and thin films. The thermal analysis, the spectroscopic study, and the morphological investigation were carried out. The main contribution of this thesis is that we have acquired a better understanding about the glass transition (T g) behavior of polymers. Although the glass transition is a well known phenomenon for liquids with strong covalently bonded structures, and is especially noteworthy for amorphous polymers, understanding the glass transition still remains one of the most intriguing puzzles in condensed matter physics at present. The solution of the glass transition puzzle will ultimately influence different fields in polymer science, particularly biophysics and biochemistry. Our approach to this complicated assignment, the glass transition phenomenon, is to examine the glass transition behavior of polymer chains in 3 dimensional confinement for single molecular single chain globules, 1 dimensional confinement for polymer thin films, and 0 dimensional confinement for bulk state polymer. We found that the glass transition temperature of a polymer depends on several factors, such as the inter-chain interlock entanglement, the inter-chain molecular interactions, the intra-chain cohesional entanglement, and the local chain orientation and conformational entropy. These factors have been systematically investigated by carefully preparing the polymer samples in different confined states. The main conclusion is that, although the glass transition is a non-equilibrium dynamic property, the true glass transition can be reached when polymer chains are free of the inter-chain entanglement. A better example is illustrated, in this thesis, of the glass transition behavior for the well-annealed single chain globules. PAL single chain globules are prepared by spray drying from the dilute solution. The size and morphology of the

  16. Studies on the chlorination of zircon: Part I. Static bed investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaye, A. C.; Gupta, C. K.; Venkatachalam, S.

    1999-04-01

    Carbochlorination is an important unit operation in the processing of zirconium resources. In the article, the use of different reducing agents in zircon chlorination, to produce zirconium tetrachloride, has been examined on thermodynamic and other considerations. While numerous workers have investigated zircon chlorination, a literature survey shows that there is a wide variation in the reported effect of various process parameters on the chlorination rate and a wide scatter in the values for kinetic parameters such as order of reaction, activation energy, rate constant as also the rate law expression. This work is an extensive study on zircon chlorination and the article discusses the effect of process parameters such as charge particle size, gas and solid composition, gas flow rate, temperature, reaction duration, etc. on the chlorination rate, over a much wider range of the parameter values. During investigations in the static bed chlorinator, it was noticed that the initial rate and the total extent of chlorination are proportional to the exposed surface of the solid zircon-coke charge but independent of the depth or amount of the charge. Further, the stalled chlorination could be reactivated by remixing the solid charge. Also, while the reaction rate in general increased as the charge became finer, the effect of zircon particle size was much more predominant. The activation energy value for the chlorination showed a wide variation with other operating conditions. Likewise, the order of reaction with respect to chlorine decreased from two to zero as the chlorine concentration in the gaseous atmosphere increased. Interestingly, the chlorination rate initially increased with gas flow rate, then decreased, before finally becoming independent of the gas flow rate. Results also indicated that there is an optimum charge composition that yields the maximum chlorination rate and the article discusses the effect of the zircon to coke particle number ratio in the

  17. In Search of Police Investigative Thinking Styles: An Exploratory Study of Detectives in Norway and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Geoff; Fahsing, Ivar Andre; Gottschalk, Petter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that more research attention needs to be devoted to profile how investigators think when attempting to solve crimes and dismantle terrorist networks. Since 9/11, there is much activity focused on profiling criminals and terrorists but little on the other side of the investigative equation the detectives/investigators…

  18. The Thermal Infrared Investigation on Cassini: A Challenge for Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Kunde, Virgil G.; Coustenis, Athena

    2010-05-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been recording spectra of Saturn and Titan for nearly six years as part of the Cassini mission. CIRS is a Fourier transform spectrometer that covers the thermal infrared from 10 to 1500 cm-1 with high spatial and spectral resolution and which can observe in both nadir and limb geometries (Flasar et al. 2004). The large volume of spectra collected during the mission provides temperature, dynamics and composition sounding of the tropospheres and stratospheres and covers all latitudes and longitudes. Seasonal changes are being tracked as the Saturn system moves from winter into spring in the north. Results from CIRS have raised a variety of questions that will only be answered with the help of new laboratory studies. Ongoing analyses have shown that a complete understanding of the CIRS high-resolution atmospheric spectra requires new or improved line positions and intensities for certain trace molecules (e.g., Nixon et al. 2009). Improved line parameters are also needed for isotopic variants of some of the more abundant species (e.g., Coustenis et al. 2007 and Fletcher et al. 2009). Aerosol and haze features that appear in the CIRS spectra will not be fully explained without better knowledge of how these materials are formed and without further laboratory measurements of their spectra. Atmospheric history can be deduced in part from observed isotopic ratios if experimental fractionation rates are available (Jennings et al. 2009). The interplay between the CIRS investigation and laboratory research has already produced new discoveries. Flasar, F.M., et al., Space Science Reviews 115, 169-297 (2004). Nixon, C.A., et al., Planetary and Space Science 57, 1573-1585 (2009). Coustenis, A., et al., Icarus 197, 539-548 (2008). Fletcher, L.N., et al., Icarus 199, 351-367 (2009). Jennings, D.E., et al., ApJ Letters 691, L103-L105 (2009).

  19. A phase II study of an investigational tetravalent influenza vaccine formulation combining MF59®

    PubMed Central

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Perona, Pamela; Borkowski, Astrid; Fragapane, Elena; Nicolay, Uwe; Clemens, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    An investigational tetravalent vaccine combining pre-pandemic, MF59®-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccine with non-adjuvanted, trivalent, seasonal influenza vaccine has been developed, which has the potential to be used for pre-pandemic priming and to improve levels of compliance and coverage. It is important to determine whether the safety and immunogenicity of the combination vaccine is equivalent to that of the two separate vaccines when administered concomitantly. Healthy adults (n = 601) were randomly assigned to three vaccination groups to receive either: (1) tetravalent vaccine and placebo concomitantly (in separate arms) on Day 1, followed by A/H5N1 vaccine on Day 22; (2) A/H5N1 vaccine and placebo concomitantly on Day 1, followed by tetravalent vaccine on Day 22; or (3) A/H5N1 and seasonal vaccines concomitantly on Day 1, followed by A/H5N1 vaccine on Day 22. Antibody responses were measured using single radial hemolysis (SRH), haemagglutination inhibition (HI), and microneutralization (MN) assays on Days 1, 22, and 43. Solicited adverse reactions were recorded for seven days after vaccination. Spontaneous adverse events were recorded throughout the study. The tetravalent vaccine elicited antibody titers equivalent to those for separate A/H5N1 and seasonal vaccines, and sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria against A/H5N1 and all three seasonal strains. Local and systemic reactions were mainly mild to moderate. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. These findings demonstrate that MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines had an acceptable safety profile and could be effectively administered as a tetravalent formulation, supporting the possibility of integrating pre-pandemic priming into seasonal influenza vaccination programs. PMID:24047817

  20. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  1. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  2. Investigation of ionospheric effects on SAR Interferometry (InSAR): A case study of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wu; Ding, Xiao-Li; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Bo-Chen; Qu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has demonstrated its potential for high-density spatial mapping of ground displacement associated with earthquakes, volcanoes, and other geologic processes. However, this technique may be affected by the ionosphere, which can result in the distortions of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, phases, and polarization. Moreover, ionospheric effect has become and is becoming further significant with the increasing interest in low-frequency SAR systems, limiting the further development of InSAR technique. Although some research has been carried out, thorough analysis of ionospheric influence on true SAR imagery is still limited. Based on this background, this study performs a thorough investigation of ionospheric effect on InSAR through processing L-band ALOS-1/PALSAR-1 images and dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) data over Hong Kong, where the phenomenon of ionospheric irregularities often occurs. The result shows that the small-scale ionospheric irregularities can cause the azimuth pixel shifts and phase advance errors on interferograms. Meanwhile, it is found that these two effects result in the stripe-shaped features in InSAR images. The direction of the stripe-shaped effects keep approximately constant in space for our InSAR dataset. Moreover, the GPS-derived rate of total electron content change index (ROTI), an index to reflect the level of ionospheric disturbances, may be a useful indicator for predicting the ionospheric effect for SAR images. This finding can help us evaluate the quality of SAR images when considering the ionospheric effect.

  3. Investigation of Inquiry-based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, Sunny Minelli

    This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme

  4. Children with Disabilities in the Child Protective Services System: An Analog Study of Investigation and Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manders, Jeanette E.; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study used a series of vignettes to investigate how the presence of three disabilities (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities) affects the processes and outcomes of child abuse investigations at two levels of child injury severity (moderate, severe). Method: Seventy-five CPS case workers…

  5. Investigative Study to Determine Effects of Hydro-Treated Renewable JP-8 Jet Fuel Blend in Existing Fuels Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Investigative Study to Determine Effects of JP-8 Synthetic Fuel Blend in Existing Fuels Infrastructure. Seymour , T. (2009). Algae Based Jet Fuel... Robertson , S. (2007). RAA Investigation into Vehicle Faults Claimed to be Induced by the Use of Opal Fuel. Alice Springs: RAA Technical Department

  6. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROLOEGROLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on characterization of the hydrogeologic setting using hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify geologic and hydrologic features ...

  7. Investigating the Unit of Study Approach as a Way to Teach Writing to Early Childhood Education Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Katherine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Kidder-Brown, Melanie K.; Zimmerman, Belinda S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the learning opportunities within a university writing methods course centering on a unit of study experience. Specifically, we wanted to investigate what early childhood education preservice teachers (PSTs) learn about poetry and the writing process when engaged in a poetry unit of study. Our…

  8. Investigating the Effect of Academic Procrastination on the Frequency and Variety of Academic Misconduct: A Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrzek, Justine; Sattler, Sebastian; van Veen, Floris; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In prior studies, academic procrastination has been discussed as an influencing factor of academic misconduct. However, empirical studies were conducted solely cross-sectionally and investigated only a few forms of academic misconduct. This large scale web-based study examined the responses of between 1359 and 2207 participants from different…

  9. A planning study investigating dual-gated volumetric arc stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Supple, Jeremy; Siva, Shankar

    2015-04-01

    This is a planning study investigating the dosimetric advantages of gated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the end-exhale and end-inhale breathing phases for patients undergoing stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma. VMAT plans were developed from the end-inhale (VMATinh) and the end-exhale (VMATexh) phases of the breathing cycle as well as a VMAT plan and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy plan based on an internal target volume (ITV) (VMATitv). An additional VMAT plan was created by giving the respective gated VMAT plan a 50% weighting and summing the inhale and exhale plans together to create a summed gated plan. Dose to organs at risk (OARs) as well as comparison of intermediate and low-dose conformity was evaluated. There was no difference in the volume of healthy tissue receiving the prescribed dose for the planned target volume (PTV) (CI100%) for all the VMAT plans; however, the mean volume of healthy tissue receiving 50% of the prescribed dose for the PTV (CI50%) values were 4.7 (± 0.2), 4.6 (± 0.2), and 4.7 (± 0.6) for the VMATitv, VMATinh, and VMATexh plans, respectively. The VMAT plans based on the exhale and inhale breathing phases showed a 4.8% and 2.4% reduction in dose to 30 cm{sup 3} of the small bowel, respectively, compared with that of the ITV-based VMAT plan. The summed gated VMAT plans showed a 6.2% reduction in dose to 30 cm{sup 3} of the small bowel compared with that of the VMAT plans based on the ITV. Additionally, when compared with the inhale and the exhale VMAT plans, a 4% and 1.5%, respectively, reduction was observed. Gating VMAT was able to reduce the amount of prescribed, intermediate, and integral dose to healthy tissue when compared with VMAT plans based on an ITV. When summing the inhale and exhale plans together, dose to healthy tissue and OARs was optimized. However, gating VMAT plans would take longer to treat and is a factor that needs to be considered.

  10. AQUIFER TESTING AND REBOUND STUDY IN SUPPORT OF THE 100-H DEEP CHROMIUM INVESTIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    SMOOT JL

    2010-11-05

    (199-H3-2C, 199-H4-12C, and 199-H4-15CS) exhibit hexavalent chromium contamination in confined aquifer groundwater that may be the result of one of the mechanisms described above. The purpose of the aquifer testing was to gather data to help refine the conceptual model for the source of deep contamination, examine the potential hydraulic connection between the RUM and the unconfined aquifer, evaluate the hydraulic properties of a confined layer within the RUM, and indicate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination in the RUM. The results of this study, in conjunction with the recent Hom area investigation (DOE/RL-2008-42, Hydrogeological Summary Report for 600 Area Between 100-D and 100-H for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit), suggest that the first hypothesis is the most reasonable explanation. The results indicate persistent chromium concentrations over the duration of the tests, suggesting a large-scale emplacement of chromium.

  11. Investigation of Propellant and Explosive Solid Solution Systems II X-Ray Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    A\\Yj* ^\\C/*^ ^ 1 tatf AD 7t ott w AD-E400 125 TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCD-TR-77066 INVESTIGATION OF PROPELLANT AND EXPLOSIVE SOLID SOLUTION SYSTEMS...Report ARLCD-TR-77066 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. *. TITLE (and Subtitle) INVESTIGATION OF PROPELLANT AND EXPLOSIVE SOLID SOLUTION SYSTEMS II X-RAY...Interplanar spacings and x-ray diffraction 9 intensities of AP, KP and their physical mixtures and solid solutions 4 X-ray data of 3 AN: KP solid solution and

  12. Land and Discover! A Case Study Investigating the Cultural Context of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Neera; Power, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence, the common causal factors of plagiarism among international students are still widely seen to be poor language skills or a lack of academic integrity on the part of the students. This research uses the experiences of a particular cohort of students to explore these assumptions. It investigates and compares the…

  13. A Study of Teacher Candidates' Experiences Investigating Global Climate Change within an Elementary Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestness, Emily; McGinnis, J. Randy; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the inclusion of a curricular module on global climate change in an Elementary Science Methods course. Using complementary research methods, we analyzed findings from 63 teacher candidates' drawings, questionnaires, and journal entries collected throughout their participation in the module. We highlighted three focal cases to…

  14. Investigating the Role of Cultural Capital and Organisational Habitus in Architectural Education: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jennifer Chamberlin

    2015-01-01

    Compared to other professions in recent years, architecture has lagged woefully behind in attracting and retaining a diverse population, as defined by class, race and gender. This research investigates the extent to which architecture culturally reproduces itself, specifically examining the socialisation process of students into the subculture of…

  15. 49 CFR 390.15 - Assistance in investigations and special studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must do the following: (1) Make all records and information pertaining to an accident available to an... assistance in the investigation of any accident, including providing a full, true, and correct response to any question of the inquiry. (b) For accidents that occur after April 29, 2003, motor carriers...

  16. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 6: In-depth element investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1979-01-01

    Computer assisted design of a gallium arsenide solid state dc-to-RF converter with supportive fabrication data was investigated. Specific tasks performed include: computer program checkout; amplifier comparisons; computer design analysis of GaSa solar cells; and GaAs diode evaluation. Results obtained in the design and evaluation of transistors for the microwave space power system are presented.

  17. A Study Investigating Indian Middle School Students' Ideas of Design and Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ara, Farhat; Chunawala, Sugra; Natarajan, Chitra

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into middle school students' naive ideas about, and attitudes towards design and designers. The sample for the survey consisted of students from Classes 7 to 9 from a school located in Mumbai. The data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to look for trends in students' responses. Results show that…

  18. A Case Study Investigating an Initiative Seeking to Increase Collaboration in Learning among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivett, Stanley W.

    2012-01-01

    Many established theoretical reasons exist for pursuing student centered learning. However, the investigation of student centered classrooms is often based in the observation of classroom experiences rather than interviewing the individuals involved. Therefore, local knowledge of lived experiences with student centered learning practices like…

  19. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Taffet, M.J. ); Oberdorfer, J.A. ); McIlvride, W.A. )

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on the use of hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify physical and hydrologic features that control ground-water flow to springs...

  1. Investigating the Influence of Professor Characteristics on Student Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Thorsten; Lowrie, Anthony; Brodowsky, Glen H.; Reppel, Alexander E.; Voss, Roediger; Chowdhury, Ilma Nur

    2012-01-01

    This research uses the Kano model of satisfaction to investigate professor characteristics that create student satisfaction as well as those attributes that can cause their dissatisfaction. Kano questionnaires were handed out to 104 undergraduate students at a university in the Southwest and to 147 undergraduate students at a university in the…

  2. Device Technology Investigation: Subsystems Packaging Study: Feasibility of PCSS - Based Pulser for Highly Portable Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    MAR, ALAN; BACON, LARRY D.; LOUBRIEL, GUILLERMO M.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the use of high-gain Photo-Conductive Semiconductor Switch (PCSS) technology for a deployable impulse source. This includes a discussion of viability, packaging, and antennas. High gain GaAs PCSS-based designs offer potential advantages in terms of compactness, repetition rate, and cost.

  3. High School Students' Engagement in Planning Investigations: Findings from a Longitudinal Study in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crujeiras-Pérez, B.; Jiménez-Aleixandre, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the process of high school students' planning investigations in the chemistry laboratory across two consecutive academic years in terms of their actions and their progress. The context is a set of five inquiry-based laboratory tasks in which participants (9th and 10th graders, 14-15 and 15-16 years of age) are required to plan…

  4. An Investigation of the Reap Reading/Study Procedure: Its Rationale and Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eanet, Marilyn Gillis

    Six sections of a college reading and study skills class were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions in a study of the effects of a new teaching-learning strategy, REAP, a procedure for improving reading, writing, and study. One group received instruction and practice in REAP; one, in SQ3R; and one, in the regular study skills…

  5. The "RG Sausage's" Missing Ingredients: Investigating the Validity of Reliability Generalization Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of selected methodological factors on the validity of conclusions from reliability generalization (RG) studies. The study focused on four factors; (1) missing data in the primary studies; (2) transformation of sample reliability estimates; (3) use of sample weights for estimating mean…

  6. Investigating Organizational Culture Perception of Students Studying in School of Physical Education and Sports in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, T. Osman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine organisational culture of the students studying in School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) in Turkey. The study group of the research is composed of 216 students studying in the third and fourth year of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Sports Administration, Coaching Education and Recreation…

  7. Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic investigations, and computational studies of optically pure β-ketoamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtat, D.; Touati, R.; Guerfel, T.; Walha, K.; Ben Hassine, B.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical preparation, X-ray single crystal diffraction, IR and NMR spectroscopic investigations of a novel nonlinear optical organic compound (C17H22NO2Cl) are described. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with the non-centrosymmetric sp. gr. P212121. In the crystal structure, molecules are interconnected by N-H…O hydrogen bonds forming infinite chains along a axis. The Hirshfeld surface and associated fingerprint plots of the compound are presented to explore the nature of intermolecular interactions and their relative contributions in building the solid-state architecture. The molecular HOMO-LUMO compositions and their respective energy gaps are also drawn to explain the activity of the compound. The first hyperpolarizability βtot of the title compound is determined using DFT calculations. The optical properties are also investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectrum.

  8. Studying Gene Expression: Database Searches and Promoter Fusions to Investigate Transcriptional Regulation in Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Vaz, Betsy M.; Makarevitch, Irina; Stensland, Shane

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory project was designed to illustrate how to search biological databases and utilize the information provided by these resources to investigate transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli. The students searched several databases (NCBI Genomes, RegulonDB and EcoCyc) to learn about gene function, regulation, and the organization of transcriptional units. A fluorometer and GFP promoter fusions were used to obtain fluorescence data and measure changes in transcriptional activity. The class designed and performed experiments to investigate the regulation of genes necessary for biosynthesis of amino acids and how expression is affected by environmental signals and transcriptional regulators. Assessment data showed that this activity enhanced students’ knowledge of databases, reporter genes and transcriptional regulation. PMID:23653697

  9. The role of exploratory investigational new drugs for translating radiopharmaceuticals into first-in-human studies.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sally W; Oyama, Reiko

    2015-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has provided a mechanism to reduce time and resources expended on new pharmaceuticals, including radiopharmaceuticals, in order to identify the most promising agents for further development. The exploratory investigational new drug guidance describes early phase 1 exploratory approaches involving microdoses of potential drug candidates that are consistent with regulatory requirements while maintaining the safety needed for human subjects, allowing sponsors to move ahead more quickly with the development of new agents.

  10. Imaging techniques in digital forensic investigation: a study using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Godfried

    2006-09-01

    Imaging techniques have been applied to a number of applications, such as translation and classification problems in medicine and defence. This paper examines the application of imaging techniques in digital forensics investigation using neural networks. A review of applications of digital image processing is presented, whiles a Pedagogical analysis of computer forensics is also highlighted. A data set describing selected images in different forms are used in the simulation and experimentation.

  11. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-04

    solvents were also detected in groundwater samples. In addition, previous investigations found that fly ash deposits had been used to extend the bluff... survey were mea- sured four times during the field seaso at ay 3-week intervals. No floating product layers were detected in the monitoring wells. All...and - Extractable priority pollutants. Benzene was not detected at any of the 10 soil gas survey locations. Toluene was detected at eight locations

  12. A Study to Investigate the Opinions of Instructors on Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the opinions of instructors on mobile learning. This study has been carried out at the Near East University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, during the Fall 2009 semester. Participants in this study consisted of 40 instructors. In the research, in addition to the information obtained…

  13. Investigating Lifelong Learning Dispositions of Students Studying English Language and Literature in Terms of Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine lifelong learning dispositions of English Language and Literature students in terms of gender, grade levels, and age variables. Descriptive research design was used. The study group consisted of 402 students studying English Language and Literature at Cumhuriyet University in Sivas, Turkey. Research data were collected…

  14. Investigating Religion and Computing: A Case for Using Standpoint Theory in Technology Evaluation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyche, Susan Porter

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and study of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that support religious practices and the use of standpoint theory in ICT evaluation studies. Three phases makeup this work: formative studies to understand how megachurches, their members and leaders use ICT in ways tied to their Protestant…

  15. Blended Learning in Anatomy Education: A Study Investigating Medical Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Mehmet Akif; Topal, Arzu Deveci

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines levels of satisfaction and perceptions of the students taking the blended anatomy course in Turkish Higher Education System. 15 students selected from 213 medical students participated in the study. An interview form was designed to identify the views of the students about the present study. The interview results were…

  16. Do Learning and Study Skills Affect Academic Performance?--An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Richard; MacKewn, Angie; Moser, Ernest; VanVuren, Ken W.

    2012-01-01

    Universities and colleges are very interested in understanding the factors that influence their students' academic performance. This paper describes a study that was conducted at a mid-sized public university in the mid-south, USA, to examine this issue. In this study, the 10-scale, Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) (Weinstein et…

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of the Empirical Validity of Study Quality Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2017-01-01

    When classifying the evidence base of practices, special education scholars typically appraise study quality to identify and exclude from consideration in their reviews unacceptable-quality studies that are likely biased and might bias review findings if included. However, study quality appraisals used in the process of identifying evidence-based…

  18. Students Leaving the STEM Pipeline: An Investigation of Their Attitudes and the Influence of Significant Others on Their Study Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; Bosker, Roel; van der Werf, Greetje

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate why some students do not continue in science-oriented studies in higher education despite that their previous career in secondary education proved that they were interested and suitably qualified to do so. We introduced a new approach to deal with these students' attitudes towards science,…

  19. An Investigation into How Female Teachers Manage Stress and Teacher Burnout: A Case Study of West Akim Municipality of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Asonaba Kofi; Yankyera, George

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate into how female teachers in Asamankese Circuit II in West Akim Municipality of Ghana Education Service manage stress and teacher burnout, and explore the causes, effects, and ways of improving work-related stress for better standard of education. The study was conducted with qualitative research…

  20. Investigation of a Pattern between Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Their Science Content Knowledge: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskin, Handan; Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was, first, to investigate any pattern between students' quantitative contribution to argumentation and their science understanding, and second, to analyze any relationship between students' qualitative contribution to argumentation and their scientific knowledge. Participants of the study were four tenth-grade students. The…

  1. Case Study: Investigating the Impact of the Child Development Associate Credentialing Process on Child Care Provider Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate what impact the child development associate (CDA) credential has on the performance of childcare providers in the 6 CDA competency areas. Each participant was interviewed using 9 open-ended questions regarding their experience. Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the effects…

  2. Investigating the Status of Tablet Computers and E-Books Use of Open Education Faculty Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koçak, Ömer; Yildirim, Önder; Kursun, Engin; Yildirim, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    The increase in tablet computers and e-books use brings to mind the question of how users benefited from these technologies. In this sense, the present study investigated the status of students' tablet computers and e-books use and the reasons why students prefer to use and not use of tablet computers and e-books. Students' study habits while…

  3. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Engineering Site Investigation. A Case Study on Prospective Hospital Site, Varamin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Amin; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2016-12-01

    The article addresses the application of electrical resistivity imaging for engineering site investigation in Pishva Hospital, Varamin, Iran. Some aqueduct shafts exist in the study area backfilled by loose materials. The goals of this study are to detect probable aqueduct tunnels and their depth, investigate filling quality in the shafts as well as connection(s) between them. Therefore, three profiles were surveyed by dipoledipole electrode array. Also, to investigate the potentially anomalous areas more accurately, five additional resistivity profiles were measured by a Combined Resistivity Sounding-Profiling array (CRSP). According to the results of 2-D inversion modelling, a main aqueduct tunnel was detected beneath the central part of the site. Finally, the resistivity pattern of the detected aqueduct system passing the investigated area was provided using the obtained results.

  4. The Parkinson’s Registry Investigation of Diagnosis and Etiology (PRIDE) Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    as genotype-environment interactions related to LRRK2 parkinsonism . Role: Co-Investigator W81XWH-04-1-0490 (PI: Tanner) 4/1/2004 – 5/1/2014...Registry of Parkinsonism Cases among Alaska Native People living in Alaska The purpose of this project is to establish a prospective, statewide...population-based Alaska Native Parkinson Registry among Alaska native people living in Alaska. W81XWH-07-1-0261 (PI: Tanner) 3/1/2007 – 3/31/2013

  5. Barbiturate bearing aroylhydrazine derivatives: Synthesis, NMR investigations, single crystal X-ray studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Aygün, Muhittin; Basbulbul, Gamze; Soyleyici, H. Can; Firinci, Erkan; Kirkan, Bulent; Alkis, Ayse; Saylica, Tayfur; Biyik, Halil

    2016-03-01

    A series of barbituric acid aroylhydrazine derivatives have been prepared from their corresponding 1,3-dimethyl-5-acetyl barbituric acid and aroylhydrazines. All compounds have been fully characterized by using FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C) and Mass (MS) spectrometry. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of 3a, which crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group. The crystal structure is stabilized with infinite linear chains of dimeric units. Furthermore, all compounds were investigated for their tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activies. The results from biological activity assays have shown that all of compounds have excellent antioxidant, significant tyrosinase inhibition and moderate antimicrobial activity.

  6. Investigation of Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2) Battery Safety Hazards -- Chemical Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    ID-Alla 363 EIC LAOS INC NEWTON MA F/B 10/3 INVESTIGATION OF LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE ILI/SO2) BATTERY SAFETY-ETC(U) APR 82 K M ABRAHAM, H W RUPICH, L...Contract No. N60921-81-C-0084 0o Prepared by K. M. Abraham M. W. Rupich L. Pitts EIC Laboratories, Inc. 67 Chapel Street Newton , Massachusetts 02158...Chapel Street Newton , Massachusetts 02158 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Surface Weapons Center April 1982 Silver Spring

  7. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation. Verification Study - Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume I. Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-14

    This report is one of several being prepared to describe Verifi- cation studies in the Nevada-Utah region . The Verification studies are the final...issued for each valley studied. They will be numbered in the series, FN-TR-27-xx-I, or II, for the Nevada-Utah region . The "xx" will be replaced by an...faults are based on air photo interpretation during a regional fault and earthquake study and have not been field verified (FNI, 1980b). They occur in

  8. Investigating hexameric helicases: Single-molecule studies of DnaB and T4 gp41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Omar; Ribeck, Noah; Berezney, John

    2011-03-01

    Hexameric, ring-shaped motor proteins serve as replicative helicases in many systems. They function by encircling and translocating along ssDNA, denaturing dsDNA in advance of its motion by sterically occluding the complementary strand to the outside of the ring. We investigate the helicase activity of two such motors using single-molecule measurements with magnetic tweezers. First, we measure the activity of the E. coli helicase DnaB complexed with the tau subunit of the Pol III holoenzyme. Tau is known from bulk measurements to stimulate DnaB activity (Kim et al., Cell, 1996); we investigate the means of this stimulation. Second, we measure helicase activity of the T4 phage helicase gp41 in multiple tethered DNA geometries. Previous work on DnaB showed a dependence of helicase activity on DNA geometry (Ribeck et al., Biophys. J., 2010); here, we test gp41 for similar behavior to see whether it is a common characteristic of hexameric helicases.

  9. Using Lexical Profiling Tools to Investigate Children's Written Vocabulary in Grade 3: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan; Kover, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Research in the study of students' writing concludes that vocabulary use is a key variable in determining the holistic quality of the writing. In the present study, 77 writing samples from a mixed group of Grade 3 children were analyzed for features of linguistic diversity using public domain vocabulary-profiling software. The writing was also…

  10. Dispositional Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Skill in Organizations: A Four-Study Investigation with Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…

  11. Microdosing studies using accelerated mass spectrometry as exploratory investigational new drug trials.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Shon, Ji-Hong

    2011-11-01

    Innovative attempts have been made to overcome nonproductivity and high expenditure in the clinical stages of new drug development. Microdosing studies using subpharmacological doses provide early insight into the body's disposition toward candidate compounds, and are innovative exploratory trials that can promote productivity in drug development. Highly sensitive analytical technology is crucial in microdosing studies that employ qualitative and quantitative assays of target materials in humans. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has facilitated the adoption of a human microdosing study in the early phase of clinical drug development. Results derived from AMS microdosing studies using labeled compounds can provide various types of information for candidate selection, including pharmacokinetic characteristics and metabolic profiles of candidate compounds. The applicability of microdosing studies is currently expanding into absolute bioavailability and mass balance studies. Although it remains uncertain whether microdosing adequately predicts the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic doses, further development of microdosing studies using AMS may benefit the field of new drug development and could pose a new challenge to researchers. The use of advanced technology in candidate selection will contribute to improved productivity and competitiveness in pharmaceutical research and development. The introduction of microdosing studies using AMS in Korea will present a newly applicable method for innovative clinical trials and contribute to development potential in global competition.

  12. V. Exercise studies in children with congenital heart disease. An earpiece densitometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Wallgren, C G; Kretzschmar, G; Zetterqvist, P

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-three patients have been studied by exercise testing during right heart catheterization. Cardiac output was measured by the earpiece densitometric technique before, during and after the exercise period. It is concluded that the earpiece densitometric technique in conjunction with exercise testing offers an attractive alternative for the study of pressure and flow characteristics in children with congenital heart disease.

  13. Survey Study Investigating the Significance of Conference Participation to Undergraduate Research Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey study of undergraduate research (UR) students presenting their research at the fall 2007 and fall 2008 American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meetings. The purpose of the study is to probe the perceived benefits of conference participation to UR students. Results suggest that participation in…

  14. A Study Investigating Relationships between Elementary Principals' and Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domsch, Gayle D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to examine effective behaviors and efficacy, this study examined the relationships between the self-reflection of effective practices by principals and teachers, as assessed by self-efficacy scales, and student achievement, as evaluated by the state assessment program. Other studies determined that effective behaviors preceded and…

  15. The Study Habits of Finnish College Students: A Two Sample Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Hongell, Linn; Tigerstedt, Christa; Alsobrook, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This research details surveys of current Finnish college students and their study habits. In the current project, we surveyed two distinct sets of students in the spring of 2012 (n = 74), and in the spring of 2014 (n = 119). We found that the students studied less than 9 hours per week. We found significant differences between students' study…

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  17. An Investigation of the REAP Reading/Study Procedure: Its Rationale and Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eanet, Marilyn G.

    This study examined the value of the Read-Encode-Annotate-Ponder (REAP) procedure as a teaching/learning strategy, focusing on its use of written annotations designed to achieve specific learning objectives. Subjects were 105 students in six college reading/study skills classes who were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: the…

  18. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  19. The Impact of Studying Abroad on Male Preservice Teachers: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Julie M.; Linder, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe changes in preservice teachers' perceptions of and attitudes regarding diversity following a semester-long study abroad experience. Phenomenological methods were used to analyze data collected from five male preservice teachers during a study abroad to Brussels, Belgium in the Fall of 2010. Changes in…

  20. A Sociocultural Investigation of Identity: How Students Navigate the Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieser, James D.

    2015-01-01

    From the recruitment of international students and the establishment of cross-border research partnerships to study abroad programs, internationalization is viewed as a necessary means to prepare students for thoughtful action in a globalized world. In particular, studying abroad is regarded as a powerful vehicle for increasing students' global…

  1. Investigation of the Latent Structure for the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) is a very popular tool for measuring the learning and study strategies of high school and college students. Prior research with the LASSI has supported the originally proposed model with three latent traits, with minor variations among the contributing subtests contributing to those traits.…

  2. An Investigation of Strategic Decision Making in Service Marketing through Case Study Development and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosetti, Joseph L.; Maceiko, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Through the collaborative efforts of an undergraduate student and a professor of marketing, this paper focuses on a case study and corresponding teaching notes developed as a final component of an independent study in service marketing. The case utilizes the hospitality industry as the template for analysis of the appropriateness of marketing…

  3. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  4. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 6. Southern Study Area, Final, Version 3.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    r oror Structure - - -6 Section Number q k Stream... .of Dich 17,- Study Area Boundary 174.000 S’ate PNor. Grid Anolyte Sample Location "nd...Se6tionle Numnber ~i I I - Streami or Ditch - ,I - -- ~ -Study Area Boundary 17 4.000 State Plant Grid -- v1. Anolyte Sample Location and...Existing Structure :j6 Section Number __z! Study Area Boundary I 7i4.000 State Plane Grid Anolyte Sample Location ____ _ Iand Concentration (ug/1) 0

  5. Behavioral studies of contaminant effects on aquatic invertebrates: A review of Russian investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nepomnyashchikh, V. A.; DeLonay, V. A.; Little, E.E.; Henshel, D. S.; Bengston, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies by Russian scientists have documented significant alterations and impairment of critical behavioral functions in aquatic organisms following exposure to environmental contaminants. Behavioral responses disrupted by sublethal exposure to toxicants are intimately involved in habitat selection, foraging, competition, predator-prey relationships, and reproduction, and are essential to survival. Behavioral responses of benthic invertebrates have received considerable study in Russia. A range of invertebrate taxa have been studied, including leeches, insects, molluscs, plankton, and crustaceans. In addition, aquatic invertebrates exhibit a large number of behavioral responses which are sensitive to contaminant exposure and are easily quantified. Standardized behavioral methodologies for measuring contaminant effects are being developed.

  6. Pasting investigation, SEM observation and the possible interaction study on rice starch-pullulan combination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ren, Fei; Yu, Xueping; Zhang, Zipei; Xu, Dejun; Tong, Qunyi

    2015-02-01

    The pasting properties of rice starch (RS) with high concentration (10%, w/w) were investigated in the presence or absence of pullulan (PUL) using a rapid visco-analyzer (RVA). Addition of pullulan resulted in the reduction of peak viscosity, trough viscosity, final viscosity, and setback value of RS. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon, i.e. a small viscosity peak appeared in the RVA curves of RS-PUL mixtures, was observed. It indicated that addition of pullulan might suppress the gelatinization of starch granules by maintaining the integration of some granules. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of samples suggested that starch granules could be wrapped by a thin membrane composed of pullulan and/or pullulan-amylose associations. The coating ability of pullulan and/or the possible molecular interactions between pullulan and amylose could be responsible for these results.

  7. Investigation of Praseodymium Fluorides: A Combined Matrix-Isolation and Quantum-Chemical Study.

    PubMed

    Vent-Schmidt, Thomas; Riedel, Sebastian

    2015-12-07

    The chemistry of the lanthanides is mostly dominated by compounds in the oxidation state +III. Only few compounds of Ce, Pr, and Tb are known with the metal in the +IV oxidation state. Removal of the last f-electron on praseodymium +IV would lead to a closed-shell system with formal oxidation state V. In this work we investigated the stability of the PrF5 molecule by theory and matrix-isolation techniques through the reaction of laser-ablated praseodymium atoms with fluorine in excess of neon, argon, krypton, or neat fluorine. Besides the known PrF3 molecule, unreported IR bands for PrF4 could be observed, and there is evidence for the formation of PrF and PrF2 but not for the formation of PrF5.

  8. Investigation of Raman and photoluminescence studies of reduced graphene oxide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Veerapandian, Murugan; Mohan, Rajneesh; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we are investigating the Raman and photoluminescence properties of reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO). Moreover, graphene oxide (GO) sheets are synthesized using Hummer's method and further reduced into graphene sheets using D-galactose. Both GO and rGO are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. Raman analysis of rGO shows the restoration of graphitic domains in GO after reduction. The photoluminescence of rGO showed emission in the UV region which is blue shifted along with luminescent quenching as compared to GO. This blue shift and quenching in photoluminescence arises due to the newly formed crystalline sp2 clusters in rGO which created percolation pathways between the sp2 clusters already present.

  9. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Verification Study - Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II. Geotechnical Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    dolomite, chalk). J S3 Argillaceous Rocks - Composed of clay and silt-sized particles (e.g., siltstone, shale, claystone). S4 Evaporite Rocks...K 0FOPHONES 1 7 18 24 18ago fm (576 mp) .o ( smp ) ---- s z Z 00 - (2561 mpis) 100 w Wb a a I150 0 MIETERS 50 MX SITING INVESTIGATION SI I I I _j Ir...8217 ~ ’ SH4- 3oV N 8ii~ AO33 S 51~ S a- 8( 8 L 3d~i 3l0NV- mad".s * -s~A LO C42 co o a (0 0 S4 Co 0 ’Ua. c 51 C S C 0 ! .0 0 E t’ t~~•o IoMCW IC ", C1> ti

  10. Investigation on the use of optimization techniques for helicopter airframe vibrations design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreekanta Murthy, T.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the investigation of formal nonlinear programming-based numerical optimization techniques of helicopter airframe vibration reduction are summarized. The objective and constraint function and the sensitivity expressions used in the formulation of airframe vibration optimization problems are presented and discussed. Implementation of a new computational procedure based on MSC/NASTRAN and CONMIN in a computer program system called DYNOPT for optimizing airframes subject to strength, frequency, dynamic response, and dynamic stress constraints is described. An optimization methodology is proposed which is thought to provide a new way of applying formal optimization techniques during the various phases of the airframe design process. Numerical results obtained from the application of the DYNOPT optimization code to a helicopter airframe are discussed.

  11. Growth mechanism, electronic spectral investigation and molecular orbital studies of L-prolinium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Sun, Xin; Xu, Xijin; Sun, Ping

    2015-01-01

    By using atomic force microscopy, birth and spread has proved to be the primary growth mechanism for L-prolinium phosphate (LPP). The phenomenon of newly formed islands expanding to the edge of the preceding terrace was observed. The optimized molecular structure and the molecular properties were calculated by density functional theory method. Natural bond orbital analysis was carried out to demonstrate the various inter and intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of LPP leading to high NLO activity. Molecular electrostatic potential, frontier molecular orbital analysis and thermodynamic properties were investigated to get a better insight of the molecular properties. Global and local reactivity descriptors were computed to predict the reactivity and reactive sites on the molecules. Non-linear optical (NLO) properties such as the total dipole moment (μ) and first order hyperopolarizability (β) were also calculated to predict NLO behavior.

  12. Glass transition of polystyrene (PS) studied by Raman spectroscopic investigation of its phenyl functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldo Menezes, D.; Reyer, A.; Marletta, A.; Musso, M.

    2017-01-01

    In polymeric materials the glass transition (GT) is a well-known and very important relaxation process related to movements of functional groups in the polymeric chain. In this work, we show the potential of Raman spectroscopy for exploring the GT process in the polymer polystyrene. We collected Raman spectra during a step-by-step heating process of the sample, which allowed us to collect signatures of the GT process from peak parameters of specific vibrational modes, and to verify the GT temperature. Results of the latter were in accordance with published values obtained via other methods. We identified the aromatic ring vibrational modes of the phenyl functional groups to be those which, due to steric hindrance, suffer the largest influence during the GT process. This confirms that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a complementary technique to perform GT investigations in polymeric materials due to its sensitivity to small intermolecular changes affecting vibrational properties of relevant functional side groups.

  13. A pilot study investigating intraoperative electron beam irradiation in the treatment of ovarian malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Konski, A.A.; Neisler, J.; Phibbs, G.; Bronn, D.G.; Dobelbower, R.R. Jr. )

    1990-07-01

    Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOEBRT) in the treatment of ovarian malignancies was investigated at the Clement O. Miniger Radiation Oncology Center (COMROC). Nine patients were operated in the COMROC IOEBRT operating amphitheater and five were found to have disease sufficiently limited to allow for IOEBRT. The patients' ages ranged from 13 to 80 (median 53) years. Five patients had serous cystadenocarcinoma, one papillary adenocarcinoma, one mixed germ cell tumor, one squamous cell carcinoma, and one granular cell tumor of the ovary. The median survival of the non-IOEBRT group was 13 (range 12-29) months, while the IOEBRT group's median survival was 14 (range 18-46) months. All of the patients tolerated IOEBRT well without addition to the surgical morbidity.

  14. Investigations and improvements of digital holographic tomography applied for 3D studies of transmissive photonics microelements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Jozwicka, Agata; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2008-08-01

    In order to control performance of photonics microelements it is necessary to receive 3D information about their amplitude and phase distributions. To perform this task we propose to apply tomography based on projections gather by digital holography (DH). Specifically the DH capability to register several angular views of the object during a single hologram capture is employed, which may in future shorten significantly the measurement time or even allow for tomographic analysis of dynamic media. However such a new approach brings a lot of new issues to be considered. Therefore, in this paper the method limitations, with special emphasis on holographic reconstruction process, are investigated through extensive numerical experiments with special focus on 3D refractive index distribution determination.. The main errors and means of their elimination are presented. The possibility of 3D refractive index distribution determination by means of DHT is proved numerically and experimentally.

  15. Analog study investigating diary assessments of rewards and punishments for emotional states.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Shudo, Yusuke; Sakai, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral Activation is a treatment for depression relying on rewards from activities; but it is possible that the effects of punishments should also be considered, as should its generalizability to the healthy population. Effect of rewards and punishments on emotional states and depression were investigated by using the daily diary method. Participants (7 men, 21 women; M age = 19.4 yr.) recorded their daily activities and the intensity of rewards and punishments accompanying each activity for one week. Positive and negative affects of participants were assessed using the Japanese version of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both rewards and punishments predicted depressive symptoms. Moreover, rewards (but not punishments) predicted positive affect, whereas punishments predicted negative affects (and rewards did not). These preliminary results suggest that the effects of both rewards and punishments given for activities should be considered in models of behavioral activation.

  16. Investigative Study of the Development of a Dry Whole Milk Substitute for Ration Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    MILK DRINK. IN THIS STUDY SALT, SUGAR, ANO VANILLIN LEVELS WERE SCREENED ANO IT WAS DETERMINED THAT SALT AT 0.01$ IN COMBINATION WITH SUGAR AT 0.2...AND VANILLIN AT 0.00025$ OF THE LIQUID MILK GAVE THE APPEARANCE OF A RICHER END PRODUCT. |N CONJUNCTION WITH THESE STUDIES, ALTERNATE MILK FLAVOR...LIQUID PRODUCT. THESE LEVELS FOR SALT, SUGAR, VANILLIN , AND ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR WERE INCORPORATED INTO THIS SERIES FOR FURTHER TESTING. IN AN EFFORT

  17. Accurate molecular structure and spectroscopic properties for nucleobases: A combined computational - microwave investigation of 2-thiouracil as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Puzzarini, Cristina; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo; Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2015-01-01

    The computational composite scheme purposely set up for accurately describing the electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of small biomolecules has been applied to the first study of the rotational spectrum of 2-thiouracil. The experimental investigation was made possible thanks to the combination of the laser ablation technique with Fourier Transform Microwave spectrometers. The joint experimental – computational study allowed us to determine accurate molecular structure and spectroscopic properties for the title molecule, but more important, it demonstrates a reliable approach for the accurate investigation of isolated small biomolecules. PMID:24002739

  18. Adolescent sunscreen use in springtime: a prospective predictive study informed by a belief elicitation investigation.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Soares, V; Rodrigues, A; Presseau, J; Sniehotta, F F

    2013-04-01

    Two studies aimed to understand springtime sunscreen use amongst adolescents and to compare the predictive utility of the theory of planned behavior, descriptive norms, prototype perceptions and planning. In Study 1, a belief elicitation study with N = 67 adolescents identified beliefs about, and strategies for, sunscreen use. In Study 2, N = 177 adolescents completed measures of direct and belief-based theory of planned behavior measures prototype evaluation and similarity, descriptive norms and planning. Sunscreen use was reported 2 months later. In Study 1, sunburn prevention and skin care emerged as the most relevant consequences of sunscreen use. Facilitators were supportive family norms. Sunscreen properties, costs and forgetting were main barriers which were commonly addressed with preparatory actions such as carrying sunscreen. In Study 2, gender, intention and prototype evaluation were predictive of sunscreen use. Positive evaluations of those who use sunscreen were related to lower sunscreen use when controlling for intention, descriptive norm and gender. Belief-based measures were the best predictors of intention. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs are crucial for understanding sunscreen. Future interventions should focus on these beliefs to change intentions.

  19. Clinical studies involving probiotics: when FDA's investigational new drug rubric applies-and when it may not.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Fred H

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from a diverse array of scientific disciplines have focused and continue to focus on opportunities and areas for responsible clinical research involving the possible beneficial health effects of "probiotics." Investigators and researchers should be aware that not all clinical research involving probiotics reasonably falls within the requirements of the "investigational new drug" (IND) rubric administered and enforced by the US Food and Drug Administration. In determining whether an IND application is required before a clinical study may lawfully commence, investigators and researchers as well as institutional review boards should consider the regulatory classification, e.g., "drug," "new drug," "food," "food additive," "dietary supplement," etc. that applies to the substance under investigation. A potential probiotic product can fall along a continuum of regulatory classifications, each having implications on the nature and degree of regulatory requirements for clinical research and, ultimately, for claim substantiation and market access.

  20. Calibration Studies and the Investigation of Track Segments within Showers with an Imaging Hadronic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaojun

    2010-04-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed a highly granular hadronic sampling calorimeter prototype with small scintillator tiles individually read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) to evaluate technologies for the ILC. The imaging capability of the detector allows detailed studies of the substructure of hadronic events, such as the identification of minimum ionizing track segments within the hadronic shower. These track segments are of high quality, so that they can be used for calibration, as an additional tool to Muons and to the built-in LED system used to monitor the SiPMs. These track segments also help to constrain hadronic shower models used in Geant4. Detailed MC studies with a realistic model of an ILC detector were performed to study the calibration requirements of a complete calorimeter system. The calibration strategy was tested on real data by transporting calibration constants from a Fermilab beam test to data recorded at CERN under different conditions.

  1. Forensic investigation of plutonium metal: a case study of CRM 126

    DOE PAGES

    Byerly, Benjamin L.; Stanley, Floyd; Spencer, Khal; ...

    2016-11-01

    In our study, a certified plutonium metal reference material (CRM 126) with a known production history is examined using analytical methods that are commonly employed in nuclear forensics for provenancing and attribution. Moreover, the measured plutonium isotopic composition and actinide assay are consistent with values reported on the reference material certificate. Model ages from U/Pu and Am/Pu chronometers agree with the documented production timeline. Finally, these results confirm the utility of these analytical methods and highlight the importance of a holistic approach for forensic study of unknown materials.

  2. An observational cohort study on pre-operative investigations and referrals: How far are we following recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Yunus, Md; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pre-operative investigations are often required to supplement information for risk stratification and assessing reserve for undergoing surgery. Although there are evidence-based recommendations for which investigations should be done, clinical practice varies. The present study aimed to assess the pre-operative investigations and referral practices and compare it with the standard guidelines. Methods: The present observational study was carried out during 2014–appen2015 in a teaching institute after the approval from Institute Ethical Committee. A designated anaesthesiologist collected data from the completed pre-anaesthetic check-up (PAC) sheets. Investigations already done, asked by anaesthesiologists as well as referral services sought were noted and compared with an adapted master table prepared from standard recommendations and guidelines. Data were expressed in frequencies, percentage and statistically analysed using INSTAT software (GraphPad Prism software Inc., La Zolla, USA). Results: Seventy-five out of 352 patients (42.67% male, 57.33% female; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III) were included in this study. Nearly, all patients attended PAC with at least 5 investigations done. Of them, 89.33% were subjected to at least one unnecessary investigation and 91.67% of the referral services were not required which lead to 3.5 ( SD ±1.64) days loss. Anaesthesiologist-ordered testing was more focused than surgeons. Conclusion: More than two-third of pre-operative investigations and referral services are unnecessary. Anaesthesiologists are relatively more rational in ordering pre-operative tests yet; a lot can be done to rationalise the practice as well as reducing healthcare cost. PMID:27601737

  3. EPR investigation of gamma irradiated single crystal guaifenesin: A combined experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdemir, Halil Ugur; Sayin, Ulku; Türkkan, Ercan; Ozmen, Ayhan

    2016-04-01

    Gamma irradiated single crystal of Guaifenesin (Glyceryl Guaiacolate), an important expectorant drug, were investigated with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy between 123 and 333 K temperature at different orientations in the magnetic field. Considering the chemical structure and the experimental spectra of the gamma irradiated single crystal of guaifenesin sample, we assumed that alkoxy or alkyl-type paramagnetic species may be produced by irradiation. Depending on this assumption, eight possible alkoxy and alkyl-type radicals were modeled and EPR parameters of these modeled radicals were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)-level of density functional theory (DFT). Theoretically calculated values of alkyl-type modeled radical(R3) are in good agreement with experimentally determined EPR parameters of single crystal. Furthermore, simulation spectra which are obtained by using the theoretical initial values are well matched with the experimental spectra. It was determined that a stable Cα •H2αCβHβCγH2γ (R3) alkyl radical was produced in the host crystal as a result of gamma irradiation.

  4. Investigating the effects of majority voting on CAD systems: a LIDC case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrazza, Miguel; Kennedy, Brendan; Rasin, Alexander; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can provide a second opinion for either identifying suspicious regions on a medical image or predicting the degree of malignancy for a detected suspicious region. To develop a predictive model, CAD systems are trained on low-level image features extracted from image data and the class labels acquired through radiologists' interpretations or a gold standard (e.g., a biopsy). While the opinion of an expert radiologist is still an estimate of the answer, the ground truth may be extremely expensive to acquire. In such cases, CAD systems are trained on input data that contains multiple expert opinions per case with the expectation that the aggregate of labels will closely approximate the ground truth. Using multiple labels to solve this problem has its own challenges because of the inherent label uncertainty introduced by the variability in the radiologists' interpretations. Most CAD systems use majority voting (e.g., average, mode) to handle label uncertainty. This paper investigates the effects that majority voting can have on a CAD system by classifying and analyzing different semantic characteristics supplied with the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. Using a decision tree based iterative predictive model, we show that majority voting with labels that exhibit certain types of skewed distribution can have a significant negative impact on the performance of a CAD system; therefore, alternative strategies for label integration are required when handling multiple interpretations.

  5. A Pilot Study Investigating the Potential of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound to Treat Tumours Rapidly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranston, Jonathan M.; Rivens, Ian; ter Haar, Gail; Kennedy, James

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the possibility of rapid tumour destruction by a novel method of treating the periphery of a tumour and inducing ischemia by impeding the blood supply. Ex vivo experiments were initially carried out in bovine liver to determine the optimum conditions for focal depth, gantry transducer speed circle diameter and intensity of the ultrasound beam. In vivo experiments were then performed in PGV rat livers implanted with a HSN fibrosarcoma cell line. The tumours were treated by novel technique of creating an annular lesion around the perimeter of the tumour. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the lesion at post mortem was performed. In addition histological examination of the untreated tumour which was within the annular circle of treatment was examined. This showed evidence of karyolytic nuclei a week after treatment suggesting death by infarction within this area. There was also some evidence of endothelial damage in the blood vessels with fragmented nuclei visible in the lumen. The work presented here adds to our understanding of how high intensity focused ultrasound may be used to treat tumours in as faster and more efficient way. Further work in this area will facilitate the design of future therapeutic interventions in the medical and veterinary world.

  6. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K.; Smiley, Sarah L.; Yen, Minmin; Camilli, Andrew; Alam, Meer Taifur; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J. Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results “of interest” (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional “of interest” positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the “of interest” water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens. PMID:26848672

  7. A Pilot Study to Investigate Explosive Leg Extensor Power and Walking Performance After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Helen; Smith, Catherine; Collett, Johnny; Wade, Derick; Howells, Ken; Ramsbottom, Roger; Izadi, Hooshang; Sackley, Cath

    2005-01-01

    We examined explosive leg extensor power (LEP) and gait in men and women after a stroke using an experimental observational design. A convenience sample of consecutively referred individuals (8 men, 6 women) with chronic stroke mean age ± SD, range, 46.4 ± 8.4, 32 - 57 years, and able to walk for four minutes were recruited. The test re-test reliability and performance of LEP was measured together with walking parameters. LEP (Watts·kg-1) and gait measures during a four-minute walk; temporal-spatial gait parameters (GAITRite®) and oxygen cost of walking (mL·kg-1·m-1) were recorded. Percentage Asymmetry LEP (stronger LEP - weaker LEP/stronger LEP x 100) was calculated for each person. LEP was reliable from test to re-test ICC [3, 1] 0.8 - 0.7 (n = 9). Greater Asymmetry LEP correlated strongly with reduced walking velocity, cadence, stance time, and swing time on the weaker leg (n = 14) (p < 0.01). Findings demonstrate explosive LEP, in particular Percentage Asymmetry LEP, can be measured after stroke and is both reliable and related to walking performance. LEP training of the stronger or weaker leg warrants further investigation in this group. Key Points Explosive leg power (LEP) is a reliable measure in individuals recovering from a stroke. Significant asymmetry occurred in LEP in this group. Greater LEP asymmetry related to reduced walking performance after stroke. PMID:24501568

  8. Investigation of interaction between U(VI) and carbonaceous nanofibers by batch experiments and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Changlun; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-12-15

    Carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized using tellurium nanowires as a template and using glucose as carbon source by the hydrothermal carbonization method. The sorption capacity and mechanism of U(VI) on CNFs were investigated by a combination of batch sorption experiments, the double layer model (DLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sorption edges were modeled well by considering the following surface complexes: SOUO2(+), SOUO2OH, SOUO2(OH)2(-) and SOUO2(OH)3(2-) on the strong site as well as XOUO2OH and XOUO2(+) on the weak one (S and X represent surface). The sorption isotherms could be well fitted by the DLM parameters. The difference between type A (SOUO2OH and XOUO2OH) and type B (SOUO2(+) and XOUO2(+)) was observed in XPS because the former species are of low binding energy while the latter are of high one. Desorption and recycle experiments showed that CNFs had good reusability and stability in the present of common sodium salts within five rounds. When co-existing with montmorillonite, CNFs could extract the sorbed uranium onto their surface by a pseudo-second order kinetic process. As a new sort of environmental functional nanomaterials, CNFs should be paid more attention in the area of separation and wastewater remediation.

  9. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K; Smiley, Sarah L; Yen, Minmin; Camilli, Andrew; Alam, Meer Taifur; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-02-03

    The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results "of interest" (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional "of interest" positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the "of interest" water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens.

  10. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf: final reports of principal investigators, Volume 16. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.L.; Kaiwi, J.; Schneider, D.; Sanger, G.A.; Patten, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains results of studies on: pelagic distribution of marine birds and analysis of encounter probability for the Southeastern Bering Sea; the winter feeding ecology and trophic relationships of marine birds in Kachemak Bay, AK; seasonal use of coastal habitat from Yakutat Bay to Cape Fairweather by migratory seabirds, shorebirds and waterfowl.

  11. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 10. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume of final reports includes the following: Forage Fish Spawning Surveys Southern Bering Sea; Effects of Oil Contamination in the Sea Otter; Reconnaissance of Intertidal Communities in the Eastern Bering Sea; Effects of Ice Scour on Community Structure; and Study of Microbial Activity and Crude Oil-Microbial Interactions in the Waters and Sediments of Cook Inlet and the Beaufort Sea.

  12. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  13. CALL Teacher Professional Growth through Lesson Study Practice: An Investigation into EFL Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nami, Fatemeh; Marandi, S. Susan; Sotoudehnama, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on the potential of lesson study for promoting teachers' professional growth through practice and collaboration, little is known on how language teachers perceive this strategy for their computer assisted language learning (CALL) professional development. In an attempt to contribute to this research base, this…

  14. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 7th Grade - Spoil Island Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary students in grade seven prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  15. All-Day Recordings to Investigate Vocabulary Development: A Case Study of a Trilingual Toddler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2010-01-01

    Major innovations are becoming available for research in language development and disorders. Among these innovations, recent tools allow naturalistic recording in children's homes and automated analysis to facilitate representative sampling. This study employed all-day recordings during the 2nd year of life in a child exposed to three languages,…

  16. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower…

  17. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: Annual report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; West, Karrie K.

    2005-01-01

    The annual reports of the IGBST summarize annual data collection. Because additional information can be obtained after publication, data summaries are subject to change. For that reason, data analyses and summaries presented in this report supersede all previously published data. The study area and sampling techniques are reported by Blanchard (1985), Mattson et al. (1991 a ), and Haroldson et al. (1998). 

  18. An Exploratory Investigation of Online Forum Mediated Collaborative Learning of Speech Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lata, Pushp; Luhach, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) are being integrated in the curriculum by many educational institutions to extend teaching and learning beyond classroom. This paper is based on a case study exploring the integration of LMS Nalanda created on Moodle in Effective Public Speaking (EPS) classroom to give students an additional platform to practice,…

  19. An Interview Study of Children's Understanding of Communication Rules: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtin, Renate; And Others

    A study involving 26 children, aged five to eight years, employed a clinical interview method to examine the children's recognition and knowledge of rule violations in communication. The rules, derived from H. P. Grice's "be cooperative" principle, referred mainly to the maxim "be perspicuous, unequivocal, clear, and…

  20. Seismic investigations in Wyoming as part of the Wagon Wheel definition studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayer, Kenneth C.; Wuollet, Geraldine M.

    1974-01-01

    One hundred and twenty nine (129) natural and man -made events identifiable as located within a radius of 100 km from the station were recorded during tile eleven-month study. Calculated magnitudes ranged from ML - 0. 6 toML 2.6.

  1. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  2. Reading Achievement in the Middle School Years: A Study Investigating Growth Patterns by High Incidence Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakimowski, Mary E.; Faggella-Luby, Michael; Kim, Yujin; Wei, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous research studies (e.g., Anderson, Kutash, & Duchnowski, 2001; Lane, Carter, Pierson, & Glaeser, 2006; Volpe, Dupaul, Jitendra, & Tresco, 2009; Wei, Blackorby, & Schiller, 2011) have shown that students with disabilities generally exhibit lower reading scores than their peers without disabilities. However, questions remain…

  3. Writing Shapes Thinking: Investigative Study of Preservice Teachers Reading, Writing to Learn, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…

  4. How Students Structure Their Investigations and Learn Mathematics: Insights from a Long-Term Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carolyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the mathematical thinking of participants of a long-term study, now in its 17th year, who did mathematics together through their public school and early university years. In particular, it describes how fundamental ideas and images of a cohort group of students are elaborated and presented in symbolic expressions of…

  5. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation for cognitive neuromodulation: a review of proposed mechanisms and investigational studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sudhin A.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the history of efforts to apply central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT/DBS) to restore consciousness in patients in coma and vegetative state by changing the arousal state. Early experimental and clinical studies and the results of a recent single-subject human study that demonstrated both immediate behavioral facilitation and carry-over effects of CT/DBS are reviewed. We consider possible mechanisms underlying CT/DBS effects on cognitively-mediated behaviors in conscious patients in light of the anatomical connectivity and physiological specializations of the central thalamus. Immediate and carry-over effects of CT/DBS are discussed within the context of possible effects on neuronal plasticity and gene expression. We conclude that CT/DBS be studied as a therapeutic intervention to improve impaired cognitive function in severely brain-injured patients who in addition to demonstrating clinical evidence of consciousness and goal-directed behavior, retain sufficient preservation of large-scale cerebral networks within the anterior forebrain. Although available data provide evidence for proof-of-concept, very significant challenges for study design and development of CT/DBS for clinical use are identified. PMID:21039953

  6. Creating Critical Conversations: Investigating the Utility of Socratic Dialogues in Elementary Social Studies Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the utility of Socratic dialogues in the elementary social studies methods course. Findings include preservice teachers' behaviors during dialogues, perceived strengths and challenges of using Socratic dialogues in teacher education, and the impact on student learning. Challenges and apprehensions encountered by the teacher…

  7. A Self-Study Investigation of Using Inquiry Groups in a Professional Development School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garin, Eva; Harper, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry Group participation for PDS teachers and teacher candidates is one of the signature programs of the Bowie State University PDS Network and provides PDS teachers and teacher candidates the opportunity to collaborate on teaching strategies and methodologies to use in their classrooms. This article uses self-study methodology to explore the…

  8. Learning and Teaching Science as Inquiry: A Case Study of Elementary School Teachers' Investigations of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.; Hammer, David; Bell, Mary; Roy, Patricia; Peter, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents an example of inquiry learning and teaching during a summer institute for elementary and middle school teachers. A small group constructed an explanatory model for an intriguing optical phenomenon that they were observing. Research questions included: What physics thinking did the learners express? What aspects of…

  9. Investigation of Inquiry-Based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Sunny Minelli

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level…

  10. Bridging the Divide: A Case Study Investigating Digitally-Wise Teacher Perceptions of Middle School Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Tiffany Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the perceptions of middle school, technologically proficient, or digitally-wise teachers, regarding how they defined, prevented, recognized, and handled incidences of cyberbullying in four middle schools located in Southern Virginia. Data was collected using an open-ended questionnaire,…

  11. Approaches to Investigating Complex Genetic Traits in a Large Scale Inbred Mouse Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Berndt, Annerose; Sundberg, Beth A.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Kennedy, Victoria; Smith, Richard S.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Schofield, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    Inbred mice are a unique model system for studying aging because of the genetic homogeneity within inbred strains, the short life span of mice relative to humans, and the rich array of analytical tools that are available. A large-scale aging study was conducted on 28 inbred strains representing great genetic diversity to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of spontaneous diseases aging mice develop. Eighteen inbred strains have had their genomes sequenced and many others have been partially sequenced to provide large repositories of data on genetic variation between the strains. This vast amount of genomic information can be utilized in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to find candidate genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous diseases. We present here, as an illustration, a GWAS of the genetic associations of age-related intestinal amyloidosis which implicates three candidate genes Tram1, Sf3b5, and Stx11. Many of the age-related mouse diseases are similar, if not identical, to human diseases and therefore the genetic discoveries have direct translational benefit. Representative photomicrographs are available on the Mouse Tumor Biology Database and Pathbase to serve as a reference when evaluating inbred mice used in other genetic or experimental studies to rule out strain background lesions. PMID:26936752

  12. 40 CFR 300.430 - Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... estimates of actual or potential exposures and associated impacts on human and environmental receptors may... controls exposures to human and environmental receptors; (B) The federal and state requirements that are... study and selection of remedy. 300.430 Section 300.430 Protection of Environment...

  13. 40 CFR 300.430 - Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estimates of actual or potential exposures and associated impacts on human and environmental receptors may... controls exposures to human and environmental receptors; (B) The federal and state requirements that are... study and selection of remedy. 300.430 Section 300.430 Protection of Environment...

  14. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  15. A Survey Study to Investigate Educators' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and School District Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggard-Williams, Carolyn L.

    2012-01-01

    An organization's success centers on its leadership. Critical in the field of education, Houston (2001) proclaimed it best when he declared that superintendents have an opportunity to profoundly affect children's lives (Lashway, 2002b). Increasingly, empirical studies being conducted on leadership in education highlight the relationship between…

  16. Investigating the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Greek: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Georgiou, George K.; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit…

  17. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  18. Investigating the Knowledge Needed for Teaching Mathematics: An Exploratory Validation Study Focusing on Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2016-01-01

    Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…

  19. A Monte Carlo Study Investigating Missing Data, Differential Item Functioning, and Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    The use of polytomous items in assessments has increased over the years, and as a result, the validity of these assessments has been a concern. Differential item functioning (DIF) and missing data are two factors that may adversely affect assessment validity. Both factors have been studied separately, but DIF and missing data are likely to occur…

  20. Investigating the File Drawer Problem in Causal Effects Studies in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Stuhlsatz, Molly; Wilson, Christopher; Spybrook, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use both conceptual and statistical approaches to explore publication bias in recent causal effects studies in science education, and to draw from this exploration implications for researchers, journal reviewers, and journal editors. This paper fills a void in the "science education" literature as no…

  1. Investigating the Role of Psychological Contract Breach on Career Success: Convergent Evidence from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Bordia, Prashant; Bordia, Sarbari

    2011-01-01

    The current study extends past research by examining leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between employee reports of psychological contract breach and career success. In addition, we tested a competing perspective in which we proposed that performance mediators (i.e., in-role performance and organizational citizenship…

  2. Study report on guidelines and test procedures for investigating stability of nonlinear cardiovascular control system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A general study of the stability of nonlinear as compared to linear control systems is presented. The analysis is general and, therefore, applies to other types of nonlinear biological control systems as well as the cardiovascular control system models. Both inherent and numerical stability are discussed for corresponding analytical and graphic methods and numerical methods.

  3. Should the Dead Sea Be Sustainable?: Investigating Environmental Issues Using a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Cheston Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Many students leave the environmental science classroom with misconceptions centered on the availability of natural resources such as water. This article presents a case study where students assume the roles of various stakeholders and articulate their position on whether or not to pipe water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Additionally,…

  4. Investigating the key factors in designing a communication skills program for medical students: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical

  5. [Fusion of field and laboratory studies on the investigation of arsenic].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yoshito

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously distributed in nature throughout Earth's crust and thus the major source of exposure to this metalloid for the general population is naturally polluted drinking water from wells. In East Asia, more than 30 million people are chronically exposed to arsenic. Interestingly, the manifestations of vascular diseases caused by prolonged exposure to arsenic are consistent with those induced by impaired production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). However, no information has been available on the relation between NO synthesis and chronic arsenic poisoning in humans. A cross-sectional study in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia and experimental animal studies indicated that long-term exposure to arsenic by drinking water causes reduction of NO production in endothelial cells. Subsequent examinations with rabbits showed that decreased NO production during arsenic exposure is, at least in part, due to an "uncoupling" of endothelial NO synthase evoked by decreased levels of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of the enzyme, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, an intervention study in the area of chronic arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia suggested that decreased NO levels and peripheral vascular disease in arsenosis patients can be reversed by exposure cessation. In our cellular experiments, we found that arsenic exposure causes adaptive responses against oxidative stress and arsenic cytotoxicity through Nrf2 activation. This review summarizes the results of our recent studies on a fusion of field and laboratory studies on the chronic arsenic poisoning and cellular protection against the metalloid.

  6. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-05-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear.

  7. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear. PMID:25969585

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of some building blocks of organic conductors: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, V.; Yadav, T.

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical molecular structures and IR and Raman spectra of di and tetra methyl substituted tetrathiafulvalene and tetraselenafulvalene molecules have been studied. These molecules belong to the organic conductor family and are immensely used as building blocks of several organic conducting devices. The Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with exchange functional B3LYP have been employed for computational purpose. We have also performed normal coordinate analysis to scale the theoretical frequencies and to calculate potential energy distributions for the conspicuous assignments. The exciting frequency and temperature dependent Raman spectra have also presented. Optimization results reveal that the sulphur derivatives possess boat shape while selenium derivatives possess planner structures. Natural bond orbitals analysis has also been performed to study second order interaction between donors and acceptors and to compute molecular orbital occupancy and energy.

  9. All-day recordings to investigate vocabulary development: A case study of a trilingual toddler

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Major innovations are becoming available for research in language development and disorders. Among these innovations, recent tools allow naturalistic recording in children’s homes and automated analysis to facilitate representative sampling. The present study employed all-day recordings during the second year of life in a child exposed to three languages, using a fully-wearable battery-powered recorder, with automated analysis to locate appropriate time periods for coding. This method made representative sampling possible, and afforded the opportunity for a case study indicating that language spoken directly to the child had dramatically more effect on vocabulary learning than audible language not spoken to the child, as indicated by chi-square analyses of the child’s verbal output and input in each of the languages. The work provides perspective on the role of learning words by overhearing in childhood, and suggests the value of representative naturalistic sampling as a means of research on vocabulary acquisition. PMID:21037965

  10. Investigation of Interdiffusion Behavior in the Mo-Zr Binary System via Diffusion Couple Studies

    SciTech Connect

    A. Paz y Puente; J. Dickson; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; Y.H. Sohn

    2014-03-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo metallic nuclear fuels and Al alloy cladding. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the diffusional interactions, the interdiffusion behavior in the binary Mo–Zr system was investigated via solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 750 to 1050 degrees C. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis were used to examine the microstructure and concentration profiles across the interdiffusion zone. A large __-Zr (cI2) solid solution layer and a thin (approximately 1–2 um) layer of Mo2Zr (cF24) developed in all couples. Parabolic growth constants and concentration dependent interdiffusion coefficients were calculated for the Mo2Zr and Zr solid solution phases, respectively. The pre-exponential factor and activation energy for growth of the Mo2Zr phase were determined to be approximately 6.5 × 10- 15 m2/s and 90 kJ/mol, respectively. The interdiffusion coefficient in ___-Zr solid solution decreased with an increase in Mo concentration. Both the pre-exponential factors (2 × 10- 8 m2/s at 2 at.% Mo to near 5 × 10- 8 m2/s at 9 at.% Mo) and activation energies (140 kJ/mol at 2 at.% Mo to approximately 155 kJ/mol at 9 at.% Mo) of interdiffusion coefficients were determined to increase with an increase in Mo concentration.

  11. Investigation of diesel ash particulate matter: A scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liati, A.; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, P.; Müller Gubler, E.; Schreiber, D.; Aguirre, M.

    2012-03-01

    Investigation of ash PM deposited in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) operating on a light truck by means of SEM and TEM reveals the following: ash inside the DPF occurs in form of chemically very inhomogeneous, mostly brittle agglomerates accumulated at the plugged ends of inlet channels and deposited directly on the inlet channel walls all along the filter length. Ash agglomerates occur within pores of the channel walls. A minor part of ash PM may escape to the atmosphere. The individual ash phases are mostly crystalline with round outlines and sizes between ca. 170 and 60 nm, down to 7-12 nm, that is far below the breathable size range PM10. Aggregation of the predominantly finest fraction of ash particles leads to densification, which may translate to fewer breakouts from the DPF. EDX mapping and chemical analyses of the bulk ash reveal that ash consists mainly of Ca, Mg, P, Zn, S, O and minor Fe, Al and Si. Based on TEM diffraction data of ash single phases, combined with data on their chemistry, the diversity of ash phases is higher than previously presumed. Comparison with the ash particles of a heavily used DPF from a passenger car operating with Fe-based fuel-borne additives reveals characteristics very similar to those found for the light truck DPF with a tendency to generally lower sizes of the participating phases, mostly between 30 and 60 nm. 4-40 nm large, locally abundant Pt particles deriving from the coating material of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream the DPF occur within ash agglomerates of both DPFs. Ash collected from the exhaust gas at the exit of the light truck DPF under normal engine operation reveals that some fine particles, as well as a few of the larger (200-600 nm) ash-bearing agglomerates escape filtration. Very fine ash particles are reaching the atmosphere also attached onto soot agglomerates.

  12. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Study, Pine Valley, Wah Wah Valley, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-27

    thick-bedded, very dense, brown to black, vesicular, and moderately to poorly jointed. 3.2.1.8 Volcanic Rocks Undifferentiated - Vu Tertiary...undifferentiated volcanic rocks comprise an extensive unit throughout the study area. This unit consists of a variety of interlayered volcanic ash-flow and air...fall tuffs and lava flows. Composition ranges from basaltic to rhyolitic but is generally dacitic to rhyolitic. Volcanic units are extensively exposed in

  13. RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations: 1. Case Study Development and Ensemble Large-Scale Forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60 h case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in situ measurements from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility) CLOWD (Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign and remote sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, kappa, are derived from observations to be approximately 0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing data sets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and a multiscale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in "trial" large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary

  14. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: NMR potentials for studying physical processes in fossil coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Anatolii D.; Ul'yanova, Ekaterina V.; Vasilenko, Tat'yana A.

    2005-11-01

    High-resolution, pulsed, and wide-line NMR studies of fossil coals are reviewed. Coal substance conversion due to outbursts is discussed. Results on water and methane interactions with coal substance, which provide insight into the dynamic characteristics of boundary water, the location of methane in coal structure, and water and methane's hazard implications for coal beds (gas- or geodynamic phenomena) are presented; these are shown to have potential for predicting and preventing life threatening situations.

  15. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf: final reports of principal investigators, volume 13. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, B.B.; Horner, R.A.; Ainley, D.G.; Dunn, J.R.; Kendall, A.W.

    1981-10-01

    This report contains results of studies on: the frequency and pathology of marine fish diseases in the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Norton Sound, and Chukchi Sea; Beaufort sea plankton; influence of petroleum on egg formation and embyronic development in seabirds; seasonal composition and food web relationships of marine organisms in the nearshore zone-; taxonomic composition, seasonal distribution, and abundance of ichthyoplankton in the nearshore zone of the kodiak archipelago, Alaska.

  16. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 11. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume of final reports includes the following: Toxicity of Oil-Well Drilling Muds to Alaska Larval Shrimp and Crabs; Trophic Relationships Among Ice-Inhabiting Phocid Seals and Functionally Related Marine Mammals in the Chukchi Sea; Trophic Relationships Among Ice-Inhabiting Phocid Seals and Functionally Related Marine Mammals in the Bering Sea; Ecological Studies in the Bering Strait Region; and The Relationships of Marine Mammal Distributions, Densities and Activities to Sea Ice Conditions.

  17. Network-Assisted Investigation of Combined Causal Signals from Genome-Wide Association Studies in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peilin; Wang, Lily; Fanous, Ayman H.; Pato, Carlos N.; Edwards, Todd L.; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    With the recent success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a wealth of association data has been accomplished for more than 200 complex diseases/traits, proposing a strong demand for data integration and interpretation. A combinatory analysis of multiple GWAS datasets, or an integrative analysis of GWAS data and other high-throughput data, has been particularly promising. In this study, we proposed an integrative analysis framework of multiple GWAS datasets by overlaying association signals onto the protein-protein interaction network, and demonstrated it using schizophrenia datasets. Building on a dense module search algorithm, we first searched for significantly enriched subnetworks for schizophrenia in each single GWAS dataset and then implemented a discovery-evaluation strategy to identify module genes with consistent association signals. We validated the module genes in an independent dataset, and also examined them through meta-analysis of the related SNPs using multiple GWAS datasets. As a result, we identified 205 module genes with a joint effect significantly associated with schizophrenia; these module genes included a number of well-studied candidate genes such as DISC1, GNA12, GNA13, GNAI1, GPR17, and GRIN2B. Further functional analysis suggested these genes are involved in neuronal related processes. Additionally, meta-analysis found that 18 SNPs in 9 module genes had P meta<1×10−4, including the gene HLA-DQA1 located in the MHC region on chromosome 6, which was reported in previous studies using the largest cohort of schizophrenia patients to date. These results demonstrated our bi-directional network-based strategy is efficient for identifying disease-associated genes with modest signals in GWAS datasets. This approach can be applied to any other complex diseases/traits where multiple GWAS datasets are available. PMID:22792057

  18. A study of the friction stir welding process by experimental investigation and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Tianzhong

    2005-12-01

    In this study, 2-D and 3-D models based on a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (FLUENT) and suitable user defined viscosity law are used to capture many of the trends observed in FSW. The fully thermo-mechanically coupled 2 D CFD model can run in a few hours on a PC based system. The low computational cost for 2-D model enables rapid assessment of the effects of various material properties and the criticality of inclusion or exclusion of some property details. The effects of varying material properties and process parameters, on the trends in x-axis forces and potential weld defect formation (via material flow pattern) are studied and compared with the experimental observations. It was found that the minimum x-force that occurs in the median RPM range is strongly influenced by the cutoff temperature in the viscosity law. The bifurcation of material flow in the weld path also occurs when the maximum temperature ahead of the pin surpasses the cutoff temperature. Aluminum alloys AA2219, AA5083, AA6061, and AA7050 were welded using constant welding speed and linearly increased RPM. The grain sizes in the welds were measured and the applied torque and x-force during friction stir welding process were recorded. The correlations of the grain size, the applied torque and x-force were studied using simulation and the experimental methods. The 2D and 3D CFD model simulation results compare well with experimental measurements. Based on the 2D model results, the material's simulated thermo-mechanical history was also studied. The model predicts that the material in the weld region experiences a high temperature after the deformation is complete. This thermo-mechanical history indicates that metallurgical transformations may continue after the end of deformation and that the grain size in the weld cannot be adequately described using a Zener-Holloman parameter approach or by invoking the continuous dynamic recrystallization process.

  19. Investigation of Geobase Implementation Issues: Case Study of Information Resource Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    originally developed by Pascale and Athos (1981) as a diagnostic model for organizational effectiveness, includes strategy, structure, skills, systems...members dedicate themselves and use as a guide for action, also known as superordinate goals ( Pascale & Athos, 1981). Crescenzi (1988) studied the...for the genesis of modern GIS (Foresman, 1998) Capabilities of GIS. Three features can be modeled in a GIS: points, lines, and polygons ( Blaise

  20. A novel study design to investigate the early-life origins of asthma in children (SAGE study).

    PubMed

    Kozyrskyj, A L; HayGlass, K T; Sandford, A J; Paré, P D; Chan-Yeung, M; Becker, A B

    2009-08-01

    This is a description of the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE), a novel birth cohort created from provincial healthcare administrative records. It is a general population-based cohort, composed of children at high and low risk for asthma, living in urban and rural environments in Manitoba, Canada. The SAGE study captures the complete longitudinal healthcare records of children born in 1995 and contains detailed information on early-life exposures, such as antibiotic utilization and immunization, in relationship to the development of asthma. Nested within the birth cohort is a case-control study, which was created to collect information on home environmental exposures from detailed surveys and home dust sampling, to confirm asthma status in children and use this data to validate healthcare database measures of asthma, to determine differences in immune system responsiveness to innate and adaptive immune stimuli in asthma, to genotype children for genes likely associated with the development of asthma and to study the epigenetic regulation of pre-established protective vs allergic immune responses. The SAGE study is a multidisciplinary collaboration of researchers from pediatric allergy, population health, immunology, and genetic and environmental epidemiology. As such, it serves as a fertile, interdisciplinary training ground for graduate students, and postdoctoral and clinician fellows.

  1. Investigating Preschool and Primary School Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Needs in Teaching Science: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walan, Susanne; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the curricula reforms at the levels of preschool and primary school in Sweden have caused new demands on the teachers. In particular, numerous teachers lack the educational training in science subjects. Therefore, this study aims to investigate teachers' self-efficacy and needs in relation to science teaching. A total of 71…

  2. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  3. Investigating an Application of Speech-to-Text Recognition: A Study on Visual Attention and Learning Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Y-M.; Liu, C-J.; Shadiev, Rustam; Shen, M-H.; Hwang, W-Y.

    2015-01-01

    One major drawback of previous research on speech-to-text recognition (STR) is that most findings showing the effectiveness of STR for learning were based upon subjective evidence. Very few studies have used eye-tracking techniques to investigate visual attention of students on STR-generated text. Furthermore, not much attention was paid to…

  4. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions...

  5. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions...

  6. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions...

  7. Teachers' Awareness of the Learner-Teacher Interaction: Preliminary Communication of a Study Investigating the Teaching Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Vanessa; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2013-01-01

    A new phase of research on teaching is under way that seeks to understand the teaching brain. In this vein, this study investigated the cognitive processes employed by master teachers. Using an interview protocol influenced by microgenetic techniques, 23 master teachers used the Self-in-Relation-to-Teaching (SiR2T) tool to answer "What are…

  8. A Phenomenological Study Investigating Transformative Learning Strategies Implemented by 10 Title I Elementary Principals That Influence Novice Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Tara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate transformative learning strategies implemented by 10 Title I elementary principals that influence novice teacher retention. Data were gathered by individual interviews. Data were analyzed using Creswell's (2013) description of qualitative research as a collection of data…

  9. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  10. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 59: Bridge 526. Fort Devens Main Post Site Investigation, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    National Priorities List under the Comprehensive...address study areas at Fort Devens, including a Master Environmental Plan (Argonne National Laboratory, 1992), an Enhanced Preliminary Assessment (Weston, 1992), and Site Investigation Reports (ABB, 1992 and Arthur D. Little, 1993a)....Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act on December, 21, 1989. In addition,

  11. Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

  12. An Investigation of Leadership in a Professional Learning Community: A Case Study of a Large, Suburban, Public Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Howard; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated a large, suburban, public middle school focusing on educators' perceptions of leadership within their professional learning community. Participants included the principal, administrative team, and key faculty members. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by hand coding and…

  13. Investigation of Problems of Implementing Curriculum in Primary Schools in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Jeylani

    The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of modern mathematics in the primary schools of Somalia. In particular, three concerns were addressed: (1) teachers' confidence and ability in teaching mathematics; (2) students' interest in mathematics; and (3) students' examination performance in mathematics. Subjects were 30 teachers…

  14. An Investigation of Topics and Trends of Tracheal Replacement Studies Using Co-Occurrence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Fariba; Feizabadi, Mansoureh; Farzanegan, Roya; Vaziri, Esmaeil; Samani, Saeed; Lajevardi, Seyedamirmohammad; Moradi, Lida; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2016-11-22

    This study evaluated tracheal regeneration studies using scientometric and co-occurrence analysis to identify the most important topics and assess their trends over time. To provide the adequate search options, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS) were used to cover various categories such as keywords, countries, organizations, and authors. Search results were obtained by employing Bibexcel. Co-occurrence analysis was applied to evaluate the publications. Finally, scientific maps, author's network, and country contributions were depicted using VOSviewer and NetDraw. Furthermore, the first 25 countries and 130 of the most productive authors were determined. Regarding the trend analysis, 10 co-occurrence terms out of highly frequent words were examined at 5-year intervals. Our findings indicated that the field of trachea regeneration has tested different approaches over the time. In total, 65 countries have contributed to scientific progress both in experimental and clinical fields. Special keywords such as tissue engineering and different types of stem cells have been increasingly used since 1995. Studies have addressed topics such as angiogenesis, decellularization methods, extracellular matrix, and mechanical properties since 2011. These findings will offer evidence-based information about the current status and trends of tracheal replacement research topics over time, as well as countries' contributions.

  15. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS

    2013-04-01

    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  16. Analgesic drug consumption increases after knee arthroplasty: a pharmacoepidemiological study investigating postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Fuzier, Régis; Serres, Isabelle; Bourrel, Robert; Palmaro, Aurore; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2014-07-01

    Knee arthroplasty remains the gold standard in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis. Chronic postoperative pain has been reported with a prevalence ranging from 15% to 47%. The aim of this study was to compare analgesic drug consumption before and after surgery as an indicator of pain after knee surgery. A pharmacoepidemiological method comparing analgesics and antineuropathic issues 1 year before and 1 year after surgery was used. All patients who underwent knee arthroplasty in the Midi-Pyrenees region (2.5 million inhabitants) were identified through the Health Insurance System Database. Increase of drug issues (all analgesics, antineuropathic drugs, strong opioids) was calculated and compared between several periods surrounding the surgery (12 months, 2 months, and 10 months before and after the knee arthroplasty). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with chronic postoperative pain. The study included 1939 patients. An increase in analgesic, antineuropathic, and opioid drug consumption was observed the year after the surgery in 47.3%, 8.6%, and 5.6% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis found a significant association between type of surgery (total knee vs unicompartmental arthroplasty) and analgesic consumption 1 year after surgery, and between preoperative pain and psychiatric vulnerability and increase in neuropathic drug dispensing. Conversely, older age was considered as a protective factor. This study revealed that an increase in the issue of different analgesic drugs is present in half of patients 1 year after knee arthroplasty. Several associated factors of drug consumption (preoperative pain, type of surgery, and psychiatric disorder) were identified.

  17. Do physicians judge a study by its cover? An investigation of journal attribution bias.

    PubMed

    Christakis, D A; Saint, S; Saha, S; Elmore, J G; Welsh, D E; Baker, P; Koepsell, T D

    2000-08-01

    The effect of a journal's prestige on readers' impressions of an article is unknown. Two hypotheses were tested: first, that attribution of a study to a "high" prestige journal would be associated with improved impressions and attribution to a "low" prestige journal would be associated with diminished impressions; and second, that formal training in epidemiology and biostatistics would mitigate the effects of this journal attribution bias. The study was designed as a trial among a random sample of 264 internists. Participants were asked to read an article and an abstract from either the Southern Medical Journal (SMJ) or the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). Questionnaires were constructed that either attributed the article or abstract to its source or presented it as unattributed. After each article or abstract, respondents were asked to rate the quality of the study, the appropriateness of the methodology employed, the significance of the findings, and its likely effects on their practice. A 20-point impression score was created based on responses to these statements. The effect of attribution to a specific journal and formal epidemiology training on impression scores were assessed using linear regression. Of the 399 eligible participants, 264 questionnaires were returned (response rate 66%). Differences in impression scores associated with attribution of an article or abstract to the NEJM were.71 [95% C.I. (-.44-1.87)] and.50 [95% C.I. (-.87-1.87)] respectively; differences in impression scores associated with attribution of an article or abstract to the SMJ were -.12 [95% C.I. (-1.53-1.30)] and -.95 [95% C.I. (-2.41-.52)]. A stratified analysis demonstrated that epidemiology training did not meaningfully alter the effect of journal attribution on participants' impression scores. If journal attribution bias exists, it is likely to exert small and clinically insignificant effects when physicians read articles carefully. Formal training in epidemiology and

  18. Investigation of the geochemical evolution of groundwater under agricultural land: A case study in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Zona Citrícola is an important area for Mexico due to its citriculture activity. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to the Sierra Madre Oriental, this valley hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flows to supply drinking water to the adjacent metropolitan area of Monterrey. Recent studies examining the groundwater quality of the study area urge the mitigation of groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. Correlation was used to identify associations among various geochemical constituents. Factor analysis was applied to identify the water's chemical characteristics that were responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed in combination with a post-hoc analysis of variance to partition the water samples into hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed and constrained using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling the water's chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The primary reactions contributing to salinity were the following: (1) water-rock interactions, including the weathering of evaporitic rocks and dedolomitization; (2) dissolution of soil gas carbon dioxide; and (3) input from animal/human wastewater and manure in combination with by denitrification processes. Contributions from silicate weathering to salinity ranged from less important to insignificant. The findings suggest that it may not be cost-effective to regulate manure application to mitigate groundwater pollution.

  19. A Prospective Bicenter Study Investigating the Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Sand, M.; Trullen, X.V.; Bechara, F.G.; Pala, X.F.; Sand, D.; Landgrafe, G.; Mann, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established laboratory marker for disease severity in patients with infection and sepsis. In addition, PCT has been shown to be an effective marker for a limited number of localized infections. However, whether or not PCT has any diagnostic value for acute appendicitis, still remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective bicenter study was, therefore, to determine whether or not the PCT levels in the serum of patients with acute appendicitis have any diagnostic value. Methods This prospective study included 103 patients who received an appendectomy, based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in a surgical department of an academic teaching hospital in Germany or in a county hospital in Spain. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) values were determined preoperatively. All appendectomy specimens were sent for routine histopathological evaluation. Based on this information, the patients were assigned to 1 of 5 groups that reflected the severity of the appendicitis. Results Of the 103 patients who were included in the study, 98 had appendicitis. Fourteen (14.3%) showed an increase in PCT values. Of those 14, 4 had a serum PCT >0.5 ng/ml, 9 had a PCT value >2–10 ng/ml and 1 had a PCT value >10 ng/ml. The sensitivity of PCT was calculated to be 0.14. The mean WBC value was 13.0/nl (± 5.2, 3.4–31), and for CRP it was 8.8 mg/dl (± 13, 0–60.2). The values of CRP, WBC and PCT increased with the severity of the appendicitis. Conclusions PCT is potentially increased in rare cases of severe inflammation and, in particular, after appendiceal perforation or gangrenous appendicitis. However, its remarkably low sensitivity prohibits its routine use for the diagnosis of appendicitis. PMID:19672084

  20. Tether-Based Investigation of the Ionosphere and Lower Thermosphere Concept Definition Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. (Editor); Herrmann, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Understanding the plasma and atmosphere around the Earth in the lower altitude regions of the mesosphere, lower thermosphere, and ionosphere is important in the global electric system. An upper atmosphere tether has been proposed to NASA that would collect much-needed data to further our knowledge of the regions. The mission is proposed as a shuttle experiment that would lower a tethered probe into certain regions of Earth's atmosphere, collecting data over a 6-day period. This report is a summary of the results of a concept definition study to design engineering system that will achieve the scientific objectives of this mission.

  1. Investigation of problems associated with solid encapsulation of high voltage electronic assemblies; also Reynolds connector study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    Electric breakdown prevention in vacuum and encapsulation of high voltage electronic circuits was studied. The lap shear method was used to measure adhesive strengths. The permeation constants of air at ambient room temperature through four different space-grade encapsulants was measured. Order of magnitude was calculated for the time that air bubble pressures drop to the corona region. High voltage connectors with L-type cable attached were tested in a vacuum system at various pressures. The cable system was shown to suppress catastrophic breakdown when filled with and surrounded by gas in the corona region of pressures, but did not prove to be completely noise free.

  2. A solution study of silica condensation and speciation with relevance to in vitro investigations of biosilicification.

    PubMed

    Belton, David J; Deschaume, Olivier; Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Perry, Carole C

    2010-08-12

    Requiring mild synthesis conditions and possessing a high level of organization and functionality, biosilicas constitute a source of wonder and inspiration for both materials scientists and biologists. In order to understand how such biomaterials are formed and to apply this knowledge to the generation of novel bioinspired materials, a detailed study of the materials, as formed under biologically relevant conditions, is required. In this contribution, data from a detailed study of silica speciation and condensation using a model bioinspired silica precursor (silicon catechol complex, SCC) is presented. The silicon complex quickly and controllably dissociates under neutral pH conditions to well-defined, metastable solutions of orthosilicic acid. The formation of silicomolybdous (blue) complexes was used to monitor and study different stages of silicic acid condensation. In parallel, the rates of silicomolybdic (yellow) complex formation, with mathematical modeling of the species present, was used to follow the solution speciation of polysilicic acids. The results obtained from the two assays correlate well. Monomeric silicic acid, trimeric silicic acids, and different classes of oligomeric polysilicic acids and silica nuclei can be identified and their periods of stability during the early stages of silica condensation measured. For experiments performed at a range of temperatures (273-323 K), an activation energy of 77 kJ.mol(-1) was obtained for the formation of trimers. The activation energies for the forward and reverse condensation reactions for addition of monomers to polysilicic acids (273-293 +/- 1 K) were 55.0 and 58.6 kJ.mol(-1), respectively. For temperatures above 293 K, these energies were reduced to 6.1 and 7.3 kJ.mol(-1), indicating a probable change in the prevailing condensation mechanism. The impact of pH on the rates of condensation were measured. There was a direct correlation between the apparent third-order rate constant for trimer formation

  3. Investigation on the interaction behavior between bisphenol A and pepsin by spectral and docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Fei, Zhenghao; Wang, Yanqing

    2012-08-01

    In this report, the binding interaction of BPA with pepsin has been explored by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Quenching of fluorescence of pepsin with increasing BPA concentration is a useful tool in the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the hydrophobic, steric contacts and hydrogen bonds interactions played major roles in stabilizing the complex. The binding of BPA to pepsin induced some micro-environmental and conformational changes in pepsin. The docking studies results showed that BPA entered into the hydrophobic cavity of pepsin. The interaction of pepsin with BPA occurs in the area between domain I and domain III.

  4. Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lawless, M S; Vigeant, M C

    2015-10-01

    While previous research has demonstrated the powerful influence of pleasant and unpleasant music on emotions, the present study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the positive and negative emotional responses as demonstrated in the brain when listening to music convolved with varying room acoustic conditions. During fMRI scans, subjects rated auralizations created in a simulated concert hall with varying reverberation times. The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject.

  5. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine.

  6. Precipitation measurement using SIR-C: A feasibility study. Investigation at nadir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahamad, Atiq; Moore, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    The most significant limitation of the imaging SAR in rain measurements is the ground return coupled to the rain cell. Here we report a study of the possibility of using the X-SAR and the C-band channel of SIR-C for rain measurement. Earlier signal-to-clutter calculations rule out the use of X-SAR at steeper off-vertical angles of incidence (i.e., 20 less than theta less than 50). Only rain rates greater than 30 mm/hr at angles of incidence greater than 60 degrees showed good signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). This study involved calculations at vertical incidence. There is adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at vertical incidence, but the presence of high-range side-lobe levels leads to small SCR for measurement over oceans at both X and C bands. For larger rain thickness (greater than two km), the SCR gets better and smaller rain rates (greater than 10 mm/hr) can be measured. However, rain measurements over forests seem to be feasible at nadir even for smaller rain thickness (less than two km). We conclude that X band may be usable over the forest at vertical incidence to measure rain rates greater than five mm/hr even for shallow rain thickness and over ocean for large rain thickness.

  7. Investigation of coordination properties of isolated adenine to copper metal: a systematic spectroscopic and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K

    2013-08-01

    The coordination properties of copper with adenine have been studied by the analyzing the changes in Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) and Raman spectra of adenine and adenine-copper complex. The geometry of adenine and adenine copper complex were optimized and theoretical Infra-red and Raman spectra of the optimized structures were calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT). During synthesis of adenine-copper complex specific procedure was adopted to attach the Cu atom with particular N-atom of adenine (N9). The results of Raman and DFT confirmed the attachment. The Raman bands at 625, 330 and 230 cm(-1) of adenine-copper complex contain significant contribution of the vibrational motions of Cu metal coordinated to N9 and Cl atoms. The DFT calculations give additional vibrational modes containing the Cu, N9 and N9* atoms, which are not observed in FTIR and Raman spectra. The Raman, IR and DFT study confirm that Cu metal has good binding affinity to the isolated adenine base.

  8. Investigating reinforcer magnitude and reinforcer delay: a contingency management analog study.

    PubMed

    Packer, Robert R; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M

    2012-08-01

    The influence of reinforcer magnitude and reinforcer delay on smoking abstinence was studied using an analog model of contingency management. Participants (N = 103, 74% men) visited our laboratory 3 times daily for 5 days and received money for providing a breath sample that indicated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide level ≤6 parts per million). Using a factorial design, we assigned participants randomly to 1 of 4 groups that could earn a total of either $207.50 (high-magnitude condition) or $70.00 (low-magnitude condition), and received earnings either at each visit (no-delay condition) or in a single lump sum 1 week following the study (delay condition). High-magnitude reinforcement, regardless of delay, was associated with higher rates of abstinence than was low-magnitude reinforcement. High magnitude of reinforcement provided immediately but in incremental amounts was associated with longer intervals to relapse during treatment in comparison with high-magnitude reinforcement provided in a single lump sum after a delay. Low rates of responding in the low-magnitude conditions made interpretation of the impact of delay in those conditions difficult. These findings further demonstrate that high magnitude of reinforcement results in better outcomes than does low magnitude of reinforcement, and that a delay to reinforcement can be detrimental-even when a high magnitude of reinforcement is provided.

  9. Correlates of cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators.

    PubMed

    Cerhan, J R; Folsom, A R; Mortimer, J A; Shahar, E; Knopman, D S; McGovern, P G; Hays, M A; Crum, L D; Heiss, G

    1998-01-01

    The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study administered cognitive function tests to more than 14,000 middle-aged adults in 1990-1992. The battery included the Delayed Word Recall test, the Digit Symbol Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Controlled Oral Word Association (Word Fluency) test. Test performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women than in men, and better in managers/professionals compared with other occupations. After controlling for these factors, race and community, the findings most consistent for both sexes were that Delayed Word Recall was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, diabetes, and fibrinogen level; the Digit Symbol Subtest was associated with marital status, negatively associated with depressive symptoms, smoking status, fibrinogen level, and carotid intima-media thickness, and positively associated with alcohol drinking and FEV1; and the Word Fluency test was positively associated with marital status, alcohol drinking, sports participation, and FEV1. Most of these cross-sectional results were in the predicted direction and have biologic plausibility, but mean differences between extreme categories were small (generally on the order of 0.1 to 0.2 of a standard deviation). Longitudinal study is warranted to evaluate whether small differences in middle-age lead to larger, clinically meaningful deficits with aging.

  10. Spectral investigation and theoretical study of zwitterionic and neutral forms of quinolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, M.; Sinha, L.; Prasad, O.; Bilgili, S.; Sachan, Alok K.; Asiri, A. M.; Atac, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, molecular structure and vibrational analysis of quinolinic acid (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid), in zwitterionic and neutral forms, were presented using FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,3-PDCA) in the solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-0 cm-1, respectively. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for zwitter and neutral forms by using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. 3D potential energy scan was performed by varying the selected dihedral angles using M06-2X and B3LYP functionals at 6-31G(d) level of theory and thus the most stable conformer of the title compound was determined. The most stable conformer was further optimized at higher level and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated. Theoretical vibrational assignment of 2,3-PDCA, using percentage potential energy distribution (PED) was done with MOLVIB program. 13C and 1H NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO. Chemical shifts were calculated at the same level of theory. The UV absorption spectra of the studied compound in ethanol and water were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. The optimized geometric parameters were compared with experimental data.

  11. Mechanistic investigation of extracellular K+ accumulation during acute myocardial ischemia: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, B; Ferrero, J M; Trénor, B

    2002-08-01

    In this study, we have used computer simulations to study the mechanisms of extracellular K+ accumulation during acute ischemia. A modified version of the Luo-Rudy phase II action potential model was used to simulate the electrical behavior of one ventricular myocyte during 14 min of simulated ischemia. Our results show the following: 1) only the integrated effect of activation of ATP-dependent K+ current, an ischemic Na+ inward current, and inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) pump activity in the absence of coronary flow replicates the biphasic time course of extracellular K+ concentration observed during acute ischemia; 2) the time to onset of the plateau phase and the plateau level value are determined by the rate of stimulation and by the rate of alteration of the three mechanisms. However, acidosis and reduction of extracellular volume produce only a slight anticipation of the plateau phase; and 3) cellular K+ loss is mainly due to an increase of K+ efflux via the time-independent K+ current and ATP-dependent K+ current rather than to a decrease of K+ influx.

  12. An investigation of Forex market efficiency based on detrended fluctuation analysis: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounoori, Esmaiel; Shahrazi, Mahdi; Rasekhi, Saeed

    2012-06-01

    The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that asset prices fully reflect all available information. As a result, speculators cannot predict the future behavior of asset prices and earn excess profits at least after adjusting for risk. Although initial tests of the EMH were performed on stock market data, the EMH was soon applied to other markets including foreign exchange (FX). This study uses the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique to test 01:12:2005-18:04:2010 Iranian Rial/US Dollar exchange rate time series data to see if it can be explained by the weak form of the EMH. Moreover, to determine changes in the degree of inefficiency over time, the whole period has been divided into four subperiods. The study shows that the Iranian Forex market (the Rial/Dollar case) is weak-form inefficient over the whole period and in each of the subperiods. However, the degree of inefficiency is not constant over time. The findings suggest that profitable risk-adjusted trades could be made using past data.

  13. Clinico-epidemiological study of near-hanging cases - An investigation from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2015-07-01

    Hanging is one of the commonest methods of suicide. Epidemiological data of near-hanging patients from Nepal is limited. The present research from Nepal attempts to review the clinico-epidemiological profile of near-hanging patients. A retrospective review of case records was done for the near hanging patients admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal, between August 2012 and August 2014. Details regarding socio-demographic profile, circumstances of hanging, clinical details, and outcome etc. were obtained and examined. During the study period, 10 near hanging patients were admitted to the hospital. The majority of the patients were below 30 years. Mean age of the study group was 28.8 years. The GCS on arrival ranged between 5/15 and 15/15 with the mean GCS being 9.5/15. Hypoxic encephalopathy and cerebral edema were the only noted complications. None of the patient had a cervical spinal injury. All the patients survived the near hanging episode. The mean ICU and hospital stay were 3.9 days and 6.2 days respectively. Prompt resuscitation, active interventions and intensive care support favors a good prognosis. Psychiatric evaluation and support to the patients and their relatives is the key to preventing such attempts in future.

  14. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.

  15. Preliminary juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker investigations in Clear Lake, California--2011 pilot study summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Poor recruitment appears to limit the recovery of Lost River and shortnose sucker populations in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, but the cause is unknown. Adult suckers migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ruby Pipeline L.L.C. Corporation (El Paso, Tex.) initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake Reservoir, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. This is a report on the 2011 pilot study for this project.

  16. Chlorine-36 investigations of groundwater infiltration in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Dixon, P.R.; Liu, B.; Turin, H.J.; Wolfsberg, A.V.

    1997-12-01

    Chlorine-36, including the natural cosmogenic component and the component produced during atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950`s and 1960`s (bomb pulse), is being used as an isotopic tracer for groundwater infiltration studies at Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository. Rock samples have been collected systematically in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and samples were also collected from fractures, faults, and breccia zones. Isotopic ratios indicative of bomb-pulse components in the water ({sup 36}Cl/Cl values > 1,250 x 10{sup {minus}15}), signifying less than 40-yr travel times from the surface, have been detected at a few locations within the Topopah Spring Tuff, the candidate host rock for the repository. The specific features associated with the high {sup 36}Cl/Cl values are predominantly cooling joints and syngenetic breccias, but most of the sites are in the general vicinity of faults. The non-bomb pulse samples have {sup 36}Cl/Cl values interpreted to indicate groundwater travel times of at least a few thousand to possibly several hundred thousand years. Preliminary numerical solute-travel experiments using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) code demonstrate consistency between these interpreted ages and the observed {sup 36}Cl/Cl values but do not validate the interpretations.

  17. Chlorine-36 investigations of groundwater infiltration in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Dixon, P.R.; Liu, B.; Turin, H.J.; Wolfsberg, A.V.

    1997-12-31

    Chlorine-36, including the natural cosmogenic component and the component produced during atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950`s and 1960`s (bomb pulse), is being used as an isotopic tracer for groundwater infiltration studies at Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository. Rock samples have been collected systematically in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and samples were also collected from fractures, faults, and breccia zones. Isotopic ratios indicative of bomb-pulse components in the water ({sup 36}Cl/Cl values > 1,250 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}), signifying less than 40-yr travel times from the surface, have been detected at a few locations within the Topopah Spring Tuff, the candidate host rock for the repository. The specific features associated with the high {sup 36}Cl/Cl values are predominantly cooling joints and syngenetic breccias, but most of the sites are in the general vicinity of faults. The non-bomb pulse samples have {sup 36}Cl/Cl values interpreted to indicate groundwater travel times of at least a few thousand to possibly several hundred thousand years. Preliminary numerical solute-travel experiments using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) code demonstrate consistency between these interpreted ages and the observed {sup 36}Cl/Cl values but do not validate the interpretations.

  18. Investigating the vertical dimension of Singapore's urban heat island through quadcopter platforms: an pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Winston; Ho, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (<2 m above surface level) levels across horizontal variations in land use and land cover. However, there has been hitherto limited attention towards the measurement of vertical temperature profiles extending from the urban surface, urban canopy layer through to the urban boundary layer. Knowledge of these profiles, through (a.) how they vary over different local urban morphologies, and (b.) develop with respect to synoptic meteorological conditions, are important towards several aspects of UHI research; these include validating modelling urban canopy lapse rate profiles or estimating the growth of urban plumes. In this novel study, we utilised temperature sensor-loggers attached onto remote controlled aerial quadcopter platforms to measure urban temperature profiles up to 100 m above ground level in Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. Three different land use/land cover categories were sampled; a high-rise residential estate, a university campus, and an urban park/green-space. Sorties were flown repeatedly at four different times - sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight. Initial results indicate significant variations in intra-site stability and inversion development between the urban canopy and boundary layers. These profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  19. Preliminary Investigations on Intradiscal Pressures during Daily Activities: An In Vivo Study Using the Merino Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Schmidt, Hendrik; Ihler, Renate; Kocak, Tugrul; Graf, Nicolas; Ignatius, Anita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Currently, no studies exist, which attest the suitability of the ovine intervertebral disc as a biomechanical in vivo model for preclinical tests of new therapeutic strategies of the human disc. By measuring the intradiscal pressure in vivo, the current study attempts to characterize an essential biomechanical parameter to provide a more comprehensive physiological understanding of the ovine intervertebral disc. Methods Intradiscal pressure (IDP) was measured for 24 hours within the discs L2-L3 and L4-L5 via a piezo-resistive pressure sensor in one merino sheep. The data were divided into an activity and a recovery phase and the corresponding average pressures for both phases were determined. Additionally, IDPs for different static and dynamic activities were analyzed and juxtaposed to human data published previously. After sacrificing the sheep, the forces corresponding to the measured IDPs were examined ex vivo in an axial compression test. Results The temporal patterns of IDP where pressure decreased during activity and increased during rest were comparable between humans and sheep. However, large differences were observed for different dynamic activities such as standing up or walking. Here, IDPs averaged 3.73 MPa and 1.60 MPa respectively, approximately two to four times higher in the ovine disc compared to human. These IDPs correspond to lower ex vivo derived axial compressive forces for the ovine disc in comparison to the human disc. For activity and rest, average ovine forces were 130 N and 58 N, compared to human forces of 400-600 N and 100 N, respectively. Conclusions In vivo IDPs were found to be higher in the ovine than in the human disc. In contrast, axial forces derived ex vivo were markedly lower in comparison to humans. Both should be considered in future preclinical tests of intradiscal therapies using the sheep. The techniques used in the current study may serve as a protocol for measuring IDP in a variety of large animal models

  20. [An epidemiological investigation of pediatric patients under 14 with large area burns: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Cheng, W F; Zhao, D X; Shen, Z A; Zhang, H Y; Tu, J J; Yuan, Z Q; Duan, P; Song, G D

    2017-02-14

    Objective: To investigate and evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of patients under 14 with large area burns in China. Methods: Data of pediatric patients aged 0-14yr with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned admitted into 106 burn centers in the mainland of China in 2014 were retrieved. The children were divided into three age groups: 0-3, 4-6 and 7-14 years according to the age. Information of age, gender, time of burn injury, causes of burns, admission time, prehospital emergency care of burn wound, burn area, inhalation injuries, the case fatality rate and length of hospital stay were collected for analysis. Results: Of the 486 cases included, 285 (58.6%) were boys and 201 (41.4%) were girls. The mean age of the children was (3.4±2.8) years. Children under 3 years old accounted for 67.5% of all the cases. 271 of the burn injuries (55.8%) occurred from April through August. Scalds and flames were the main causes of burns, which were the causes of 394 cases (81.1%) and 71 cases (14.6%), respectively. The burn injuries resulted from scalds and flames accounted for 89.6% and 7.3%, 70.8% and 21.9%, 51.6% and 41.9% in the age group of 0-3, 4-6 and 7-14 years respectively. The distribution of burn etiology in different age groups differed significantly (χ(2)=21.239, 59.442, 7.333, all P<0.01). Most of the patients (57.8%) were admitted within 2 hours after injury. However, when it came to the pre-hospital emergency management of burn wound, 164 patients (33.7%) did not use any drug or wound dressing, whereas the wound area of 236 patients (48.6%) were treated improperly with toothpaste, soy sauce, eggs or other non-standard disposal. The mean TBSA area of the patients was (42.1±14.5)%, while 288 (59.3%) of the patients suffered full thickness burns with mean TBSA of (24.5±17.9)%. The case fatality rate (CFR) was 4.1%, and the CFR of patients complicated with inhalation injury was significantly higher than those without (P<0.01). The average length

  1. Investigation of Noises in GPS Time Series: Case Study on Epn Weekly Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz; Kosek, Wieslaw; Gruszczynski, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    The noises in GPS time series are stated to be described the best by the combination of white (Gaussian) and power-law processes. They are mainly the effect of mismodelled satellite orbits, Earth orientation parameters, atmospheric effects, antennae phase centre effects, or of monument instability. Due to the fact, that velocities of permanent stations define the kinematic reference frame, they have to fulfil the requirement of being stable at 0.1 mm/yr. The previously performed researches showed, that the wrong assumption of noise model leads to the underestimation of velocities and their uncertainties from 2 up to even 11, especially in the Up direction. This presentation focuses on more than 200 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) stations from the area of Europe with various monument types (concrete pillars, buildings, metal masts, with or without domes, placed on the ground or on the rock) and coordinates of weekly changes (GPS weeks 0834-1459). The topocentric components (North, East, Up) in ITRF2005 which come from the EPN Re-Processing made by the Military University of Technology Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC) were processed with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) using CATS software. We have assumed the existence of few combinations of noise models (these are: white, flicker and random walk noise with integer spectral indices and power-law noise models with fractional spectral indices) and investigated which of them EPN weekly time series are likely to follow. The results show, that noises in GPS time series are described the best by the combination of white and flicker noise model. It is strictly related to the so-called common mode error (CME) that is spatially correlated error being one of the dominant error source in GPS solutions. We have assumed CME as spatially uniform, what was a good approximation for stations located hundreds of kilometres one to another. Its removal with spatial filtering reduces the amplitudes of white and flicker noise by a

  2. Qualitative study investigating the commissioning process for older people's services provided by third sector organisations: SOPRANO study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Gina; Chadborn, Neil; Craig, Chris; Gladman, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The commissioning of third sector services for older people may influence the quality, availability and coordination of services for older people. The SOPRANO study aims to understand the relationships between and processes of commissioning bodies and third sector organisations providing health and social care services for older people. Methods and analysis This qualitative study will be based in the East Midlands region of England. An initial scoping survey of commissioners will give an overview of services to maintain the health and well-being of older people in the community that are commissioned. Following this, semistructured interviews will be conducted with 4 sample groups: health and social care commissioners, service provider managers, service provider case workers and older service users. A sample size of 10–15 participants in each of the 4 groups is expected to be sufficient to reach data saturation, resulting in a final expected sample size of 40–60 participants. Informed consent will be gained from all participants, and those unable to provide informed consent will be excluded. The interview data will be analysed by 2 researchers using framework content analysis. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study has been gained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethical review board, and the relevant approvals have been gained from the National Health Service (NHS) research and development departments for interviewing NHS staff. Early engagement with a wide range of stakeholders will ensure that the research findings are extensively disseminated to relevant stakeholders (including commissioners and third sector providers) in an accessible format using the extensive communication networks available to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care CLAHRCs (applied health research organisations covering all of England). The study will also be disseminated

  3. Biosorption of metal contaminants using immobilized biomass: A laboratory study. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, T.H.; Ferguson, C.R.; Bennett, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed porous beads containing immobilized biological materials for removing metal contaminants from waste waters. The beads, designated as BIO-FIX beads, are prepared by blending biomass, such as sphagnum peat moss or algae, into a polymer solution and spraying the mixture into water. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine bead sorption and elution characteristics. Batch and continuous tests demonstrated that BIO-FIX beads sorbed arsenic, cadmium, lead, and other toxic metals from acid mine drainage waters collected from several sites. Selectivity for heavy and toxic metal ions over calcium and magnesium was demonstrated. The beads exhibited excellent metal sorption and handling characteristics in stirred tanks, column contactors, and a low-maintenance passive system. The sorption process was reversible, and metal ions were eluted from the beads using dilute mineral acids. Cyclic tests indicated that the beads continued to extract metal ions after repeated loading-elution cycles.

  4. Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic Induction Surveys in Hydrogeological Investigations; Case Study from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oryński, Szymon; Okoń, Marta; Klityński, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, a geophysical survey was carried out in the surroundings of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, using a Very Low Frequency method. The measurements were designed to determine the reason of frequent flooding of the lowest level of the building. The main objective of the study was to find out from where and in which way the rainwater seeps into the building and how this problem can be solved in the least invasive manner. The aim of geophysical methods was also to provide necessary information that will enable the construction of a hydro-geological model of the local environment. The interpretation revealed the presence of a sandy gutter surrounded by impermeable clay. There is a big resistivity contrast between those layers. Their location and approximate dimensions were determined.

  5. Investigation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography towards the study of microstructure of articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Lu, Zenghai; Le Maitre, Christine; Wilkinson, J. Mark; Matcher, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    This paper highlights the extended Jones matrix calculus based multi-angle study carried out to understand the depth dependent structural orientation of the collagen fibers in articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). A 3D lamellar model for the collagen fiber orientation, with a quadratic profile for the arching of the collagen fibers in transitional zone which points towards an ordered arrangement of fibers in that zone is the basis of the organization architecture of collagen fibers in articular cartilage. Experimental data for both ex-vivo bovine fetlock and human patellar cartilage samples are compared with theoretical predictions, with a good quantitative agreement for bovine and a reasonable qualitative agreement for human articular cartilage samples being obtained

  6. After the doctorate: a qualitative study investigating nursing research career development in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawafleh, Ahmed; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Evans, Catrin

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the development of postdoctoral nursing research careers in non-Western contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Jordanian graduates of UK PhD programs. Interviews were held with 16 graduates who worked in the nursing faculty of seven different universities in Jordan. Participants reported that their doctoral degree had equipped them with confidence and enthusiasm for developing a research career. Mentorship, leadership, and peer support were identified as essential to supporting ongoing research activity. Access to these sources of support was variable and participants also described a range of institutional and organizational structures that directly or indirectly discouraged them from developing research productivity. This research suggests that support for postdoctoral novice researchers is an important area for further attention - for Jordanian universities, for UK PhD supervisors (and their associated academic departments), and for the wider nursing community.

  7. Investigating parent of origin effects in studies of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rampersaud, Evadnie; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Naj, Adam C.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2010-01-01

    The role of parent-of-origin effects (POE) in the etiology of complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity is currently of intense interest, but still largely unclear. POE are transmittable genetic effects whereby the expression of the phenotype in the offspring depends upon whether the transmission originated from the mother or father. In mammals, POE can be caused by genetic imprinting, intrauterine effects, or maternally inherited mitochondrial genes. In this paper, we describe the different mechanisms underlying POE, characterize known examples of POE in rare forms of diabetes, and review the evidence from linkage and association studies for POE in T2DM and obesity. Finally, we summarize some of the new and established statistical and experimental approaches commonly used to detect POE. Through this paper, we hope emphasizes the potentially significant importance of POE in the etiology of T2DM and obesity. PMID:18991601

  8. Healthy competition: A qualitative study investigating persuasive technologies and the gamification of cycling.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Paul

    2016-10-28

    Changing socio-technical practices occurring within cycling are leading the pursuit, and its participants, to become ever more embedded into the networked digital world. GPS enabled mobile-technologies have introduced a new element of competition into recreational riding, whether on the road, competing over timed virtual segments, or online dissecting and comparing the data that has been logged and shared via dedicated ride-logging applications. In order to understand these technologies qualitative study using reflective diaries and semi-structured interviews has been conducted with experienced club cyclists who had fully experienced the effects of their arrival. These riders claim that the applications influence their route choice and motivate them to cycle more frequently, and at a greater intensity although the engagement changes over time. This paper explores how this increased motivation to exercise and compete is instigated, manifested and maintained in the everyday practices of cyclists, as well as the negative consequences of gamification.

  9. AFM investigation and optical band gap study of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mansoor, M.; Abubakar; Asim, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The interest into deposition of nanocrystalline PbS thin films, the potential of designing and tailoring both the topographical features and the band gap energy (Eg) by controlling growth parameters, has significant technological importance. Nanocrystalline thin films of lead sulfide were grown onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The experiments were carried out by varying deposition temperature. We report on the modification of structural and optical properties as a function of deposition temperature. The morphological changes of the films were analyzed by using SEM and AFM. AFM was also used to calculate average roughness of the films. XRD spectra indicated preferred growth of cubic phase of PbS films in (200) direction with increasing deposition time. Optical properties have been studied by UV-Spectrophotometer. From the diffused reflectance spectra we have calculated the optical Eg shift from 0.649-0.636 eV with increasing deposition time.

  10. Studies of heat-source driven natural convection: A numerical investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emara, A. A.; Kulacki, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal convection driven by uniform volumetric energy sources was studied in a horizontal fluid layer bounded from above by a rigid, isothermal surface and from below by a rigid, zero heat-flux surface. The side walls of the fluid domain were assumed to be rigid and perfectly insulating. The computations were formally restricted to two-dimensional laminar convection but were carried out for a range of Rayleigh numbers which spans the regimes of laminar and turbulent flow. The results of the computations consists of streamline and isotherm patterns, horizontally averaged temperature distributions, and horizontally averaged Nusselt numbers at the upper surface. Flow and temperature fields do not exhibit a steady state, but horizontally averaged Nusselt numbers reach limiting, quasi-steady values for all Rayleigh numbers considered. Correlations of the Nusselt number in terms of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers were determined.

  11. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Effects of Barefoot Running on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Ross G; Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Magyari, Peter M; Floyd, Shelley

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the potential cognitive benefits of running barefoot compared to shod. Young adults (N = 72, M age = 24.4 years, SD = 5.5) ran both barefoot and shod on a running track while stepping on targets (poker chips) and when not stepping on targets. The main finding was that participants performed better on a working memory test when running barefoot compared to shod, but only when they had to step on targets. These results supported the idea that additional attention is needed when running barefoot to avoid stepping on objects that could potentially injure the foot. Significant increases in participant's heart rate were also found in the barefoot condition. No significant differences were found in participants' speed across conditions. These findings suggested that working memory may be enhanced after at least 16 minutes of barefoot running if the individual has to focus attention on the ground.

  12. Learning and teaching science as inquiry: A case study of elementary school teachers' investigations of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zee, Emily H.; Hammer, David; Bell, Mary; Roy, Patricia; Peter, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    This case study documents an example of inquiry learning and teaching during a summer institute for elementary and middle school teachers. A small group constructed an explanatory model for an intriguing optical phenomenon that they were observing. Research questions included: What physics thinking did the learners express? What aspects of scientific inquiry were evident in what the learners said and did? What questions did the learners ask one another as they worked? How did these learners collaborate in constructing understanding? How did the instructor foster their learning? Data sources included video- and audio- tapes of instruction, copies of the participants' writings and drawings, field notes, interviews, and staff reflections. An interpretative narrative of what three group members said and did presents a detailed account of their learning process. Analyses of their utterances provide evidence of physics thinking, scientific inquiry, questioning, collaborative sense making, and insight into ways to foster inquiry learning.

  13. Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

    2012-05-01

    Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event.

  14. Investigation study on the nonlinear optical properties of natural dyes: Chlorophyll a and b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouissa, B.; Bouchouit, K.; Abed, S.; Essaidi, Z.; Derkowska, B.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-04-01

    We report the results on third and second order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of two natural pigments extracted from spinach. The last were identified by UV-vis spectral analysis. Thin films were prepared by spin coating technique and deposited on glass substrate. The measurements of third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities were performed in solutions using degenerate four wave mixing technique (DFWM) at the measurement wavelength of 532 nm. The third and second order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the studied pigments were also evaluated on thin films using the third and second harmonics generation (THG and SHG) Maker fringes technique respectively at 1064 nm. All these results were in good agreement with the literature data.

  15. Investigating the ways that older people cope with dementia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Preston, Laura; Marshall, Ann; Bucks, Romola S

    2007-03-01

    Understanding the way that older people cope with dementia has important implications for the enhancement of the psychological well-being and quality of life of this group of people. This qualitative study explored how older people cope with dementia, by engaging 12 people with early-stage dementia in semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to identify the shared themes in participants' accounts. Three major themes emerged: "managing identity in relation to dementia", "making sense of dementia", and "coping strategies and mechanisms" (the latter theme divided into "everyday, individual strategies", "coping in relation to others", and "personal attitude/approach"). There were also two additional themes in relation to process issues: issues of "conflict and control" which were evident across all other themes, as was individuality and the importance of "context" in coping with dementia. These findings are discussed in the relation to previous research in this field, and suggestions for further research and clinical practice are outlined.

  16. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij; Sandberg, Mårten; Group, The Euphorea

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA). Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60%) reported base characteristics only and 73 (51%) sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base) resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36%) and trauma (36%) prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission). Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions); endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network. PMID:25538947

  17. Investigation of Sbas L1/L5 Signals and Their Application to the Ionospheric TEC Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padokhin, A. M.; Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E. S.; Nesterov, I. A.; Kurbatov, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of SBAS systems the dual frequency L1/L5 observations from a number of geostationary satellites are now available. It provides the possibility to retrieve ionospheric TEC from these observations using the same approach as for dual frequency GPS/GLONASS observations. In this work we study the properties of L1/L5 signals of American WAAS and Indian GAGAN geostationary satellites observed with geodetic GNSS receivers located at equatorial and mid-latitudes and estimate corresponding TEC and errors of such estimations. Along with the advantages of geostationary TEC observations, such as almost motionless underionospheric point, there are points that should be taken into account when analyzing geostationary TEC data, including larger amount of plasmaspheric electron content in geostationary TEC compared to GNSS observations, and very low elevation angles of geostationary satellites already at midlatitudes, so the spatial gradients of electron density should be considered. We present long term datasets of geostationary TEC variations during current Solar cycle in various heliogeophysical conditions at equatorial and midlatitude stations and their comparison with the data of nearest ionosondes and high-orbital radiotomography, as well as spectral and wavelet analysis of geostationary TEC variations data, providing typical periods of observed TEC variations at different time scales (e.g. diurnal variations, disturbances associated with sunset and sunrise terminator etc.). We also study the possibility to include the geostationary TEC data to the ionospheric tomography procedures. The authors acknowledge the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (12-05-33065, 12-05-31231, 13-05-01122, 13-05-10080, 14-05-31445), grant of the President of Russian Federation MK-2544.2012.5 and Lomonosov Moscow State University Program of Development.

  18. Investigating reduction of dimensionality during single-joint elbow movements: a case study on muscle synergies.

    PubMed

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Berret, Bastien; Delis, Ioannis; Panzeri, Stefano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    A long standing hypothesis in the neuroscience community is that the central nervous system (CNS) generates the muscle activities to accomplish movements by combining a relatively small number of stereotyped patterns of muscle activations, often referred to as "muscle synergies." Different definitions of synergies have been given in the literature. The most well-known are those of synchronous, time-varying and temporal muscle synergies. Each one of them is based on a different mathematical model used to factor some EMG array recordings collected during the execution of variety of motor tasks into a well-determined spatial, temporal or spatio-temporal organization. This plurality of definitions and their separate application to complex tasks have so far complicated the comparison and interpretation of the results obtained across studies, and it has always remained unclear why and when one synergistic decomposition should be preferred to another one. By using well-understood motor tasks such as elbow flexions and extensions, we aimed in this study to clarify better what are the motor features characterized by each kind of decomposition and to assess whether, when and why one of them should be preferred to the others. We found that three temporal synergies, each one of them accounting for specific temporal phases of the movements could account for the majority of the data variation. Similar performances could be achieved by two synchronous synergies, encoding the agonist-antagonist nature of the two muscles considered, and by two time-varying muscle synergies, encoding each one a task-related feature of the elbow movements, specifically their direction. Our findings support the notion that each EMG decomposition provides a set of well-interpretable muscle synergies, identifying reduction of dimensionality in different aspects of the movements. Taken together, our findings suggest that all decompositions are not equivalent and may imply different neurophysiological

  19. Investigation of the Prevalence of Obesity in Iran: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Asghar; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Sarokhani, Diana; Islami, Farhad; Sarokhani, Mandana

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is one of the main public health problems which underlie many chronic illnesses and socioeconomic difficulties. According to the literature review, there are limited data on the prevalence of obesity in different parts of Iran as well as its trend and prevalence among different age and gender groups. The aim of this study was to estimate the obesity prevalence in Iran using meta-analysis. All the corresponding articles published in the external and internal journals, final reports of research projects, articles of related congresses and the reference index of the correlated papers published between 1995 and 2010 were collected via the electronic research engines (PubMed, Scopus, SID, Magiran, IranMedex). Data were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model) and meta-regression). A total of 144 articles with the sample size of 377858 people (134588 males and 164858 females) were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of obesity in populations above the age of 18 was estimated as 21.7% (CI 95%: 18.5% - 25%) and in populations below 18 as 6.1% (CI 95%: 6.8%-5.4%). Meta-regression analysis showed an ascending trend in the prevalence of obesity in Iran. The prevalence rates of obesity according to the BMI index, NCHC and percentile above 95 were 17.4%, 7.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The BMI mean was 19.3 in populations below the age of 18 (CI 95%: 17-21.6) and 25.2 in those above the age of 18 (CI 95%: 27.1-23.3). Considering the increasing rate of obesity in Iran and its effects on the public health, corresponding health authorities should revise the obesity preventive programs and, using public health interventions, reduce the rate of obesity in the country.

  20. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carr, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending belt of volcanism. This belt developed about 8 Myr ago following cessation of silicic volcanism and contemporaneous with migration of basaltic activity toward the southwest margin of the Great Basin. Two types of fields are present in the belt: (1) large-volume, long-lived basalt and local rhyolite fields with numerous eruptive centers and (2) small-volume fields formed by scattered basaltic scoria cones. Late Cenozoic basalts of the NTS region belong to the second field type. Monogenetic basalt centers of this region were formed mostly by Strombolian eruptions; Surtseyean activity has been recognized at three centers. Geochemically, the basalts of the NTS region are classified as straddle A-type basalts of the alkalic suite. Petrological studies indicate a volumetric dominance of evolved hawaiite magmas. Trace- and rare-earth-element abundances of younger basalt (<4 Myr) of the NTS region and southern Death Valley area, California, indicate an enrichment in incompatible elements, with the exception of rubidium. The conditional probability of recurring basaltic volcanism and disruption of a repository by that event is bounded by the range of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} as calculated for a 1-yr period. Potential disruptive and dispersal effects of magmatic penetration of a repository are controlled primarily by the geometry of basalt feeder systems, the mechanism of waste incorporation in magma, and Strombolian eruption processes.

  1. Violence permeating daily life: a qualitative study investigating perspectives on violence among women in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Mogren, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explored how married women perceive situations which create family conflicts and lead to different forms of violence in urban Pakistan. In addition, it examines perceptions of consequences of violence, their adverse health effects, and how women resist violence within marital life. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 28 women in Karachi. Purposive sampling, aiming for variety in age, employment status, education, and socioeconomic status, was employed. The focus group discussions were conducted in Urdu and translated into English. Manifest and latent content analysis were applied. Results: One major theme emerged during the analysis, ie, family violence through the eyes of females. This theme was subdivided into three main categories. The first category, ie, situations provoking violence and their manifestations, elaborates on circumstances that provoke violence and situations that sustain violence. The second category, ie, actions and reactions to exposure to violence, describes consequences of ongoing violence within the family, including those that result in suicidal thoughts and actions. The final category, ie, resisting violence, describes how violence is avoided through women’s awareness and actions. Conclusion: The current study highlights how female victims of abuse are trapped in a society where violence from a partner and family members is viewed as acceptable, where divorce is unavailable to the majority, and where societal support of women is limited. There is an urgent need to raise the subject of violence against women and tackle this human rights problem at all levels of society by targeting the individual, family, community, and societal levels concurrently. PMID:23152709

  2. ERP investigation of study-test background mismatch during face recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Guillem, François; Tiberghien, Guy; Stip, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Old/new effects on event-related potentials (ERP) were explored in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 paired comparison subjects during unfamiliar face recognition. Extrinsic perceptual changes - which influence the overall familiarity of an item while retaining face-intrinsic features for use in structural face encoding - were manipulated between the study phase and the test. The question raised here concerns whether these perceptual incongruities would have a different effect on the sense of familiarity and the corresponding behavioral and ERP measures in the two groups. The results showed that schizophrenia patients were more inclined to consider old faces shown against a new background as distractors. This drop in face familiarity was accompanied by the disappearance of ERP old/new effects in this condition, i.e., FN400 and parietal old/new effects. Indeed, while ERP old/new recognition effects were found in both groups when the picture of the face was physically identical to the one presented for study, the ERP correlates of recognition disappeared among patients when the background behind the face was different. This difficulty in disregarding a background change suggests that recognition among patients with schizophrenia is based on a global perceptual matching strategy rather than on the extraction of configural information from the face. The correlations observed between FN400 amplitude, the rejection of faces with a different background, and the reality-distortion scores support the idea that the recognition deficit found in schizophrenia results from early anomalies that are carried over onto the parietal ERP old/new effect. Face-extrinsic perceptual variations provide an opportune situation for gaining insight into the social difficulties that patients encounter throughout their lives.

  3. Chemobrain Experienced by Breast Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Ethnography Study Investigating Research and Care Implications

    PubMed Central

    Selamat, Maryam Hafsah; Loh, Siew Yim; Mackenzie, Lynette; Vardy, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment, colloquially termed “chemobrain”, occurs in 10–40% of all cancer patients, and is an emerging target of cancer survivorship research. Aim This study reviews published qualitative studies to explore cognitive impairments or chemobrain among breast cancer survivors, with particular attention given to the impact on quality of life. Method Using keywords, we searched ten electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Proquest, OVID SP, MEDLINE, Oxford Journal, Science Direct, PubMED). Findings Of 457 papers, seven relevant papers were included. Data was extracted and concepts were analysed using a meta ethnography approach. Four second order intepretations were identified, on the basis of which, four third order intrepretations were constructed. Linked together in a line of argument, was a consistent account on their struggles to self-manage the chemobrain impairments that impact their daily lives. Five concepts emerged from the analysis of the primary findings: i) real experiences of cognitive changes, ii) calls for help, iii) impact of cognitive impairments, iv) coping and v) survivorship and meaning. Further synthesis resulted in four new order intepretations: i) The chemobrain struggle, ii) The substantial impact of chemobrain on life domains, iii) The struggle to readjust and to self manage, and iv) ‘thankful yet fearful’ representation. Discussion Awareness of cognitive changes were context-dependent on healthcare settings and cultural contexts as strong determinants. Subjects verified the existence of chemobrain but healthcare providers mis-recognised, under-recognised, and sometimes negated it perhaps due to its unknown aetiology. Asian breast cancer survivors appear less vocal than their western counterparts. Conclusion The current literature on the lived experiences of how women experienced chemobrain provides a consistent report that chemobrain is real, persistent and with detrimental impacts on quality of life - manifested

  4. Study of a patient population investigated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).

    PubMed

    Laffont, F; Mallet, A; Mayer, G; Meunier, S; Minz, M; N'Doye, S; Quilfen-Buzare, M A

    2002-12-01

    This study included all patients referred to the out-patient department of our sleep disorders centre from 1993 to 1999 on account of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). As a first step, patients in whom a diagnosis was established following appropriate polysomnography were excluded: this included sleep apnea syndrome, increased upper airway resistance syndrome, narcolepsy, periodic movements during sleep or other parasomnia, and epilepsy. Patients regularly taking psychotropic substances or with psychiatric disorders were also excluded. Finally, 128 patients remained in whom no clear diagnosis had been established for EDS, 70 women and 58 men, their ages ranging from 16 to 77 years. They underwent a 48-h recording (night 1-MSLT-night 2-continuous day). The aim of the study was to establish, define and characterise different groups of undiagnosed EDS patients using clinical, electrophysiological and immunological data with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. Eight groups were characterised: group 1: mild hypersomnia type 1 (n = 11); group 2: hypersomnia frequently associated with HLA type DR2-DQw1 (n = 11); group 3: mild hypersomnia type 2 (n = 28); group 4: morning recovery from disrupted sleep (n = 19); group 5: young "long sleepers with difficulty at waking up" (n = 17); group 6: idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 15); group 7: poor or short sleepers since childhood (n = 8); group 8: older poor sleepers with a late onset of symptoms (n = 19). Characteristic features of these different groups provided consistent and objective arguments leading to a more precise diagnosis for these patients, and helped the initiation of appropriate management and treatment.

  5. Psychosocial work conditions, social participation and social capital: a causal pathway investigated in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is often claimed to be promoted by stable social structures such as low migration rates between neighbourhoods and social networks that remain stable over time. However, stable social structures may also inhibit the formation of social capital in the form of social networks and social participation. One example is psychosocial conditions at work, which may be determined by characteristics such as demand and control in the work situation. The study examines the active workforce subpopulation within the Swedish Malmö Shoulder Neck Study. A total of 7836 individuals aged 45-69 years, were interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994, and at a 1-year follow-up. Four groups of baseline psychosocial work conditions categories defined by the Karasek-Theorell model (jobstrain, passive, active, relaxed) were analysed according to 13 different social participation items during the past year reported at the 1-year follow-up. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with the jobstrain group as a reference were estimated. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation between the four psychosocial work conditions groups. The results show that the respondents within the active category in particular but also the relaxed category, have significantly higher participation in many of the 13 social participation items, even after multivariate adjustments. The results strongly suggest that psychosocial work conditions may be an important determinant of social capital measured as social participation, a finding of immediate public health relevance because of the well known positive association between social participation and health-related behaviours.

  6. The PEGASUS project--a prospective cohort study for the investigation of drug use in pregnancy. PEGASUS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Irl, C; Hasford, J

    1997-12-01

    Since the thalidomide disaster, it is well accepted that drugs can have adverse effects on the developing human being. Although numerous studies show that medication during pregnancy is wide-spread, there still is a serious lack of comprehensive and valid data concerning the risks of drug use during pregnancy. One objective of the PEGASUS project, a population-based cohort study focusing on Munich, is to prospectively record information on drug exposure during pregnancy, to evaluate these data with regard to teratogenic properties, and to contribute to the quality assurance of medical treatment in pregnancy. The results of PEGASUS confirm that drug utilization during pregnancy is rather common--84% of the women use at least one preparation. The most frequent groups are minerals (mainly magnesium), iodide, and iron preparations. Although randomized studies have shown that periconceptional folic acid supplementation considerably reduces the risk of neural tube defects, only very few women in the PEGASUS project recorded folic acid intake during the critical period and in sufficient dosage. Moreover, only 42% of the pregnant women apply iodide prophylaxis in the recommended dosage.

  7. Synthesis, biological investigation, calf thymus DNA binding and docking studies of the sulfonyl hydrazides and their derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Shahzad; Shamim, Saima; Kousar, Naghmana; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the syntheses and biological investigations of sulfonyl hydrazides and their novel derivatives. The detailed investigations involved the characterization of the newly synthesized compounds using FTIR, NMR, mass spectrometry and by single crystal X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis techniques. The binding tendencies of these compounds with CT-DNA (calf thymus DNA) have been explored by electronic absorption (UV) spectroscopy and viscosity measurement. The binding constant (K) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG) values were also calculated accordingly. In addition, we also investigated the biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, enzyme inhibition and DNA interactions. The antioxidant activity was assayed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, while antibacterial activity was investigated against four bacterial strains (viz. Escherichia coli, Crynibacteria bovius, Staphylococcus auras and Bacillus antherasis) by employing the common disc diffusion method. Enzyme inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds was examined against butyrylcholinestrase. The results of enzyme inhibition activity and the DNA binding interaction studies were also collected through molecular docking program using computational analysis. Our study reveals that the newly synthesized compounds possess moderate to good biological activities.

  8. A Study for Visual Realism of Designed Pictures on Computer Screens by Investigation and Brain-Wave Analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ting; Lee, Kun-Chou

    2016-08-01

    In this article, the visual realism of designed pictures on computer screens is studied by investigation and brain-wave analyses. The practical electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement is always time-varying and fluctuating so that conventional statistical techniques are not adequate for analyses. This study proposes a new scheme based on "fingerprinting" to analyze the EEG. Fingerprinting is a technique of probabilistic pattern recognition used in electrical engineering, very like the identification of human fingerprinting in a criminal investigation. The goal of this study was to assess whether subjective preference for pictures could be manifested physiologically by EEG fingerprinting analyses. The most important advantage of the fingerprinting technique is that it does not require accurate measurement. Instead, it uses probabilistic classification. Participants' preference for pictures can be assessed using fingerprinting analyses of physiological EEG measurements.

  9. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubaiey, Najem A.; Walsh, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Silylenes (silanediyls) have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2) are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas) at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using Lindemann

  10. Learning science through talk: A case study of middle school students engaged in collaborative group investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinicola, Debra Ann

    Reformers call for change in how science is taught in schools by shifting the focus towards conceptual understanding for all students. Constructivist learning is being promoted through the dissemination of National and State Science Standards that recommend group learning practices in science classrooms. This study examined the science learning and interactions, using case study methodology, of one collaborative group of 4 students in an urban middle school. Data on science talk and social interaction were collected over 9 weeks through 12 science problem solving sessions. To determine student learning through peer interaction, varied group structures were implemented, and students reflected on the group learning experience. Data included: field notes, cognitive and reflective journals, audiotapes and videotapes of student talk, and audiotapes of group interviews. Journal data were analyzed quantitatively and all other data was transcribed into The Ethnograph database for qualitative analysis. The data record was organized into social and cognitive domains and coded with respect to interaction patterns to show how group members experienced the social construction of science concepts. The most significant finding was that all students learned as a result of 12 talk sessions as evidenced by pre- and post-conceptual change scores. Interactions that promoted learning involved students connecting their thoughts, rephrasing, and challenging ideas. The role structure was only used by students about 15% of the time, but it started the talk with a science focus, created awareness of scientific methods, and created an awareness of equitable member participation. Students offered more spontaneous, explanatory talk when the role structure was relaxed, but did not engage in as much scientific writing. They said the role structure was important for helping them know what to do in the talk but they no longer needed it after a time. Gender bias, status, and early adolescent

  11. Investigations of Sprites During the Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Nelson, T. E.; Cummer, S. A.; Wiens, K. C.; Bedard, A. J.; Williams, E. R.; Lyons, L. N.

    2002-12-01

    During the summer of 2000, a large multi-organization field program was conducted on the U.S. High Plains, near Goodland, KS. STEPS (the Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study) focused on improving our understanding of the co-evolving dynamical, microphysical and electrical properties of convective storms, especially those producing positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+CGs). The New Mexico Tech 3-D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) provided measurements of the height from which electrical charge was lowered to ground, along with the areal coverage of the discharge. Coincident with these measurements, remote low-light television cameras detected many sprites and transient luminous events above the storms from the Yucca Ridge Field Station. ELF transients were recorded in Rhode Island (by MIT) and North Carolina (by Duke). These two systems use similar, but not identical, methodologies to estimate total charge moment changes for lightning discharges. Detailed analyses of LMA and ELF charge moment data have been condcuted for a number of sprite producing +CGs for the 19 July MCS finding, as expected, large charge moment changes (>500-1000 C km) and rather low charge removal heights (~4 km AGL). A detailed study is now underway to assess the charge moment changes for those +CGs in this storm for which no sprites were observed. A similar analysis is being conducted for the storms of 29 - 30 June 2000. The initial phase of this storm contained numerous +CGs associated with a tornadic supercell. The height from which charges were lowered were characteristically higher than in the MCS. We anticipate that the charge moment changes, however, will be substantially lower for those sprite-producing +CGs which occurred later in this storm's evolution. Additionally, infrasound (0.5 to 5 Hz) measurements were obtained by NOAA ETL both at Goodland, KS and Boulder, CO. The 19 July storm produced unique infrasound signatures which temporally matched many sprite

  12. Investigation on trophic state index by artificial neural networks (case study: Dez Dam of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghi, H.; Karimi, L.; Javid, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Dam construction and surface runoff control is one of the most common approaches for water-needs supply of human societies. However, the increasing development of social activities and hence the subsequent increase in environmental pollutants leads to deterioration of water quality in dam reservoirs and eutrophication process could be intensified. So, the water quality of reservoirs is now one of the key factors in operation and water quality management of reservoirs. Hence, maintaining the quality of the stored water and identification and examination of changes along time has been a constant concern of humans that involves the water authorities. Traditionally, empirical trophic state indices of dam reservoirs often defined based on changes in concentration of effective factors (nutrients) and its consequences (increase in chlorophyll a), have been used as an efficient tool in the definition of dam reservoirs quality. In recent years, modeling techniques such as artificial neural networks have enhanced the prediction capability and the accuracy of these studies. In this study, artificial neural networks have been applied to analyze eutrophication process in the Dez Dam reservoir in Iran. In this paper, feed forward neural network with one input layer, one hidden layer and one output layer was applied using MATLAB neural network toolbox for trophic state index (TSI) analysis in the Dez Dam reservoir. The input data of this network are effective parameters in the eutrophication: nitrogen cycle parameters and phosphorous cycle parameters and parameters that will be changed by eutrophication: Chl a, SD, DO and the output data is TSI. Based on the results from estimation of modified Carlson trophic state index, Dez Dam reservoir is considered to be eutrophic in the early July to mid-November and would be mesotrophic with decrease in temperature. Therefore, a decrease in water quality of the dam reservoir during the warm seasons is expectable. The results indicated that

  13. Growth process of microcrystalline silicon studied by combined photoluminescence and Raman investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Klossek, A.; Mankovics, D.; Ratzke, M.; Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M.; Kirner, S.; Gabriel, O.; Stannowski, B.; Schlatmann, R.; Friedrich, F.

    2013-12-14

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon on glass substrates leads to formation of silicon amorphous films with partial crystallization of nano-grains in the amorphous matrix. We studied the transition of amorphous to microcrystalline silicon during such deposition. Formation of silicon nano-grains was detected by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction and the mean size of the nano-grains were estimated by the position and the intensity of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. We showed that the fraction of crystalline silicon in the layers and the size of the nano-grains are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit distinct features related to recombination in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases. A significant narrowing of the photoluminescence peak related to the amorphous phase with increasing crystalline fraction indicates a structural modification in the amorphous silicon. It suggests an ordering process occurring before the start of the actual crystallization. A peak at about 1.4 eV was associated with isolated nano-crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix. A correlation between the peak energy and grain size was found, indicating effects of carrier quantum confinement. The experimental results confirm the established theoretical models for growth of microcrystalline silicon films.

  14. Oxygen precipitation in silicon: Experimental studies and theoretical investigations within the classical theory of nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Falster, R.; Gambaro, D.; Olmo, M.; Cornara, M.; Wei, P. F.

    1999-06-01

    Quantitative measurements of the oxygen precipitate rate as a function of annealing were made in Czochralski-grown silicon wafers that contained different initial concentrations of oxygen. All wafers were annealed at 1000 °C for 15 min to ensure that the initial cluster-size distributions were identical in all samples of the same composition prior to the multi-step annealing treatments used for the precipitation studies. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions for time-dependent nucleation within the classical theory of nucleation. Quantitative agreement is obtained between the measured and calculated densities of oxygen precipitates for nucleation temperatures greater than 600 °C, but only over a narrow range of oxygen composition. Below 600 °C, the measured density for all samples is orders of magnitude larger than is predicted from the model. Further, the measured data show an anomalously small temperature dependence for the induction time for nucleation that does not scale with the diffusion coefficient, as expected from the classical theory of nucleation. Fundamentally, the classical theory of nucleation cannot explain the time-dependent nucleation of oxygen precipitates for temperatures below 650 °C. A possible reason is given.

  15. Theoretical Investigation of Dissolution Test Criteria for Waiver of Clinical Bioequivalence Study.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a theoretical basis for the dissolution test criteria of a biowaiver scheme. The critical dissolution number (Dncrit) was defined as a value to show bioequivalence of AUC and Cmax against infinitely rapid dissolution (Dn = ∞). The gastrointestinal tract was represented by the one-compartment model. The dissolution of a drug was expressed by the Noyes-Whitney equation. The permeation of a drug was expressed by the first-order equation. The approximate analytical solutions of Dncrit were derived from the analytical solution for the fraction of a dose absorbed [Fa = 1 - exp(-1/(1/Dn + Do/Pn)]; Do, the dose number; Pn, the permeation number). Numerical integration was also performed to calculate Dncrit more accurately. Dncrit was found to become smaller as Pn and Do became smaller. Dncrit for Cmax was found to be dependent on the elimination half-life of a drug as well as Pn and Do. The Fa equation can be an appropriate theoretical basis for a biowaiver scheme.

  16. Investigation into the reasons for preventable drug related admissions to a medical admissions unit: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R; Avery, A; Howard, P; Partridge, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the drugs and types of medicine management problems most frequently associated with preventable drug related admissions to an acute medical admissions unit. Design: Observation study. Setting: Medical admissions unit in a teaching hospital in Nottingham, UK. Participants: 4093 patients seen by pharmacists on the medical admissions unit between 1 January and 30 June 2001. Main outcome measures: Proportion of admissions that were drug related and preventable, classification of the underlying causes of preventable drug related admissions, and identification of drugs most commonly associated with preventable drug related admissions. Results: Of the admissions seen by pharmacists, 265 (6.5%) were judged to be drug related and 178 (67%) of these were judged to be preventable. Preventable admissions were mainly due to problems with prescribing (63 cases (35%)), monitoring (46 cases (26%)), and adherence to medication (53 cases (30%)). The drugs most commonly implicated were NSAIDs, antiplatelets, antiepileptics, hypoglycaemics, diuretics, inhaled corticosteroids, cardiac glycosides, and beta-blockers. Conclusions: Potentially preventable drug related morbidity was associated with 4.3% of admissions to a medical admissions unit. In 91% of cases these admissions were related to problems with either prescribing, monitoring, or adherence. PMID:12897361

  17. Investigation and Design Studies of SOFC Electrode Performance at Elevated Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Ohrn; Shung Ik Lee

    2010-07-31

    An experimental program was set forth to study fuel cell performance at pressure and under various compositions. Improvement in cathode electrode performance is on the order of 33-40% at pressures of 6.4 Bara compared to atmospheric pressure. Key cathode operational parameters are the concentration and partial pressure of O2, and temperature. The effect of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) decreases the activation polarization, although there appears to be a secondary effect of absolute pressure as well. The concentration of oxygen impacts the diffusion component of the polarization, which is largely insensitive to absolute pressure. The effect of pressure was found to reduce the total polarization resistance of full fuel-cells beyond the reduction determined for the cathode alone. The total reduction in ASR was on the order of 0.10 ohm-cm2 for a pressure increase from 1 to 6.5 Bara, with about 70% of the improvement being realized from 1 to 4 Bara. An important finding was that there is an effect of steam on the cathode that is highly temperature dependent. The loss of performance at temperatures below 850 C was very large for the standard LSM + YSZ cathodes.

  18. Academic computer science and gender: A naturalistic study investigating the causes of attrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declue, Timothy Hall

    Far fewer women than men take computer science classes in high school, enroll in computer science programs in college, or complete advanced degrees in computer science. The computer science pipeline begins to shrink for women even before entering college, but it is at the college level that the "brain drain" is the most evident numerically, especially in the first class taken by most computer science majors called "Computer Science 1" or CS-I. The result, for both academia and industry, is a pronounced technological gender disparity in academic and industrial computer science. The study revealed the existence of several factors influencing success in CS-I. First, and most clearly, the effect of attribution processes seemed to be quite strong. These processes tend to work against success for females and in favor of success for males. Likewise, evidence was discovered which strengthens theories related to prior experience and the perception that computer science has a culture which is hostile to females. Two unanticipated themes related to the motivation and persistence of successful computer science majors. The findings did not support the belief that females have greater logistical problems in computer science than males, or that females tend to have a different programming style than males which adversely affects the females' ability to succeed in CS-I.

  19. Landscape-epidemiological study design to investigate an environmentally based disease.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Joseph A; O'rourke, Mary Kay; Lebowitz, Michael D; Harris, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Cost-effective approaches for identifying and enrolling subjects in community-based epidemiological studies face many challenges. Additional challenges arise when a neighborhood scale of analysis is required to distinguish between individual- and group-level risk factors with strong environmental determinants. A stratified, two-stage, cross-sectional, address-based telephone survey of Greater Tucson, Arizona, was conducted in 2002-2003. Subjects were recruited from direct marketing data at neighborhood resolution using a geographic information system (GIS). Three geomorphic strata were divided into two demographic units. Households were randomly selected within census block groups, selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Purchased direct marketing lists represented 45.2% of Census 2000 households in the surveyed block groups. Survey design effect (1.6) on coccidioidomycosis prevalence (88 per 100,000 per year) was substantially reduced in four of the six strata (0.3-0.9). Race-ethnicity was more robust than age and gender to compensate for significant selection bias using poststratification. Clustered, address-based telephone surveys provide a cost-effective, valid method for recruiting populations from address-based lists using a GIS to design surveys and population survey statistical methods for analysis. Landscape ecology provides effective methods for identifying scales of analysis and units for stratification that will improve sampling efficiency when environmental variables of interest are strong predictors.

  20. Spectroscopic investigations, molecular interactions, and molecular docking studies on the potential inhibitor "thiophene-2-carboxylicacid"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, T.; Balachandran, V.; Perumal, S.

    2015-04-01

    Thiophene derivatives have been focused in the past decades due to their remarkable biological and pharmacological activities. In connection with that the conformational stability, spectroscopic characterization, molecular (inter- and intra-) interactions, and molecular docking studies on thiophene-2-carboxylicacid have been performed in this work by experimental FT-IR and theoretical quantum chemical computations. Experimentally recorded FT-IR spectrum in the region 4000-400 cm-1 has been compared with the scaled theoretical spectrum and the spectral peaks have been assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution results obtained from MOLVIB program package. The conformational stability of monomer and dimer conformers has been examined. The presence of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the monomer and dimer conformers have been explained by natural bond orbital analysis. The UV-Vis spectra of the sample in different solvents have been simulated and solvent effects were predicted by polarisable continuum model with TD-DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method. To test the biological activity of the sample, molecular docking (ligand-protein) simulations have been performed using SWISSDOCK web server. The full fitness (FF) score and binding affinity values revealed that thiophene-2-carboxylicacid can act as potential inhibitor against inflammation.

  1. An on-road study to investigate fatigue in local/short haul trucking.

    PubMed

    Hanowski, Richard J; Wierwille, Walter W; Dingus, Thomas A

    2003-03-01

    As a precursor to the present research, Hanowski et al. [FHWA Report no. FHWA-MC-98-029. Office of Motor Carriers, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1998] conducted a series of focus groups in which local/short haul (L/SH) drivers provided their perspective on safety issues, including fatigue, in their industry. As a follow-up to the Hanowski et al. work, the effort presented here consisted of an on-road field study where in-service L/SH trucks were instrumented with data collection equipment. Two L/SH trucking companies and 42 L/SH drivers participated in this research. The analyses focused on determining if fatigue is an issue in L/SH operations. Of primary interest were critical incidents (near-crashes) where L/SH drivers were judged to be at fault. The results of the analyses indicated that fatigue was present immediately prior to driver involvement in at-fault critical incidents. Though it is difficult to determine with certainty why fatigue was present, the results suggest that drivers' off-hours behavior likely played a significant role in the fatigue experienced on the job. Another key finding of this research is that a small percentage of drivers were responsible for a majority of the critical incidents. This finding suggests that driver selection and monitoring could potentially improve safety in L/SH operations.

  2. Using Student-Generated Analogies to Investigate Conceptions of Energy: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of energy is widely employed in introductory science courses. However, the term energy is defined and utilized in different ways depending on the context, even within a given discipline. Through the lens of metaphor theory, these various definitions of energy are seen as metaphors that highlight and obscure characteristics of energy. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems (n = 49), chemical reactions (n = 36), mechanical systems (n = 65), and electrical circuits (n = 44). These analogies were analyzed qualitatively using metaphor theory to gain understanding of how students conceptualize energy in these different contexts. The results of this study indicate that students use seven different conceptual metaphors to explain the role of energy in various scientific contexts: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can flow, can change forms, can be carried, can be lost, can be an ingredient or a product, and energy as a process or interaction. This result gives teachers a framework to use in evaluating student ideas about energy.

  3. Investigating theoretical explanations for behaviour change: the case study of ProActive.

    PubMed

    Michie, Susan; Hardeman, Wendy; Fanshawe, Tom; Prevost, A Toby; Taylor, Lyndsay; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2008-01-01

    Developing more effective behavioural interventions requires an understanding of the mechanisms of behaviour change, and methods to rigorously test their theoretical basis. The delivery and theoretical basis of an intervention protocol were assessed in ProActive, a UK trial of an intervention to increase the physical activity of those at risk of Type 2 diabetes (N = 365). In 108 intervention sessions, behaviours of facilitators were mapped to four theories that informed intervention development and behaviours of participants were mapped to 17 theoretical components of these four theories. The theory base of the intervention specified by the protocol was different than that delivered by facilitators, and that received by participants. Of the intervention techniques delivered, 25% were associated with theory of planned behaviour (TPB), 42% with self-regulation theory (SRT), 24% with operant learning theory (OLT) and 9% with relapse prevention theory (RPT). The theoretical classification of participant talk showed a different pattern, with twice the proportion associated with OLT (48%), 21% associated with TPB, 31% with SRT and no talk associated with RPT. This study demonstrates one approach to assessing the extent to which the theories used to guide intervention development account for any changes observed.

  4. Investigating the efficacy of practical skill teaching: a pilot-study comparing three educational methods.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation.

  5. Structural investigations of DNA-histone complexes. A spin label study.

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, B K; Chignell, C F; Wee, V T

    1979-01-01

    We have prepared two acridine spin labels, 6-chloro-9-[4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy)amino]-2-methoxyacridine (I) and 9-[4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy)amino]-acridine (II) and have used them to study the binding of lysine-rich histone (H1) to DNA using electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra of I in the presence of DNA, polydA-polydT and polydG-polydC were characteristic of highly immobilized radicals with maximum hyperfine splitting (2T11) of 59G, 62.5G and 59G respectively. However, the 2T11 values for II in the same systems were 55.5G, 55.5G and 62.5G respectively. Addition of H1 at a low P/D released ionically bound I and II from DNA. In the presence of 0.1 M NaCl, which prevents ionic binding, H1 still caused a significant release of bound II but not I from DNA. At a high P/D (with or without NaCl) H1 caused no displacement of either I or II. Our findings suggest that H1 does not affect the intercalating sites and probably binds to one of the grooves of DNA, most probably the major groove, and specifically in the A-T-rich regions. PMID:226941

  6. Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast.

    PubMed Central

    Chance, B; Luo, Q; Nioka, S; Alsop, D C; Detre, J A

    1997-01-01

    The utility and performance of optical studies of tissue depends upon the contrast and the changes of contrast in health and disease and in functional activity. The contrast is determined both by the optical properties of extrinsic chromophores and scatterers but especially upon the changes evoked by physiological activity and pathological states. Here, we have focused upon absorption changes of the intrinsic probe, blood absorbance changes due to cortical hypoxia and to haematomas, giving, for particular conditions, absorbance changes of 0.15 and over 0.4 delta OD, respectively. Functional activity may give changes of blood volume of over 0.05 delta OD with some variability due to individual responses that is best expressed as histogram displays of the distribution of response among a significant population. Responses have been observed in prefrontal parietal and occipital functions (242 tests). Extrinsic probes afford signals dependent upon the dose tolerance of the subject and can readily equal or exceed the blood volume and oxygenation signals, and currently afford vascular volume and flow indications. However, contrast agents for the functional activity of cellular function are ultimately to be expected. Finally, light-scattering changes afford osmolyte-related responses and are here shown to indicate a larger signal attributed to cortical depolarization and K+ release in hypoxia/ischaemia. Thus, the optical method affords imaging of manifold contrasts that greatly enhance its specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic procedures. PMID:9232859

  7. Forensic Investigation of Cooperative Storage Cloud Service: Symform as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Teing, Yee-Yang; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Dargahi, Tooska; Conti, Mauro

    2016-11-25

    Researchers envisioned Storage as a Service (StaaS) as an effective solution to the distributed management of digital data. Cooperative storage cloud forensic is relatively new and is an under-explored area of research. Using Symform as a case study, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of cooperative cloud storage services. In particular, we consider both mobile devices and personal computers running various popular operating systems, namely Windows 8.1, Mac OS X Mavericks 10.9.5, Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS, iOS 7.1.2, and Android KitKat 4.4.4. Potential artefacts recovered during the research include data relating to the installation and uninstallation of the cloud applications, log-in to and log-out from Symform account using the client application, file synchronization as well as their time stamp information. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artifacts that are likely to remain after the use of cooperative storage cloud on client devices.

  8. Injectable Chitosan/β-Glycerophosphate System for Sustained Release: Gelation Study, Structural Investigation, and Erosion Tests.

    PubMed

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Abrami, Michela; Galzerano, Barbara; Bochicchio, Sabrina; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Larobina, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels can constitute reliable delivery systems of drugs, including those based on nucleic acids (NABDs) such as small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA). Their nature, structure, and response to physiological or external stimuli strongly influence the delivery mechanisms of entrapped active molecules, and, in turn, their possible uses in pharmacological and biomedical applications. In this study, a thermo-gelling chitosan/β-glycero-phosphate system has been optimized in order to assess its use as injectable system able to: i) gelling at physiological pH and temperature, and ii) modulate the release of included active ingredients. To this aim, we first analyzed the effect of acetic acid concentration on the gelation temperature. We then found the "optimized composition", namely, the one in which the Tgel is equal to the physiological temperature. The resulting gel was tested, by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), to evaluate its average mesh-size, which can affect release kinetics of loaded drug. Finally, films of gelled chitosan, loaded with a model drug, have been tested in vitro to monitor their characteristic times, i.e. diffusion and erosion time, when they are exposed to a medium mimicking a physiological environment (buffer solution at pH 7.4). Results display that the optimized system is deemed to be an ideal candidate as injectable gelling material for a sustained release.

  9. Investigation into Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Designs: A Patient-Specific Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Fabiola; Latorre, Malcolm A.; Göransson, Nathanael; Zsigmond, Peter; Wårdell, Karin

    2016-01-01

    New deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode designs offer operation in voltage and current mode and capability to steer the electric field (EF). The aim of the study was to compare the EF distributions of four DBS leads at equivalent amplitudes (3 V and 3.4 mA). Finite element method (FEM) simulations (n = 38) around cylindrical contacts (leads 3389, 6148) or equivalent contact configurations (leads 6180, SureStim1) were performed using homogeneous and patient-specific (heterogeneous) brain tissue models. Steering effects of 6180 and SureStim1 were compared with symmetric stimulation fields. To make relative comparisons between simulations, an EF isolevel of 0.2 V/mm was chosen based on neuron model simulations (n = 832) applied before EF visualization and comparisons. The simulations show that the EF distribution is largely influenced by the heterogeneity of the tissue, and the operating mode. Equivalent contact configurations result in similar EF distributions. In steering configurations, larger EF volumes were achieved in current mode using equivalent amplitudes. The methodology was demonstrated in a patient-specific simulation around the zona incerta and a “virtual” ventral intermediate nucleus target. In conclusion, lead design differences are enhanced when using patient-specific tissue models and current stimulation mode. PMID:27618109

  10. Cognitive Investigation Study of Patients Admitted for Cosmetic Surgery: Information, Expectations, and Consent for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cogliandro, Annalisa; La Monaca, Giuseppe; Tambone, Vittoradolfo; Persichetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background In all branches of medicine, it is the surgeon's responsibility to provide the patient with accurate information before surgery. This is especially important in cosmetic surgery because the surgeon must focus on the aesthetic results desired by the patient. Methods An experimental protocol was developed based on an original questionnaire given to 72 patients. The nature of the responses, the patients' motivation and expectations, the degree of patient awareness regarding the planned operation, and the patients' perceptions of the purpose of the required consent for cosmetic surgery were all analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results Candidates for abdominal wall surgery had significantly more preoperative psychological problems than their counterparts did (P=0.035). A significantly different percentage of patients under 40 years of age compared to those over 40 years of age searched for additional sources of information prior to the operation (P=0.046). Only 30% of patients with a lower educational background stated that the preoperative information had been adequate, whereas 92% of subjects with secondary schooling or a postsecondary degree felt that the information was sufficient (P=0.001). A statistically significant difference was also present between patients according to their educational background regarding expected improvements in their quality of life postoperatively (P=0.008). Conclusions This study suggests that patients require more attention in presurgical consultations and that clear communication should be prioritized to ensure that the surgeon understands the patient's expectations. PMID:25606489

  11. Investigating the obesogenic effects of marketing snacks with toys: an experimental study in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of toys in food packages is a common marketing practice, and it is suspected of promoting obesogenic behaviours. This study aimed to determine whether toys packaged with food are indeed increasing the amount of food eaten by children, and if this effect is enhanced by contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising. Methods A total of 600 children (balanced according to gender and age groups, 3–6 and 7–10 years old) were randomized in three school facilities in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and exposed to food (snacks) alone or food associated with toys in an experimental setting. All of the children received the same meal at lunchtime. The products were packages in which chocolate was associated with toys in an egg-shaped container partially filled by chocolate. The children were asked to eat ad libitum for 20 minutes during the afternoon break. In addition, the children were randomized into two groups and either shown or not shown a movie cartoon, with three different levels of exposure to commercials in the TV viewing condition (1, 2 or 3 advertisements). Results No significant differences emerged between the “toys” and “no toys” groups even after taking into account exposure to TV, commercials and other confounding factors. Conclusions The inclusion of toys in food packages was not shown per se to lead to an increase in the caloric intake of children. PMID:23841997

  12. A Simulation Study to Investigate the Potential Use of GPM Data for Flood Prediction Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. F.; Cunha, L.; Mandapaka, P.; Mantilla, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone is the near-surface layer that is created by life processes from microbial scale to ecosystems, which in turn supports nearly all the terrestrial living systems. It extends from the top of the canopy to the bedrock. The biotic-abiotic links between the below- and above-ground processes determine the functional role of the critical zone. To predict and assess the impact of climate and other anthropogenic changes on the Critical Zone processes, a model that considers this zone as a continuum and captures the interactions between roots, soil moisture, nutrient uptake, and photosynthesis is developed. We attempt to address a variety of questions: How does elevated CO2 affect photosynthesis and plant water uptake? What role does hydraulic redistribution play in the below- and above-ground interactions? How do these scale when we consider interaction between multiple vegetation species, for example, between tall and understory vegetation? Results from a number of study sites will be presented and their implications will be discussed.

  13. A pilot study to investigate the induction and manipulation of learned helplessness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joseph J; Neitzke, Daniel J; Khouri, George; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Acierno, Ron; Tuerk, Peter W; Schmidt, Matthew; George, Mark S

    2014-11-30

    Eliminating the controllability of a noxious stimulus may induce a learned helplessness (LH) that resembles aspects of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) promotes resilience in an aversive stimulus model of LH. All 55 participants were told that an undisclosed sequence of button presses would terminate an aversive stimulus on their forearm. In truth, only half had control (+C). The other half had no control (-C). All participants received real (R) or sham (S) left DLPFC rTMS during the paradigm (+C/R, -C/S,+C/S,-C/R). We evaluated the cognitive effects of LH using an anagram task. The LH paradigm successfully reduced perceived control in the -C groups. As predicted, the +C/R and +C/S groups tended to give up less quickly and take less time to solve each anagram than did the -C/S group. Superior anagram performance in the -C/R group approached statistical significance. Our preliminary results suggest that manipulating the controllability of an aversive stimulus may induce an LH effect that manifests as impaired anagram performance. Further research is needed to refine this model and determine if DLPFC rTMS mitigates any LH effects.

  14. Developmental studies of the hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behaviors: insights from interdisciplinary studies and tips for new investigators.

    PubMed

    Albani, Sarah H; McHail, Daniel G; Dumas, Theodore C

    2014-06-01

    The hippocampus is not fully developed at birth and, with respect to spatial cognition, only begins to show signs of adult-like function at three postnatal weeks in rodents. Studying the developmental period spanning roughly two to four weeks of age permits an understanding of the neural framework necessary for the emergence of spatial navigation and, quite possibly, human episodic memory. However, due to developmental factors, behavior data collection and interpretation can be severely compromised if inappropriate designs are applied. As such, we propose methodological considerations for the behavioral assessment of hippocampal function in developing rats that take into account animal size, growth rate, and sensory and motor ability. We further summarize recent key interdisciplinary studies that are beginning to unravel the molecular machinery and physiological alterations responsible for hippocampal maturation. In general, hippocampal development is a protracted process during which unique contributions to spatial cognition and complex recognition memory come "on line" at different postnatal ages creating a unique situation for elucidating the neural bases of specific components of higher cognitive abilities.

  15. Developmental studies of the hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behaviors: Insights from interdisciplinary studies and tips for new investigators

    PubMed Central

    Albani, Sarah H.; McHail, Daniel G.; Dumas, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is not fully developed at birth and, with respect to spatial cognition, only begins to show signs of adult-like function at three postnatal weeks in rodents. Studying the developmental period spanning roughly two to four weeks of age permits an understanding of the neural framework necessary for the emergence of spatial navigation and, quite possibly, human episodic memory. However, due to developmental factors, behavior data collection and interpretation can be severely compromised if inappropriate designs are applied. As such, we propose methodological considerations for the behavioral assessment of hippocampal function in developing rats that take into account animal size, growth rate, and sensory and motor ability. We further summarize recent key interdisciplinary studies that are beginning to unravel the molecular machinery and physiological alterations responsible for hippocampal maturation. In general, hippocampal development is a protracted process during which unique contributions to spatial cognition and complex recognition memory come “on line” at different postnatal ages creating a unique situation for elucidating the neural bases of specific components of higher cognitive abilities. PMID:24769291

  16. Geophysical investigation and dynamic modelling of unstable slopes: case-study of Kainama (Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danneels, G.; Bourdeau, C.; Torgoev, I.; Havenith, H.-B.

    2008-10-01

    The presence of massive Quaternary loess units at the eastern border of the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) makes this area particularly prone to the development of catastrophic loess earthflows, causing damages and injuries almost every year. Efficient disaster management requires a good understanding of the main causes of these mass movements, that is, increased groundwater pressure and seismic shaking. This paper focuses on the Kainama earthflow, mainly composed of loess, which occurred in 2004 April. Its high velocity and the long run-out zone caused the destruction of 12 houses and the death of 33 people. In summer 2005, a field survey consisting of geophysical and seismological measurements was carried out along the adjacent slope. By combination and geostatistical analysis of these data, a reliable 3-D model of the geometry and properties of the subsurface layers, as shown in the first part of the paper, was created. The analysis of the seismological data allowed us to point out a correlation between the thickness of the loess cover and the measured resonance frequencies and associated amplification potential. The second part of this paper is focused on the study of the seismic response of the slope by numerical simulations, using a 2-D finite difference code named FLAC. Modelling of the seismic amplification potential along the slope confirmed the results obtained from the seismological survey-strong amplifications at the crest and bottom of the slope where there is a thick loess cover and almost no amplification in the middle part of the slope. Furthermore, dynamic slope stability analyses were conducted to assess the influence of local amplifications and increased groundwater pressures on the slope failure. The results of the dynamic modelling, although preliminary, show that a combination of seismic and hydrologic origin (pore pressure build-up during the seismic shaking) is the most probable scenario responsible for the 2004 failure.

  17. Investigation of characteristics and risk factors of sports injuries in young soccer players: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of children and adolescents in sports has become increasingly frequent, including soccer. This growing involvement gives rise to concerns regarding the risk of sports injuries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the musculoskeletal injuries in young soccer players. Methods 301 male soccer players with a mean age 14.67 ± 2.08 years were randomly recruited. The Referred Condition Inquiry was used to collect information on the mechanism of injury and anatomic site affected as well as personal data on the participants. The variables were analyzed based on the degree of association using Goodman’s test for contrasts between multinomial populations, with the p < 0.05. Results Among the 301 athletes, 24.25% reported at least one injury. With regard to height, taller individuals reported more injuries than shorter individuals (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively; p < 0.05). Injuries were more frequent among players with a training duration greater than five years (69.65%) in comparison to those who trained for a shorter duration (30.35%) (p < 0.05). The lower limbs, especially the ankle/foot and knee, were the most affected anatomic sites. Impact was the most common mechanism of injury. Conclusion The young practitioners of soccer analyzed had low rates of injury. The main causal mechanism was the impact. A taller height and longer exposure to training were the main risk factors for injury among young soccer players. PMID:23602027

  18. Theoretical investigation of structures and energetics of sodium adatom and its dimer on graphene: DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Gupta, Shuchi; Rani, Pooja; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-11-01

    Extensive ab initio calculations have been performed to study the energetics of a sodium (Na) atom and its dimer adsorbed on graphene using the SIESTA package Soler et al. (2002) [1] which works within a DFT(density functional theory)-GGA (generalized gradient approximation) pseudopotential framework. The adsorption energy, geometry, charge transfer, ionization potential and density of states (DOS), partial density states (PDOS) of adatom/dimer-graphene system have been calculated. After considering various sites for adsorption of Na on graphene, the center of a hexagonal ring of carbon atoms is found to be the preferred site of adsorption while the Na2 dimer prefers to rest parallel to the graphene sheet. We find insignificant energy differences among adsorption configurations involving different possible sites in parallel orientation, which implies high mobility of the dimer on the graphene sheet. We also notice only a slight distortion of the graphene sheet perpendicular to its plane upon adatom adsorption. However, some lateral displacements seen are more perceptible. Summary The adsorption energy, geometry, charge transfer, ionization potential and density of states (DOS) and PDOS of adatom/dimer-graphene system have been calculated using SIESTA package Soler et al. (2002) [1] which works within a DFT(density functional theory)-GGA (generalized gradient approximation) pseudopotential framework. Preferred site for adsorption of a sodium atom on graphene is the hollow site. For the Na dimer adsorption, we found that horizontal orientation is favored over the vertical one. From DOS plots, it is clear that graphene's states are nearly unaffected by the adsorption of Na adatom and Interaction between sodium and graphene is predominantly ionic

  19. Investigating Preterm Care at the Facility Level: Stakeholder Qualitative Study in Central and Southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gondwe, Austrida; Munthali, Alister; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Malawi is estimated to have one of the highest preterm birth rates in the world. However, care of preterm infants at facility level in Malawi has not been explored. We aimed to explore the views of health stakeholders about the care of preterm infants in health facilities and the existence of any policy protocol documents guiding the delivery of care to these infants. Methods We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with health stakeholders (11 service providers and 5 policy makers) using an interview guide and asked for any existing policy protocol documents guiding care for preterm infants in the health facilities in Malawi. The collected documents were reviewed and all the interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated. All data were analysed using content analysis approach. Results We identified four policy protocol documents and out of these, one had detailed information explaining the care of preterm infants. Policy makers reported that policy protocol documents to guide care for preterm infants were available in the health facilities but majority (63.6 %) of the service providers lacked knowledge about the existence of these documents. Health stakeholders reported several challenges in caring for preterm infants including lack of trained staff in preterm infant care, antibiotics, space, supervision and poor referral system. Conclusions Our study highlights that improving health care service provider knowledge of preterm infant care is an integral part in preterm child birth. Our findings suggests that policy makers and health decision makers should retain those trained in preterm new born care in the health facility's preterm unit.

  20. Integrated Geophysical and Archaeological investigations to study the site of Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Salvatore; Ceraudo, Giuseppe; Zamuner, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    To enhance the knowledge finalised to the location and conservation of the unknown buried structures below the actual studied levels, in the territory of the Ancient Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy) a scientific collaboration, inside the "Ager Aquinas Project" between the University of Salento (Department of Cultural Heritage - Laboratory of Ancient Topography and Photogrammetry) and the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage (ITABC-C.N.R.) has been developed, during 2008-2009 and it is still in progress. The site which is the subject of this paper had been identified in the past through air photo interpretation of vertical historical coverage and field - walking surveys. Ancient Aquinum is characterised by two main aspects: the first depends by the presence of a very big defence-system with mighty walls and large ditch; the second characteristic is the presence or regular but not orthogonal road - system of the town, bordered by an unusual parallelogram shape of the blocks. With the results obtained after the elaborations of the first aerial data sets and field surveys, has been possible to map the main town - planning, drawing the main road system inside and outside the town. Although the analysis of the air photo evidence allowed the global interpretation of the site, it was not possible to reconstruct the archaeological evidences in the central portion of the town. Therefore the Project, during 2008, started with new acquisition and elaboration of aerial photos, field-walking surveys and GPR surveys with the aim to better define the urban plan of the central portion of the ancient town. The location, depth, and size of the buried buildings were effectively estimated from non-destructive remote sensing with a gradiometric and ground-penetrating radar systems. Recent archaeological excavations made (by Prof. Giuseppe Ceraudo - University of Salento, Lecce) during the summer 2009, have confirmed the structures individuated with the geophysical methods

  1. Investigation of interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors in various buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Arayne, Muhammad Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Abbas, Hira Fatima

    2015-02-01

    This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL-1 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and 1H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.

  2. A pilot study investigating early postoperative changes of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine early postoperative changes of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Methods Ten obese patients (mean BMI: 51.10 ± 11.59 kg/m2) underwent LSG and eleven normal weight control patients (mean BMI: 24.37 ± 2.33 kg/m2) underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Fasting blood samples were collected prior to surgery, at day 1 after surgery and after postoperation oral feeding. Plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured in serum samples by enzyme immunoassay. Results A significant decrease was observed in insulin and HOMA IR levels in sleeve gastrectomy patients after postoperation oral feeding compared to preoperation. Plasma AA levels and AA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in sleeve gastrectomy patients after postoperation oral feeding compared to postoperation day 1. Serum PGE2 levels and AA/DHA ratio was significantly higher in sleeve gastrectomy patients at preoperation, postoperation day 1 and after postoperation oral feeding when compared to control group patients. Conclusion Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity associated with LSG may play a role in the significant increase of plasma AA levels in sleeve gastrectomy patients following postoperation oral feeding. The significant increase in PGE2 levels and AA/DHA ratio in sleeve gastrectomy group patients also confirms the presence of a proinflammatory state in obesity. PMID:24694037

  3. Evaluation of the Flash effect in breast irradiation using TomoDirect: an investigational study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dae Gyu; Park, Sung Ill; Kim, Sung Hwan; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Kwang-Man; Lee, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Flash is a specified function in TomoDirect that enables beam expansion by opening additional leaves to the target. This study assessed the theoretical dose distribution resulting from Flash in breast irradiation using TomoDirect. A cylindrical phantom that enabled dose distribution of the breast was used for verifying the effect of planning target volume (PTV) contouring and Flash. A total of 18 Gy in 10 fractions were prescribed to the PTV. Five PTVs were then created by Contracting this contour by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm, giving PTV-x. Flash ±x is defined by opening x (number) of the leaves. The Flash effect in the air was compared with each set-up error of 5, 10 and 15 mm, respectively. The minimum PTV dose from PTV-1 to PTV-3 increased from 13.88 Gy to 15.86 Gy. In contrast, Dmin in PTV-4 and PTV-5 was 17.80 Gy in 98.88% of the prescription dose. Without Flash, when 5-, 10- and 15-mm set-up errors applied in the PTV, relative doses of 87.88, 23.73 and 7.94% were observed, respectively. However, in Flash 3, which was equal to the usual air margin of 1.875 cm, a relative dose of 104.24% ± 0.30% was observed, irrespective of set-up errors (5 mm to 15 mm). Flash opening is useful for countervailing set-up errors in breast cancer patients who receive breast irradiation with TomoDirect. PMID:25672612

  4. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Mega, M.; Toga, A.W.; Small, G.W.; Phelps, M.E.; Lin, K.P.

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures; segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components; MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI`s) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated ``pure`` image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM`s of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al., and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  5. Cervical disc arthroplasty with PRESTIGE LP disc versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a prospective, multicenter investigational device exemption study.

    PubMed

    Gornet, Matthew F; Burkus, J Kenneth; Shaffrey, Mark E; Argires, Perry J; Nian, Hui; Harrell, Frank E

    2015-07-31

    OBJECT This study compared the safety and efficacy of treatment with the PRESTIGE LP cervical disc versus a historical control anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS Prospectively collected PRESTIGE LP data from 20 investigational sites were compared with data from 265 historical control ACDF patients in the initial PRESTIGE Cervical Disc IDE study. The 280 investigational patients with single-level cervical disc disease with radiculopathy and/or myelopathy underwent arthroplasty with a low-profile artificial disc. Key safety/efficacy outcomes included Neck Disability Index (NDI), Neck and Arm Pain Numerical Rating Scale scores, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) score, work status, disc height, range of motion, adverse events (AEs), additional surgeries, and neurological status. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were completed preoperatively, intraoperatively, and at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Predefined Bayesian statistical methods with noninformative priors were used, along with the propensity score technique for controlling confounding factors. Analysis by independent statisticians confirmed initial statistical findings. RESULTS The investigational and control groups were mostly similar demographically. There was no significant difference in blood loss (51.0 ml [investigational] vs 57.1 ml [control]) or hospital stay (0.98 days [investigational] vs 0.95 days [control]). The investigational group had a significantly longer operative time (1.49 hours vs 1.38 hours); 95% Bayesian credible interval of the difference was 0.01-0.21 hours. Significant improvements versus preoperative in NDI, neck/arm pain, SF-36, and neurological status were achieved by 1.5 months in both groups and were sustained at 24 months. Patient follow-up at 24 months was 97.1% for the investigational group and 84.0% for the control group. The mean NDI score improvements versus preoperative exceeded 30 points in both groups at 12 and 24 months. SF

  6. Using discrepant events in science demonstrations to promote student engagement in scientific investigations: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Vincent J.

    Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In

  7. Investigations on Binding Pattern of Kinase Inhibitors with PPARγ: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamic Simulations, and Free Energy Calculation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Mohit; Das, Umashankar; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a potential target for the treatment of several disorders. In view of several FDA approved kinase inhibitors, in the current study, we have investigated the interaction of selected kinase inhibitors with PPARγ using computational modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS). The docked conformations and MDS studies suggest that the selected KIs interact with PPARγ in the ligand binding domain (LBD) with high positive predictive values. Hence, we have for the first time shown the plausible binding of KIs in the PPARγ ligand binding site. The results obtained from these in silico investigations warrant further evaluation of kinase inhibitors as PPARγ ligands in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28321247

  8. Investigating a toxic risk (self-inflicted) the example of conventional and advanced studies of a novel Tobacco Heating System.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Anthony D

    2016-11-30

    This special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology contains 9 scientific papers from Philip Morris International about the laboratory and 1 about early clinical investigation of a novel 'Tobacco Heating System'. The studies have employed conventional and a wide range of newer 'omics and bioinformatics techniques to seek and explore potential toxic actions of the inhalable vapour it generates. The methods of study and display of results employed are considered to be a valuable guide and model for wider application in other toxicological investigations because they are directed more to proximal causes of effects than to the cruder distal end points revealed by conventional, empirical procedures. As such they should be regarded as a paradigm for the applicability and accuracy of the testing and prediction of toxic risks.

  9. Monofrequency forced oscillation technique for the investigation of pulmonary function in calves: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Close, R; Reinhold, P; Lekeux, P

    1994-05-01

    Parameters derived from the non-invasive and simple monofrequency forced oscillation technique were compared with classical parameters of ventilatory mechanics in order to assess its usefulness for the investigation of pulmonary function in calves. To facilitate this comparison, theoretical derivations were coupled with in vitro measurements, using an artificial lung model, and with in vivo studies. These studies compared the oscillatory resistance parameters (Ros and Re) and the respiratory system compliance (Crs) against the classical pulmonary resistance (RL) and the dynamic compliance (Cdyn), respectively. Ros and Re were highly correlated (r > or = 0.87) with RL and the comparison between Crs and Cdyn gave a similarly high correlation (r > or = 0.88). Given its simplicity, its correspondence with classical parameters and its rapidity and reproducibility, monofrequency forced oscillation technique seems well suited for the investigation of pulmonary function under field conditions.

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume III. Nevada - Utah Verification Studies, FY 79. Geotechnical Data Snake East CDP, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-24

    INVESTIGATION GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION VOLUME III, NEVADA-UTAH VERIFICATION STUDIES, FY 79 GEOTECHNICAL DATA SNAKE EAST CDP , UTAH Prepared for: U. S. Department...Beach Boulevard Long Beach, California 90807 24 August 1979 - NO= NATIONAL, INO. FN-TR-27-III I VOLUME III GEOTECHNICAL DATA, SNAKE EAST CDP - , TABLE...Railroad and Big Smoky CDP’s. Geotechnical Data Volumes Volume II - Whirlwind CDP * Volume III - Snake East CDP Volume IV - Hamlin CDP Volume V - White River

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the appendixes for the remedial investigation and feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The following topics are covered in the appendixes: (A) David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Historical Data, (B) Fieldwork Plans for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, (C) Risk Assessment, (D) Remediation Technology Discussion, (E) Engineering Support Documentation, (F) Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, and (G) Cost Estimate Documentation.

  12. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  13. Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI): A Current Study of Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Gillies, D. C> ; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments in support of the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) were conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) with the goal of promoting our fundamental understanding of melting dynamics , solidification phenomena, and defect generation during materials processing in a microgravity environment. Through the course of many experiments a number of observations, expected and unexpected, have been directly made. These include gradient-driven bubble migration, thermocapillary flow, and novel microstructural development. The experimental results are presented and found to be in good agreement with models pertinent to a microgravity environment. Based on the space station results, and noting the futility of duplicating them in Earth s unit-gravity environment, attention is drawn to the role ISS experimentslhardware can play to provide insight to potential materials processing techniques and/or repair scenarios that might arise during long duration space transport and/or on the lunar/Mars surface.

  14. Epidemiological and Investigative Study of Premature Graying of Hair in Higher Secondary and Pre-University School Children

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramesh M; Sharma, Rashmi; Pinto, Anita C; Dandekeri, Sukumar; Martis, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes in humans ranging from black, brown, and blonde to red. Premature graying of hair occurs more commonly without any underlying pathology but is said to be inherited in autosomal dominant pattern. Premature graying has been shown to be associated with a few of the autoimmune disorders. A role for environmental factors and nutritional deficiencies has also been postulated. However, to date the exact etiology of premature graying has not been established. Aim: The objective of our study was to conduct an epidemiological and investigative study of premature graying of hair in higher secondary and pre-university school children of the semi-urban area. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 cases and controls were investigated for various parameter such as Hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, serum ferritin (S. Ferritin), serum calcium (S. Ca), serum iron (S. Iron), vitamin B12, and vitamin D3 after taking informed consent. Epidemiological and investigations correlation was established using the Chi-square and Mann Whitney test and P < 0.05 values were considered significant. Result: Among the various laboratory parameters S. Ca, S. Ferritin and vitamin D3 were low in patients with premature graying of hair. There was significant high number of vitamin D3 deficient and insufficient among the cases compared to the controls. Conclusion: According to our study S. Ca, S. Ferritin, vitamin D3 may play a role in premature graying of hair in our society. PMID:23960391

  15. A systematic review of analytical observational studies investigating the association between cardiovascular disease and drinking water hardness.

    PubMed

    Catling, Louise A; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Lake, Iain R; Swift, Louise; Hunter, Paul R

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically review and critically assess analytical observational epidemiology studies investigating the association between levels of drinking water hardness and cardiovascular disease. We searched electronic databases and used standardised forms to extract data and assess study quality. Of 2,906 papers identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria (nine case control and five cohort studies). Of the nine case control studies, seven examined both drinking water magnesium and calcium and risk of death from cardiovascular disease. A pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant inverse association between magnesium and cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.75 (95%CI 0.68, 0.82), p < 0.001). Only two studies reported a statistically significant effect for calcium. Substantial heterogeneity between studies made calculation of a summary estimate for drinking water calcium inappropriate. Of three cohort studies reviewed, two were of good quality. A weak suggestion that soft water was harmful in females and possibly associated with a slightly greater risk of sudden death was reported, but there was no association between water hardness and mortality from stroke or cardiovascular disease. This study found significant evidence of an inverse association between magnesium levels in drinking water and cardiovascular mortality following a meta-analysis of case control studies. Evidence for calcium remains unclear.

  16. A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

  17. Added value of a household-level study during an outbreak investigation of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections, New Mexico 2008.

    PubMed

    Boore, A L; Jungk, J; Russo, E T; Redd, J T; Angulo, F J; Williams, I T; Cheek, J E; Gould, L H

    2013-10-01

    In 2008, nationwide investigations of a Salmonella serotype Saintpaul outbreak led first to consumer warnings for Roma and red round tomatoes, then later for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In New Mexico, where there were a large number of cases but no restaurant-based clusters, the NM Department of Health and the Indian Health Service participated with CDC in individual-level and household-level case-control studies of infections in New Mexico and the Navajo Nation. No food item was associated in the individual-level study. In the household-level study, households with an ill member were more likely to have had jalapeño peppers present during the exposure period and to have reported ever having serrano peppers in the household. This report illustrates the complexity of this investigation, the limitations of traditional individual-level case-control studies when vehicles of infection are ingredients or commonly eaten with other foods, and the added value of a household-level study.

  18. Added value of a household-level study during an outbreak investigation of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections, New Mexico 2008

    PubMed Central

    Boore, A. L.; Jungk, J.; Russo, E.T.; Redd, J.T.; Angulo, F. J.; Williams, I. T.; Cheek, J. E.; Gould, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, nationwide investigations of a Salmonella serotype Saintpaul outbreak led first to consumer warnings for Roma and red round tomatoes, then later for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In New Mexico, where there were a large number of cases but no restaurant-based clusters, the NM Department of Health and the Indian Health Service participated with CDC in individual-level and household-level case-control studies of infections in New Mexico and the Navajo Nation. No food item was associated in the individual-level study. In the household-level study, households with an ill member were more likely to have had jalapeño peppers present during the exposure period and to have reported ever having serrano peppers in the household. This report illustrates the complexity of this investigation, the limitations of traditional individual-level case-control studies when vehicles of infection are ingredients or commonly eaten with other foods, and the added value of a household-level study. PMID:23228507

  19. Study on the Change of Landscape and Ecology of Sitou Forestland by Using Remotely Sensed and Ecological Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chiang; Lee, Chin-Ling; Liao, Huan-Chang; Tien, Pei-Ling; Huang, Yi-Ru; Tseng, Yu-San; Lai, Jing Rong; Shen, Chieh-Wen

    Due to natural disasters and anthropogenic disturbances in recent years, the landscape in Central Taiwan suffered certain kind of changes. In particular, landslides caused by earthquake and heavy rainfall, improper use and development in slope land enlarge and speed up the change of forest landscape. Few studies were focused on the interactions and relationships between change of ecosystem and landscape in Taiwan after natural disturbances in recent years. In this study, a pioneering research is accomplished by using Landscape Indices (LI) derived from FORMOSAT II Satellite imagery and GIS spatial coverage to describe the possible pattern of change between landscape and ecology. Located at the mountainous area in central Taiwan, ranging from 800 to 1,800 meter and comprising 2,349 hectares in size, Sitou Tract of the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest is selected as the study site. Four satellite images through 2004 to 2007 are used to compute LI, and analyzed with ecological investigation collected from five ground sites. The preliminary result shows that by using remotely sensed data and ground investigation, it is feasible to monitor and assess the relationship between change of landscape and ecology in forests. It indicates that the recovery and restoration of vegetation after the human and natural disturbances highly correlates with the value of NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), the composition and diversity of birds and insects are highly correlated with the diversity of patches. The values of SHDI (Shannon Diversity Index), SIDI (Simpson Diversity Index), SHEI (Shannon Evenness Index) and SIEI (Simpson Evenness Index) show that the diversity of landscape is growing while the evenness of landscape remains stable between 2004 and 2007. The ecological investigation in 2006 and 2007 indicated that the species and relative abundance is decreasing. The proof for the obvious relationship between the change of ecology and landscape metrics

  20. New Learning Method of a Lecture of ‘Machine Fabrication’ by Self-study with Investigation and Presentation Incorporated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Yukio

    A new teaching method was developed in learning ‘machine fabrication’ for the undergraduate students. This consists of a few times of lectures, grouping, decision of industrial products which each group wants to investigate, investigation work by library books and internet, arrangement of data containing characteristics of the products, employed materials and processing methods, presentation, discussions and revision followed by another presentation. This new method is derived from one of the Finland‧s way of primary school education. Their way of education is believed to have boosted up to the top ranking in PISA tests by OECD. After starting the new way of learning, students have fresh impressions on this lesson, especially for self-study, the way of investigation, collaborate work and presentation. Also, after four years of implementation, some improvements have been made including less use of internet, and determination of products and fabricating methods in advance which should be investigated. By this, students‧ lecture assessment shows further encouraging results.

  1. Investigating factors associated with adherence behaviour in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: an observational patient-centered outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Efficace, F; Baccarani, M; Rosti, G; Cottone, F; Castagnetti, F; Breccia, M; Alimena, G; Iurlo, A; Rossi, A R; Pardini, S; Gherlinzoni, F; Salvucci, M; Tiribelli, M; Vignetti, M; Mandelli, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Optimal adherence to imatinib therapy is of paramount importance to maximise treatment effectiveness in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The main objective of this study was to investigate patient-reported personal factors associated with adherence behaviour. Methods: Analysis was conducted on 413 CML patients receiving long-term therapy with imatinib. Adherence behaviour was measured with the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and personal factors investigated included: quality of life, perceived social support, fatigue, symptom burden, psychological wellbeing and desire for additional information. Key socio-demographic and treatment-related factors were also taken into account. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate factors associated with optimal adherence to therapy. Results: In all, 53% of patients reported an optimal adherence behaviour. The final multivariate model retained the following variables as independent predictors of optimal adherence to therapy: desire for more information (ref. no), odds ratio (OR)=0.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.29–0.66; P<0.001), social support (higher score representing greater support), OR=1.29 (95% CI, 1.11–1.49; P<0.001) and concomitant drug burden (ref. no), OR=1.82 (95% CI, 1.18–2.80; P=0.006). Conclusion: This study suggests that a higher level of social support, satisfaction with information received and concomitant drug burden are the main factors associated with greater adherence to long-term imatinib therapy. PMID:22871884

  2. Investigation of the Association Between Alcohol Outlet Density and Alcohol-Related Hospital Admission Rates in England: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, John; Green, Mark; Strong, Mark; Pearson, Tim; Meier, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of alcohol is a major policy issue for governments, and one of the availability factors is the density of alcohol outlets within geographic areas. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions for alcohol-related conditions in a national (English) small area level ecological study. Methods This project will employ ecological correlation and cross-sectional time series study designs to examine spatial and temporal relationships between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions. Census units to be used in the analysis will include all Lower and Middle Super-Output Areas (LSOAs and MSOAs) in England (53 million total population; 32,482 LSOAs and 6781 MSOAs). LSOAs (approximately 1500 people per LSOA) will support investigation at a fine spatial resolution. Spatio-temporal associations will be investigated using MSOAs (approximately 7500 people per MSOA). The project will use comprehensive coverage data on alcohol outlets in England (from 2003, 2007, 2010, and 2013) from a commercial source, which has estimated that the database includes 98% of all alcohol outlets in England. Alcohol outlets may be classified into two broad groups: on-trade outlets, comprising outlets from which alcohol can be purchased and consumed on the premises (eg, pubs); and off-trade outlets, in which alcohol can be purchased but not consumed on the premises (eg, off-licenses). In the 2010 dataset, there are 132,989 on-trade and 51,975 off-trade outlets. The longitudinal data series will allow us to examine associations between changes in outlet density and changes in hospital admission rates. The project will use anonymized data on alcohol-related hospital admissions in England from 2003 to 2013 and investigate associations with acute (eg, admissions for injuries) and chronic (eg, admissions for alcoholic liver disease) harms. The investigation will include the examination of conditions that

  3. Investigating the accuracy of photointerpreted unvegetated channel widths in a braided river system: a Platte River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbylo, Kevin L.; Farnsworth, Jason M.; Baasch, David M.; Farrell, Patrick D.

    2017-02-01

    The central Platte River in Nebraska, USA, has undergone substantial channel narrowing since basin settlement in the mid-nineteenth century. Many researchers have studied the causes of channel narrowing and its implications for endangered species that use wide, shallow channel segments with barren sandbars. As a result, changes in metrics such as unvegetated channel width have been studied. With few exceptions, these measures are estimated from aerial imagery without mention of error in relation to actual channel conditions and/or investigator bias. This issue is not unique to central Platte River studies, as a general lack of commentary is apparent regarding the direct comparison of channel planform characteristics interpreted from aerial imagery relative to those measured in the field. Here we present a case study where data collected by the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program was used to make multiple comparisons using three years of field-measured unvegetated channel widths and those photointerpreted from aerial imagery. Widths were interpreted by three investigators, who identified similar widths in almost all cases. Photointerpretation from imagery collected during the fall resulted in unvegetated width estimates that were more consistent with field measurments than estimates derived using imagery collected in June. Differences were attributed to three main factors: (1) influences of discharge on photointerpretation of unvegetated channel width; (2) increases in vegetative cover throughout the growing season; and (3) resolution of imagery. Most importantly, we concluded that photointerpretation of unvegetated widths from imagery collected during high flows can result in significant over estimation of unvegetated channel width.

  4. Meat and heme iron intake and esophageal adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Molina, Esther; Sánchez, Ma José; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Siersema, Peter D; Matiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadie; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Oikonomidou, Edespina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Mattias; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Freisling, Heinz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, Jose Ma; Amiano, Pilar; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Kuehn, Tilman; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Peeters, Petra H M; González, Carlos A

    2013-12-01

    Although recent studies suggest that high intakes of meat and heme iron are risk factors for several types of cancer, studies in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are scarce. Previous results in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) based on a relatively small number of cases suggested a positive association between processed meat and EAC. In this study, we investigate the association between intake of different types of meats and heme iron intake and EAC risk in a larger number of cases from EPIC. The study included 481,419 individuals and 137 incident cases of EAC that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of meat (unprocessed/processed red and white meat) was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant positive association of EAC risk with heme iron and processed meat intake, with HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68 and HR: 2.27, 95% CI:1.33-3.89, respectively, for comparison of the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake. Our results suggest a potential association between higher intakes of processed meat and heme iron and risk of EAC.

  5. A retrospective study of ultrasound and FNA cytology investigation of thyroid nodules: working towards combined risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi Wei; Fox, Richard; Unadkat, Samit; Farrell, Roy

    2017-03-10

    The British Thyroid Association recommended in new guidelines on thyroid cancer treatment [Kwak et al. (Korean J Radiol 14:110-117, 2013)] that ultrasound grading of thyroid nodules should be incorporated into MDT management. A retrospective study was carried out to determine that the impact of US grading has had on MDT decision making in practice. The design used in the study is a retrospective review of case notes. The study was carried out in the hub hospital for thyroid cancer in the North west London Cancer network. We included consecutive patients referred to the regional thyroid multidisciplinary meeting between August 2014 and May 2015 for investigation of thyroid nodules. Data were collected on patient demographics, co-morbidity, thy grading, ultrasound grading, surgery, post-operative histology, and radioactive iodine treatment details. Accuracy of cytology and ultrasound in diagnosing malignancy was correlated to definitive histology. 99 patients with thyroid nodules were included in the study. 97% of patients had at least one fine needle aspiration and 75% had ultrasound grading. Thy3f (Bethesda IV) nodules were more likely to be carcinoma if associated with a U4 grade rather than U3 (67 vs 18%, p = 0.028). Ultrasound grading has recently been introduced to the standard practice in investigation of thyroid nodules. Further assessment of the accuracy of ultrasound grading in clinical practice may allow us to risk-stratify thy3a/thy3f (Bethesda III/IV) lesions and personalise treatment.

  6. Lab-scale impact test to investigate the pipe-soil interaction and comparative study to evaluate structural responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dong-Man; Lee, Chi-Seung; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Koo, Bon-Yong; Song, Joon-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the dynamic response of a subsea pipeline under an impact load to determine the effect of the seabed soil. A laboratory-scale soil-based pipeline impact test was carried out to investigate the pipeline deformation/strain as well as the interaction with the soil-pipeline. In addition, an impact test was simulated using the finite element technique, and the calculated strain was compared with the experimental results. During the simulation, the pipeline was described based on an elasto-plastic analysis, and the soil was modeled using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results obtained were compared with ASME D31.8, and the differences between the analysis results and the rules were specifically investigated. Modified ASME formulae were proposed to calculate the precise structural behavior of a subsea pipeline under an impact load when considering sand- and clay-based seabed soils.

  7. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-08-01

    A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

  8. Time-course investigation of the gene expression profile during Fasciola hepatica infection: A microarray-based study

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Vicente, Belén; Collía, Francisco; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fasciolosis is listed as one of the most important neglected tropical diseases according with the World Health Organization and is also considered as a reemerging disease in the human beings. Despite there are several studies describing the immune response induced by Fasciola hepatica in the mammalian host, investigations aimed at identifying the expression profile of genes involved in inducing hepatic injury are currently scarce. Data presented here belong to a time-course investigation of the gene expression profile in the liver of BALB/c mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae at 7 and 21 days after experimental infection. The data published here have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE69588, previously published by Rojas-Caraballo et al. (2015) in PLoS One [1]. PMID:26697343

  9. Mechanistic study of the collision-induced dissociation of sodium-cationized polylactide oligomers: a joint experimental and theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Julien; Lemaur, Vincent; Marsal, Philippe; Coulembier, Olivier; Cornil, Jérôme; Dubois, Philippe; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    The low-kinetic energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of different sodium-cationized polylactide (PLA) oligomers was thoroughly investigated to shed some light on the analytical potentialities of CID experiments in the context of polymer characterization. Indeed, investigation of several end-groups modified PLA reveals that, in addition to the expected end-group specific dissociations, collisionally-excited PLA.Na(+) suffer from a backbone cleavage. The so-obtained sodium-bound dimer cations consecutively undergo the loss of a monomeric residue that corresponds to neutral acrylic acid. The experimental observations, performed on a hybrid Q-ToF instrument, were totally corroborated by a theoretical study involving DFT calculations, molecular mechanics, and molecular dynamics calculations.

  10. Experimental investigations on effects of frequency in ultrasonically-assisted end-milling of AISI 316L: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Maurotto, A; Wickramarachchi, C T

    2016-02-01

    The effects of frequency in ultrasonic vibration assisted milling (UVAM) with axial vibration of the cutter is investigated in this paper. A series of face-mill experiment in dry conditions were conducted on AISI 316L, an alloy of widespread use in industry. The finished surfaces roughness were studied along with basic considerations on tool wear for both conventional milling and an array of frequencies for UVAM (20–40–60 kHz) in a wide range of cutting conditions. Surface residual stresses and cross-cut metallographic slides were used to investigate the hidden effects of UVAM. Experimental results showed competitive results for both surface roughness and residual stress in UVAM when compared with conventional milling especially in the low range of frequency with similar trend for tool wear.

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  12. A discrete choice experiment investigating preferences for funding drugs used to treat orphan diseases: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Stefanowska, Patricia; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2011-07-01

    Policy debate about funding criteria for drugs used to treat rare, orphan diseases is gaining prominence. This study presents evidence from a discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of university students to investigate individual preferences regarding public funding for drugs used to treat rare diseases and common diseases. This pilot study finds that: other things equal, the respondents do not prefer to have the government spend more for drugs used to treat rare diseases; that respondents are not willing to pay more per life year gained for a rare disease than a common disease; and that respondents weigh relevant attributes of the coverage decisions (e.g. costs, disease severity and treatment effectiveness) similarly for both rare and common diseases. The results confirm the importance of severity and treatment effectiveness in preferences for public funding. Although this is the first study of its kind, the results send a cautionary message regarding the special treatment of orphan drugs in coverage decision-making.

  13. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This work plan identifies the objectives, tasks, and schedule for conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit addresses contamination identified in the aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, as determined in the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE/RL 1992b). The objectives of this work plan are to develop a program to investigate groundwater contaminants in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area that were designated for Limited Field Investigations (LFIs) and to implement Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) recommended in the 200 West Groundwater AAMSR. The purpose of an LFI is to evaluate high priority groundwater contaminants where existing data are insufficient to determine whether an IRM is warranted and collect sufficient data to justify and implement an IRM, if needed. A Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) will be performed as part of the LFI. The purpose of an IRM is to develop and implement activities, such as contaminant source removal and groundwater treatment, that will ameliorate some of the more severe potential risks of groundwater contaminants prior to the RI and baseline Risk Assessment (RA) to be conducted under the Final Remedy Selection (FRS) at a later date. This work plan addresses needs of a Treatability Study to support the design and implementation of an interim remedial action for the Uranium-{sup 99}{Tc}-Nitrate multi-contaminant IRM plume identified beneath U Plant.

  14. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  15. High pressure investigations of Na0.025WO3: x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies.

    PubMed

    Basu, Abhisek; Paul, Sanhita; Polentarutti, M; Bais, G; Oishi, S; Raj, Satyabrata; Mukherjee, Goutam Dev

    2011-09-14

    High pressure x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies have been carried out on non-stoichiometric sodium tungsten bronze, Na(0.025)WO(3). The high pressure investigations reveal a phase transition at about 2 GPa by a change of space group symmetry from P2(1)/n to P2(1)/c in the monoclinic cell followed by a second structural transformation to a triclinic lattice around 18 GPa. There are volume changes with these structural transformations, which are driven by rotation and significant distortion of WO(6) octahedra due to the displacement of tungsten and oxygen atoms from their mean positions in the unit cell.

  16. Pure And Modified Co-poly(amide-12-b-ethylene oxide) Membranes For Gas Separation Studied By Molecular Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Elena; De Lorenzo, Luana; Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Macchione, Marialuigia; Drioli, Enrico

    2010-10-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study has been performed to investigate transport properties in a pure and modified poly(amide-12-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBAX®2533) block copolymer membrane with N-ethylo,p-toluenesulphonamide (KET) as additive molecules. MD simulations using COMPASS force field, Gusev-Suter Transition State Theory (TST) and Monte Carlo methods have been used. Bulk models of PEBAX®2533 and PEBAX/KET in different copolymer/additive compositions have been assembled and analysed to evaluate gas permeability and the morphology to characterize structure-performance relationships.

  17. An investigation into the move towards electronic journals: a case study of NHS libraries in Kent, Surrey and Sussex.

    PubMed

    England, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Electronic journals are so embedded into practice in academic libraries that it is easy to forget that this is not the case everywhere. In NHS libraries, for example, the staff face a particular set of issues. This article is based on Rebecca England's dissertation on this topic, completed as part of the MSc Econ course in Information and Library studies at Aberystwyth University. Rebecca is E-resources Librarian at the Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust. She investigated the momentum towards electronic journals in NHS libraries in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region and the potential for a regional purchasing consortium.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  19. Direct investigation of viscosity of an atypical inner membrane of Bacillus spores: a molecular rotor/FLIM study.

    PubMed

    Loison, Pauline; Hosny, Neveen A; Gervais, Patrick; Champion, Dominique; Kuimova, Marina K; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie

    2013-11-01

    We utilize the fluorescent molecular rotor Bodipy-C12 to investigate the viscoelastic properties of hydrophobic layers of bacterial spores Bacillus subtilis. The molecular rotor shows a marked increase in fluorescence lifetime, from 0.3 to 4ns, upon viscosity increase from 1 to 1500cP and can be incorporated into the hydrophobic layers within the spores from dormant state through to germination. We use fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to visualize the viscosity inside different compartments of the bacterial spore in order to investigate the inner membrane and relate its compaction to the extreme resistance observed during exposure of spores to toxic chemicals. We demonstrate that the bacterial spores possess an inner membrane that is characterized by a very high viscosity, exceeding 1000cP, where the lipid bilayer is likely in a gel state. We also show that this membrane evolves during germination to reach a viscosity value close to that of a vegetative cell membrane, ca. 600cP. The present study demonstrates quantitative imaging of the microscopic viscosity in hydrophobic layers of bacterial spores Bacillus subtilis and shows the potential for further investigation of spore membranes under environmental stress.

  20. Use of a remedial removal integrated investigation/feasibility study to characterize a developed former landfill -- A novel SACM approach

    SciTech Connect

    Geraghty, C.A.; Oskvarek, J.D.; Quina, C.L.; Carroll, C.G.; Lennox, U.R.; Mullins, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model (SACM) is being implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to increase the timeliness and efficiency of Superfund activities and cleanup actions. By providing for cross-program coordination of response planning, prompt risk reduction through early action and appropriate cleanup of long-term environmental problems, can be achieved. To encourage and promote this type of effort, EPA Region 6 introduced the concept of a Remedial Removal Integrated Investigation (RRII) to concurrently evaluate data requirements for early and long-term actions. The purpose of the RRII is to determine the nature and distribution of hazardous substances released at a National Priorities List (NPL) caliber site and to assess the potential risks to human health and the environment. The EPA Remedial Program uses this information, which includes data appropriate for a Remedial Investigation (RI), in support of a Feasibility Study (FS). The FS is conducted to develop and evaluate options for a long-term remedial action. Using this type of combined investigative approach, EPA can select short-term actions or early actions consistent with any long-term actions that might be required. This type of integrated investigation was successfully used in Region 6 to rapidly characterize the Agriculture Street Landfill (ASL) site in New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. Information generated throughout the course of the RRII was used by both EPA programs to support time-critical removal actions as well as remedial actions for the final site remedy. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, PAHs, lead and dioxin.