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Sample records for 208pb 209bi 238u

  1. OMPs for the 6 He + 209 Bi halo system from a 208 Pb(7 Li,6 He)209 Bi reaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Wang, D. X.; Sun, L. J.; Ma, N. R.; Yang, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Xu, X. X.; Zhang, H. Q.; Liu, Z. H.; Bao, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    Angular distributions of transfer reaction {^{208}} Pb( 7 Li, {6} He) {^{209}} Bi were measured at E_{{lab}} ( {^7} Li)= 21.2 , 24.3, 25.67 and 28.55MeV. By fitting the experimental data with the theoretical frameworks of Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), the optical model parameters of the halo nuclear system 6 He + 209 Bi were extracted. The breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) was observed clearly in the imaginary potential, and a further decreasing trend in the deep sub-barrier region was observed for the first time in a halo system. Furthermore, the dispersion relation is found of no use to describe the connection between the real and imaginary parts.

  2. Structure of /sup 209/Bi deduced from the /sup 208/Pb(t,2n. gamma. ) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, K.H.; Nail, T.; Sheline, P.K.

    1983-04-01

    States in /sup 209/Bi were populated with the /sup 208/Pb(t,2n) reaction. Incident triton energies between 11 and 16 MeV were used. Gamma-ray excitation functions, angular distributions, and ..gamma..-..gamma..-time coincidence spectra were measured. Approximately 50 newly-observed ..gamma.. rays have been assigned to transitions in /sup 209/Bi. Previously-unresolved doublets at E/sub x/ = 2600, 3135, and 3154 keV have been identified. A new level at 3270 keV is reported, and the 3197-keV level is verified. /sup 209/Bi level energies are reported with an accuracy of 600 eV or less. A level scheme for E/sub x/<4.14 MeV is presented, including spin-parity assignments. A new M1 transition between the (5/2)/sup +/ and (3/2)/sup +/ members of the ..pi..h/sub 9/2/x3/sup -/ septuplet is reported. The 19 levels belonging to the ..nu..g/sub 9/2/p/sub 1/2/ /sup -1/, ..pi..h/sub 9/2/ are identified.

  3. Cross sections of the (HI, αn) channel in the cold-fusion-type reactions 209Bi+ 40Ar and 208Pb+ 37Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, Yu. A.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Szeglowki, Z.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Kharitonov, Yu. P.; Constantinescu, O.; Liên, Dinh Thi; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tretyakova, S. P.

    1994-11-01

    By applying an off-line radiochemistry technique, cross sections for the production of the isotope 240Cm(T {1}/{2}=27 d) in the cold-fusion-type reactions 209Bi+ 40Ar and 208Pb+ 37Cl at the bombarding energy Elab⩽230 MeV were determined to be 0.5±0.2 nb and 0.6±0.3 nb, respectively. The production of 240Cm was attributed to the 1n-deexcitation channel of the composite systems 249Md and 245Es. At the same time, the measured 240Cm production cross sections represent upper cross-section limits for the (HI, αn) channel of the reactions under study. These upper limits are about 100 times lower than the cross-section values reported recently by Nomura et al. for the ( 40Ar, αx n) channels with x=1,2 of the 209Bi+ 40Ar reaction at Elab=208 MeV. In the context of the above measurements, presented and discussed is the up-to-date summary of the available evidence on cross sections of the (HI, αxn) channels in the cold-fusion-type reactions induced by projectiles ranging from 37Cl to 50Ti on targets of 203,205Tl, 208Pb, and 209Bi nuclei. Appreciable EC(β +)-delayed or/and spontaneous fission effects were detected in the 209Bi+ 40Ar, 208Pb+ 37Cl, and 206Pb+ 37Cl reactions. The obtained data point, in particular, to the EC(β +)-delayed fission occuring in the decay chains ? and ?.

  4. The cross sections and energy spectra of the particle emission in proton induced reaction on 204,206,207,208Pb and 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengjun; Liang, Haiying; Xu, Yongli; Han, Yinlu; Cai, Chonghai; Shen, Qingbiao

    2017-09-01

    All cross sections of proton induced reactions, angular distributions, energy spectra and double differential cross sections of neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, helium and alpha-particle emissions for p+ 204,206,207,208Pb, 209Bi reactions are consistently calculated and analyzed at incident proton energies below 200 MeV. The optical model, the distorted wave Born approximation theory, the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model which includes the improved Iwamoto-Harada model are used. Theoretically calculated results are compared with the existing experimental data.

  5. Single-particle widths in 208Bi and 209Bi determined from the inelastic proton scattering by 207Pb and 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, A.; Glöckner, H.-J.; Grosse, E.; Moore, C. F.; Solf, J.; von Brentano, P.

    2014-05-01

    Single-particle widths in 209Bi for all particle orbits s1/2, d3/2, d5/2, g7/2, g9/2, i11/2, j15/2 and for the hole orbits p1/2, p3/2, f5/2, f7/2 are deduced from the study of about fifty states in 208Pb with rather pure particle-hole configurations. Relative single-particle widths of the 0+ isobaric analog resonance (IAR) in 208Bi for the orbits p3/2, f5/2, f7/2 are deduced from the 207Pb( p, p') reaction. The 207Pb( p, p') and 208Pb( p, p') reactions via IAR were studied in a scattering chamber experiment of the Max-Planck institute for nuclear physics (Heidelberg, Germany) at scattering angles 40° ≤ Θ ≤ 170°. The semiconductor detectors yielded a resolution of 11-15 keV. Proton energies E p = 14.99, 16.30, 16.45, 16.60, 17.40, 17.47, 17.75 MeV covered the g9/2, j15/2, d5/2, g7/2, and d3/2 IARs in 209Bi, and 11.0 < E p < 11.8 MeV the 0{/g.s. +} IAR in 208Bi. The differential cross sections for nearly 70 levels in 208Pb were determined with an uncertainty of the solid angle of about 2%. Similar measurements of 208Pb( p, p') with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium (Garching, Germany) 35-45 years later yielded a resolution of about 3 keV. The uncertainty of the differential cross section was 10-30%. Scattering angles covered 20° ≤ Θ ≤ 115° and Θ = 139°. The nonresonant ( p, p') reaction often dominates at scattering angles Θ ≲ 100°. Therefore, only the combination of the two data sets, i) backward angles, precise solid angles but modest resolution, ii) medium scattering angles and high resolution, allows to determine in an iterative manner both the structure of particle-hole states in 208Pb and the relevant single-particle widths in 209Bi.

  6. Unusual potential behavior for the weakly bound nucleus 9Be in elastic scattering from 208Pb and 209Bi near the threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Jia, H. M.; Zhang, S. T.; Ruan, M.; Yang, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Xu, X. X.; Bai, C. L.

    2010-07-01

    The elastic scattering angular distributions of the weakly bound 9Be projectile from 208Pb and 209Bi have been measured for 14 beam energies near the threshold from 37 to 50 MeV. The parameters of the optical potential are extracted by means of phenomenological optical model analysis with PTOLEMY. Both of the systems show unusual potential behavior in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier that the strength of the imaginary (absorptive) part of the potential is increasing (rather than decreasing) with decreasing energy, which is quite different from the results of some previous reports. This unusual threshold phenomenon indicates that the breakup channel is strongly coupled with the elastic channel and has obvious effects on the optical potential. The analyses also show that high precision elastic scattering angular distributions, especially those below the Coulomb barrier, are very important for extracting correct threshold behavior of the optical potential.

  7. Energy dependence of the optical potentials for the 9Be +208Pb and 9Be +209Bi systems at near-Coulomb-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Yu, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Jia, H. M.; Lubian, J.; Lin, C. J.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the energy dependence of the interacting optical potential, at near barrier energies, for two systems involving the weakly bound projectile 9Be and the heavy 208Pb and 209Bi targets, by the simultaneous fit of elastic scattering angular distributions and fusion excitation functions. The approach used consists of dividing the optical potential into two parts. A short-range potential VF+i WF that is responsible for fusion, and a superficial potential VDR+i WDR for direct reactions. It is found, for both systems studied, that the fusion imaginary potential WF presents the usual threshold anomaly (TA) observed in tightly bound systems, whereas the direct reaction imaginary potential WDR shows a breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) behavior. Both potentials satisfy the dispersion relation. The direct reaction polarization potential predominates over the fusion potential and so a net overall behavior is found to follow the BTA phenomenon.

  8. Comparison of reactions for the production of 258,257Db: 208Pb(51V,xn) and 209Bi(50Ti,xn)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Dragojevic, Irena; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Ellison, Paul A.; Folden III, Charles M.; Garcia, Mitch A.; Stavsetra, Liv; Sudowe, Ralf; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche, Heino

    2008-09-29

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070+1100/-760 pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 +- 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660+450/-370 pb was measured at 22.0 +- 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480+1750/-1370 pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 +- 1.6 MeV, in agreement with previous values [F. P. Hebberger, et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 12, 57 (2001)]. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier.

  9. Determination of flux-weighted average cross-sections of natPb(γ,xn), 208Pb(γ,xn), and 209Bi(γ,xn) reactions using bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50-70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Zaman, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Woo Lee, Man; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    The flux-weighted average cross-sections of the natPb(γ, xn)198-204Pb reaction for the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50-70MeV were determined by activation and off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique, using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea. The relative cross-sections of the 208Pb(γ, xn)202-204Pb and 209Bi(γ, xn)203-206Bi reactions from our earlier work were updated to absolute values and compared with the present data. The photo-neutron cross-sections of natPb, 208Pb, and 209Bi were also calculated, as a function of the photon energy using the TALYS 1.6 code. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were obtained from the theoretical values of the TALYS 1.6 code, based on mono-energetic photons, and compared with the present experimental data. The values were found to be in good agreement with the present data for the 209Bi(γ, xn)203-206Bi, 208Pb(γ, xn)202-204Pb, and natPb(γ, xn)198-202Pb reactions. However, the present data for the natPb(γ, xn)203, 204Pb reactions were higher than the flux-weighted values obtained using the TALYS 1.6 code.

  10. Comparison of reactions for the production of {sup 258,257}Db: {sup 208}Pb({sup 51}V,xn) and {sup 209}Bi({sup 50}Ti,xn)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J. M.; Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Ellison, P. A.; Folden III, C. M.; Garcia, M. A.; Hoffman, D. C.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.

    2008-09-15

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 51}V,xn){sup 259-x}Db reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070{sub -760}{sup +1100} pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 {+-} 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660{sub -370}{sup +450} pb was measured at 22.0 {+-} 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the {sup 209}Bi({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 258}Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480{sub -1370}{sup +1730} pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 {+-} 1.6 MeV, in agreement with previous values [F. P. Hessberger et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 12, 57 (2001)]. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier.

  11. Nuclear level densities in {sup 208}Bi and {sup 209}Po from the neutron spectra in the (p, n) reactions on {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, B. V. Lychagin, A. A. Titarenko, N. N.; Demenkov, V. G.; Trykova, V. I.

    2010-07-15

    The spectra of neutrons from the (p, n) reactions on the {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi nuclei were measured in the proton-energy range 8-11 MeV. These measurements were performed by using a time-of-flight spectrometer of fast neutrons on the basis of the pulsed tandem accelerator EGP-15 of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk, Russian Federation). A high resolution and stability of the time-of-flight spectrometermade it possible to identify reliably low-lying discrete levels alongwith the continuum section of the neutron spectra. The measured data were analyzed on the basis of the statistical equilibrium and preequilibrium models of nuclear reactions. The respective calculations were performed by using the precise formalism of Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory together with the generalized model of a superfluid nucleus and the back-shifted Fermi gas model for the nuclear-level density. The nuclear-level densities in {sup 208}Bi and {sup 209}Po were determined along with their energy dependencies and model parameters. Our results are discussed together with available experimental data and recommendations of model systematics.

  12. Search for the two-phonon octupole vibrational state in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, D.J.; Henning, W.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    We performed an experiment to search for the two-phonon octupole vibrational state in {sup 208}Pb. Thick targets of {sup 208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 58,64}Ni, and {sup 160}Gd were bombarded with 1305 MeV beams of were bombard {sup 208}Pb supplied by ATLAS. Gamma rays were detected using the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma-ray facility, consisting of 12 Compton-suppressed germanium detectors surrounding an array of 50 BGO scintillators. We identified some 30 known gamma rays from {sup 208}Pb in the spectra gated by the 5{sup -} {yields} 3{sup -} and 3{sup -} {yields} 0{sup +} transitions in {sup 208}Pb. In addition, after unfolding these spectra for Compton response, we observed broad coincident structures in the energy region expected for the 2-phonon states. Furthermore, we confirmed the placement of a 2485 keV line observed previously in {sup 207}Pb and find no evidence consistent with the placement of this line in {sup 208}Pb. We are currently in the process of investigating the origin of the broadened lines observed in the spectra, extracting the excitation probability of states in {sup 208}Pb, and determining the relative probability of mutual excitation and neutron transfer in this reaction. An additional experiment is also being performed to collect much higher statistics germanium-germanium coincidence data for the thick {sup 208}Pb target.

  13. Development of an odd-Z-projectile reaction for heavy element synthesis: 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds and 208Pb(65Cu, n)272111

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, C.M.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Mahmud, H.; Pang, G.K.; Schwantes, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Zielinski, P.M.; Nitsche, H.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2004-08-16

    Seven {sup 271}Ds decay chains were identified in the bombardment of {sup 208}Pb targets with 311.5- and 314.3-MeV {sup 64}Ni projectiles using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator. These data, combined with previous results, provide an excitation function for this reaction. From these results, an optimum energy of 321 MeV was estimated for the production of {sup 272}111 in the reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 65}Cu, n). One decay chain was observed, resulting in a cross section of 1.7{sub -1.4}{sup +3.9} pb. This experiment confirms the discovery of element 111 by the Darmstadt group who used the {sup 209}Bi({sup 64}Ni, n){sup 272}111 reaction.

  14. Excitation energy dependence of the level density parameter close to the doubly magic 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Pandey, R.; Sen, A.; Manna, S.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Roy, T.; Dhal, A.; Dey, A.; Meena, J. K.; Saha, A. K.; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron evaporation spectra have been measured from 4He+208Pb and 4He+209Bi reactions by using 4He-ion beams of several bombarding energies. Excitation-energy dependence of the level density parameter has been studied for the two systems in the excitation energy range of ˜18 -50 MeV. For both the reactions an overall reduction of the asymptotic level density parameter with increasing excitation energy (temperature) is observed. The trend of the data was compared with the Thomas-Fermi model predictions and found to be in reasonable agreement. The value of the shell damping parameter has been extracted from the lowest-energy data in the case of Po,211210 and At,212211 nuclei close to the Z =82 and N =126 shell closure, and it was found to be consistent with the recent measurement in the vicinity of doubly magic 208Pb nucleus.

  15. Proton particle-hole states in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabmayr, P.; Mairle, G.; Schmidt-Rohr, U.; Berg, G. P. A.; Meissburger, J.; von Rossen, P.; Tain, J. L.

    1987-07-01

    Differential cross sections for the 209Bi(d, 3He) 208Pb transitions to the proton particle-proton hole states in 208Pb were obtained with the 45 MeV analyzed deuteron beam from the JULIC cyclotron and the high resolution spectrograph BIG KARL. 72 states up to 6.6 MeV were studied with an overall resolution of 12 to 15keV. Spectroscopic factors were extracted relative to the simultaneously measured calibration reaction 208Pb(d, 3He) 207Tl. For 26 states new parity assignments were possible on the basis of the measured angular distributions. The deduced inclusion into one of the four multiplets put limits on the possible spins of the states in question. With the help of sum rule arguments the spins of 12 states were assigned. The comparison with shell model calculations give only rough agreement as they predict the energies of the respective states about 300 keV too high. The magnetic dipole state at 5.846 MeV was observed with a Spectroscopic factor C2S = 0.17. From this, together with the transition probability B(M1↑) = (1.6 ± 0.5) μN2 from a ( overlineγ, γ') experiment we derived size and relative sign of the dominant neutron and proton spin-flip amplitudes. The result gives clear evidence for the isoscalar character of this state in accordance wtih TDA and RPA predictions. The matrix elements of the two-body residual interaction were derived unambiguously for the h{9}/{2} ∗ s{1}/{2}and h{9}/{2} ∗ d{3}/{2} multiplets. For the h{9}/{2}∗ h{11}/{2} and h{9}/{2} ∗ d{5}/{2} multiplets uncertainties are larger because of assumptions of some of the spins for the states of high excitation energy. The four monopole terms are found close to the average of -308 keV. They are dominated by the Coulomb contributions of ≈ - 216 keV. The deduced J-dependence of the matrix elements differs from those found in other systematic investigations indicating more complicated underlying nuclear forces must contribute.

  16. Interaction of 11Li with 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, A. M.; Loveland, W.; Yanez, R.; Leonard, M.; Yao, L.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Morton, A. C.; Ottewell, D.; Preddy, D.; Trinczek, M.

    2013-04-01

    Background: 11Li is one of the most studied halo nuclei. The fusion of 11Li with 208Pb is the subject of a number of theoretical studies with widely differing predictions, ranging over four orders of magnitude, for the fusion excitation function.Purpose: The purpose was to measure the excitation function for the 11Li + 208Pb reaction.Methods: A stacked foil and degrader assembly of 208Pb targets was irradiated with a 11Li beam producing center-of-target beam energies from above-barrier to near-barrier energies (40-29 MeV). The intensity of the 11Li beam (chopped) was 1250 particles/s and the beam on-target time was 34 h. The α decay of the stopped evaporation residues (EVRs) was detected in an α-detector array at each beam energy in the beam-off period (the beam was on for ≤5 ns and then off for 170 ns).Results: The observed nuclidic yields of 212/215At and 214At are consistent with being produced in the complete fusion of 11Li with 208Pb. The observed yields of 213At appear to be the result of the breakup of 11Li into 9Li+2n, with the 9Li fusing with 208Pb. The magnitudes of the total fusion cross sections are substantially less than most theoretical predictions.Conclusions: It is possible to measure the EVR production cross sections resulting from the interaction of 11Li with 208Pb using current-generation radioactive beam facilities. Both complete fusion and breakup fusion processes occur in the interaction of 11Li with 208Pb. An important breakup process leads to the fusion of the 9Li fragment with 208Pb.

  17. Multinucleon transfer in central collisions of 238U+238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayik, S.; Yilmaz, B.; Yilmaz, O.; Umar, A. S.; Turan, G.

    2017-08-01

    Quantal diffusion mechanism of nucleon exchange is studied in the central collisions of 238U+238U in the framework of the stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach. For bombarding energies considered in this work, the dinuclear structure is maintained during the collision. Hence, it is possible to describe nucleon exchange as a diffusion process for mass and charge asymmetry. Quantal neutron and proton diffusion coefficients, including memory effects, are extracted from the SMF approach and the primary fragment distributions are calculated.

  18. New Neutron Rich Nuclei Near {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Aeystoe, J.; Andreyev, A.; Evensen, A.-H.; Hoff, P.; Huhta, M.; Huyse, M.; ISOLDE Collaboration; Jokinen, A.; Karny, M.; Kugler, E.; Kurpeta, J.; Lettry, J.; Nieminen, A.; Plochocki, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Ravn, H.; Rykaczewski, K.; Szerypo, J.; VanDuppen, P.; Walter, G.; Woehr, A.

    1998-11-13

    The level properties near the stable doubly-magic nuclei formed the experimental grounds for the theoretical description of nuclear structure. However with a departure from the beta-stability line, the classical well-established shell structure might be modified. In particular, it may even vanish for extremely exotic neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron-drip line. Presently, it is impossible to verify such predictions by a direct experimental studies of these exotic objects. However, one may try to observe and understand the evolution of the nuclear structure while departing in the experiment as far as possible from the stable nuclei. An extension of experimental nuclear structure studies towards the nuclei characterized by high neutron excess is crucial for such verifications as well as for the {tau}-process nucleosynthesis scenario. Heavy neutron-rich nuclei, south-east of doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb, were always very difficult to produce and investigate. The nuclei like {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Pb or {sup 210}Tl marked the border line of known nuclei from the beginning of the radioactivity era for over ninety years. To illustrate the difficulties, one can refer to the experiments employing the on-line mass separator technique. A spallation of heavy targets like {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U by high-energy protons was proven as a source of heavy neutron-rich nuclei. The isotopes near and beyond doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb were produced too. However, such studies often suffered from an isobaric contamination of much more strongly produced and efficiently released elements like francium or radon and their decay products. A new experimental technique, based on the pulsed release element selective method recently developed at the PS Booster-ISOLDE at CERN [7,8,9] greatly reduces the contamination of these very short-lived {alpha}-emitters (Z {ge} 84) for the isobaric mass chains A=215 to A=218.

  19. Hindrance of complete fusion in the {sup 8}Li+{sup 208}Pb system at above-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Rosales, P.; Kolata, J. J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Mears, P.; Guess, C.; Becchetti, F. D.; Lupton, J. H.; Chen, Yu

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 211,212}At yields resulting from the interaction of the radioactive projectile {sup 8}Li with a {sup 208}Pb target have been measured at energies between 3 and 8.5 MeV above the Coulomb barrier. They are signatures for fusion of the whole charge but not necessarily the whole mass of the projectile, so they are included in a corresponding operational definition of complete fusion. Within this definition, a fusion suppression factor of 0.70{+-}0.02 (stat.) {+-}0.04 (syst.) is deduced from a comparison to a one-dimensional barrier-penetration-model calculation using parameters extrapolated from values for {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 209}Bi and {sup 9}Be+{sup 208}Pb taken from the literature. Possible incomplete fusion processes are discussed and the results are fitted with a phenomenological model assuming breakup prior to fusion followed by capture of a {sup 7}Li fragment.

  20. Nuclear polarization in muonic 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Akihiro; Horikawa, Yataro; Tanaka, Yasutoshi

    2002-09-01

    We calculate nuclear-polarization energy shifts in muonic 208Pb. We employ a relativistic field-theoretical calculation and evaluate the ladder, cross, and seagull terms of the two-photon exchange diagrams in both the Feynman and Coulomb gauges. Gauge independence is very well satisfied with the calculated nuclear-polarization energies. Using these results, we analyze fine-structure splitting energies of muonic 208Pb because of the presence of the persisting discrepancies between experiment and calculation. The present nuclear-polarization energies explain about half of the anomaly in the Δ2p fine-structure splitting energy, and only one-fourth of the anomaly in the Δ3p fine-structure splitting energy.

  1. Particle Production in 158.A GeV 208Pb+208Pb Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, T.C.

    1999-01-09

    The production of neutral pions in 158A GeV {sup 208}Pb+{sup 208}Pb collisions has been studied in the WA98 experiment. The centrality dependence of the neutral pion production is investigated. An invariance of the spectral shape and a simple scaling of the yield with the number of participating nucleons is observed for centralities with more than about 50 participants. The transverse mass spectrum is analyzed in terms of a thermal model with hydrodynamic expansion. The high accuracy and large kinematic coverage of the measurement constrains the extracted freeze-out parameters, and provides information on the freeze-out velocity profile.

  2. Gamow-teller states in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, H. R.; Wambach, J.

    1982-10-01

    We investigate coherent spin-isospin excitations of nucleons and isobars in 208Pb in the long-wavelength limit (spin-isospin zero sound). Both NN - and ΔN - particle-hole channels are considered within a coupled RPA calculation using a Landau-Migdal type ph residual interaction. We obtain energy and strength of the giant isobaric Gamow-Teller (GT) state and discuss its influence on the nucleonic GT excitation. The coupling of this mode to 2p-2h states is also discussed. We emphasize the role of surface vibrational modes as dominant decay channels.

  3. Measurements of high-energy neutron-induced fission ofnatPb and 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Duran, I.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Paradela, C.; Stephan, C.; Trubert, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvár, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gonçalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsig, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-10-01

    The CERN Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility is well suited to measure low cross sections as those of neutron-induced fission in subactinides. The cross section ratios of natPb and 209Bi relative to 235U and 238U were measured using PPAC detectors and a fragment coincidence method that allows us to identify the fission events. The present experiment provides first results for neutron-induced fission up to 1 GeV. Good agreement is found with previous experimental data below 200 MeV. The comparison with proton-induced fission indicates that the limiting regime where neutron-induced and proton-induced fission reach equal cross sections is close to 1 GeV.

  4. Concerning advantages in using 208Pb as such a FR coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasanov, G.; Zemskov, E.; Blokhin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper cores of two fast reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant are considered. The first object, RBETS-M, is a project of a medium power, 900 MW, reactor cooled with lead-bismuth. The second object, BRUTS, is a project of an ultra-small power, 0.5 MW, reactor cooled with lead. The results of replacement of their standard coolants with the lead coolant enriched up to 100% with 208Pb are presented. In the RBETS-M core having a large coolant volume share this replacement results in sufficient increasing the share of 238U involved in the fission process and respective decreasing the share of 239Pu and 241Pu burning.

  5. Systematic analysis of above-barrier fusion of {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.

    2010-06-15

    Measurements of fusion for {sup 9,10,11}Be allow testing of the relative importance to fusion and breakup of the alpha-cluster structure found in all these Be isotopes, compared with the neutron-halo structure only present for {sup 11}Be. However, disagreements exist among different published experimental data sets for the reactions of {sup 9,10,11}Be with {sup 209}Bi. Accurate measurements of above-barrier cross sections for the products of complete fusion (fission and evaporation residues) in the reaction of {sup 9}Be with {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb provide the basis for a reanalysis of above-barrier fusion for {sup 10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi. This includes procedures making full use of the higher precision stable beam data and resolves many of the disagreements. The improved self-consistency of the analysis allows investigation of the experimental average fusion barriers. Although showing some scatter, these suggest a higher barrier for the neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be. Comparison of published cross sections for fusion associated with capture of all the charge of the projectile suggest that all these Be isotopes show significant suppression of complete fusion, a surprising result given that the alpha-breakup threshold energies are 1.57 MeV for {sup 9}Be but over 7 MeV for {sup 10,11}Be. Further experimental studies to investigate in more detail the division between complete and incomplete fusion for reactions of {sup 10,11}Be are needed.

  6. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  7. Pygmy dipole response in 238U nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, Ekber; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Quliyev, Huseynqulu

    2017-02-01

    The presence of the El pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in the actinide nucleus 238U was shown via QRPA. Below the particle threshold energy, 24 excitation states were calculated. The calculations, is demonstrating the presence of a PDR with evidence for K splitting. The calculations further suggest that the PDR in 238U is predominantly K=0. The obtained results show universality of the PDR in atomic nuclei.

  8. Fusion of {sup 9}Li with {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodkumar, A. M.; Loveland, W.; Sprunger, P. H.; Prisbrey, L.; Trinczek, M.; Dombsky, M.; Machule, P.; Kolata, J. J.; Roberts, A.

    2009-11-15

    We have measured the fusion excitation function for the {sup 9}Li+{sup 208}Pb reaction for near-barrier projectile center-of-mass energies of 23.9 to 43.0 MeV using the ISAC2 facility at TRIUMF. The {alpha}-emitting evaporation residues ({sup 211-214}At) were stopped in the {sup 208}Pb target, and their decay was measured. The isotopic yields at each energy were in good agreement with the predictions of a statistical model code (HIVAP). The measured fusion excitation function shows evidence for substantial sub-barrier fusion enhancement not predicted by current theoretical models. There is a suppression of the above barrier cross sections relative to these model predictions. The implications of this measurement for studying the fusion of {sup 11}Li with {sup 208}Pb are discussed.

  9. The 208Pb(n,γ) cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, H.; Rochow, W.; Käppeler, F.; Rauscher, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Maxwellian average neutron capture (MAC) cross section of 208Pb has been reinvestigated. With the activation technique cross section measurements were performed at 25, 30, 52, 104, 149, and 215 keV. At 30 keV we succeeded to measure the direct p-wave capture part of the 208Pb capture cross section. The s-process at the termination of the synthesis has been analyzed. Independent calculations of s- and r-process yield a consistent decomposition for the Pb and Bi isotopic s- and r-contributions.

  10. Complete Electric Dipole Strength and Neutron Skin in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Poltoraska, I.; Tamii, A.

    2013-03-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° on 208Pb has been studied at the RCNP cyclotron with high energy resolution of the order 25 -- 30 keV (FWHM). The complete E1 strength distribution from 5 to 20 MeV could be extracted from the data. The total E1 polarizability as well as the properties of the pygmy dipole resonance can be extracted with high precision providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and the symmetry energy of neutron matter.

  11. Time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations for multinucleon transfer and quasifission processes in the 238U+64Ni reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Background: Multinucleon transfer (MNT) and quasifission (QF) processes are dominant processes in low-energy collisions of two heavy nuclei. They are expected to be useful to produce neutron-rich unstable nuclei. Nuclear dynamics leading to these processes depends sensitively on nuclear properties such as deformation and shell structure. Purpose: We elucidate reaction mechanisms of MNT and QF processes involving heavy deformed nuclei, making detailed comparisons between microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations and measurements for the 238U+64Ni reaction. Methods: Three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations are performed. Particle-number projection method is used to evaluate MNT cross sections from the TDHF wave function after collision. Results: Fragment masses, total kinetic energy (TKE), scattering angle, contact time, and MNT cross sections are investigated for the 238U+64Ni reaction. They show reasonable agreements with measurements. At small impact parameters, collision dynamics depends sensitively on the orientation of deformed 238U. In tip (side) collisions, we find a larger (smaller) TKE and a shorter (longer) contact time. In tip collisions, we find a strong influence of quantum shells around 208Pb. Conclusions: It is confirmed that the TDHF calculations reasonably describe both MNT and QF processes in the 238U64Ni reaction. Analyses of this system indicate the significance of the nuclear structure effects such as deformation and quantum shells in nuclear reaction dynamics at low energies.

  12. Multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Mǎrginean, N.; Milin, M.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system at an energy close to the Coulomb barrier, by employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer. We extracted differential and total cross sections of the different transfer channels, with a careful investigation of the total kinetic energy loss distributions. Comparisons between different systems having the same 208Pb target and with projectiles going from neutron-poor to neutron-rich nuclei, i.e., 40Ca, 58Ni, and 40Ar, as well as between the data and GRAZING calculations have been carried out. The neutron-rich (stable) 40Ar beam allowed us to get access to the channels involving proton pickup, whose behavior in connection with the production of neutron-rich heavy partner has been outlined.

  13. Partial photoneutron cross section measurements on 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan; Katayama, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Belyshev, Sergey; Stopani, Konstantin; Varlamov, Vladimir; Shima, Tatsushi; Lui, Yiu-Wing; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    New data of total and partial (γ,xn) cross sections with x = 1-3 are proposed to be measured by direct neutron multiplicity sorting using Laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray beams at the ELI-NP to solve long standing discrepancies between existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and France Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay photonuclear data. Pioneering experiments are currently performed at the NewSUBARU facility. We present here preliminary results on 209Bi(g,xn) cross section measurements.

  14. Compton scattering by mesons in nuclei: Experiment on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrberg, K.; Martin, G.; Häger, D.; Ludwig, M.; Schumacher, M.; Andersson, B.-E.; Blomqvist, K. I.; Ruijter, H.; Sandell, A.; Schröder, B.; Hayward, E.; Nilsson, L.; Zorro, R.

    1992-10-01

    Using 58 and 73 MeV tagged photons and scattering angles from 60° to 150°, it is shown that it is possible to observe Compton scattering by "mesons in nuclei" through an incomplete cancellation of the mesonic (exchange-current) seagull amplitude by parts of the nuclear resonance amplitude related to the giant-dipole resonance of 208Pb. This phenomenon is a property of an extended nucleus and, therefore, cannot be studied on the deuteron. Predictions of the exchange from factor which determines the angular distribution of the exchange seagull amplitude are compared with experimental data.

  15. Photoexcitation mechanisms and the fission process of /sup 209/Bi from threshold to the. delta. region

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Sugawara, M.; Tamae, T.; Sasaki, O.; Ogino, H.; Miyase, H.; Abe, K.

    1985-06-01

    The absolute electrofission cross section of /sup 209/Bi was measured in the energy range 40--250 MeV. The data analysis, based on the virtual-photon technique, showed that the excitation mechanism which can cause the fission of /sup 209/Bi is the Levinger's modified quasi-deuteron, even at energies well above the pion threshold.

  16. Neutron skin of (208)pb from coherent pion photoproduction.

    PubMed

    Tarbert, C M; Watts, D P; Glazier, D I; Aguar, P; Ahrens, J; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Boillat, B; Braghieri, A; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R; Downie, E J; Foehl, K; Grabmayr, P; Gregor, R; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Jahn, O; Kashevarov, V L; Knezevic, A; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Krambrich, D; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; Lugert, S; MacGregor, I J D; Manley, D M; Martinez, M; McGeorge, J C; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Nefkens, B M K; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Owens, R O; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Prakhov, S N; Price, J W; Rosner, G; Rost, M; Rostomyan, T; Schadmand, S; Schumann, S; Sober, D; Starostin, A; Supek, I; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Walcher, Th; Zana, L; Zehr, F

    2014-06-20

    Information on the size and shape of the neutron skin on (208)Pb is extracted from coherent pion photoproduction cross sections measured using the Crystal Ball detector together with the Glasgow tagger at the MAMI electron beam facility. On exploitation of an interpolated fit of a theoretical model to the measured cross sections, the half-height radius and diffuseness of the neutron distribution are found to be c(n)=6.70±0.03(stat.)  fm and a(n)=0.55±0.01(stat.)(-0.03)(+0.02)(sys.)  fm, respectively, corresponding to a neutron skin thickness Δr(np)=0.15±0.03(stat.)(-0.03)(+0.01)(sys.)  fm. The results give the first successful extraction of a neutron skin thickness with an electromagnetic probe and indicate that the skin of (208)Pb has a halo character. The measurement provides valuable new constraints on both the structure of nuclei and the equation of state for neutron-rich matter.

  17. Distribution of M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Laszewski, R.M.; Alarcon, R.; Dale, D.S.; Hoblit, S.D.

    1988-10-10

    The distribution of M1 strength in /sup 208/Pb has been measured between 5.8 and 7.4 MeV with highly polarized tagged photons. ..sigma..GAMMA/sup 2//sub 0/(M/sup 1/)/GAMMA = 14.6 +- /sup +1.5//sub -1.3/ eV corresponding to ..sigma..B(M1up-arrow) = 10.7 +- /sup +1.1//sub -0.9/..mu../sup 2//sub N/ was found, and can fully account for the much discussed ''missing'' M1 in /sup 208/Pb. When the present result is combined with known 1/sup 1/ transitions above neutron threshold, an M1 giant resonance emerges at 7.3 MeV, 1 MeV wide, with ..sigma..B(M1up-arrow)approx. =15.6..mu../sup 2//sub N/. Smaller 1/sup +/ resonances are also seen in both 5.85 and 6.24 MeV. The total M1 strength below 6.4 MeV amounts to ..sigma..B(M) = (1.9/sup +0.7//sub -0.4/)..mu../sup 2//sub N/.

  18. Neutron Productions from thin Be target irradiated by 50 MeV/u 238U beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Seock; Oh, Joo-Hee; Jung, Nam-Suk; Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Nakao, Noriaki; Uwamino, Yoshitomo

    2017-09-01

    Neutrons generated from thin beryllium target by 50 MeV/u 238U beam were measured using activation analysis at 15, 30, 45, and 90 degrees from the beam direction. A 0.085 mm-thick Be stripper of RIBF was used as the neutron generating target. Activation detectors of bismuth, cobalt, and aluminum were placed out of the stripper chamber. The threshold reactions of 209Bi(n, xn)210-xBi(x=4 8), 59Co(n, xn)60-xCO(x=2 5), 59Co(n, 2nα)54Mn, 27Al(n, α)24Na, and 27Al(n,2nα)22Na were applied to measure the production rates of radionuclides. The neutron spectra were obtained using an unfolding method with the SAND-II code. All of production rates and neutron spectra were compared with the calculated results using Monte Carlo codes, the PHITS and the FLUKA. The FLUKA results showed better agreement with the measurements than the PHITS. The discrepancy between the measurements and the calculations were discussed.

  19. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of {alpha}-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanne, A.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Szucs, Z.

    2005-05-24

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E{alpha}=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi({alpha},2n)211At, 209Bi({alpha},3n)210At, 209Bi({alpha},x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  20. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of α-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Szúcs, Z.

    2005-05-01

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to Eα=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At, 209Bi(α,3n)210At, 209Bi(α,x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  1. Coulomb excitation of states in 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, F. K.; Milner, W. T.

    1994-05-01

    Twenty-two states in 238U have been observed with 18 MeV 4He ions on a thick target. Eight 2 + states between 966 and 1782 keV and three 3 - states are populated by direct E2 and E3, respectively. The remaining states are either weakly excited by multiple Coulomb excitation and /or populated by the γ-ray decay of the directly excited states. Spin assignments are based on γ-ray angular distributions. Reduced transition probabilities have been deduced from the γ-ray yields. The B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + states range from 0.10 to 3.0 W.u. (281 W.u. for the first 2 + state). For the 3 states, the B(E3, 0 → 3 -) values are 7.1, 7.8, and 24.2 W.u. Several of the 2 + states have decay branches to the one-phonon states with B(E2) values between 27 and 56 W.u. which are an order of magnitude larger than the B(E2) values between the one- and zero-phonon states. This disagrees with our present understanding of collectivity in nuclei if these 2 + states are considered to be collective two-phonon excitations. However, the excitation energies of these 2 + states with respect to the one-phonon states are only 1.3 to 1.6. The B(E1) values for 17 transitions between the positive- and negative-parity states range between 10 -3 and 10 -7 W.u. The B(E1) branching ratios for many of these transitions have large deviations from the Alaga-rule predictions. These deviations can be understood by the strong Coriolis coupling between the states of the one-phonon octupole quadruplet in deformed nuclei. The general features of the experimental results for the B(E3) values are reproduced by the microscopic calculations of Neergård and Vogel when the Coriolis coupling between the states of the octupole quadruplet is included.

  2. Electric dipole excitation of 208Pb by polarized electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The cross sections and spin asymmetries for the excitation of 1- states in 208Pb by transversely polarized electrons with collision energy of 30-180MeV have been examined within the DWBA scattering formalism. As examples, we have considered a low-lying 1- state and also states belonging to the pygmy dipole and giant dipole resonances. The structure of these states and their corresponding transition charge and current densities have been taken from an RPA calculation within the quasiparticle phonon model. The complex-plane rotation method has been applied to achieve the convergence of the radial DWBA integrals for backward scattering. We have studied the behaviour of the cross sections and spin asymmetries as a function of electron energy and scattering angle. The role of the longitudinal and transversal contributions to the excitation has been thoroughly studied. We conclude that the spin asymmetry S, related to unpolarized outgoing electrons, is mostly well below 1% even at the backward scattering angles and its measurement provides a challenge for future experiments with polarized electrons.

  3. Excitation function for the production of 262Bh (Z = 107) in theodd-Z projectile reaction 208Pb(55Mn, n)

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, C.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Schwantes, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Zielinski, P.M.; Gregorich, K.E.; Nitsche, H.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2005-05-16

    The excitation function for production of 262Bh in the odd-Z-projectile reaction 208Pb(55Mn,n) has been measured at three projectile energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, 33 decay chains originating from 262Bh and 2 decay chains originating from 261Bh were observed. The measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. The maximum cross section of 540 +180 - 150 pb is observed at a lab-frame center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV and is more than fives times larger than that expected based on previously reported results for production of 262Bh in the analogous even-Z-projectile reaction 209Bi(54Cr,n). Our results indicate that the optimum beam energy in one-neutron-out heavy-ion fusion reactions can be estimated simply using the ''Optimum Energy Rule'' proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski.

  4. Excitation function for the production of {sup 262}Bh (Z=107) in the odd-Z-projectile reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn, n)

    SciTech Connect

    Folden, C.M. III; Nelson, S.L.; Duellmann, Ch.E.; Schwantes, J.M.; Zielinski, P.M.; Nitsche, H.; Hoffman, D.C.; Sudowe, R.; Gregorich, K.E.

    2006-01-15

    The excitation function for production of {sup 262}Bh in the odd-Z-projectile reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn, n) has been measured at three projectile energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, 33 decay chains originating from {sup 262}Bh and 2 decay chains originating from {sup 261}Bh were observed. The measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. The maximum cross section of 540{sub -150}{sup +180} pb is observed at a lab-frame center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV and is more than five times larger than that expected based on previously reported results for production of {sup 262}Bh in the analogous even-Z-projectile reaction {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr, n). Our results indicate that the optimum beam energy in one-neutron-out heavy-ion fusion reactions can be estimated simply using the optimum energy rule proposed by SwiaPtecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski.

  5. Has a thick neutron skin in 208Pb been ruled out?

    PubMed

    Fattoyev, F J; Piekarewicz, J

    2013-10-18

    The Lead Radius Experiment has provided the first model-independent evidence in favor of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. Although the error bars are large, the reported large central value of 0.33 fm is particularly intriguing. To test whether such a thick neutron skin in 208Pb is already incompatible with laboratory experiments or astrophysical observations, we employ relativistic models with neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb ranging from 0.16 to 0.33 fm to compute ground-state properties of finite nuclei, their collective monopole and dipole response, and mass-versus-radius relations for neutron stars. No compelling reason was found to rule out models with large neutron skins in 208Pb from the set of observables considered in this Letter.

  6. Δ-isobar effects on M2 strength in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.; Septh, J.

    1984-02-01

    The strength distribution of the 2- states in 208Pb is calculated including the Δ-isobar quenching effects. The theoretical B (M2) values up to 8 MeV are dominated by the orbital angular momentum part of the M2 operator. Therefore we find only little quenching in this energy region owing to the Δ-particle nucleon-hole admixtures. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 208Pb; Δ-isobar effects on M2 strength.

  7. The influence of projectile neutron number in the 208Pb(48Ti, n)255Rf and 208Pb(50Ti, n)257Rf reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dragojevic, Irena; Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2008-07-11

    Four isotopes of rutherfordium,254-257Rf, were produced by the 208Pb(48Ti, xn)256-xRf and 208Pb(50Ti, xn)258-xRf reactions (x = 1, 2) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. Excitation functions were measured for the 1n and 2n exit channels. A maximum likelihood technique, which correctly accounts for the changing cross section at all energies subtended by the targets, was used to fit the 1n data to allow a more direct comparison between excitation functions obtained under different experimental conditions. The maximum 1n crosssections of the 208Pb(48Ti, n)255Rf and 208Pb(50Ti, n)257Rf reactions obtained from fits to the experimental data are 0.38 +/- 0.07 nb and 40 +/-5 nb, respectively. Excitation functions for the 2n exit channel were also measured, with maximum cross sections of nb for the 48Ti induced reaction, and 15.7 +/- 0.2 nb for the 50Ti induced reaction. The impact of the two neutron difference in the projectile on the 1n cross section is discussed. The results are compared to the Fusion by Diffusion model developed by Swiatecki, Wilczynska, and Wilczynski.

  8. Chaos and Regularity in the Doubly Magic Nucleus 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, B.; Heusler, A.; Maier, K. H.; Richter, A.; Brown, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution experiments have recently lead to a complete identification (energy, spin, and parity) of 151 nuclear levels up to an excitation energy of Ex=6.20 MeV in 208Pb [Heusler et al., Phys. Rev. C 93, 054321 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.054321]. We present a thorough study of the fluctuation properties in the energy spectra of the unprecedented set of nuclear bound states. In a first approach, we group states with the same spin and parity into 14 subspectra, analyze standard statistical measures for short- and long-range correlations, i.e., the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution, the number variance Σ2, the Dyson-Mehta Δ3 statistics, and the novel distribution of the ratios of consecutive spacings of adjacent energy levels in each energy sequence, and then compute their ensemble average. Their comparison with a random matrix ensemble which interpolates between Poisson statistics expected for regular systems and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) predicted for chaotic systems shows that the data are well described by the GOE. In a second approach, following an idea of Rosenzweig and Porter [Phys. Rev. 120, 1698 (1960), 10.1103/PhysRev.120.1698], we consider the complete spectrum composed of the independent subspectra. We analyze their fluctuation properties using the method of Bayesian inference involving a quantitative measure, called the chaoticity parameter f , which also interpolates between Poisson (f =0 ) and GOE statistics (f =1 ). It turns out to be f ≈0.9 . This is so far the closest agreement with a GOE observed in the spectra of bound states in a nucleus. The same analysis is also performed with spectra computed on the basis of shell model calculations with different interactions (surface-delta interaction, Kuo-Brown, Michigan-three-Yukawa). While the simple surface-delta interaction exhibits features typical for nuclear many-body systems with regular dynamics, the other, more realistic interactions yield chaoticity parameters f close

  9. Photoexcitation mechanisms and fission of /sup 209/Bi from threshold to the. delta. region

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Sugawara, M.; Tamae, T.; Sasaki, O.; Ogino, H.; Miyase, H.; Abe, K.

    1986-09-01

    The absolute electrofission cross section of /sup 209/Bi was measured in the energy range 43--250 MeV; the photofission cross section was deduced by means of the virtual-photon technique in the same energy range. The analysis of the fission probability, which was estimated from the photofission cross section and photoabsorption cross sections available in the literature, showed that /sup 209/Bi undergoes fission through compound nucleus formation for energies between the threshold and the ..delta.. region. It was found that Levinger's modified quasi-deuteron model cross section accounts for all the compound nucleus cross section, even at energies well above the pion threshold. The ineffectiveness of the pion photoproduction excitation mechanism in inducing fission of /sup 209/Bi could be explained in terms of the role played by the pion mean free path inside the nucleus.

  10. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the ^238U shape isomer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, K.; Bauer, R. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Britt, H. C.; Younes, W.; Fotiades, N.

    1997-04-01

    The γ--rays de--exciting the fission isomers ^236U and ^238U are very different despite similar excitation energies, lifetimes and low--lying yrast structures. The predominant γ--ray decay branch for ^236U^m is a 1.783 MeV E1 transition (J. Schirmer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 63), 2196 (1989); and Refs. therein., while ^238U^m is depopulated by a 2.513 MeV E2 γ-ray (J. Kantele, et al., Phys. Rev. C 29), 1693 (1984); and Refs. therein.. Approximately 65% of the γ--branch de-exciting ^238U^m remains to be identified. To determine the multipolarity of the remaining γ-branch out of ^238U^m we used the Gammasphere array at LBNL and the ^238U(d,pn) reaction at Ed = 20 MeV. A search for excited states in the 2^nd well has also been conducted. Preliminary results will be presented, and the γ--decay of the shape isomers discussed in context with the recent A ~190 SD decay--out results (T. L. Khoo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 1583 (1996); A. Lopez-Martens, et al., Phys. Lett. B380, 18 (1996); K. Hauschild, et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. C (1996)..

  11. Measurements of neutron capture cross section for {sup 207,208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Toh, Y.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Fukahori, T.; Iwamoto, N.; Iwamoto, O.; Oshima, M.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Igashira, M.; Kamada, S.; Tajika, M.

    2014-05-02

    The neutron capture cross sections for {sup 207,208}Pb have been measured in the neutron energy region from 10 to 110 keV. The γ-rays cascaded from a capture state to the ground state or low-lying states of {sup 208,209}Pb were observed for the first time, using an anti-Compton Nal(Tl) spectrometer and a TOF method. The observed discrete γ-ray energy spectra enabled us to determine neutron capture cross sections for {sup 207,208}Pb with small systematic errors, since we could distinguish γ-ray of {sup 207,208}Pb(n,γ) reactions from background γ-ray with use of the γ-ray spectra. The obtained cross sections include both contributions of resonance and direct capture components different from the previous TOF measurements.

  12. Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

  13. Polarization potentials for the 208Pb(7Li,6Li)209Pb transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, N.; Rusek, K.

    1997-12-01

    Recent optical model analyses of near-barrier 7Li+208Pb elastic scattering data found a peak in the energy dependence of WOM, the strength of the imaginary part of the optical model potential at the strong absorption radius. It was speculated that this might be due to the polarization potentials produced by couplings to the 208Pb(7Li,6Li)209Pb transfer channels. In this Brief Report we show explicitly that such couplings do indeed produce polarization potentials with the same energy dependence as that observed for the empirical optical potentials.

  14. Two-parameter Fermi function fits to experimental charge and point-proton densities for 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adam B.; Brown, B. Alex

    2014-12-01

    We use the model-independent experimental charge density for 208Pb to determine a model-independent point-proton density. An improved two-parameter Fermi function representation for the this point-proton density provides input for the analysis of experiments for the neutron density interpreted in terms of neutron skin and halo properties of 208Pb.

  15. Elastic scattering of 17O+208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Toniolo, N.; Filipescu, D.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, Y. H.; Lay, J. A.; Miyatake, H.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.; Stroe, L.; Vitturi, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Zerva, K.

    2016-05-01

    Within the frame of the commissioning of a new experimental apparatus EXPADES we undertook the measurement of the elastic scattering angular distribution for the system 17O+208Pb at energy around the Coulomb barrier. The reaction dynamics induced by loosely bound Radioactive Ion Beams is currently being extensively studied [4]. In particular the study of the elastic scattering process allows to obtain direct information on the total reaction cross section of the exotic nuclei. In order to understand the effect of the low binding energy on the reaction mechanism it is important to compare radioactive weakly bound nuclei with stable strongly-bound nuclei. In this framework the study of the 17O+208Pb elastic scattering can be considered to be complementary to a previous measurement of the total reaction cross section for the system 17F+208Pb at energies of 86, 90.4 MeV [5, 6]. The data will be compared with those obtained for the neighboring systems 16,18O+208Pb and others available in literature.

  16. Production and identification of new, neutron-rich nuclei in the {sup 208}Pb region

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K.; Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A.; Karny, M.; Szerypo, J.; Evensen, A.-H.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H.; Duppen, P. van; Andreyev, A.; Huyse, M.; Woehr, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aeystoe, J.; Nieminen, A.; Huhta, M.; Ramdhane, M.; Walter, G.; Hoff, P.

    1998-12-21

    The recently developed methods allowing the experimental studies on new neutron-rich nuclei beyond doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb are briefly described. An identification of new neutron-rich isotopes {sup 215}Pb and {sup 217}Bi, and new decay properties of {sup 216}Bi studied by means of a pulsed release element selective technique at PS Booster-ISOLDE are reported.

  17. Production of heavy isotopes in transfer reactions by collisions of {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Li Junqing

    2009-12-15

    The dynamics of transfer reactions in collisions of two very heavy nuclei {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U is studied within the dinuclear system (DNS) model. Collisions of two actinide nuclei form a superheavy composite system during a very short time, in which a large number of charge and mass transfers may take place. Such reactions have been investigated experimentally as an alternative way for the production of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The role of collision orientation in the production cross sections of heavy nuclides is analyzed systematically. Calculations show that the cross sections decrease drastically as the charged numbers of the heavy fragments increase. The transfer mechanism is favorable to synthesizing heavy neutron-rich isotopes, such as nuclei around the subclosure at N=162 from No (Z=102) to Db (Z=105)

  18. Reexamining the heavy-ion reactions 238U+238U and 238U+248Cm and actinide production close to the barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, J. V.; Schädel, M.; Gäggeler, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    Recent theoretical work has renewed interest in radiochemically determined isotope distributions in reactions of 238U projectiles with heavy targets that had previously been published only in parts. These data are being reexamined. The cross sections σ(Z) below the uranium target have been determined as a function of incident energy in thick-target bombardments. These are compared to predictions by a diffusion model whereby consistency with the experimental data is found in the energy intervals 7.65-8.30 MeV/u and 6.06-7.50 MeV/u. In the energy interval 6.06-6.49 MeV/u, the experimental data are lower by a factor of 5 compared to the diffusion model prediction indicating a threshold behavior for massive charge and mass transfer close to the barrier. For the intermediate energy interval, the missing mass between the primary fragment masses deduced from the generalized Qgg systematics including neutron pair-breaking corrections and the centroid of the experimental isotope distributions as a function of Z have been used to determine the average excitation energy as a function of Z. From this, the Z dependence of the average total kinetic-energy loss (TKEL¯) has been determined. This is compared to that measured in a thin-target counter experiment at 7.42 MeV/u. For small charge transfers, the values of TKEL¯ of this work are typically about 30 MeV lower than in the thin-target experiment. This difference is decreasing with increasing charge transfer developing into even slightly larger values in the thick-target experiment for the largest charge transfers. This is the expected behavior which is also found in a comparison of the partial cross sections for quasielastic and deep-inelastic reactions in both experiments. The cross sections for surviving heavy actinides, e.g., 98Cf, 99Es, and 100Fm indicate that these are produced in the low-energy tails of the dissipated energy distributions, however, with a low-energy cutoff at about 35 MeV. Excitation functions show

  19. Decoherence mechanisms of 209Bi donor electron spins in isotopically pure 28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Simmons, Stephanie; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; George, Richard E.; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V.; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Lyon, Stephen A.; Thewalt, Mike L. W.; Morton, John J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Bismuth (209Bi) is the deepest group V donor in silicon and possesses the most extreme characteristics such as a 9/2 nuclear spin and a 1.5 GHz hyperfine coupling. These lead to several potential advantages for a Si:Bi donor electron spin qubit compared to the more common phosphorus donor. Most previous studies on Si:Bi have been performed using natural silicon where linewidths and electron spin coherence times are limited by the presence of 29Si impurities. Here, we describe electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) studies on 209Bi in isotopically pure 28Si. ESR and ENDOR linewidths, transition probabilities, and coherence times are understood in terms of the spin Hamiltonian parameters showing a dependence on field and mI of the 209Bi nuclear spin. We explore various decoherence mechanisms applicable to the donor electron spin, measuring coherence times up to 700 ms at 1.7 K at X band, comparable with 28Si:P. Importantly, the coherence times we measure follow closely to the calculated field gradients of the transition frequencies (df/dB), providing a strong motivation to explore “clock” transitions where coherence lifetimes could be further enhanced.

  20. Enhanced E1 transitions and {alpha}+{sup 208}Pb(3{sup -}) clustering in {sup 212}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Ohkubo, S.

    2010-10-15

    We formulate a model for {sup 212}Po, based on the coupled-channels of {alpha}+{sup 208}Pb(0{sup +}) and {alpha}+{sup 208}Pb(3{sup -}) in which the {alpha}-Pb interaction contains scalar, quadrupole, and octupole terms. The model reproduces the recently observed enhanced E1 transitions from the several new negative-parity levels to the yrast states. Because these data are hard to understand in the shell model, this success gives a strong support for a unique role of {alpha}+{sup 208}Pb(3{sup -}) clustering in {sup 212}Po.

  1. Evaluation of the /sup 238/U neutron total cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of /sup 238/U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V.

  2. Theoretical study on neutron distribution of 208Pb by parity-violating electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Cun; Ren, Zhong-Zhou; Xu, Chang

    2016-03-01

    The precise determination of neutron distribution has important implications for both nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of neutron distribution of 208Pb by parity-violating electron scattering (PVS). Parity-violating asymmetries of 208Pb with different types of neutron skins are systematically calculated and compared with the experimental data of PREx. The results indicate that the PVS experiments are very sensitive to the nuclear neutron distributions. From further PVS measurements, detailed information on nuclear neutron distributions can be extracted. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11505292, 11175085, 11235001, 11447226), by the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (BS2014SF007), by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (15CX02072A, 15CX02070A, 15CX05026A, 13CX10022A, 14CX02157A).

  3. Reanalysis of muonic {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Akihiro; Toki, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Yataro

    2007-04-15

    Muonic transition energies in lowlying {mu}{sup -}-{sup 90}Zr and {mu}{sup -}-{sup 208}Pb states are reanalyzed by using nuclear polarization with the full-electromagnetic nuclear response. The possibility of the observed enhancement of the energy-weighted sum rule is also considered in the analysis. The transverse part of the nuclear polarization and the enhancement effect play an important role in improving the fine structure splitting of muonic p-states in both nuclei. Furthermore, introducing a pygmy dipole resonance in the excitation spectrum, the final fit drastically improves in {sup 208}Pb. However, there remains a discrepancy in {sup 90}Zr, for which the structure of the nuclear excitation spectrum is insensitive to the nuclear-polarization energy shift. Therefore, the remaining discrepancy might be caused by effects other than the nuclear polarization.

  4. Measurement of the 208Pb(52Cr, n)259Sg Excitation Function

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, C.M.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Sudowe, R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.; Nitsche, H.

    2010-03-19

    The excitation function for the 208Pb(52Cr, n)259Sg reaction has been measured using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. The maximum cross section of pb is observed at a center-of-target laboratory-frame energy of 253.0 MeV. In total, 25 decay chains originating from 259Sg were observed and the measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. In addition, a partial excitation function for the 208Pb(52Cr, 2n)258Sg reaction was obtained, and an improved 258Sg half-life of ms was calculated by combining all available experimental data.

  5. Isoscalar giant dipole resonance in {sup 90}Zr, {sup 116}Sn, and {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H. L.; Lui, Y.-W.; Youngblood, D. H.

    2001-03-01

    Strength functions for isoscalar dipole excitations in {sup 90}Zr, {sup 116}Sn, and {sup 208}Pb have been measured with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV {alpha} particles at small angles. The isoscalar E1 strength distribution in each nucleus is found to consist of a broad component at E{sub x}{approx}114/A{sup 1/3}MeV containing approximately 100% of the E1 EWSR and a narrower one at E{sub x}{approx}72/A{sup 1/3}MeV containing 15--28% of the total isoscalar E1 strength. The higher component is the compression mode E1 strength previously reported only in {sup 208}Pb, whereas the lower component may be a new mode not reported previously, but suggested by recent RPA-HF and relativistic mean field calculations.

  6. Coulomb barrier penetrability in the 11Be + 208Pb breakup reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukeru, B.; Lekala, M. L.; Rampho, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    We use the continuum discretized coupled channels method to study the 11Be+208Pb breakup reaction. We investigate the effects of the continuum-continuum couplings (ccc) on the breakup cross sections. We find that high partial waves strengthen the ccc. Using the breakup cross sections of this reaction, we analyze the penetrability of the Coulomb barrier and show that this penetrability is reduced when the ccc are included.

  7. Scattering of {sup 8}He on {sup 208}Pb at 22 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marquinez-Duran, G.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Martel, I.; Berjillos, R.; Duenas, J. A.; Parkar, V. V.; Acosta, L.; Rusek, K.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Borge, M. J. G.; Cruz, C.; Cubero, M.; Pesudo, V.; Tengblad, O.; Chbihi, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Moro, A. M.; Fernandez-Martinez, B.; Labrador, J. A.; and others

    2013-06-10

    The skin nucleus {sup 8}He is investigated by measuring the angular distribution of the elasticly scattered {sup 8}He and the {sup 6,4}He fragments produced in the collision with a {sup 208}Pb target at 22 MeV, just above the Coulomb barrier. The experiment was carried out at SPIRAL/GANIL in 2010. Here we present preliminary results for the elastic scattering.

  8. Production and identification of new, neutron-rich nuclei in the [sup 208]Pb region

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K. ); Szerypo, J.; Evensen, A.-H.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H. ); Kurpeta, J.; Pkochocki, A.; Karny, M.; Szerypo, J. ); Szerypo, J. ); Andreyev, H.; Huyse, M.; Wo uml; hr, A. ); Aystuml, J.; Nieminen, A.; Huhta, M. ); Walter, G. ) Hoff, P. )

    1998-12-01

    The recently developed methods allowing the experimental studies on new neutron-rich nuclei beyond doubly-magic [sup 208]Pb are briefly described. An identification of new neutron-rich isotopes [sup 215]Pb and [sup 217]Bi, and new decay properties of [sup 216]Bi studied by means of a pulsed release element selective technique at PS Booster-ISOLDE are reported. [copyright] [ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Production and identification of new, neutron-rich nuclei in the {sup 208}Pb region

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K.; Szerypo, J.; Evensen, A.-H.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H.; Kurpeta, J.; Pkochocki, A.; Karny, M.; Szerypo, J.; Szerypo, J.; Andreyev, H.; Huyse, M.; Wo¨ hr, A.; Aystuml, J.; Nieminen, A.; Huhta, M.; Walter, G. Hoff, P.

    1998-12-01

    The recently developed methods allowing the experimental studies on new neutron-rich nuclei beyond doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb are briefly described. An identification of new neutron-rich isotopes {sup 215}Pb and {sup 217}Bi, and new decay properties of {sup 216}Bi studied by means of a pulsed release element selective technique at PS Booster-ISOLDE are reported. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Neutron skin of (208)Pb, nuclear symmetry energy, and the parity radius experiment.

    PubMed

    Roca-Maza, X; Centelles, M; Viñas, X; Warda, M

    2011-06-24

    A precise determination of the neutron skin Δr(np) of a heavy nucleus sets a basic constraint on the nuclear symmetry energy (Δr(np) is the difference of the neutron and proton rms radii of the nucleus). The parity radius experiment (PREX) may achieve it by electroweak parity-violating electron scattering (PVES) on (208)Pb. We investigate PVES in nuclear mean field approach to allow the accurate extraction of Δr(np) of (208)Pb from the parity-violating asymmetry A(PV) probed in the experiment. We demonstrate a high linear correlation between A(PV) and Δr(np) in successful mean field forces as the best means to constrain the neutron skin of (208)Pb from PREX, without assumptions on the neutron density shape. Continuation of the experiment with higher precision in A(PV) is motivated since the present method can support it to constrain the density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy to new accuracy.

  11. Precise measurement of near-barrier 8He+208Pb elastic scattering: Comparison with 6He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquínez-Durán, G.; Martel, I.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Acosta, L.; Berjillos, R.; Dueñas, J.; Rusek, K.; Keeley, N.; Álvarez, M. A. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chbihi, A.; Cruz, C.; Cubero, M.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Fernández-Martínez, B.; Flores, J. L.; Gómez-Camacho, J.; Kemper, K. W.; Labrador, J. A.; Marqués, M.; Moro, A. M.; Mazzocco, M.; Pakou, A.; Parkar, V. V.; Patronis, N.; Pesudo, V.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Raabe, R.; Silvestri, R.; Soic, N.; Standyło, Ł.; Strojek, I.; Tengblad, O.; Wolski, R.; Abou-Haidar, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Dramatic differences in the elastic scattering of the neutron rich nuclei 6He and 8He are found when new high quality data for the 8He+208Pb system are compared with previously published 6He+208Pb data at the same laboratory frame incident energy. The new 8He data are of the same level of detail as for stable beams. When comparing them with those previously obtained for 6He+208Pb at the same energy, it is possible to determine from the data alone that 6He has a much longer range absorption than 8He. However, both nuclei show significant absorption beyond their strong absorption radii. While it has been known for a long time that elastic scattering at energies around the barrier only determines the optical potential over a small distance in radial space, typically ±0.5 fm or so, both the 6He and the 8He imaginary potentials obtained from various optical model fits to these data are the same over a much wider range of ±1.5 fm.

  12. Interaction times in the {sup 136}Xe+{sup 136}Xe and {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U reactions with a quantum master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2009-10-15

    Using the reduced-density-matrix formalism, the interaction time of two heavy nuclei is studied. In the reactions {sup 136}Xe+{sup 136}Xe and {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U, the mean interaction time and variance of interaction time distribution are calculated and compared with those of other treatments.

  13. Influence of single-neutron stripping on near-barrier 6He+208Pb and 8He+208Pb elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquínez-Durán, G.; Keeley, N.; Kemper, K. W.; Mackintosh, R. S.; Martel, I.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of single-neutron stripping on the near-barrier elastic scattering angular distributions for the He,86+208Pb systems is investigated through coupled reaction channels (CRC) calculations fitting recently published data to explore the differences in the absorptive potential found in the scattering of these two neutron-rich nuclei. The inclusion of the coupling reduces the elastic cross section in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region for 8He scattering, whereas for 6He its major impact is on the large-angle elastic scattering. The real and imaginary dynamic polarization potentials are obtained by inverting the CRC elastic scattering S -matrix elements. These show that the main absorptive features occur between 11 and 12 fm for both projectiles, while the attractive features are separated by about 1 fm, with their main structures occurring at 10.5 fm for 6He and 11.5 fm for 8He.

  14. Threshold anomaly in the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A. R.; Padron, I.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lacerda, T.; Garcia, V. N.

    2007-12-15

    The energy dependence of the optical potential for the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 209}Bi at near and subbarrier energies is studied. Elastic angular distributions and the reaction cross section were simultaneously fitted by performing some modifications in the ECIS code. A phenomenological optical model potential with the Woods-Saxon form was used. There are signatures that the so-called breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) is present in this system having a halo projectile {sup 6}He, as it had been found earlier for systems involving stable weakly bound nuclei.

  15. Pre-fission neutron emission in {sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Hardev; Sugathan, P.; Shidling, P. D.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, Gulzar; Govil, I. M.; Golda, K. S.; Jhingan, Akhil; Singh, R. P.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Datta, S. K.; Pal, Santanu; Viesti, G.

    2009-03-04

    The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities are measured for {sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi reaction at E{sub lab} = 100, 104, 108, 112 and 116 MeV. The measured value of pre-scission neutron multiplicity was found to be increasing with the excitation energy. The comparison of experimental values with the statistical model calculations shows that the measured values are much larger than the model predictions. This difference in excess yield over the model predictions amounts to the survival time of 80{+-}5x10{sup -21} s for the {sup 228}U compound nucleus before it undergoes fission.

  16. Disequilibrium of the 238U series in basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somayajulu, B.L.K.; Tatsumoto, M.; Rosholt, J.N.; Knight, R.J.

    1966-01-01

    Radioisotope analyses of basalt samples from Hawaii, Japan, and Iwo Jima show that: (1) 234U and 238U are virtually in radioactive equilibrium, (2) 230Th exceeds equilibrium values in all these samples, (3) 210Pb concentrations range from 10-200% of the equilibrium values and average 30% deficient, and (4) 226Ra is probably not in equilibrium with 234U. The source regions of the basalts or magma forming processes are open systems, chemically. The enrichment of some of the uranium-daughter nuclides is insufficient to account for the excess 206Pb in volcanic rocks. The isotopic composition of lead and specific activity of 210Pb in sublimates from Showa-shinzan, Japan are also reported. ?? 1966.

  17. Feasibility of 238U NRF Detection in Shipping Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Ben

    2010-11-01

    Sophisticated detection methods are required to efficiently screen the immense volume of containers imported into the United States for the presence of special nuclear materials. The likelihood of detection of characteristic nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) lines for the 238U isotope inside a shipping container is examined. Similarly to atoms, nuclei fluoresce when they are excited by incident photons of particular energies unique to each isotope. Detection of the resulting gamma transitions induced by a γ-source allows for nonintrusive interrogation of materials. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was modified to support detection of NRF. Simulations of a number of typical cargo container geometries containing natural uranium irradiated by a realistic nearly monoenergetic tunable gamma source were developed. The existence of NRF lines in the resulting spectra of exterior detectors will be described.

  18. Reaction rate calibration techniques at ZPPR for /sup 239/Pu fission, /sup 235/U fission, /sup 238/U fission, and /sup 238/U capture

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, S.B.; Maddison, D.W.

    1982-06-10

    Reaction-rate calibration techniques used at ZPPR are described for /sup 239/Pu fission, /sup 235/U fission, /sup 238/U fission and /sup 238/U capture. In addition to these absolute reaction rates, calibration techniques are described for fission-rate ratios and the ratio of /sup 238/U capture to /sup 239/U capture to /sup 239/Pu fission. Uncertainty estimates are presented for all calibrations. Intercomparison measurements are reported which support the validity of the calibration techniques and their estimated uncertainties.

  19. Hybridization-driven gap in U3Bi4Ni3: a 209Bi NMR/NQR study

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Seung H

    2009-01-01

    We report {sup 209}Bi nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance measurements on a single crystal of the Kondo insulator U{sub 3}Bi{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}. The {sup 209}Bi nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (T{sub 1}{sup -1}) shows activated behavior and is well fit by a spin gap of 220 K. The {sup 209}Bi Knight shift (K) exhibits a strong temperature dependence arising from 5f electrons, in which K is negative at high temperatures and increases as the temperature is lowered. Below 50 K, K shows a broad maximum and decreases slightly upon further cooling. Our data provide insight into the evolution of the hyperfine fields in a fully gapped Kondo insulator based on 5f electron hybridization.

  20. Heavy actinide cross sections in the /sup 238/U + /sup 248/Cm reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, J V; Bruechle, W; Gaeggeler, H

    1981-01-01

    Cross sections for the production of Cf, Es, Fm, and Md isotopes in the reactions of 7.4 MeV/u /sup 238/U-ions with /sup 248/Cm targets are presented and discussed. Cross sections for the formation of heavy actinides in the reactions of 7.5 MeV/u /sup 136/Xe and /sup 238/U-projectiles with /sup 238/U-targets are presented for comparison. (WHK)

  1. Dynamical Cluster-decay Model (DCM) applied to 9Li+208Pb reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Hemdeep; Kaushal, Pooja; Behera, Bivash R.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2017-10-01

    The decay mechanism of 217At* formed in 9Li+208Pb reaction is studied within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) at various center-of-mass energies. The aim is to see the behavior of a light neutron-rich radioactive beam on a doubly-magic target nucleus for the (total) fusion cross section σfus and the individual decay channel cross sections. Experimentally, only the isotopic yield of heavy mass residues 211-214At * [equivalently, the light-particles (LPs) evaporation residue cross sections σxn for x = 3- 6 neutrons emission] are measured, with the fusion-fission (ff) component σff taken zero. For a fixed neck-length parameter ΔR, the only parameter in the DCM, we are able to fit σfus =∑x=16σxn almost exactly for 9Li on 208Pb at all E c . m .'s. However, the observed individual decay channels (3n-6n) are very poorly fitted, with unobserved channels (1n, 2n) and σff strongly over-estimated. Different ΔR values, meaning thereby different reaction time scales, are required to fit individually both the observed and unobserved evaporation residue channels (1n-6n) and σff, but then the compound nucleus (CN) contribution σCN is very small (< 1%), and the non-compound nucleus (nCN) decay cross section σnCN contributes the most towards total σfus (=σCN +σnCN). Thus, the 9Li induced reaction on doubly-magic 208Pb is more of a quasi-fission-like nCN decay, which is further analyzed in terms of the statistical CN formation probability PCN and CN survival probability Psurv. For the reaction under study, PCN < < 1 and Psurv → 1, in particular at above barrier energies.

  2. Radiogenic lead with dominant content of {sup 208}Pb: New coolant and neutron moderator for innovative nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kryuchkov, E. F.; Apse, V. A.; Kulikov, E. G.

    2012-07-01

    The advantages of radiogenic lead with dominant content of {sup 208}Pb as a reactor coolant with respect to natural lead are caused by unique nuclear properties of {sup 208}Pb which is a double-magic nucleus with closed proton and neutron shells. This results in significantly lower micro cross section and resonance integral of radiative neutron capture by {sup 208}Pb than those for numerous light neutron moderators. The extremely weak ability of {sup 208}Pb to absorb neutrons results in the following effects. Firstly, neutron moderating factor (ratio of scattering to capture cross sections) is larger than that for graphite and light water. Secondly, age and diffusion length of thermal neutrons are larger than those for graphite, light and heavy water. Thirdly, neutron lifetime in {sup 208}Pb is comparable with that for graphite, beryllium and heavy water what could be important for safe reactor operation. The paper presents some results obtained in neutronics and thermal-hydraulics evaluations of the benefits from the use of radiogenic lead with dominant content of {sup 208}Pb instead of natural lead as a coolant of fast breeder reactors. The paper demonstrates that substitution of radiogenic lead for natural lead can offer the following benefits for operation of fast breeder reactors. Firstly, improvement of the reactor safety thanks to the better values of coolant temperature reactivity coefficient and, secondly, improvement of some thermal-hydraulic reactor parameters. Radiogenic lead can be extracted from thorium sludge without isotope separation as {sup 208}Pb is a final isotope in the decay chain of {sup 232}Th. (authors)

  3. The pairing correlation study in the {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatović, T. Szilner, S.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Prepolec, L.; Soić, N.; Tokić, V.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Goasduff, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Dobón, J. J. Valiente; Montanari, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A.; Pollarolo, G.

    2015-10-15

    The multinucleon transfer reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb has been measured at E{sub lab} = 260 MeV with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. Mass and charge yields, differential and total cross sections, total kinetic energy loss distributions of different channels were simultaneously studied. Angular distributions were measured in a wide angular range by matching three different angular settings of the spectrometer. Absolute cross sections were obtained after the response function of the spectrometer was evaluated. These cross sections for different transfer channels allow the discussion of the role played by nucleon-nucleon correlations.

  4. Sub-Barrier Fusion in the HI + 208Pb Systems and Nuclear Potentials for Cluster Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R.N.; Tretyakova, S.P.; Khlebnikov, S.V.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Rowley, N.

    2005-11-21

    Near-barrier fusion excitation functions for the 12,14C, 16,18O + 208Pb reactions have been analyzed in the framework of the barrier-passing model using different forms of the nuclear potential and the phenomenology of a fluctuating barrier. The best-fit fusion potentials were used to estimate cluster decay probabilities from the corresponding ground states of Ra and Th, i.e., for the inverse decay process. The analysis supports the 'alpha-decay-like' scenario for carbon and oxygen emission from these nuclei.

  5. Multinucleon transfer processes in {sup 40}Ca+{sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Behera, B.R.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Stefanini, A.M.; Trotta, M.; Vinodkumar, A.M.; Wu, Y.; Pollarolo, G.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Haas, F.

    2005-04-01

    Multinucleon transfer reactions in {sup 40}Ca+{sup 208}Pb have been studied at bombarding energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Projectilelike fragments have been identified in nuclear mass and charge with a time-of-flight spectrometer. Angular and total kinetic energy loss distributions and inclusive cross sections have been compared with those of semiclassical models. The analysis shows that a successive transfer mechanism of single nucleons does not account for the data, and a direct nucleon pair transfer has to be included in the description. Nucleon evaporation effects are taken into account.

  6. Uncertainty analysis of 208Pb neutron skin predictions with chiral interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2015-09-14

    Here, we report predictions for the neutron skin in 208Pb using chiral two- and three-body interactions at increasing orders of chiral effective field theory and varying resolution scales. Closely related quantities, such as the slope of the symmetry energy, are also discussed. As a result, the sensitivity of the skin to just pure neutron matter pressure when going from order 2 to order 4 of chiral effective theory is singled out in a set of calculations that employ an empirical equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter.

  7. Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cubero, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Buchmann, L.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P.; Diget, D. G.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Mukha, I.

    2011-10-28

    We have studied the dynamical effects of the halo structure of {sup 11}Li on the scattering on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. This experiment was performed at ISAC-II at TRIUMF with a world record in production of the post-accelerated {sup 11}Li beam. As part of this study we report here on the first measurement of the elastic cross section of the core nucleus, i.e. {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. A preliminary optical model analysis has been performed in order to extract a global optical potential to describe the measured angular distributions.

  8. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; Albataineh, Hisham; Aniol, Konrad; ...

    2012-03-15

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. APV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp = 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  9. Neutron skins of 208Pb and 48Ca from pionic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron skin of 208Pb has received considerable attention in recent years. A variety of strongly-interacting probes depict a rather consistent picture but pionic probes have not been referred to in this context. We present here neutron-skin values from pionic atoms and from total reaction cross sections of π+ between 0.7 and 2 GeV/c which fit well into the picture. In addition we show that a neutron-skin for 48Ca can be obtained from existing data on pionic atoms and the result agrees with pion scattering experiments and with the scattering of α particles.

  10. Diversity of neutron star properties at the fixed neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Sulaksono, A.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2015-07-01

    We study the diversities in the properties of the neutron stars arising due to the different choices for the cross coupling between various mesons, which governs the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy in the extended relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. For this purpose, we obtain two different families of the extended RMF model corresponding to different nonlinear cross-coupling terms in the isovector part of the effective Lagrangian density. The lowest-order contributions for the δ mesons are also included. The different models within the same family yield wide variation in the value of neutron-skin thickness in the 208Pb nucleus. These models are employed to compute the neutron-star properties such as core-crust transition density, radius and red shift at canonical mass ( 1.4 M⊙) , tidal polarizability parameter, and threshold mass required for the enhanced cooling through the direct Urca process. Most of the neutron-star properties considered are significantly different(10-40%) for the different families of models at a smaller neutron-skin thickness (˜0.15 fm ) in the 208Pb nucleus.

  11. Examination of experimental evidence of chaos in the bound states of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, L.; Molina, R. A.; Gómez, J. M. G.; Heusler, A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the spectral fluctuations of the 208Pb nucleus using the complete experimental spectrum of 151 states up to excitation energies of 6.20 MeV recently identified at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratorium at Garching, Germany. For natural parity states the results are very close to the predictions of random matrix theory (RMT) for the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. A quantitative estimate of the agreement is given by the Brody parameter ω , which takes the value ω =0 for regular systems and ω ≃1 for chaotic systems. We obtain ω =0.85 which is, to our knowledge, the closest value to chaos ever observed in experimental bound states of nuclei. By contrast, the results for unnatural parity states are far from RMT behavior. We interpret these results as a consequence of the strength of the residual interaction in 208Pb, which, according to experimental data, is much stronger for natural than for unnatural parity states. In addition, our results show that chaotic and nonchaotic nuclear states coexist in the same energy region of the spectrum.

  12. The pygmy dipole strength, the neutron radius of 208Pb and the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Brenna, M.; Centelles, M.; Colò, G.; Mizuyama, K.; Pozzi, G.; Viñas, X.; Warda, M.

    2012-02-01

    The accurate characterization of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence is one of the outstanding open problems in nuclear physics. A promising nuclear observable in order to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy at saturation is the neutron skin thickness of medium and heavy nuclei. Recently, a low-energy peak in the isovector dipole response of neutron-rich nuclei has been discovered that may be correlated with the neutron skin thickness. The existence of this correlation is currently under debate due to our limited experimental knowledge on the microscopic structure of such a peak. We present a detailed analysis of Skyrme Hartree-Fock (HF) plus random phase approximation (RPA) predictions for the dipole response in several neutron-rich nuclei and try to elucidate whether models of common use in nuclear physics confirm or dismiss its possible connection with the neutron skin thickness. Finally, we briefly present theoretical results for parity violating electron scattering on 208Pb at the conditions of the PREx experiment and discuss the implications for the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb and the slope of the symmetry energy.

  13. Measurement of 208Pb(n ,γ )209Pb Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, L.; Tessler, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Halfon, S.; Guerrero, C.; Kaizer, B.; Kijel, D.; Kreisel, A.; Palchan, T.; Paul, M.; Perry, A.; Schimel, G.; Silverman, I.; Shor, A.; Tamim, N.; Vaintraub, S.

    2017-07-01

    The doubly magic 208Pb nucleus is a bottleneck at the termination of the s -process path due to its very low neutron capture cross section. This cross section is also important for the decomposition of s , r processes and U/Th radiogenic decay contributions to the Pb-Bi solar abundances. The 208Pb(n ,γ )209Pb cross section was measured at the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility Phase I using an intense quasi-Maxwellian neutron source produced by irradiation of the liquid-lithium target with a 1.5-mA continuous-wave proton beam at 1.94 MeV. The cross section was measured by counting the β activity from the irradiated lead target. The measurement allowed us to evaluate the Maxwellian averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV obtaining a value of 0.33(2) mb. This has been compared with the earlier activation and time-of-flight measurements found in the literature. The MACS cross-sectional value of the 63Cu(n ,γ )64Cu reaction was determined in the same experiment and is compared to a recent published value.

  14. Elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons on 238U nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, R.; Trkov, A.; Sin, M.; Herman, M. W.; Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.

    2014-04-01

    Advanced modelling of neutron induced reactions on the 238U nucleus is aimed at improving our knowledge of neutron scattering. Capture and fission channels are well constrained by available experimental data and neutron standard evaluation. A focus of this contribution is on elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. The employed nuclear reaction model includes - a new rotational-vibrational dispersive optical model potential coupling the low-lying collective bands of vibrational character observed in even-even actinides; - the Engelbrecht-Weidenmüller transformation allowing for inclusion of compound-direct interference effects; - and a multi-humped fission barrier with absorption in the secondary well described within the optical model for fission. Impact of the advanced modelling on elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections including angular distributions and emission spectra is assessed both by comparison with selected microscopic experimental data and integral criticality benchmarks including measured reaction rates (e.g. JEMIMA, FLAPTOP and BIG TEN). Benchmark calculations provided feedback to improve the reaction modelling. Improvement of existing libraries will be discussed.

  15. Precision laser spectroscopy of the ground state hyperfine splitting of hydrogenlike 209Bi82+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaft, I.; Borneis, S.; Engel, T.; Fricke, B.; Grieser, R.; Huber, G.; Kühl, T.; Marx, D.; Neumann, R.; Schröder, S.; Seelig, P.; Völker, L.

    1994-10-01

    The first direct observation of a hyperfine splitting in the optical regime is reported. The wavelength of the M1 transition between the E=4 and F=5 hyperfine levels of the ground state of hydrogenlike 209Bi82+ was measured to be λ0=243.87(4) nm by detection of laser induced fluorescence at the heavy-ion storage ring ESR at GSL. In addition, the lifetime of the laser excited F=5 sublevel was determined to be τ0=0.351(16) ms. The method can be applied to a number of other nuclei, and should allow a novel test of ED corrections in the previously unexplored combination of strong magnetic and electric fields in highly charged ions.

  16. Data on photoneutron reactions from various experiments for 133Cs, 138Ba and 209Bi nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, V. V.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.

    2016-07-01

    Basic methods for determining cross sections for photoneutron partial reactions are examined. They are obtained directly in experiments with quasimonoeneregetic annihilation photons or from the cross section for the ( γ, xn) = ( γ, 1 n) + 2( γ, 2 n) + 3( γ, 3 n) +... neutron-yield reaction in experiments with bremsstrahlung photons by introducing corrections based on statistical nuclear-reaction theory. The difference in the conditions of these experiments, which leads to discrepancies between their results because of sizable systematic errors, is analyzed. Physical criteria are used to study the reliability of data on the photodisintegration of 133Cs, 138Ba, and 209Bi nuclei. The cross sections for partial and total reactions satisfying the reliability criteria are evaluated within the experimental-theoretical method ( σ eval( γ, in) = F i theor × σ expt( γ, xn)) on the basis of the experimental cross sections σ expt( γ, xn) and the results of the calculations within the combined model of photonuclear reactions.

  17. Evidence for the synthesis of {sup 267}110 produced by the {sup 59}Co + {sup 209}Bi reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiorso, A.; Lee, D.; Somerville, L.P. |

    1994-09-01

    An experiment to synthesize element 110 by the {sup 59}Co+{sup 209}Bi reaction has bee performed at the SuperHILAC at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. One event with many of the expected characteristics of a successful of {sup 267}110 was observed. This event corresponds to a production cross section of about one picobarn.

  18. Evidence for the possible synthesis of element 110 produced by the {sup 59}Co+{sup 209}Bi reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiorso, A.; Lee, D.; Somerville, L.P. |; Loveland, W.; Nitschke, J.M.; Ghiorso, W.; Seaborg, G.T.; Wilmarth, P.; Leres, R.; Wydler, A.; Nurmia, M.; Gregorich, K.; Czerwinski, K.; Gaylord, R.; Hamilton, T.; Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C.; Jarzynski, C.; Kacher, C.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Kreek, S.; Lane, M.; Lyon, A.; McMahan, M.A.; Neu, M.; Sikkeland, T.; Swiatecki, W.J.; Tuerler, A.; Walton, J.T.; Yashita, S.

    1995-05-01

    An experiment to synthesize element 110 by the {sup 59}Co+{sup 209}Bi reaction has been performed at the SuperHILAC at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. One event with many of the expected characteristics of a successful synthesis of {sup 267}110 was observed. This event corresponds to a production cross section of about one picobarn.

  19. Constraining the density slope of nuclear symmetry energy at subsaturation densities using electric dipole polarizability in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear structure observables usually most effectively probe the properties of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities rather than at saturation density. We demonstrate that the electric dipole polarizibility αD in 208Pb is sensitive to both the magnitude Esym(ρc) and density slope L (ρc) of the symmetry energy at the subsaturation cross density ρc=0.11 fm-3. Using the experimental data of αD in 208Pb from RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University) and the recent accurate constraint of Esym(ρc) from the binding energy difference of heavy isotope pairs, we extract a value of L (ρc)=47.3 ±7.8 MeV. The implication of the present constraint of L (ρc) to the symmetry energy at saturation density, the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb and the core-crust transition density in neutron stars is discussed.

  20. Determination of 234U/238U, 235U/238U and 236U/238U Isotope Ratios in Urine Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ge; Jones, Robert L.; Saunders, David; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at low levels of concentration is important for assessing both military and civilian populations’ exposures to uranium. However, until now there has been no convenient, precise method established for rapid determination of multiple uranium isotope ratios. Here we report a new method to measure 234U/238U, 235U/238U and 236U/238U. It uses solid phase chelation extraction (via TRU columns) of actinides from the urine matrix, followed by measurement using a magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS - Thermo Element XR) equipped with a high efficiency nebulizer (Apex PFA microflow) and coupled with a membrane desolvating introduction system (Aridus II™). This method provides rapid and reliable results, and has been used successfully to analyze Certified Reference Materials (CRM). PMID:24563523

  1. Reliability of using 238U/235U and 234U/238U ratios from alpha spectrometry as qualitative indicators of enriched uranium contamination.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Mark; Winkler, Paul; Wyatt, Bill; Moreland, Scott; Johnson, Jamie; Winters, Tim

    2007-05-01

    Alpha spectrometry is a commonly used technique for the measurement of uranium isotopes in environmental samples because it is widely available at a relatively low cost. For natural uranium the (234)U to (238)U activity ratio should be 1 and the (238)U to (235)U activity ratio should be 21.7. However, a lower (238)U to (235)U ratio is usually observed in alpha spectrometric analysis of environmental soil samples. This observation has led to the conclusion that soils from nuclear weapons facilities were contaminated with highly enriched uranium. This study was undertaken to test the reliability of using activity ratios from alpha spectrometry to infer the presence of highly enriched uranium in soil samples. The results of these experiments indicate that the (238)U to (235)U activity ratio is not a reliable indicator, but that the (234)U to (238)U activity ratio can be used to qualitatively indicate the presence of highly enriched uranium at concentrations near 10 ng g(-1) and above.

  2. Prospects of heavy and superheavy element production via inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions - from 238U+238U to18O+254Es

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Multi-nucleon transfer reactions, frequently termed deep-inelastic, between heavy-ion projectiles and actinide targets provide prospects to synthesize unknown isotopes of heavy actinides and superheavy elements with neutron numbers beyond present limits. The 238U on 238U reaction, which revealed essential aspects of those nuclear reactions leading to surviving heavy nuclides, mainly produced in 3n and 4n evaporation channels, is discussed in detail. Positions and widths of isotope distributions are compared. It is shown, as a general rule, that cross sections peak at irradiation energies about 10% above the Coulomb barrier. Heavy target nuclei are essential for maximizing cross sections. Experimental results from the 238U on 248Cm reaction, including empirical extrapolations, are compared with theoretical model calculations predicting relatively high cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei. Experiments to test the validity of such predictions are proposed. Comparisons between rather symmetric heavy-ion reactions like 238U on 248Cm (or heavier targets up to 254Es) with very asymmetric ones like 18O on 254Es reveal that the ones with 238U as a projectile have the highest potential in the superheavy element region while the latter ones can be advantageous for the synthesis of heavy actinide isotopes. Concepts for highly efficient recoil separators designed for transfer products are presented.

  3. Challenging nuclear structure models through a microscopic description of proton inelastic scattering off 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, M.; Karataglidis, S.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Gogny, D.

    2008-07-01

    Differential cross sections from fully microscopic calculations of inelastic proton scattering off 208Pb are compared to experimental scattering data for incident proton energies between 65 and 201 MeV. The required nucleon-nucleus interactions were formed by folding nuclear structure information with a reliable nucleon-nucleon effective interaction that has no adjustable parameter. The absence of phenomenological normalisation in our approach offers the possibility to interpret with confidence the calculated results in terms of the quality of the underlying nuclear structure description: a feature that had been reserved, until recently, to the electron probe. We have used this method to investigate the effect of long range correlations embedded in excited states on calculated inelastic observables and demonstrate the sensitivity of nucleon scattering predictions to details of the nuclear structure.

  4. Observation of Superheavy Nuclei Produced in the Reaction of 86Kr with 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninov, V.; Gregorich, K. E.; Loveland, W.; Ghiorso, A.; Hoffman, D. C.; Lee, D. M.; Nitsche, H.; Swiatecki, W. J.; Kirbach, U. W.; Laue, C. A.; Adams, J. L.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Strellis, D. A.; Wilk, P. A.

    1999-08-01

    Following a prediction by Smolan´czuk [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2634 (1999)], we searched for superheavy element formation in the bombardment of 208Pb with 449-MeV 86Kr ions. We have observed three decay chains, each consisting of an implanted heavy atom and six subsequent α decays, correlated in time and position. In these decay chains, a rapid (ms) sequence of high energy α particles ( Eα>=10 MeV) indicates the decay of a new high- Z element. The observed chains are consistent with the formation of 293118 and its decay by sequential α-particle emission to 289116, 285114, 281112, 277110, 273Hs ( Z = 108) and 269Sg ( Z = 106). The production cross section is 2.2+2.6-0.8 pb.

  5. Fluctuation properties of the strength function associated with the giant quadrupole resonance in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Aiba, Hirokazu; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nishizaki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Toru

    2011-02-15

    We performed fluctuation analysis by means of the local scaling dimension for the strength function of the isoscalar (IS) giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in {sup 208}Pb where the strength function is obtained by the shell model calculation including 1p1h and 2p2h configurations. It is found that at almost all energy scales, fluctuation of the strength function obeys the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) random matrix theory limit. This is contrasted with the results for the GQR in {sup 40}Ca, where at the intermediate energy scale of about 1.7 MeV, a deviation from the GOE limit was detected. It is found that the physical origin for this different behavior of the local scaling dimension is ascribed to the difference in the properties of the damping process.

  6. Analysis of Elastic Scattering of 8He+208Pb System at around the Coulomb Barrier Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direkci, M.; Kucuk, Y.; Boztosun, I.

    2015-04-01

    The elastic scattering angular distribution of 8He+208Pb system is investigated at Elab = 22.0 MeV within the framework of Optical Model by using phenomenological and microscopic potentials. For the phenomenological Optical Model calculations, both real and imaginary parts of the complex nuclear potential have been chosen to have the Wood-Saxon shape. In the microscopic Optical Model calculations, we have used double folding procedure to calculate the real part of optical potential for different kinds of density distributions of 8He. A comparative study of this system has been conducted for the fist time by using phenomenological and microscopic potentials. It is observed that large imaginary radius value due to the existence of long-range absorption mechanism acting at large distances provides a very good agreement between theoretical results and experimental data with small χ2/N values.

  7. New high-spin stretched states in 208Pb observed by the (p,p') reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; Yanagihara, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Katayama, I.; Hosono, K.; Morinobu, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Hayakawa, S. I.; Katori, K.; Muto, K.; Ikegami, H.

    1990-09-01

    High-spin states have been newly observed at 7.83 MeV and 8.37 MeV in 208Pb by the (p,p') reaction at Ep = 80 MeV. The analysis of the angular distributions peaked at large angles and the results of shell-model calculations suggest that these are the stretched states with neutron configurations v(i {11}/{2},h {9}/{2}-1) 10- and v(j {15}/{2},h {9}/{2}-1) 12+, respectively. Candidates for the v(j {15}/{2},f {7}/{2}-1), 11 + and v(g {7}/{2},i {13}/{2}-) , 10 + states have also been observed at 7.46 MeV and 7.66 MeV, respectively.

  8. A Clean Measurement of the Neutron Skin of 208Pb Through Parity Violating Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Riad Suleiman

    2003-07-01

    The difference between the neutron radius Rn of a heavy nucleus and the proton radius Rp is believed to be on the order of several percent. This qualitative feature of nuclei, which is essentially a neutron skin, has proven to be elusive to pin down experimentally in a rigorous fashion. A new Jefferson Lab experiment will measure the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. Since the Z-boson couples mainly to neutrons, this asymmetry provides a measure of the size of Rn that can be interpreted with as much confidence as the traditional electron scattering data. The projected experimental precision corresponds to a 1% determination of Rn, which will have a big impact on nuclear theory and its application to neutron rich matter such as neutron stars.

  9. Random matrix analysis of the monopole strength distribution in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Åberg, S.; Arsenyev, N. N.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Pichugin, K. N.

    2016-11-15

    We study statistical properties of the 0{sup +} spectrum of {sup 208}Pb in the energy region E{sub x} ≤ 20 MeV. We use the Skyrme interaction SLy4 as our model Hamiltonian to create a single-particle spectrum and to analyze excited states. The finite-rank separable approximation for the particle–hole interaction enables us to perform the calculations in large configuration spaces. We show that while the position of the monopole resonance centroid is determined by one-phonon excitations of 0{sup +}, the phonon–phonon coupling is crucial for the description of the strength distribution of the 0{sup +} spectrum. In fact, this coupling has an impact on the spectral rigidity Δ{sub 3}(L) which is shifted towards the random matrix limit of the Gaussian orthogonal ensembles.

  10. Light charged particles emitted in fission reactions induced by protons on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-09-01

    Light charged particles emitted in proton-induced fission reactions on 208Pb have been measured at different kinetic energies: 370 A ,500 A , and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed by the SOFIA Collaboration at the GSI facilities in Darmstadt (Germany). The inverse kinematics technique was combined with a setup especially designed to measure light charged particles in coincidence with fission fragments. This measurement allowed us, for the first time, to obtain correlations between the light charged particles emitted during the fission process and the charge distributions of the fission fragments. These correlations were compared with different model calculations to assess the ground-to-saddle dynamics. The results confirm that transient and dissipative effects are required for an accurate description of the fission observables.

  11. Search for deeply bound pionic states in 208Pb via radiative atomic capture of negative pions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raywood, K. J.; Lange, J. B.; Jones, G.; Pavan, M.; Sevior, M. E.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D.; Yen, S.; Lee, S. J.; Sim, K. S.; Altman, A.; Friedman, E.; Trudel, A.

    1997-05-01

    A search for narrow, deeply bound pionic atom states via atomic radiative capture of negative pions in a target of 208Pb was carried out for pion kinetic energies of 20 and 25 MeV. Although no clear signature of any such gamma ray emission could be observed in the data, fits of the gamma ray spectra between the energies of 12 and 42 MeV involving a quadratic background together with a pair of peaks (1s, 2p) whose relative intensity was taken from theory yielded an overall strength for the peaks which are consistent (to a 67% confidence level) with radiative capture whose integrated cross section is 20.0 +/- 10.0 μb/sr at 90° for 20 MeV incident pions. A lower probability (40% confidence level) result was obtained when the fit was carried out without the peaks included, just the continuum background.

  12. Power of two: Assessing the impact of a second measurement of the weak-charge form factor of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, J.; Linero, A. R.; Giuliani, P.; Chicken, E.

    2016-09-01

    Background: Besides its intrinsic value as a fundamental nuclear-structure observable, the weak-charge density of 208Pb—a quantity that is closely related to its neutron distribution—is of fundamental importance in constraining the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. Purpose: To assess the impact that a second electroweak measurement of the weak-charge form factor of 208Pb may have on the determination of its overall weak-charge density. Methods: Using the two putative experimental values of the form factor, together with a simple implementation of Bayes' theorem, we calibrate a theoretically sound—yet surprisingly little known—symmetrized Fermi function, that is characterized by a density and form factor that are both known exactly in closed form. Results: Using the charge form factor of 208Pb as a proxy for its weak-charge form factor, we demonstrate that using only two experimental points to calibrate the symmetrized Fermi function is sufficient to accurately reproduce the experimental charge form factor over a significant range of momentum transfers. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that a second measurement of the weak-charge form factor of 208Pb supplemented by a robust theoretical input in the form of the symmetrized Fermi function would place significant constraints on the neutron distribution of 208Pb. In turn, such constraints will become vital in the interpretation of hadronic experiments that will probe the neutron-rich skin of exotic nuclei at future radioactive beam facilities.

  13. Complete dipole response in {sup 208}Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Kalmykov, Y.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Bertulani, C. A.; Carter, J.; Fujita, H.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.

    2009-01-28

    The structure of electric and magnetic dipole modes in {sup 208}Pb is investigated in a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg. First results on the E1 strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance are reported.

  14. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 1 Ranger 3.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Ranger 3 ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located between 30 and 50 m below the surface. The ground water U concentration and (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the top 10 m of the weathered zone are reported for 357 samples collected over 4 wet seasons, at 5 depths, along a transect in-line with the hydraulic gradient and along the centre line of the ore body and its associated dispersion halo. The results show that the weathered zone displays a general U isotope feature for this type of ore body with the (234)U/(238)U AR for the ground water and amorphous phase of the solid matrix being less than 1. The ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is independent of the annual monsoonal climate and depth within the range surface to 10 m. In the vicinity of the U ore body the ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is 0.75 and is very similar to the (234)U/(238)U AR of the amorphous phase of the solid (0.76). The (234)U/(238)U ARs of the amorphous phase and ground water rise and separate to values of 0.88 and 1.02 at the end of the transect. The rise and separation in (234)U/(238)U AR are interpreted as evidence that the source of the U in the ground water is from the water-soluble sub-phase of the amorphous phase and that the ground water flow is too fast to allow the processes occurring across the solid-water interface to reach chemical equilibrium. The data set is a robust characterisation of the coarse and fine detail of the (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the weathered zone of U ore bodies.

  15. Alpha scattering from /sup 209/Bi at 50. 5 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Kailas, S.; Kerekatte, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    The cross sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles from /sup 209/Bi have been measured at 50.5 MeV for angles up to 92/sup 0/ in steps of 1/sup 0/. An optical model analysis of the elastic scattering data has been made, starting with the parameters predicted from systematics and consistent with those determined at higher energies. The large angular range combined with the relatively small errors in the measurement restrict the real potential to just three discrete families. A nearside-farside decomposition of the data clearly reveals the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern superimposed on the large background of Fresnel diffraction. The inelastic scattering data have been analyzed in terms of the collective model using the distorted wave Born approximation, for which the distorted waves were generated by the optical model analysis of the elastic scattering data. The values of the deformation lengths (..beta..R) obtained are compared with those reported in the literature.

  16. The Application of 238U/235U as a Redox-Proxy for Past Ocean Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. B.; Westermann, S.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.; Föllmi, K. B.; Vance, D.

    2014-12-01

    The recent discovery of significant variation in 238U/235U caused by redox change at the surface Earth has led to its use to extract information on the oxygenation state of ancient oceans from marine sediments [e.g. 1]. Recent studies have focused on improving the understanding of the 238U/235U signature in modern marine carbonates [2] and black shales [3] to improve the robustness of this tracer. To further advance its use we have focused on improving our understanding of 238U/235U systematics in modern dolomite, another commonly occurring rock-type in the geological record, before turning to 238U/235U signatures in ancient sediments. The measured dolomite samples, precipitated in modern environments of coastal hypersaline lagoons in Brazil, all exhibit 238U/235U values that deviate from the seawater composition [3]. Observed values are both lighter (ca. 130 ppm; as also observed in dolomite from tidal-ponds on Bahamas [2]) and heavier (50-180 ppm). These distinct 238U/235U values for different dolomite-precipitates likely attest to the particular formation style, as well as early diagenetic processes. We use such modern settings to discuss the utility of 238U/235U in ancient sediments, the singularity of any observed 238U/235U signal, its relation to global ocean chemistry and potential diagenetic overprinting. These constraints are then used to evaluate a well-preserved marine carbonate section [4] and published black shale 238U/235U data [1], both deposited during the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (93 Ma). We discuss the capabilities of both the carbonate and black shale section for retaining information on the 238U/235U composition in the ocean during OAE 2. [1] Montoya-Pino et al. (2010) Geology, 38, 315-318 [2] Romaniello et al. (2013) 362, 305-316 [3] Andersen et al. (2014) EPSL, 400, 184-194 [4] Westermann et al. (2010) Cret. Res., 31, 500-514

  17. 450,000 years of groundwater (234U/238U)0 variations in SW Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Kathleen A.; Moseley, Gina E.; Pythoud, Mathieu; Dublyansky, Yuri; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Subaqueous speleothems represent a unique archive for geochemical variations in regional groundwater systems. Devils Hole 2 cave, located in SW Nevada, USA, is an open fault zone intersecting the Ash Meadows groundwater flow system. Speleothem layers that coat the submerged walls of Devils Hole 2 cave record the isotopic composition of groundwater uranium at the time of precipitation. Past variations of 234U/238U initial activity ratios in groundwater may provide insight into paleohydrological conditions, such as changes to groundwater flow rates or source inputs. We aim to reconstruct 450 ka of groundwater (234U/238U)0 variations at Devils Hole 2 cave. To do so, an 80 cm-long core was drilled from the cave wall. Over 100 (234U/238U) and U-Th ages were measured in order to calculate initial activity ratios. Despite relatively constant uranium concentrations and growth rates throughout the core, preliminary results show a range in values (2.851 -2.616) deviating from modern day groundwater (234U/238U)0 which we measured to 2.762 (±0.002). (234U/238U)0 variations appear to follow interglacial-glacial cycles from 450 ka to present day, such that maximum (234U/238U)0 ratios identified at roughly 43, 185, 289, 374, and 449 ka correspond to glacial periods, while minimum (234U/238U)0 ratios at roughly 5, 121, 239, 336 and 422 ka correspond to interglacial periods. Focusing on the last 200 ka, we observe increasing (234U/238U)0 ratios coupled with depleted Devils Hole 2 δ18O values and water table high-stands (Moseley et al. 2016, Science 2016). We suggest that (234U/238U)0 variations are positively correlated to precipitation amount, contrary to dripstone speleothem records in the Great Basin region. Mechanisms driving the fluctuation in (234U/238U)0 values are still uncertain, but may be due to increased inputs of additional minor groundwater sources to the Ash Meadows flow system during pluvial periods.

  18. Fractionation of 238U/235U by reduction during low temperature uranium mineralisation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Melissa J.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Kaltenbach, Angela; Turner, Simon P.; Schaefer, Bruce F.

    2014-02-01

    Investigations of ‘stable’ uranium isotope fractionation during low temperature, redox transformations may provide new insights into the usefulness of the 238U/235U isotope system as a tracer of palaeoredox processes. Sandstone-hosted uranium deposits accumulate at an oxidation/reduction interface within an aquifer from the low temperature reduction of soluble U(VI) complexes in groundwaters, forming insoluble U(IV) minerals. This setting provides an ideal environment in which to investigate the effects of redox transformations on 238U/235U fractionation. Here we present the first coupled measurements of 238U/235U isotopic compositions and U concentrations for groundwaters and mineralised sediment samples from the same redox system in the vicinity of the high-grade Pepegoona sandstone-hosted uranium deposit, Australia. The mineralised sediment samples display extremely variable 238U/235U ratios (herein expressed as δUCRM145238, the per-mil deviation from the international NBL standard CRM145). The majority of mineralised sediment samples have δUCRM145238 values between -1.30±0.05 and 0.55±0.12‰, spanning a ca. 2‰ range. However, one sample has an unusually light isotopic composition of -4.13±0.05‰, which suggests a total range of U isotopic variability of up to ca. 5‰, the largest variation found thus far in a single natural redox system. The 238U/235U isotopic signature of the mineralised sediments becomes progressively heavier (enriched in 238U) along the groundwater flow path. The groundwaters show a greater than 2‰ variation in their 238U/235U ratios, ranging from δUCRM145238 values of -2.39±0.07 to -0.71±0.05‰. The majority of the groundwater data exhibit a clear systematic relationship between 238U/235U isotopic composition and U concentration; samples with the lowest U concentrations have the lowest 238U/235U ratios. The preferential incorporation of 238U during reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) and precipitation of uranium minerals leaves

  19. The 136 Xe + 208 Pb reaction: A test of models of multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Spencer; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Zhu, Shaofei; Janssens, Robert; Carpenter, Mike; Lauritsen, Torben; Greene, John; Albers, Michael; Ayangeakaa, Akaa; Sonzogni, Alejandro; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Chiara, Christopher; Harker, Jessica; Walters, William

    2015-04-01

    The yields of over 200 projectile-like and target-like fragments from the interaction of 136 Xe (Ec.m. = 450 MeV) with a thick target of 208 Pb were measured using Gammasphere and off-line γ-ray spectroscopy, giving a comprehensive picture of the production cross sections in this reaction. The measured yields were compared to predictions of the GRAZING model (with fission competition) and those of Zagrebaev and Greiner. There is good agreement between the measurements and the predictions of Zagrebaev and Greiner for nuclei near or below the target (Z = 74, 76, 78, 80, 82). However, the measured cross sections exceed the predicted values by up to an order of magnitude for neutron-rich trans-target nuclei (Z = 84, 86, 88). The GRAZING model predictions are adequate for nuclei near the target (Z = 81-83) but grossly underestimate the yields of all other products. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG06-97ER41026 and DE-FG02-94ER40834 as well as Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  20. 136Xe+208Pb reaction: A test of models of multinucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, J. S.; Loveland, W.; Yanez, R.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Chiara, C. J.; Harker, J. L.; Walters, W. B.

    2015-06-01

    The yields of over 200 projectile-like fragments (PLFs) and target-like fragments (TLFs) from the interaction of (Ec .m .=450 MeV) 136Xe with a thick target of 208Pb were measured using Gammasphere and off-line γ -ray spectroscopy, giving a comprehensive picture of the production cross sections in this reaction. The measured yields were compared to predictions of the grazing model and the predictions of Zagrebaev and Greiner using a quantitative metric, the theory evaluation factor t e f . The grazing model predictions are adequate for describing the yields of nuclei near the target or projectile but they grossly underestimate the yields of all other products. The predictions of Zagrebaev and Greiner correctly describe the magnitude and maxima of the observed TLF transfer cross sections for a wide range of transfers (Δ Z =-8 to Δ Z =+2 ). However, for Δ Z =+4 , the observed position of the maximum in the distribution is four neutrons richer than the predicted maximum. The predicted yields of the neutron-rich N =126 nuclei exceed the measured values by two orders of magnitude. Correlations between TLF and PLF yields are discussed.

  1. Neutron-Rich Isotopes from 208Pb at 86 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Portillo, M.; Amthor, A. M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Folden, C.; Ginter, T.; Hausmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pereira, J.; Sherrill, B. M.; Thoennessen, M.; Nociforo, C.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment to measure production yields from a beam of ^208Pb (86 MeV/u) on Be and Ni-targets has recently been performed. The A1900 fragment-separator [1] was used to analyze products from projectile fragmentation and abrasion-fission [2]. Isotopic identification of nuclides having A˜200 has been achieved, demonstrating that adequate A,Z,Q resolution at this energy region is possible when using silicon detectors. The verification of PID is done via detection of multiple charge state distributions of the primary beam, as well as γ-decay of known isomers with half-lives in the microsecond range. The results demonstrate that experiments with heavy nuclei are possible at the NSCL using beams of A>200. Production cross-sections have been extracted from the data that can help improve the accuracy of production models such as Abrasion-Ablation and Abrasion-Fission used in the LISE++ code [3]. The data reveal the existence of previously unreported isomeric transitions and further analysis is ongoing that may also lead to the observation of new isotopes. References: [1] D.J.Morrissey et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B204 (2003) 90--96. [2] O.B. Tarasov, Tech. Rep. MSUCL1300, NSCL, Michigan St.Univ., 2005. [3] O.B. Tarasov, D. Bazin, Nucl. Phys. A 746 (2004) 411; www.nscl.msu.edu/lise .

  2. New high spin states and isomers in the {sup 208}Pb and {sup 207}Pb nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Broda, R.; Wrzesinski, J.; Pawlat, T.

    1996-12-31

    The two most prominent examples of the heavy doubly closed shell (DCS) nuclei, {sup 208}Pb and {sup 132}Sn, are not accessible by conventional heavy-ion fusion processes populating high-spin states. This experimental difficulty obscured for a long time the investigation of yrast high-spin states in both DCS and neighboring nuclei and consequently restricted the study of the shell model in its most attractive regions. Recent technical development of multidetector gamma arrays opened new ways to exploit more complex nuclear processes which populate the nuclei of interest with suitable yields for gamma spectroscopy and involve population of moderately high spin states. This new possibility extended the range of accessible spin values and is a promising way to reach new yrast states. Some of these states are expected to be of high configurational purity and can be a source of important shell model parameters which possibly can be used later to check the validity of the spherical shell model description at yet higher spin and higher excitation energy. The nuclei in the closest vicinity of {sup 132}Sn are produced in spontaneous fission and states with spin values up to I=14 can be reached in fission gamma spectroscopy studies with the presently achieved sensitivity of gamma arrays. New results on yrast states in the {sup 134}Te and {sup 135}I nuclei populated in fission of the {sup 248}Cm presented at this conference illustrate such application of the resolving power offered by modern gamma techniques.

  3. γ -ray spectroscopy of fission fragments produced in 208Pb(18O ,f )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Moin Shaikh, Md.; Sharma, H. P.; Chakraborty, S.; Palit, R.; Pillay, R. G.; Nanal, V.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Biswas, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments produced in the heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reaction 208Pb(18O,f ) at E =90 MeV has been performed. The relative isotopic yields of the fission fragments and the fragment mass distribution have been studied. Structures in the mass distribution have been discussed in the light of earlier results. Relative yields of several odd-A isotopes of Mo, Ru, Pd, and Cd and the odd-A isotones with N =62 and 64 have been studied along with the yields of the neighboring even-Z , even-N fragments and correlated to nuclear structural effects. The average total neutron multiplicity during fission has been measured to be 5.48 ±0.59 . The level schemes of the two neutron-rich nuclei 110Pd and 116Cd have been studied from γ -ray triple coincidence data. A large number of transitions, previously reported only from β -decay studies, have been observed in 110Pd for the first time. The yrast band in 116Cd has been extended up to spin (16+). In addition, a rotational sequence built upon an excited 5- state in 116Cd has been observed up to (13-). The level schemes have been discussed in the context of existing results, both experimental and theoretical, in the literature.

  4. Internal dose assessment of 238U contaminated soils based on in-vitro gastrointestinal protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perama, Yasmin Mohd Idris; Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Majid, Amran Ab.; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure to natural radioactive uranium has been a great interest as more industrial rapidly growing contributes to radiation risks. The aim of this case study was to determine the internal dose in humans incorporated with ingestion of 238U contaminated soils. A gastrointestinal analogue test was employed to simulate the human digestive tract. In-vitro approach via German DIN 19738 model was developed in order to estimate the internal exposure of 238U due to ingestion of different types of soils. Synthetic gastrointestinal fluids assay via in-vitro method were produced to determine the concentration of 238U in various soils using ICP-MS. Based on the results, concentration of 238U in BRIS, laterite, peat and alluvium soils were in ranged between (0.0061 ± 0.0057 - 0.0488 ± 0.0148) ppm and (0.0005 ± 0.0004 - 0.0046 ± 0.0007) ppm in gastric and gastrointestinal phase respectively. Types of soil compositions and pH medium were some of the factors that influence mobilization and solubility of 238U contaminanted soil into the digestive juices that resembles human gastrointestinal tract. For the purpose of internal dose assessment, the committed efective dose from 238U intake in soils ranged between 1.237 × 10-11 - 9.8993 × 10-11 Sv y-1 for gastric phase and 1.0184 × 10-12 - 9.3294 × 10-12 Sv y-1 for gastric-intestinal phase. The internal dose measurements from this study were much lower from the recommended values. Hence, ingestion of 238U contaminated soils would not be expected to pose major health risk to humans.

  5. Isospin character of low-lying pygmy dipole states in 208Pb via inelastic scattering of 17O ions.

    PubMed

    Crespi, F C L; Bracco, A; Nicolini, R; Mengoni, D; Pellegri, L; Lanza, E G; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Kmiecik, M; Avigo, R; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Boiano, C; Bottoni, S; Brambilla, S; Camera, F; Ceruti, S; Giaz, A; Million, B; Morales, A I; Vandone, V; Wieland, O; Bednarczyk, P; Ciemała, M; Grebosz, J; Krzysiek, M; Mazurek, K; Zieblinski, M; Bazzacco, D; Bellato, M; Birkenbach, B; Bortolato, D; Calore, E; Cederwall, B; Charles, L; de Angelis, G; Désesquelles, P; Eberth, J; Farnea, E; Gadea, A; Görgen, A; Gottardo, A; Isocrate, R; Jolie, J; Jungclaus, A; Karkour, N; Korten, W; Menegazzo, R; Michelagnoli, C; Molini, P; Napoli, D R; Pullia, A; Recchia, F; Reiter, P; Rosso, D; Sahin, E; Salsac, M D; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Simpson, J; Söderström, P-A; Stezowski, O; Theisen, Ch; Ur, C; Valiente-Dobón, J J

    2014-07-04

    The properties of pygmy dipole states in 208Pb were investigated using the 208Pb(17O, 17O'γ) reaction at 340 MeV and measuring the γ decay with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array. Cross sections and angular distributions of the emitted γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with (γ, γ') and (p, p') data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering and of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3- states. For the dipole transitions a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition density was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- excited states from 4 to 8 MeV.

  6. Neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb from the energy of the anti-analogue giant dipole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2013-05-01

    The energy of the charge-exchange anti-analogue giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been calculated for the 208Pb isotope using the state-of-the-art fully self-consistent relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. It is shown that the AGDR centroid energy is very sensitively related to the corresponding neutron-skin thickness. The neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb has been determined very precisely by comparing the theoretical results with the available experimental data on E(AGDR). The result ΔRpn = 0.161 ± 0.042 agrees nicely with the previous experimental results.

  7. Measurement of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 259}Sg excitation function

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, C. M.; Dragojevic, I.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nelson, S. L.; Hoffman, D. C.; Nitsche, H.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Sudowe, R.; Gregorich, K. E.; Eichler, R.

    2009-02-15

    The excitation function for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 259}Sg reaction has been measured using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. The maximum cross section of 320{sub -100}{sup +110} pb is observed at a center-of-target laboratory-frame energy of 253.0 MeV. In total, 25 decay chains originating from {sup 259}Sg were observed and the measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. In addition, a partial excitation function for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 52}Cr,2n){sup 258}Sg reaction was obtained, and an improved {sup 258}Sg half-life of 2.6{sub -0.4}{sup +0.6} ms was calculated by combining all available experimental data.

  8. Complete dipole strength distributions in 208Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° at incident energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon is established as a new spectrospcopic tool for the study of E1 and M1 strength distributions. Experiments of this type have been realized recently at RCNP, Osaka, Japan with high energy resolution of the order 25 - 30 keV (FWHM). Using 208Pb as an example, the physics potential of such data is discussed. It includes information on the properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance but also on complete E1 and M1 strength distributions and thus the gamma strength function. The E1 polarizability can be extracted with a precision of about 4% providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb.

  9. Total fission cross section of {sup 181}Ta and {sup 208}Pb induced by protons at relativistic energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Schmidt, K. H.; Jurado, B.; Pol, H. A.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Pleskac, R.; Enqvist, T.; Rejmund, F.; Giot, L.; Henzl, V.; Lukic, S.; Ngoc, S. N.; Boudard, A.; Leray, S.; Kurtukian, T.; Schmitt, C.; Henzlova, D.; Paradela, C.; Bacquias, A.; Loureiro, D. P.; Foehr, V.; Tarrio, D.; Kezzar, K.

    2011-07-01

    Total fission cross section induced by protons in {sup 181}Ta and {sup 208}Pb at energies in the range of 300 to 1000 A MeV have been measured at GSI (Germany) using the inverse kinematics technique. A dedicated setup with high efficiency made it possible to determine these cross sections with high accuracy. The new data seed light in the controversial results obtained so far and contribute to the understanding of the fission process at high excitation energies. (authors)

  10. Isobar-hole and two-particle-two-hole effects in the spin response of 90Zr and 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.; Schwesinger, B.; Wambach, J.; Speth, J.

    1984-11-01

    We give a microscopic description of low-energy unnatural-parity excitations in 90Zr and 208Pb in a restricted Hilbert space spanned by one-particle-one-hole, two-particle-two-hole as well as one-isobar-one-hole excitations. In this model space it seems possible to reduce the effective two-body interaction to correlated one-pion and one-rho-meson exchange and yet get a good description of measured strength functions.

  11. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 3 Koongarra.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    The Koongarra ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located ∼30 m below the surface. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) for the ground water and the amorphous phase of the solid have been analysed for the ore zone and dispersion halo as a function of depth. The results display a (234)U/(238)U AR signature with depth which may be common to all U ore bodies. The (234)U/(238)U AR is depressed below secular equilibrium in the weathered material above the redox front; rises significantly above secular equilibrium in the vicinity of the redox front; and is followed by a gradual decrease with depth below the redox front. The amplitude of the profile is a function of local conditions. A model is proposed for the signature in which oxidising waters preferentially leach the (234)U sites at the redox front due to preconditioning of the (234)U sites by α recoil during the decay of (23)(8)U to (23)(4)U. Mass balance requires the solid material left behind the redox front to have a (234)U/(238)U AR reduced below 1. Local second order effects may be superimposed on the signature. The signature may have application to calibrating scenarios for nuclear waste repositories, assisting in understanding historical climates, economic evaluation of U ore bodies and U exploration.

  12. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Horowitz, C. J.; Ahmed, Z.; Jen, C. -M.; ...

    2012-03-26

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(more » $$\\bar{q}$$), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer $$\\bar{q}$$ = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW($$\\bar{q}$$) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW($$\\bar{q}$$). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness σ of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. As a result, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.« less

  13. Dipole response in 208Pb within a self-consistent multiphonon approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Veselý, P.; Andreozzi, F.; De Gregorio, G.; Porrino, A.

    2015-11-01

    Background: The electric dipole strength detected around the particle threshold and commonly associated with the pygmy dipole resonance offers unique information on neutron skin and symmetry energy, and is of astrophysical interest. The nature of such a resonance is still under debate. Purpose: We intend to describe the giant and pygmy resonances in 208Pb by enhancing their fragmentation with respect to the random-phase approximation. Method: We adopt the equation of motion phonon method to perform a fully self-consistent calculation in a space spanned by one-phonon and two-phonon basis states using an optimized chiral two-body potential. A phenomenological density-dependent term, derived from a contact three-body force, is added to get single-particle spectra more realistic than the ones obtained by using the chiral potential only. The calculation takes into full account the Pauli principle and is free of spurious center-of-mass admixtures. Results: We obtain a fair description of the giant resonance and obtain a dense low-lying spectrum in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The transition densities as well as the phonon and particle-hole composition of the most strongly excited states support the pygmy nature of the low-lying resonance. Finally, we obtain realistic values for the dipole polarizability and the neutron skin radius. Conclusions: The results emphasize the role of the two-phonon states in enhancing the fragmentation of the strength in the giant resonance region and at low energy, consistently with experiments. For a more detailed agreement with the data, the calculation suggests the inclusion of the three-phonon states as well as a fine tuning of the single-particle spectrum to be obtained by a refinement of the nuclear potential.

  14. γ strength function and level density of 208Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassauer, S.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Tamii, A.

    2016-11-01

    Background: γ strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. Purpose: The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 database for the case of 208Pb. The upward GSF and LD in 208Pb are compared to γ decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. Methods: The E 1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. The total LD in 208Pb is derived from the 1- LD extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. Results: The E 1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 database showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known spin-flip M 1 resonance call for a substantial revision of the model suggested in RIPL-3. The total GSF derived from the present data is larger in the PDR energy region than the Oslo data but the strong fluctuations due to the low LD resulting from the double shell closure of 208Pb prevent a conclusion on a possible violation of the BA hypothesis. Using the parameters suggested by RIPL-3 for a description of the LD in 208Pb with the back-shifted Fermi gas model, remarkable agreement between the two experiments spanning a wide excitation energy range is obtained. Conclusions: Systematic parametrizations of the E 1 and M 1 GSF parts need to be reconsidered at low excitation energies. The good agreement of the LD provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  15. Transmission Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements of 238U in Thick Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Wilson, Cody; Korbly, Steve

    2010-08-31

    Transmission nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements were made on targets consisting of Pb and depleted U with total areal densities near 86 g/cm2. The 238U content n the targets varied from 0 to 8.5percent (atom fraction). The experiment demonstrates the capability of using transmission measurements as a non-destructive technique to identify and quantify the presence of an isotope in samples with thicknesses comparable to he average thickness of a nuclear fuel assembly. The experimental data also appear to demonstrate the process of notch refilling with a predictable intensity. Comparison of measured spectra to previous backscatter 238U measurements indicates general agreement in observed excited states. Two new 238U excited states and possibly a third state have also been observed.

  16. Mass-spectrometric 230Th-234U-238U dating of the Devils Hole calcite vein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Simmons, K.R.; Szabo, B. J.; Winograd, I.J.; Landwehr, J.M.; Riggs, A.C.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Devils Hole calcite vein contains a long-term climatic record, but requires accurate chronologic control for its interpretation. Mass-spectrometric U-series ages for samples from core DH-11 yielded 230Th ages with precisions ranging from less than 1,000 years (2??) for samples younger than ???140 ka (thousands of years ago) to less than 50,000 years for the oldest samples (???566 ka). The 2348U/238U ages could be determined to a precision of ???20,000 years for all ages. Calcite accumulated continuously from 566 ka until ???60 ka at an average rate of 0.7 millimeter per 103 years. The precise agreement between replicate analyses and the concordance of the 230Th/238U and 234U/238U ages for the oldest samples indicate that the DH-11 samples were closed systems and validate the dating technique in general.

  17. Ocean mixing and ice-sheet control of seawater 234U/238U during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianyu; Robinson, Laura F.; Beasley, Matthew P.; Claxton, Louis M.; Andersen, Morten B.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Wadham, Jemma; Fornari, Daniel J.; Harpp, Karen S.

    2016-11-01

    Seawater 234U/238U provides global-scale information about continental weathering and is vital for marine uranium-series geochronology. Existing evidence supports an increase in 234U/238U since the last glacial period, but the timing and amplitude of its variability has been poorly constrained. Here we report two seawater 234U/238U records based on well-preserved deep-sea corals from the low-latitude Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The Atlantic 234U/238U started to increase before major sea-level rise and overshot the modern value by 3 per mil during the early deglaciation. Deglacial 234U/238U in the Pacific converged with that in the Atlantic after the abrupt resumption of Atlantic meridional overturning. We suggest that ocean mixing and early deglacial release of excess 234U from enhanced subglacial melting of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets have driven the observed 234U/238U evolution.

  18. Analysis of complete, incomplete and total fusion data of 9Be +169Tm, 187Re, 209Bi reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-11-01

    We have analyzed the incomplete fusion (ICF), complete fusion (CF) and total fusion (TF) excitation functions for reactions induced by 9Be on 169Tm, 187Re and 209Bi targets at near barrier energies using Wong’s formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential. A phenomenological selection function is proposed to separate out the contribution of ICF and CF cross-sections in TF cross-section. The variation of relative contribution of ICF and CF in TF with respect to incident beam energy is very well reproduced through this approach.

  19. Determination of the isotopic ratio 236U/ 238U in Austrian water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.

    2010-04-01

    236U with a half life of 2.3 × 10 7 years is naturally produced in ultra-trace amounts ( 236U/ 238U < 10 -10) in ores, soils and rocks, while a huge amount has been produced in nuclear power plants and possibly nuclear weapons tests by man. Thus, anthropogenic uranium may cause a significant measurement background for geological applications of natural 236U. To investigate this background, water samples from rivers, creeks and wells were collected in the alpine region of Forstau (Salzburg, Austria) and from surrounding areas. Thin sources for alpha spectrometry were prepared by anion exchange and co-precipitation with NdF 3 to determine the 238U concentration. These filters were reprocessed for the analysis of the isotopic ratio 236U/ 238U by AMS. The special aim was the characterization of the 236U/ 238U ratio in natural waters and the investigation of contributions from anthropogenic sources. Our measurements of 236U in Austrian water samples from wells, rivers and creeks show the first data on the spreading of anthropogenic 236U in the general environment far from local contamination sources.

  20. Production of neutron-rich transcalifornium nuclei in 238U-induced transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Su, Jun; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-11-01

    In order to produce more unknown neutron-rich transcalifornium nuclei, the collisions of 238U with the targets 248Cm, 249Cf, and 250Cm are investigated within the framework of the dinuclear system model. The production cross sections of unknown neutron-rich nuclei with Z =99 -104 in these reactions are predicted. The influences of N /Z ratios and charge numbers of the targets on the production cross sections are studied. It is found that high N /Z ratios of 248Cm and 250Cm targets enhance the production cross sections of neutron-rich transcalifornium nuclei. However, due to high charge number of the target 249Cf the predicted production cross sections of unknown neutron-rich nuclei with Z =104 in the reaction 238U+249Cf are higher than those in 238U+248Cm . We also have studied the entrance angular momentum effects on production probabilities of transfer products in the reaction 238U+248Cm . It is found that the formation probabilities of the final neutron-rich products increase first and then decrease with the increasing J .

  1. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 2 Manyingee.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Manyingee ore body is a roll-front U ore body located at depth in the Cretaceous sandstone sediments of a Proterozoic palaeo valley. It is located in a confined aquifer. The aquifer is recharged 4 km upstream by the Ashburton River. Groundwater samples were collected at and up to 4.7 km downstream of the ore body. The ground water (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) were elevated to 1.86 in the vicinity of the ore body and then declined to 1.06 over the 4.7 km transect. The elevated (234)U/(238)U ARs are attributed to selective leaching of (234)U sites by oxidising waters, with α recoil as a necessary precursor to produce activated (234)U sites. Direct ejection into another phase following α recoil is considered to be a minor contributor to (234)U -(238)U disequilibrium in this environment. The profile is considered to be typical of the (234)U/(238)U AR profile at and down gradient of the redox front of a U ore body.

  2. Reaction paths and host phases of uranium isotopes (235U; 238U), Saanich Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, M.; Holmden, C. E.; Francois, R. H.

    2009-12-01

    In recent times, Uranium has become increasingly the focus of stable isotope fractionation studies. Variations in 238U/235U have been reported as a result of redox reactions [1,2] from the nuclear field shift effect [3], and a mass-dependent, microbially-mediated, kinetic isotope effect [4]. The 238U/235U variability caused by changes in environmental redox conditions leads to an increase in the 238U/235U ratios of the reduced U species sequestered into marine sediments. This points to U isotope variability as a new tool to study ancient ocean redox changes. However, the process by which reduced sediments become enriched in the heavy isotopes of U is not yet known, and hence the utility of 238U/235U as a redox tracer remains to be demonstrated. In order to further constrain sedimentary U enrichment and related isotope effect, we are investigating U isotopic compositions of water samples and fresh surface sediment grab samples over a range of redox conditions in the seasonally anoxic Saanich Inlet, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. U was sequentially extracted from sediments in order to characterize specific fractions for their isotopic composition. The measurements were carried out by MC-ICPMS using 233U/236U-double spike technique. The data are reported as δ238U relative to NBL 112a with a 238U/235U ratio of 137.88 (2sd). External precision is better than 0.10‰ (2sd). Fifteeen analyses of seawater yielded δ238U of -0.42±0.08‰ (2sd). The results for the water samples indicate a homogenous δ238U value throughout the Saanich Inlet water column that matches the global seawater signature. All of the water samples from above and below average -0.42±0.05‰ (2sd). In contrast, a plankton net sample yielded a distinctly different, (about 0.5‰ lighter) isotope value. Bacterial reduction experiments [4] have also shown isotope enrichment factors of about -0.3‰. In addition, metal isotope fractionation occurs during adsorption with the light isotope being

  3. Geochemistry of speleothem records from southern Illinois: Development of (234U)/(238U) as a proxy for paleoprecipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Juanzuo; Lundstrom, C.C.; Fouke, B.; Panno, S.; Hackley, K.; Curry, B.

    2005-01-01

    Natural waters universally show fractionation of uranium series (U-series) parent-daughter pairs, with the disequilibrium between 234U and 238U (234U)/(238U) commonly used as a tracer of groundwater flow. Because speleothems provide a temporal record of geochemical variations in groundwater precipitating calcite, (234U)/(238U) variations in speleothems provide a unique method of investigating water-rock interaction processes over millennium time scales. We present high precision Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric (TIMS) U-series analyses of speleothems and drip waters from Fogelpole Cave in southern Illinois. Data from all speleothems from the cave show an inverse correlation between (234U)/(238U) and U concentration, following the pattern observed in groundwaters globally. Within a 65-cm-long stalagmite, concordant 234U-238 U-230Th and 235U-231Pa ages for 5 samples indicate accurate chronology from 78.5 ka to 30 ka. Notably, (234U)/(238U)o which differs from most speleothems by having (234U)/(238U)o <1, positively correlates with speleothem growth rate. We generalize this to the observation that speleothems globally show (234U)/ (238U)o deviating farther from secular equilibrium at lower growth rates and approaching secular equilibrium at higher grow rates. Based on the Fogelpole observations, we suggest that groundwater (234U)/(238U) is controlled by the U oxidation state, the U concentration of the water and the fluid velocity. A transport model whereby U-series nuclides react and exchange with mineral surfaces can reproduce the observed trend between growth rate and (234U)/(238U)o. Based on this result, we suggest that (234U)/(238U)o in speleothems may record changes in hydrologic flux with time and thus could provide a useful proxy for long term records of paleoprecipitation. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear spectroscopy study of the isotopes populated via multinucleon transfer in the 90Zr + 208Pb reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ur, C. A.; Corradi, L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Behera, B. R.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Szilner, S.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Haas, F.; Pollarolo, G.

    2006-08-14

    The present work takes advantage of the multinucleon transfer mechanism between heavy reaction partners to study the population pattern of excited nuclear states in near spherical Zirconium isotopes following the 90Zr + 208Pb reaction at an energy closed to the Coulomb barrier. Both the projectile and the target are well known closed shell nuclei offering an optimum situation for clean experimental and theoretical conditions. Total kinetic energy loss (TKEL) distributions were compared with calculations performed with the GRAZING code. The ability to use the TKEL as a selection tool for the states at different excitation energies was shown.

  5. Response function of the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA for the multinucleon transfer reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatovic, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Soic, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Multinucleon transfer reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb has been investigated with the PRISMA-CLARA experimental setup in LNL, INFN, Italy. The experimental differential cross sections have been obtained for different transfer channels by measuring more than {Delta}{theta}{sub lab} = 20 Degree-Sign covered by three angular settings of PRISMA. Results have been compared with the semiclassical calculation GRAZING. Since the understanding of the reaction mechanism depends strongly on the determination of absolute cross section, effect of transport of ions through PRISMA has been studied via a Monte Carlo simulation code.

  6. Pionic fusion near threshold using the /sup 208/Pb(/sup 3/He,. pi. /sup -/)/sup 211/At reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    The coherent production of pions in the /sup 208/Pb(/sup 3/He,..pi../sup -/)/sup 211/At reaction was measured radiochemically using activation techniques near the physical pion threshold at energies of 158--270 MeV. Above threshold, the total cross sections were measured in the 1--10 nb range. A theoretical fit of the summed total cross section into all particle bound states was made using the two-nucleon model of Dillig with appropriate two-body scaling of the momentum transfer.

  7. Study of the γ decay of high-lying states in 208Pb via inelastic scattering of 17O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, F. C. L.; Kmiecik, M.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Nicolini, R.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Vandone, V.; Wieland, O.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemala, M.; Grebosz, J.; Krzysiek, M.; Mazurek, K.; Zieblinski, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bellato, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Bortolato, D.; Calore, E.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Isocrate, R.; Lenzi, S.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Molini, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Ur, C.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    A measurement of the high-lying states in 208Pb has been made using 17O beams at 20 MeV/u. The gamma decay following inelastic excitation was measured with the detector system AGATA Demonstrator based on segmented HPGe detectors, coupled to an array of large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillators and to an array of Si detectors. Preliminary results in comparison with (γ,γ') data, for states in the 5-8 MeV energy interval, are presented.

  8. Toward lifetime and g factor measurements of short-lived states in the vicinity of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralet, D.; Georgiev, G.; E Stuchbery, A.; Clément, E.; Lemasson, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Rejmund, M.; Atanasova, L.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bocchi, G.; Carroll, R.; Dewald, A.; Dudouet, J.; Fornal, B.; de France, G.; Franchoo, S.; Fransen, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Goasduff, A.; Gadea, A.; Jacquot, B.; John, P. R.; Kocheva, D.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Korichi, A.; Kusoglu, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Leoni, S.; Ljungvall, J.; Lozeva, R.; Maj, A.; Navin, A.; Perez, R.; Pietralla, N.; Shand, C.; Stezowski, O.; Yordanov, D.

    2017-05-01

    The multi-nucleon transfer reaction mechanism was used to produce and study nuclei in the vicinity of 208Pb. This mass region is a test case for the nuclear shell model. The mass identification of the fragments was performed with the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ coupled to the AGATA γ-tracking array. This experiment aimed to determine both lifetimes and gyromagnetic ratios of excited states with the Cologne plunger device. The analysis indicates promising results with the possibility to determine several new lifetimes in this region.

  9. Fusion calculations for 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+48Ca, 40Ca+48Ca and p+208Pb systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Haifei; Bao, Xiaojun; Li, Junqing; Zhang, Hongfei

    2014-09-01

    The fusion cross sections of calcium isotopes and proton induced fusion have been calculated in terms of a coupled-channels formulation. Results indicated that there are big differences between the two fusion types. In the calculations of calcium isotopes fusion, the pair-transfer coupling has been applied in addition to the vibrational coupling, the combined effects showed that pair-transfer has played a significant role in the fusion process for the asymmetric 40Ca+48Ca system. The result of proton induced fusion for p+208Pb system successfully presents the fusion oscillation, which agrees with the experimental data rather well.

  10. Nature of low-energy dipole strength in nuclei: the case of a resonance at particle threshold in 208Pb.

    PubMed

    Ryezayeva, N; Hartmann, T; Kalmykov, Y; Lenske, H; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Shevchenko, A; Volz, S; Wambach, J

    2002-12-30

    A high-resolution (gamma,gamma') study of the electric dipole response in 208Pb at the S-DALINAC reveals a resonance structure centered around the neutron emission threshold. Microscopic quasiparticle phonon model calculations in realistic model spaces including the coupling to complex configurations are able to describe the data in great detail. The resonance is shown to result from surface density oscillations of the neutron skin relative to an approximately isospin-saturated core. It also forms an integral part of a toroidal E1 mode representing an example of vortex collective motion in nuclei.

  11. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  12. Coulomb breakup of 6Li into α+d in the field of a 208Pb ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irgaziev, B. F.; Nabi, Jameel-Un; Khan, Darwaish

    2011-12-01

    The triple differential cross section of the 208Pb(6Li,αd)208Pb quasielastic breakup is calculated at a collision energy of 156 MeV and a scattering angle range of 2∘-6∘. We fit the parameters of the Woods-Saxon potential using the experimental α-d phase shifts for different states to describe the relative motion of the α particle and deuteron. To check the validity of the two particle approach for the α-d system, we apply a potential model to describe the 2H(α,γ)6Li radiative capture. We calculate the Coulomb breakup using the semiclassical method while an estimation of the nuclear breakup is made on the basis of the diffraction theory. A comparison of our calculation with the experimental data of Kiener [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.44.2195 44, 2195 (1991)] gives evidence for the dominance of the Coulomb dissociation mechanism and the contribution of nuclear distortion, but is essentially smaller than the value reported by Hammache [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.82.065803 82, 065803 (2010)]. The results of our calculation for the triple cross sections (contributed by the Coulomb and nuclear mechanisms) of the 6Li breakup hint toward a forward-backward asymmetry in the relative direction of the α particle and deuteron emission, especially at smaller scattering angles, in the 6Li center-of-mass (c.m.) system.

  13. Cold fusion reaction of 58Fe + 208Pb analyzed by a generalized model of fusion by diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zu-Hua; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2012-05-01

    A generalized version of the fusion by diffusion model is proposed, in which evolution from dinuclear to mononuclear regimes is taken into account in terms of the coupled Langevin equations in the three-dimensional collective space of neck, radial, and asymmetric degrees of freedom. By simulating numerically these dynamic equations, the probability distribution of sinj, the separation between the surfaces of two approaching nuclei at the injection point in the asymmetric fission valley, is obtained. From the injection points, the system starts its climb uphill over the saddle point in the presence of thermal fluctuation; thus for very heavy systems the injection-point distance is a very critical constituent in the calculations of fusion probability. The present model is applied for the study of the mass asymmetric system 58Fe+208Pb. The excitation function for the 208Pb(58Fe,n)265Hs reaction is calculated and compared with the experimental data. By comparing the theoretical results with and without taking the asymmetric degree of freedom into account, we have arrived at the conclusion that nucleon flow between the asymmetric reaction partners in the early stage of the fusion process plays an important role in the formation of superheavy nuclei in the cold fusion reactions.

  14. Doubly magic 208Pb: High-spin states, isomers, and E 3 collectivity in the yrast decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Iskra, Ł. W.; Wrzesinski, J.; Fornal, B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; Lauritsen, T.; Podolyak, Zs.; Seweryniak, D.; Shand, C. M.; Szpak, B.; Walters, W. B.; Zhu, S.; Brown, B. A.

    2017-06-01

    Yrast and near-yrast levels up to spin values in excess of I =30 ℏ have been delineated in the doubly magic 208Pb nucleus following deep-inelastic reactions involving 208Pb targets and, mostly, 430-MeV 48Ca and 1440-MeV 208Pb beams. The level scheme was established up to an excitation energy of 16.4 MeV, based on multifold γ-ray coincidence relationships measured with the Gammasphere array. Below the well-known, 0.5-μs 10+ isomer, ten new transitions were added to earlier work. The delineation of the higher parts of the level sequence benefited from analyses involving a number of prompt- and delayed-coincidence conditions. Three new isomeric states were established along the yrast line with Iπ=20- (10 342 keV), 23+ (11 361 keV), and 28- (13 675 keV), and respective half-lives of 22(3), 12.7(2), and 60(6) ns. Gamma transitions were also identified preceding in time the 28- isomer; however, only a few could be placed in the level scheme and no firm spin-parity quantum numbers could be proposed. In contrast, for most states below this 28- isomer, firm spin-parity values were assigned, based on total electron-conversion coefficients, deduced for low-energy (<500 keV ) transitions from γ-intensity balances, and on measured γ-ray angular distributions. The latter also enabled the quantitative determination of mixing ratios. The transition probabilities extracted for all isomeric transitions in 208Pb have been reviewed and discussed in terms of the intrinsic structure of the initial and final levels involved. Particular emphasis was placed on the many observed E 3 transitions as they often exhibit significant enhancements in strength [of the order of tens of Weisskopf units (W.u.)] comparable to the one seen for the neutron j15 /2→g9 /2 E 3 transition in 209Pb. In this context, the enhancement of the 725-keV E 3 transition (56 W.u.) associated with the decay of the highest-lying 28- isomer observed in this work remains particularly challenging to explain. Large

  15. Evidence of complete fusion in the subbarrier {sup 16}O+{sup 238}U reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K. Ikezoe, H.; Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Mitsuoka, S.; Tsuruta, K.; Satou, K.; Lin, C. J.; Ohsawa, T.

    2006-08-15

    Evaporation residue cross sections in the {sup 16}O+{sup 238}U reaction were measured for the energy range from above-to extreme subbarrier. We used a He-gas-jet system to transport the fusion products, and the {alpha} decay of the evaporation residues was measured by using a rotating wheel system. The measured cross sections for {sup 248,249,250}Fm are reproduced by a statistical model calculation, for which partial cross sections are calculated by a coupled-channel model taking into account the prolate deformation of {sup 238}U. We conclude that complete fusion is the main process in the subbarrier energy region, and quasifission is not an important channel.

  16. Natural Variation of 238U/235U in Geo- and Cosmochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, S.; Brennecka, G.; Montoya Pino, C.; Noordmann, J.; Schauble, E. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    The ratio of the two primordial U isotopes has long been assumed to be invariant (i.e. 238U/235U = 137.88, [1]) in the Solar [1, 2]. Due to analytical improvements, small (‰-range) U isotope variations can now be detected in both terrestrial [3, 4, 5] and meteoritic materials [6]. Uranium isotope variations on Earth are produced by chemical reactions, analogous to stable isotope fractionation, although U has no stable isotopes. The range of U isotope variations observed thus far on Earth exceeds 1‰ and is mostly driven by nuclear field shift effects, which depend on nuclear volume rather than mass [7]. The strongest isotope fractionation appears to occur between oxidized and reduced U species (UVI and UIV). As a result, oxic environments (e.g., seawater) are enriched in the light U isotope, 235U, while anoxic sediments (e.g., from the Black Sea) are enriched in the heavy U isotope, 238U [4]. This redox-sensitive behavior of U isotope compositions makes the 238U/235U ratio promising for use as a paleo-redox proxy. In paleoceanography, 238U/235U ratios can be used to estimate the extent of seafloor anoxia. During periods of enhanced global ocean anoxia (e.g., during the mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event OAE-2) heavy U was preferentially buried into anoxic sediments. Accordingly, sea water and all oceanic sinks became depleted in heavy U. We used this shift in U isotope compositions to estimate a three times enhancement of anoxic environments in the oceans during OAE-2 compared to today [8]. In meteoritic materials, 238U/235U variations may be produced by (1) chemical reactions (2) nucleosynthetic anomalies and/or (3) decay of the short-lived extant 247Cm (half life = 15.6 Ma) to 235U. We investigated the U isotope composition of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The Pb-Pb ages of CAIs define the age of the Solar System, as they represent the first solids to condense from the cooling protoplanetary disk. The investigated CAIs from the Allende meteorite

  17. Lightest Isotope of Bh Produced Via the 209Bi(52Cr,n)260BhReaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah L.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Dragojevic, Irena; Garcia, Mitch A.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Sudowe, Ralf; Nitsche, Heino

    2007-05-07

    The lightest isotope of Bh known was produced in the new {sup 209}Bi({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 260}Bh reaction at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Positive identification was made by observation of eight correlated alpha particle decay chains in the focal plane detector of the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator. {sup 260}Bh decays with a 35{sub -9}{sup +19} ms half-life by alpha particle emission mainly by a group at 10.16 MeV. The measured cross section of 59{sub -20}{sup +29} pb is approximately a factor of four larger than compared to recent model predictions. The influences of the N = 152 and Z = 108 shells on alpha decay properties are discussed.

  18. Lightest Isotope of Bh Produced via the {sup 209}Bi({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 260}Bh Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Sudowe, R.

    2008-01-18

    The lightest isotope of Bh was produced in the new {sup 209}Bi({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 260}Bh reaction at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Positive identification was made by observation of eight correlated alpha particle decay chains in the focal plane detector of the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator. {sup 260}Bh decays with a 35{sub -9}{sup +19} ms half-life by alpha particle emission mainly by a group at 10.16 MeV. The measured cross section of 59{sub -20}{sup +29} pb is compared to model predictions. The influence of the N=152 and Z=108 shells on alpha decay properties is discussed.

  19. /sup 230/Th - /sup 238/U disequilibrium systematics in young volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, S.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive disequilibrium between /sup 230/Th (t/sub .5/ = 75,200 years) and its parent, /sup 238/U, has two major applications to the study of young volcanic rocks: 1) geochronology and 2) geochemical tracer studies. Geochronological investigations include both the dating of young (< approx.250,000 year-old) lavas by the internal isochron method and the study of the temporal evolution of magma systems feeding volcanoes. Older, K-Ar-dated lavas from Mauna Kea, Hawaii and Marion Island (Prince Edward hot spot) exhibit constant initial (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th) (activity) ratios for the past 100,000-275,000 years. At Mt. Shasta, California, a general decrease in (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th)/sub 0/ through time, with evidence of possible mixing corroborated by other geochemical data, is observed. Geochemical tracer studies depend on the observations that Th/U and (/sup 230/Th//sup 238/U) can be changed by such processes as partial melting, mixing, or fluid transport, whereas (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th) can only be modified by mixing or the passage of time. The (/sup 230/Th//sup 238/U) ratio can be used to identify possible petrogenetic processes. All lavas exhibit (/sup 230/Th//sup 238/U) greater than or equal to 1 except for some from the Aleutians and Marianas. These observations suggest that subduction-related volcanism is the only type in which U may behave as a more incompatible element than Th, although it need not (Cascades). Recent vapor transport of U or retention of Th may explain the U-enrichment in island arc lavas.

  20. Distinguishing fissions of 232Th, 237Np and 238U with beta-delayed gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, A.; Norman, E. B.; Howard, C.; Angell, C.; Kaplan, A.; Ressler, J. J.; Chodash, P.; Swanberg, E.; Czeszumska, A.; Wang, B.; Yee, R.; Shugart, H. A.

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of beta-delayed gamma-ray spectra following 14-MeV neutron-induced fissions of 232Th, 238U, and 237Np were conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Spectra were collected for times ranging from 1 min to 14 h after irradiation. Intensity ratios of gamma-ray lines were extracted from the data that allow identification of the fissioning isotope.

  1. Determination of 235U/238U Ratio on Urine by ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L; Gobaleza, A; Langston, R; Radev, R; Than, C; Wong, C; Wood-Zika, A

    2011-10-19

    LLNL Internal Dosimetry Program - The new procedure satisfies the requirement to determine {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio in bioassay urine samples. MDA - The L{sub C} and MDA{sub 95} for {sup 235}U are well below the required detection limit of 0.00035 {mu}g/L. Turn around time - Analysis of 10 samples plus 2 QCs can be completed in one work day (8 hours).

  2. Studies of positron electron pair production in {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Following the non-observation of sharp sum-energy lines in our earlier {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta measurements, it was decided to pursue measurements of the {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th system which, in the previously published work, showed the most striking evidence for near-equal-energy back-to-back pairs leading to sharp sum-energy lines. Following the refurbishing of the APEX silicon arrays and extensive tests of the rotating target wheel assembly, a major positron run took place in November 1994. Rolled 1-mg/cm{sub 2} {sup 232}Th targets were bombarded with 5.95-MeV/u {sup 238}U. The target rotation allowed up to 2 pnA of beam to be used without serious deterioration of the targets. Over 300,000 pairs were accumulated, representing an order-of-magnitude improvement in statistics over the previously published results. Preliminary analysis shows no evidence for the sharp lines at a cross section level orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The analysis of these data is currently being completed in preparation for publication.

  3. Why are so many arc magmas close to 238U- 230Th radioactive equilibrium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condomines, Michel; Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    1993-09-01

    New analyses of 238U- 230Th disequilibria are reported for four active volcanoes: Merapi and Krakatoa in the Sunda arc (Indonesia), Masaya in Central America (Nicaragua), and Ambrym in the New Hebrides island arc. Despite a large range in ( 230Th /232Th ) ratios (from 0.65 in Merapi andesites to 2.5 in Masaya basalts), 238U and 230Th are close to radioactive equilibrium, as in many other arc magmas. In several mantle sources, Th/U ratios have clearly been modified by metasomatic processes associated with subduction. This is demonstrated in Central America by the correlation between ( 230Th /232Th ) and 10Be /9Be ratios for several active volcanoes along the arc. It is proposed that the 238U- 230Th radioactive equilibrium found in many arc magmas is the result of disequilibrium melting involving an easily melted, slab-derived, metasomatic component which dominates the uranium and thorium budget of the mantle sources. The departure from equilibrium may be either due to mixing with 230Th enriched melts derived from unmetasomatized mantle sources or to a late stage uranium addition by fluids. This latter process, producing uranium enriched magmas, has a greater influence in uranium and thorium poor magmas.

  4. Origin and transport of (238)U and (226)Ra in riverine, estuarine and marine sediments of the Krka River, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cukrov, Neven; Mlakar, Marina; Cuculić, Vlado; Barisić, Delko

    2009-06-01

    Spatial distribution of (238)U and (226)Ra activities in sediment columns along the Krka River and estuary, were studied using gamma spectrometry. Markedly different (238)U and (226)Ra activities between riverine, estuarine and marine sediments were observed. Distribution of these radionuclides, as well as their anthropogenic and natural origin, was evaluated by activity measurements, taking into account sedimentation rates estimated by (137)Cs distribution in sediment columns. Naturally present (238)U and (226)Ra activities were highest in riverine and lowest in marine sediments. (238)U and (226)Ra activities in historic riverine sediments revealed anthropogenic influence from town of Knin, which diminished for 15-20% in 1990s due to warfare that caused stop of industrial, agricultural and transport activities. Drainage of the flysch material naturally elevates (238)U and (226)Ra activities in the vicinity of its inflow in the upper part of estuary. (238)U and (226)Ra from the phosphate ore discharge in the port of Sibenik did not spread further in estuary, which was also confirmed by (238)U and (226)Ra activities detected in Mytilus sp. mussels' tissue.

  5. Solubility of 238U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using "US in vitro" digestion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-01

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by "US P in vitro" digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 - 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 - 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  6. Estimation of the nuclear distortion in the Coulomb breakup of 6Li into α + d in the field of 208Pb ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irgaziev, B. F.

    2014-04-01

    In this article the results of the evaluation of the contribution of nuclear disintegration, based on the basis of diffraction theory in the 208Pb(6Li, αd)208Pb Coulomb breakup at an energy of 156 MeV is presented. Comparison of the results of the calculation with the experimental data of Kiener et al. [Phys. Rev. C 44, 2195 (1991)] gives evidence for the dominance of the Coulomb dissociation mechanism and contribution of nuclear distortion, but essentially smaller than the value reported byHammache et al. [Phys. Rev. C 82, 065803 (2010)] and Sümmerer [Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 66, 298 (2011)].

  7. Implications of the recently discovered 208Pb(1+, Ex=5.845 MeV) state for the spin-dependent nuclear interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, H.; Bertsch, G. F.; Cha, D.

    1983-09-01

    Measurements on the newly discovered 1+ state at Ex=5.845 MeV in 208Pb provide an opportunity to examine the spin dependence in the nuclear effective Hamiltonian. The data require a somewhat weaker spin-orbit splitting than given by conventional Hamiltonians. The isoscalar spin-dependent residual interaction, which was poorly determined by previous data, is found to be much weaker than the isovector spin-dependent interaction, as predicted by Brueckner theory. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Simple shell model, spin parameters in the Hamiltonian for 208Pb.

  8. Isotope fractionation of 238U and 235U during biologically-mediated uranium reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Claudine H.; Andersen, Morten B.; Warthmann, Rolf; Halliday, Alex N.

    2015-08-01

    A series of laboratory-controlled microbial experiments using gram-negative sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio brasiliensis) inoculated with natural uranium were performed to investigate 238U/235U fractionation during bacterially-mediated U reduction. Control experiments, without bacteria to drive U reduction, were conducted in parallel. Paired measurements of 238U/235U and U concentration for both the residual growth medium solution and the accumulated biologically-mediated precipitate were obtained using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The control experiments show that only minor (<0.1‰), if any 238U/235U fractionation occurs during co-precipitation with calcite. This implies that carbonate sediments are capable of faithfully recording the signature of the global ocean during Earth's major climatic events, including oxygenation and de-oxygenation transitions in the marine environment. The results for the microbial experiments demonstrate that the 238U/235U composition of the unreacted growth medium containing U(VI) is isotopically lighter than the composition of the U(IV)-bearing precipitate as U(VI) is consumed, in agreement with field-based observations of microbially-mediated U reduction. Uranium isotopic shifts of up to 0.8‰ were observed between the liquid and solid phases. These observations can be modelled using a Rayleigh distillation approach describing kinetic uptake in a closed system, which yields a fractionation factor α of 0.99923 ± 0.00004 (ε = -0.77 ± 04‰) for U(VI)-U(IV) reduction mediated by the D. brasiliensis microbe. This fractionation behaviour is consistent with that observed in field-based redox environments, which give rise to similar α values. Competing processes such as U co-precipitation (e.g. adsorption) may act to lower the apparent value for α and possibly play a secondary role both in the microbial experiments of this study and in natural U reduction settings where

  9. (. pi. sup +- ,. pi. sup +- prime N) reactions on sup 12 C and sup 208 Pb near the giant resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Sung Hoon.

    1990-05-01

    Angular distributions for the {sup 12}C({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime} p) and {sup 208}Pb({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime} p or n) reactions near the giant resonance region have been measured at T{sub {pi}} = 180 MeV, and found different between {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} data. This observation is interpreted as evidence for different excitation mechanisms dominating the {pi}{sup {minus}}-nucleus and {pi}{sup +}-nucleus interactions in the giant resonance region of these targets. A comparison with the single-nucleon knock-out distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations shows, even though these calculations underestimate ({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime} N) data for both targets, the dominance of direct process for ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {plus}}{prime} p) or ({pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}{prime} n) in contrast to ({pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}{prime} p) or ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}{prime} n). In the ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}{prime} p) reaction proton-proton hole states are excited directly and appear to have a large probability for direct decay with escape width, whereas in ({pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}{prime} p) the preferentially excited neutron-neutron hole doorway states couple to resonance states and decay with spreading width. This interpretation led us to suggest that the ratio of cross-sections for inelastic scattering to the giant resonance region should be written in terms of an incoherent sum of cross-sections to neutron and proton doorway states. In a heavy nucleus such as {sup 208}Pb, neutron and proton doorway states. In a heavy nucleus such as {sup 208}Pb, neutron and proton doorway states contribute incoherently because the different decay processes do not populate the same final states of the residual nucleus.

  10. Multinucleon transfer in O,1816,19F+208Pb reactions at energies near the fusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafferty, D. C.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.; Williams, E.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S. D.; Ramachandran, K.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Wakhle, A.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Nuclear reactions are complex, involving collisions between composite systems where many-body dynamics determines outcomes. Successful models have been developed to explain particular reaction outcomes in distinct energy and mass regimes, but a unifying picture remains elusive. The irreversible transfer of kinetic energy from the relative motion of the collision partners to their internal states, as is known to occur in deep inelastic collisions, has yet to be successfully incorporated explicitly into fully quantal reaction models. The influence of these processes on fusion is not yet quantitatively understood. Purpose: To investigate the population of high excitation energies in transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies, which are precursors to deep inelastic processes, and their dependence on the internuclear separation. Methods: Transfer probabilities and excitation energy spectra have been measured in collisions of O,1816,19F+208Pb , at various energies below and around the fusion barrier, by detecting the backscattered projectile-like fragments in a Δ E -E telescope. Results: The relative yields of different transfer outcomes are strongly driven by Q values, but change with the internuclear separation. In 16O+208Pb , single nucleon transfer dominates, with a strong contribution from -2 p transfer close to the Coulomb barrier, though this channel becomes less significant in relation to the -2 p 2 n transfer channel at larger separations. For 18O+208Pb , the -2 p 2 n channel is the dominant charge transfer mode at all separations. In the reactions with 19F,-3 p 2 n transfer is significant close to the barrier, but falls off rapidly with energy. Multinucleon transfer processes are shown to lead to high excitation energies (up to ˜15 MeV), which is distinct from single nucleon transfer modes which predominantly populate states at low excitation energy. Conclusions: Kinetic energy is transferred into internal excitations following transfer, with this

  11. Monte Carlo and deterministic simulations of activation ratio experiments for 238U(n,f), 238U(n,g) and 238U(n,2n) in the Big Ten benchmark critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M; Clouse, C; Pruet, J

    2009-07-28

    The authors have compared calculations of critical assembly activation ratios using 3 different Monte Carlo codes and one deterministic code. There is excellent agreement. Discrepancies between the different Monte Carlo codes are the 1-2% level. Notably, the deterministic calculations with 87 groups are also in good agreement with the continuous energy Monte Carlo results. The three codes underestimate the {sup 238}U(n,f) reaction, suggesting that there is room for improvement in the evaluation, or in the evaluations of other reactions influencing the spectrum in BigTen. Until statistical uncertainties are implemented in Mercury, they strongly advise long runs to guarantee sufficient convergence of the flux at high energies, and they strongly encourage comparing Mercury results to a well-developed and documented code such as MCNP5 and/or COG. It may be that ENDL2008 will be available for use in COG within a year. Finally, it may be worthwhile to add a 'standard' reaction rate tally similar to those implemented in COG and MCNP5, if the goal is to expand the central fission and activation ratios simulations to include isotopes that are not part of the specifications for the assembly material composition.

  12. Similarity of nuclear structure in the {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb regions: Proton-neutron multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A.; Covello, A.; Itaco, N.

    2009-08-15

    Starting from the striking similarity of proton-neutron multiplets in {sup 134}Sb and {sup 210}Bi, we perform a shell-model study of nuclei with two additional protons or neutrons to find out to what extent this analogy persists. We employ effective interactions derived from the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential renormalized by use of the V{sub low-k} approach. The calculated results for {sup 136}Sb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 136}I, and {sup 212}At are in very good agreement with the available experimental data. The similarity between {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb regions is discussed in connection with the effective interaction, emphasizing the role of core polarization effects.

  13. Stretched configuration of states as inferred from γ -ray angular distributions in 40Ar + 208Pb neutron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čolović, P.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Mijatović, T.; Pollarolo, G.; Goasduff, A.; Montanari, D.; Chapman, R.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Jelavić Malenica, D.; Mărginean, N.; Mengoni, D.; Milin, M.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Smith, J. F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2017-08-01

    Angular distributions of γ -rays for selected transitions in 40, 41, 42Ar isotopes have been studied with the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer coupled to the CLARA γ array. These transitions were populated in Ar isotopes reached via neutron transfer in the 40Ar + 208Pb reaction. By comparison with the shape of the experimental angular distribution of the known E2 transitions we established more firmly the spin and parity of excited states. In particular, in 41Ar for the (11/2^-) state through the (11/2^-) → 7/2^- transition whose structure was discussed in terms of a phonon-fermion coupled state. The comparison with the expected fully aligned spin indicated that a high level of spin alignment has been reached.

  14. First observation of high-spin states in {sup 214}Po: Probing the valence space beyond {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Astier, Alain; Porquet, Marie-Genevieve

    2011-01-15

    Excited states in {sup 214}Po have been populated using the {sup 18}O + {sup 208}Pb reaction at 85-MeV beam energy and studied with the Euroball IV {gamma}-multidetector array. The level scheme has been built up to {approx}2.7-MeV excitation energy and spin I=12({h_bar}/2{pi}) from the triple-{gamma} coincidence data. Spin and parity values of most of the observed states have been assigned from the {gamma}-angular properties. The configurations of the yrast states are discussed using results of empirical shell-model calculations and by analogy with the neighboring nuclei. The {sup 214}Po level scheme established in this work constitutes an important step for the determination of the effective nucleon-nucleon interactions beyond N=126.

  15. Generation of 238U Covariance Matrices by Using the Integral Data Assimilation Technique of the CONRAD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privas, E.; Archier, P.; Bernard, D.; De Saint Jean, C.; Destouche, C.; Leconte, P.; Noguère, G.; Peneliau, Y.; Capote, R.

    2016-02-01

    A new IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) aims to test, validate and improve the IRDF library. Among the isotopes of interest, the modelisation of the 238U capture and fission cross sections represents a challenging task. A new description of the 238U neutrons induced reactions in the fast energy range is within progress in the frame of an IAEA evaluation consortium. The Nuclear Data group of Cadarache participates in this effort utilizing the 238U spectral indices measurements and Post Irradiated Experiments (PIE) carried out in the fast reactors MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) and PHENIX (CEA Marcoule). Such a collection of experimental results provides reliable integral information on the (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. This paper presents the Integral Data Assimilation (IDA) technique of the CONRAD code used to propagate the uncertainties of the integral data on the 238U cross sections of interest for dosimetry applications.

  16. Isomeric Ratios for Nuclei with Z=62-67 and A=142-152 Produced in the Relativistic Fragmentation of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myalski, S.; Maj, A.; Podolyák, Zs.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Benzoni, G.; Blank, B.; Brandau, C.; Bruce, A. M.; Cáceres, L.; Camera, F.; Catford, W. N.; Cullen, I. J.; Dombradi, Zs.; Doornenbal, P.; Estevez, E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Gerl, J.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grębosz, J.; Heinz, A.; Hoischen, R.; Ilie, G.; Jones, G. A.; Jungclaus, A.; Kelic, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Kondev, F. G.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Kurz, N.; Lalkovski, S.; Liu, Z.; Montes, F.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prokopowicz, W.; Regan, P. H.; Rudolph, D.; Saito, T.; Schaffner, H.; Schwertel, S.; Shizuma, T.; Simons, A. J.; Steer, S. J.; Tashenov, S.; Walker, P. M.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2009-03-01

    Isomeric states in nuclei with Z=62-67 and A=142-152 produced in the fragmentation of the relativistic (1 GeV/nucleon) 208Pb beam were investigated. Isomeric ratios were determined for 10 isomeric states. Significant differences between theoretical and experimental values were observed.

  17. 6Li breakup from 208Pb target at Coulomb barrier energies: doorway to reaction mechanism induced by loosely bound/halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, M.; Scopel, P.; Signorini, C.; Fortunato, L.; Soramel, F.; Thompson, I. J.; Vitturi, A.; Barbui, M.; Brondi, A.; Cinausero, M.; Fabris, D.; Fioretto, E.; La Rana, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moro, R.; Ordine, A.; Prete, G. F.; Rizzi, V.; Stroe, L.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Viesti, G.

    2004-12-01

    The breakup cross section of the system 6Li + 208Pb has been measured at four beam energies close to the Coulomb barrier and the excitation energy distributions of the α + d/ 6Li * system have been deduced. Comparison of the experimental data with two different theoretical approaches strongly supports the direct breakup process description.

  18. Uranium isotope systematics of ferromanganese crusts in the Pacific Ocean: Implications for the marine 238U/235U isotope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Kosuke T.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Shimoda, Gen; Takaya, Yutaro; Tokumaru, Ayaka; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Machida, Shiki; Hanyu, Takeshi; Usui, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Variations of 238U/235U ratio (δ238U) in sedimentary rocks have been proposed as a possible proxy for the paleo-oceanic redox conditions, although the marine δ238U system is not fully understood. Here we investigate the spatial variation of δ238U in modern ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts by analyzing U isotopes in the surface (0-3 mm depth) layer of 19 Fe-Mn crusts collected from 6 seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. δ238U values in the surface layers show little variation and range from -0.59‰ to -0.69‰. The uniformity of δ238U values is consistent with the long residence time of U in modern seawater, although the δ238U values are lighter than that of present-day seawater by ∼0.24‰. The light δ238U values are consistent with the isotope offset observed in previously reported adsorption experiment of U to Mn oxide. These results indicate that removal of U from seawater to Mn oxide is responsible for the second largest U isotope fractionation in the modern marine system, and could contribute to isotopically heavy U to seawater. Depth profiles of U isotopes (δ234U and δ238U) in two Fe-Mn crusts (MR12-03_D06-R01 and MC10_CB07_B), dated by Os isotope stratigraphy, were investigated to reconstruct the evolution of the oceanic redox state during the Cenozoic. The δ238U depth profiles show very limited ranges (-0.57‰ to -0.67‰ for MR12-03_D06-R01 and -0.56‰ to -0.69‰ for MC10_CB07_B), and have values that are similar to those of the surface layers of Fe-Mn crusts. The absence of any resolvable variation in the δ238U depth profiles may suggest that the relative amounts of oxic and reducing U sinks have not varied significantly over the past 45 Myr. However, the δ234U depth profiles of the same samples show evidence for the possible redistribution of 234U after deposition. Therefore, the depth profile of δ238U in Fe-Mn crusts may have been also overprinted by later chemical exchange with pore-water or seawater, and may not reflect the paleo

  19. Nuclear structure ''southeast'' of {sup 208}Pb: Isomeric states in {sup 208}Hg and {sup 209}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dahan, N.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Alkhomashi, N.; Deo, A. Y.; Farrelly, G.; Steer, S. J.; Cullen, I. J.; Gelletly, W.; Swan, T.; Thomas, J. S.; Walker, P. M.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Gerl, J.; Pietri, S. B.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Boutachkov, P.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Farinon, F.

    2009-12-15

    The nuclear structure of neutron-rich N>126 nuclei has been investigated following their production via relativistic projectile fragmentation of a E/A=1 GeV {sup 238}U beam. Metastable states in the N=128 isotones {sup 208}Hg and {sup 209}Tl have been identified. Delayed {gamma}-ray transitions are interpreted as arising from the decay of I{sup {pi}}=(8{sup +}) and (17/2{sup +}) isomers, respectively. The data allow for the so far most comprehensive verification of the shell-model approach in the region determined by magic numbers Z<82 and N>126.

  20. Calculations of Branching Ratios for Radiative-Capture, One-Proton, and Two-Neutron Channels in the Fusion Reaction 209Bi + 70Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatoshi Ichikawa,; Akira Iwamoto,

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of the non-one-neutron emission channels in the cold fusion reaction 70Zn + 209Bi to produce the element Z=113. For this purpose, we calculate the evaporation-residue cross sections of one-proton, radiative-capture, and two-neutron emissions relative to the one-neutron emission in the reaction 70Zn + 209Bi. To estimate the upper bounds of those quantities, we vary model parameters in the calculations, such as the level-density parameter and the height of the fission barrier. We conclude that the highest possibility is for the 2n reaction channel, and its upper bounds are 2.4% and at most less than 7.9% with unrealistic parameter values, under the actual experimental conditions of [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73 (2004) 2593].

  1. (238)U and total radioactivity in drinking waters in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Selçuk Zorer, Özlem; Dağ, Beşir

    2014-06-01

    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of total radioactivity and natural uranium have been analysed in drinking water samples. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking waters was carried out in the Van province, East Turkey. Twenty-three samples of drinking water were collected in the Van province and analysed for total α, total β and (238)U activity. The total α and total β activities were counted by using the α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604), and the (238)U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2). The samples were categorised according to origin: tap, spring or mineral supply. The activity concentrations for total α were found to range from 0.002 to 0.030 Bq L(-1) and for total β from 0.023 to 1.351 Bq L(-1). Uranium concentrations ranging from 0.562 to 14.710 μg L(-1) were observed in drinking waters. Following the World Health Organisation rules, all investigated waters can be used as drinking water.

  2. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange using Dowex 1x2 (Dow Chemical Co.). Furthermore a new chemical procedure with tandem columns to separate Pu and U from the matrix was tested. For the determination of the uranium and plutonium isotopes by alpha spectrometry thin sources were prepared by microprecipitation techniques. Additionally these fractions separated from the soil samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to get information on the isotopic ratios 236U/238U, 240Pu/239Pu and 236U/239Pu, respectively. The 236U concentrations [atoms/g] in each surface layer (∼2 cm) were surprisingly high compared to deeper layers where values around two orders of magnitude smaller were found. Since the isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu indicated a global fallout signature we assume the same origin as the probable source for 236U. Our measured 236U/239Pu value of around 0.2 is within the expected range for this contamination source. PMID:21481502

  3. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu with 22-MeV bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2016-06-01

    In homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications, non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify special nuclear materials are in great demand. Although nuclear materials naturally emit characteristic radiation (e.g. neutrons, γ-rays), their intensity and energy are normally low. Furthermore, such radiation could be intentionally shielded with ease or buried in high-level background. Active interrogation techniques based on photofission have been identified as effective assay approaches to address this issue. In designing such assay systems, nuclear data, like photofission product yields, plays a crucial role. Although fission yields for neutron-induced reactions have been well studied and readily available in various nuclear databases, data on photofission product yields is rather scarce. This poses a great challenge to the application of photofission techniques. In this work, short-lived high-energy delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U were measured in between linac pulses. In addition, a list-mode system was developed to measure relatively long-lived delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U and 239Pu after the irradiation. Time and energy information of each γ-ray event were simultaneously recorded by this system. Cumulative photofission product yields were then determined using the measured delayed γ-ray spectra.

  4. On the overestimation of {sup 238}U resonance capture by equivalence theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Extensive analyses of resonance calculation based on equivalence theory have indicated that the resonance capture of {sup 238}U is usually overestimated in a heterogeneous system. We evaluate the overestimation by generating the multi-group absorption cross sections of {sup 238}U in a PWR pin cell problem using Dancoff method with equivalence theory and other rigorous methods. The integral resonance reaction rate over resolved resonance range obtained by an integration procedure based on Narrow Resonance (NR) approximation shows that rational approximation of neutron escape probability is not the primary contributor to the overestimation, and that preserving reaction rate within rational approximation is theoretically superior to pursuing accurate escape probability. It is also implied by our results and analysis that the main contributors are the constant distribution assumption of total cross section and the NR approximation. Consequently, a two-dimensional geometry dependent resonance integral table based on the homogeneous and heterogeneous components of background cross section is suggested as an alternative to the legacy one-dimensional on the sum of the two components. (authors)

  5. Oceanic stratified euphotic zone as elucidated by /sup 234/Th:/sup 238/U disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, K.H.; Bruland, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Profiles of dissolved and particulate /sup 234/Th were determined at the VERTEX 2 and 3 stations off Manzanillo, Mexico, and at the VERTEX 4 station about 900 km north of Hawaii. By modeling the disequilibria between /sup 234/Th and /sup 238/U in the dissolved and particulate form, estimates of scavenging rates for Th from the dissolved to particulate phases, particle residence times, and the flux of Th via particle removal can be obtained. /sup 234/Th:/sup 238/U activity ratio profiles indicate that the euphotic zone can be separated into two layers: an upper oligotrophic layer characterized by low new production values, low net scavenging, and long dissolved /sup 234/Th residence times; and a subsurface eutrophic layer with higher new production values, more intense scavenging, and shorter dissolved /sup 234/Th residence times. New production, rather than total primary production may determine net scavenging rates of reactive elements from oceanic surface waters. These results contribute to the emerging descriptions of the layered structure of oligotrophic euphotic zones and support the notion that this may be a general and ubiquitous feature of global stratified oligotrophic regimes.

  6. The low-energy dipole structure of 232Th , 236U and 238U actinide nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliev, A. A.; Guliyev, E.; Ertugral, F.; Özkan, S.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, ensuremath I^{π} = 1+ and ensuremath I^{π} = 1- dipole mode excitations are systematically investigated within the rotational and translational + Galilean invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation for 232Th , 236U , and 238U actinide nuclei. It is shown that the investigated nuclei reach a B( M1) strength structure, which corresponds to the scissors mode. The calculated mean excitation energies as well as the summed B( M1) value of the scissors mode excitations are consistent with the available experimental data. The results of calculations indicate large differences to the rare-earth nuclei as is the case for the experiment: a doubling of the observed dipole strengths and a shift of the energy centroid to the lower energies by about 800keV. The calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negative-parity ensuremath K^{π} = 1- states in the 2.0-4.0MeV energy interval. The occurrence of the negative-parity dipole states with the rather high B( E1) value less than 4MeV shows the necessity of explicit parity measurements for the correct determination of the scissors mode strength in 232Th , 236U , and 238U isotopes.

  7. Photon-induced Fission Product Yield Measurements on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishichayan, Fnu; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    During the past three years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the fission product yields (FPYs) from quasi-monoenergetic neutron-induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu at TUNL in the 0.5 to 15 MeV energy range. Recently, we have extended these experiments to photo-fission. We measured the yields of fission fragments ranging from 85Kr to 147Nd from the photo-fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu using 13-MeV mono-energetic photon beams at the HIGS facility at TUNL. First of its kind, this measurement will provide a unique platform to explore the effect of the incoming probe on the FPYs, i.e., photons vs. neutrons. A dual-fission ionization chamber was used to determine the number of fissions in the targets and these samples (along with Au monitor foils) were gamma-ray counted in the low-background counting facility at TUNL. Details of the experimental set-up and results will be presented and compared to the FPYs obtained from neutron-induced fission at the same excitation energy of the compound nucleus. Work supported in part by the NNSA-SSAA Grant No. DE-NA0001838.

  8. Physics of Neutron Interactions with 238U: New Developments and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, R.; Trkov, A.; Sin, M.; Herman, M.; Daskalakis, A.; Danon, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The latest release of the EMPIRE-3.1 system (codename Rivoli) is being used in the advanced modeling of neutron induced reactions on the 238U nucleus with the aim of improving our knowledge of neutron scattering. The reaction model includes: (i) a new rotational-vibrational dispersive optical model potential coupling the low-lying collective bands of vibrational character observed in even-even actinides, (ii) the Engelbrecht-Weidenmüller transformation allowing for inclusion of compound-direct interference effects enhanced by a dispersive treatment of the optical model potential, (iii) a multi-humped fission barrier with absorption in the secondary well as described within the optical model for fission, and (iv) a modified Lorentzian model (MLO) of the radiative strength function. Impact of the advanced modeling on elastic and inelastic scattering cross section is being assessed by both comparison with selected microscopic experimental data and integral criticality benchmarks (e.g. FLATTOP, JEMIMA and BIGTEN assemblies). Benchmark calculations provide feedback to improve the reaction modeling and reduce both model and model-parameters uncertainties. Additionally, neutron scattering yields on 238U measured accurately at RPI by the time-of-flight technique at 29, 60, 112 and 153 degrees have been used as a further constraint on the incident energy dependence of elastic and inelastically scattered neutrons. Improvement of scattering cross sections in existing libraries is discussed.

  9. Data on photoneutron reactions from various experiments for {sup 133}Cs, {sup 138}Ba and {sup 209}Bi nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Varlamov, V. V. Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.

    2016-07-15

    Basic methods for determining cross sections for photoneutron partial reactions are examined. They are obtained directly in experiments with quasimonoeneregetic annihilation photons or from the cross section for the (γ, xn) = (γ, 1n) + 2(γ, 2n) + 3(γ, 3n) +... neutron-yield reaction in experiments with bremsstrahlung photons by introducing corrections based on statistical nuclear-reaction theory. The difference in the conditions of these experiments, which leads to discrepancies between their results because of sizable systematic errors, is analyzed. Physical criteria are used to study the reliability of data on the photodisintegration of {sup 133}Cs, {sup 138}Ba, and {sup 209}Bi nuclei. The cross sections for partial and total reactions satisfying the reliability criteria are evaluated within the experimental–theoretical method (σ{sup eval}(γ, in) = F{sub i}{sup theor} × σ{sup expt}(γ, xn)) on the basis of the experimental cross sections σ{sup expt}(γ, xn) and the results of the calculations within the combined model of photonuclear reactions.

  10. Fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus based on fission reaction models in high energy regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Capali, Veli; Ozdogan, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Implementation of projects of new generation nuclear power plants requires the solving of material science and technological issues in developing of reactor materials. Melts of heavy metals (Pb, Bi and Pb-Bi) due to their nuclear and thermophysical properties, are the candidate coolants for fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS). In this study, α, γ, p, n and 3He induced fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus at high-energy regions for (α,f), (γ,f), (p,f), (n,f) and (3He,f) reactions have been investigated using different fission reaction models. Mamdouh Table, Sierk, Rotating Liquid Drop and Fission Path models of theoretical fission barriers of TALYS 1.6 code have been used for the fission cross section calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR database. TALYS 1.6 Sierk model calculations exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this study.

  11. Influence of highly-charged 209Bi33+ irradiation on structure and optoelectric characteristics of GaN epilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. Q.; Zhang, C. H.; Xu, C. L.; Li, J. J.; Yang, Y. T.; Ma, Y. Z.; Li, J. Y.; Liu, H. P.; Ding, Z. N.; Yan, T. X.; Song, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The microstructure and optoelectric properties of GaN epilayer irradiated by highly-charged 209Bi33+ to different fluences are investigated by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. After Bi33+ irradiation, AFM observation shows the irradiated GaN surface is a swelling and swelling rate nonlinearly increases with increasing ions fluence. XPS analysis reveals the relative content of Ga-N bond reduces and Ga-O, Ga-Ga bonds have been produced as the fluence increases. Raman scattering spectra display the thickness of surface depletion layer increases, free carrier concentration and its mobility decrease generally with an increase in ions fluence. Furthermore, the length of Ga-N bond shortens and lattices experience compressive stress with increasing ions fluence are observed from Raman spectra. Room temperature PL spectra reflect the intensity of yellow luminescence (YL) emission increases and its peak has a blueshift after 1.061 × 1012 Bi33+/cm2 irradiation. Moreover, as the temperature rises, the thermal quenching of YL occurs and its peak position first exhibits a blueshift and then a redshift. Results may be served as a useful reference for HCI to be used in semiconductor fields.

  12. Exploring contributions from incomplete fusion in Li,76+209Bi and Li,76+198Pt reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkar, V. V.; Jha, V.; Kailas, S.

    2016-08-01

    We use the breakup absorption model to simultaneously describe the measured cross sections of complete fusion (CF), incomplete fusion (ICF), and total fusion (TF) in nuclear reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei Li,76 on 209Bi and 198Pt targets. The absorption cross sections are calculated using the continuum discretized coupled channels (CDCC) method with different choices of short-range imaginary potentials to get the ICF, CF, and TF cross sections. It is observed that the cross sections for deuteron ICF / deuteron capture and α ICF / α capture are of similar magnitude, in the case of the 6Li projectile, while the cross sections for the triton ICF / triton capture is more dominant than that of α ICF / α capture in the case of the 7Li projectile. Both these observations are also corroborated by the experimental data. The ratio of ICF to TF cross sections, which defines the value of fusion suppression factor, is found to be in agreement with the data available from the literature. The cross-section ratios of CF/TF and ICF/TF show opposite behavior at below-barrier energies the former decreases while the latter increases as the energy is lowered, which shows the dominance of ICF at below-barrier energies. We have also studied the correlation of the ICF cross sections with the noncapture breakup (NCBU) cross sections as a function of energy, which shows that the NCBU is more significant than ICF at below-barrier energies.

  13. Thick target yield measurement of 211At through the nuclear reaction 209Bi(α, 2n)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfarano, A.; Abbas, K.; Holzwarth, U.; Bonardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Alfassi, Z.; Menapace, E.; Gibson, P. N.

    2006-05-01

    Radionuclide Therapy (RNT) and Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) are potentially of great interest for cancer therapy. In many therapeutic applications alpha emitters should be much more effective than already-approved beta emitters due to the short range and high linear energy transfer of alpha particles. 213Bi is an important alpha emitter already used in clinical trials but the half-life of this radioisotope is short (46 minutes) and so its use is limited for certain therapies. 211At is potentially very interesting for medical purposes because of its longer half-life of 7.2 hours, and suitable decay scheme. We have studied the cyclotron-based production of 211At via the reaction 209Bi(α, 2n), this production route probably being the most promising in the long term. The energy dependence of thick target yields and the reaction cross sections for the production of 211At and 210At were determined and found to be in good agreement with literature. The best energy to produce 211At is 28-29 MeV. The possible production of the undesired, highly radiotoxic, and long-lived alpha-emitting 210Po (138.38 days), which is produced from decay of 210At, is also discussed.

  14. 238U-230Th equilibrium in arc magmas and implications for the time scales of mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubi, Olivier; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Large excesses of 238U and 226Ra relative to 230Th characterize many arc magmas and are commonly interpreted to represent recent addition of slab-derived fluid to the mantle wedge beneath the arc. A significant proportion of arc magmas are, however, in 238U-230Th radioactive equilibrium. This is generally thought to result from “buffering” of the young slab fluid U-series signal by a sediment component in secular equilibrium. Here we present new 238U-230Th-226Ra and 235U-231Pa measurements for historic andesites from Volcán de Colima, Mexico. In all lavas (230Th/238U) are in equilibrium, whereas (231Pa/235U) and (226Ra/230Th) are significantly greater than one. These data demonstrate that arc magmas with (230Th/238U) equilibrium can have significant 231Pa and 226Ra excesses, precluding ageing of the magmas in the crust as the cause of 230Th/238U equilibrium. Quantitative modeling of metasomatic and melting processes further indicates that addition of sediment melts to a depleted mantle wedge produces significant 230Th excesses and that 238U excesses induced by recent addition of fluids derived from the altered oceanic crust are not sufficient to compensate these 230Th excesses. U-series activity ratios in Colima magmas are best explained by models in which the metasomatised mantle returns to secular equilibrium before melting, implying a time lag ⩾350 kyr, with subsequent production of 231Pa and 226Ra excesses by in-growth during melting rather than by addition of slab fluids. Investigation of a global compilation of U-series data in arc magma indicates that our model proposed for Colima applies to most arc magmas in or near (230Th-238U) equilibrium. The time lag between mantle metasomatism and melting appears to vary between hundreds years to more than 350 kyr in subduction zones. We posit that the absence of U/Th elemental fractionation during melting of arc sources in (230Th/238U) equilibrium reflects a higher fO2 compared to MORB sources that yield

  15. Analysis of giant resonances in proton, 3He, and α scattering and the spin-flip strength in 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsch, H. P.; Cha, D.; Wambach, J.

    1985-05-01

    In an attempt to study isovector spin-flip excitations and to find a consistent picture of giant resonances in 208Pb, we analyzed giant resonance data from 172 MeV α scattering, 140 MeV 3He scattering, and 200 MeV proton scattering. Using spectroscopic information from α scattering, a good description of recent 3He scattering data is obtained. A detailed analysis of results from different probes reveals differences between complex particle and proton spectra which are interpreted as due to spin-flip contributions. The spin-flip strength is estimated in a microscopic p-h model. At the scattering angles considered it gives resonant strength at ~9 MeV dominated by 2- excitations and further gives an increasing continuum yield towards higher excitation energies. The cross sections of these spin-flip excitations in (p,p') are comparable to giant resonance yields and have to be considered in order to obtain a description consistent with complex particle spectra. The continuum part of isoscalar excitations is rather different from that of isovector spin-flip excitations. These features are qualitatively understood from the nuclear matter response. Calculations using the semi-infinite nuclear slab model of Esbensen and Bertsch give an almost quantitative description of isoscalar and spin-isospin continuum.

  16. Double-magic nature of 132Sn and 208Pb through lifetime and cross-section measurements.

    PubMed

    Allmond, J M; Stuchbery, A E; Beene, J R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Liang, J F; Padilla-Rodal, E; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Ayres, A; Batchelder, J C; Bey, A; Bingham, C R; Howard, M E; Jones, K L; Manning, B; Mueller, P E; Nesaraja, C D; Pain, S D; Peters, W A; Ratkiewicz, A; Schmitt, K T; Shapira, D; Smith, M S; Stone, N J; Stracener, D W; Yu, C-H

    2014-05-02

    Single-neutron states in (133)Sn and (209)Pb, which are analogous to single-electron states outside of closed atomic shells in alkali metals, were populated by the ((9)Be, (8)Be) one-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics using particle-γ coincidence spectroscopy. In addition, the s(1/2) single-neutron hole-state candidate in (131)Sn was populated by ((9)Be, (10)Be). Doubly closed-shell (132)Sn (radioactive) and (208)Pb (stable) beams were used at sub-Coulomb barrier energies of 3 MeV per nucleon. Level energies, γ-ray transitions, absolute cross sections, spectroscopic factors, asymptotic normalization coefficients, and excited-state lifetimes are reported and compared with shell-model expectations. The results include a new transition and precise level energy for the 3p(1/2) candidate in (133)Sn, new absolute cross sections for the 1h(9/2) candidate in (133)Sn and 3s(1/2) candidate in (131)Sn, and new lifetimes for excited states in (133)Sn and (209)Pb. This is the first report on excited-state lifetimes of (133)Sn, which allow for a unique test of the nuclear shell model and (132)Sn double-shell closure.

  17. Double-magic nature of 132Sn and 208Pb through lifetime and cross-section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allmond, James M; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Beene, James R; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Liang, J Felix; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth; Radford, David C; Varner Jr, Robert L; Ayres, A.; Batchelder, J. C.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C. R.; Howard, Meredith E; Jones, K. L.; Manning, Brett M; Mueller, Paul Edward; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Pain, Steven D; Peters, William A; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J; Schmitt, Kyle; Shapira, Dan; Smith, Michael Scott; Stone, N. J.; Stracener, Daniel W; Yu, Chang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Single-neutron states in 133Sn and 209Pb, which are analogous to single electrons outside of closed atomic shells in alkali metals, were populated by the (9Be,8Be) one-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics using particle-gamma coincidence spectroscopy. In addition, the s1/2 single-neutron hole-state candidate in 131Sn was populated by (9Be,10Be). Doubly closed-shell 132Sn (radioactive) and 208Pb (stable) beams were used at sub-Coulomb barrier energies of 3 MeV per nucleon. Level energies, gamma-ray transitions, absolute cross sections, spectroscopic factors, asymptotic normalization coefficients, and excited-state lifetimes are reported and compared to shell-model expectations. The results include a new transition and precise level energy for the 3p1/2 candidate in 133Sn, new absolute cross sections for the 1h9/2 candidate in 133Sn and 3s1/2 candidate in 131Sn, and new lifetimes for excited states in 133Sn and 209Pb. This is the first report on excited-state lifetimes of 133Sn, which provide a unique signature of the single-neutron states and 132Sn double-shell closure.

  18. Structure of N{>=}126 nuclei produced in fragmentation of {sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dahan, N.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Steer, S. J.; Alkhomashi, N.; Gelletly, W.; Walker, P. M.; Farrelly, G.; Deo, A. Y.; Cullen, I. J.; Swan, T.; Bacelar, A. M. Denis; Gorska, M.; Pietri, S. B.; Gerl, J.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Boutachkov, P.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.

    2009-01-28

    The nuclear structure of neutron-rich N{>=}126 nuclei have been investigated following their production via relativistic projectile fragmentation of a E/A = 1 GeV {sup 238}U beam on a Be target. The cocktail of secondary beam products were separated and identified using the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS). The nuclei of interest were implanted in a high-granularity active stopper detector set-up consisting of 6 double sided silicon strip detectors. The associated gamma-ray transitions were detected with the RISING array, consisting of 15 Euroball cluster Ge-detectors. Time-correlated gamma decays from individually identified nuclear species have been recorded, allowing the clean identification of isomeric decays.

  19. /sup 234/Th: /sup 238/U disequilibria within the California Current

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, K.H.; Bruland, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Profiles of dissolved and particulate /sup 234/Th were determined at several stations within the California Current. Modeling of the disequilibria between the /sup 234/Th and /sup 238/U within the surface waters provides for estimates of the residence time of dissolved thorium with respect to particle scavenging, the particle residence time, and the particulate /sup 234/Th flux exiting the surface layer. The model-derived, first-order scavenging rate constant for dissolved thorium is observed to be proportional to the rate of primary production. Particle residence times seem to be governed by the rate of zooplankton grazing and the types of zooplankton present. Model-derived particulate /sup 234/Th fluxes are in good agreement with direct measurements by sediment traps.

  20. T-REX Design Considerations for Detection of Concealed 238U

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P

    2006-02-07

    Here they outline considerations that might inform choices for the design of a laser/linac-based light source used to detect {sup 238}U via excitation of the resonance at 680.11 keV in this isotope. They assume that the principal concern is speed of interrogation and not, e.g., how much radiological dose is imparted during a scan. It is found that if the photon detectors used in the system have an energy resolution better than or comparable to that of the interrogation beam, then to a first approximation the light source should be designed to have the highest possible specific fluence (photons per unit energy per unit time). there is also a weak dependence of scan time on the number of photons emitted per pulse of the light source. A simple formula describing the tradeoff between specific fluence and number of photons per pulse is presented.

  1. Symmetric splitting for the system 32S+238U at energies near and below the barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freifelder, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Deyoung, P.; Schicker, R.; Sen, S.; Stachel, J.

    1987-06-01

    The total capture cross section for the system 32S+238U has been measured at energies from 0.93 to 1.08 times the s-wave interaction barrier by detecting coincident fission fragments following full momentum transfer reactions. The subbarrier cross section cannot be reproduced by a one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Using a quantum mechanical coupled channels model, good agreement is obtained. The measured angular distributions of fission fragments were compared to the predictions of saddle and scission point transition state theory. Saddle point transition state model calculations fail to reproduce the data, while scission point transition state calculations are in agreement with their qualitative trend. Evidence for nonequilibrium processes is presented.

  2. Multidimensional Skyrme-density-functional study of the spontaneous fission of 238U

    DOE PAGES

    Sadhukhan, J.; Mazurek, K.; Dobaczewski, J.; ...

    2015-01-01

    We determined the spontaneous fission lifetime of 238U by a minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional space of collective variables. Apart from the mass-distribution multipole moments Q20 (elongation) and Q30 (left–right asymmetry), we also considered the pairing-fluctuation parameter λ2 as a collective coordinate. The collective potential was obtained self-consistently using the Skyrme energy density functional SkM*. The inertia tensor was obtained within the nonperturbative cranking approximation to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach. As a result, the pairing-fluctuation parameter λ2 allowed us to control the pairing gap along the fission path, which significantly changed the spontaneous fission lifetime.

  3. Evaluation of 238U Resonance Parameters from 0 to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.; Courcelle, A.; Santamarina, A.

    2005-05-24

    The neutron resonance parameters of 238U were obtained in the energy range 0 to 20 keV from a sequential SAMMY analysis of the most recent high-resolution neutron transmission and neutron capture cross-section measurements. Special care was taken in the analysis of the lowest s-wave resonances leading to resonance parameters slightly different from those of ENDF/B-VI (Moxon-Sowerby resonance parameters). The resolved-resonance range was extended to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high-resolution neutron transmission data of Harvey and neutron capture data of Macklin et al. Preliminary integral tests were performed with the new resonance parameters; thermal low-enriched benchmark calculations show an improvement of the keff prediction, mainly due to a 1.5% decrease of the capture cross section at 0.0253 eV and about a 0.4% decrease of the effective shielded resonance capture integral.

  4. Photon scattering on /sup 238/U and the interpretation of near-threshold photofission resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Birenbaum, Y.; Alarcon, R.; Hoblit, S.D.; Laszewski, R.M.; Nathan, A.M.

    1987-10-01

    Cross sections for photon elastic scattering have been measured for /sup 238/U between 4.8 and 6.4 MeV with an energy resolution of about 50 keV. These data have been used along with existing photofission data to infer the total photoabsorption cross section sigma/sub T/ and the fission transmission coefficient T/sub f/ below neutron threshold. We find that the inferred sigma/sub T/ varies smoothly with energy and generally follows the extrapolated tail of the giant dipole resonance, and that T/sub f/ shows a broad bump between 5.6 and 5.9 MeV. These results strongly support the contention that resonances seen in near-threshold photofission cross sections are due to the fission and not the photon channel .

  5. Isotopic resolution of fission fragments from 238U+12C transfer and fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caamaño, M.; Rejmund, F.; Derkx, X.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Andouin, L.; Bacri, C.-O.; Barreau, G.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Gaudefroy, L.; Golabek, C.; Jurado, B.; Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Shrivastava, A.; Schmitt, C.; Taieb, J.

    2009-10-01

    Recent results from an experiment at GANIL, performed to investigate the main properties of fission-fragment yields and energy distributions in different fissioning nuclei as a function of the excitation energy, in a neutron-rich region of actinides, are presented. Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics between a 238U beam and a 12C target produced different actinides, within a range of excitation energy below 30 MeV. These fissioning nuclei are identified by detecting the target-like recoil, and their kinetic and excitation energy are determined from the reconstruction of the transfer reaction. The large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS was used to identify the mass, atomic number and charge state of the fission fragments in flight. As a result, the characteristics of the fission-fragment isotopic distributions of a variety of neutron-rich actinides are observed for the first time over the complete range of fission fragments.

  6. Studies of positron electron pair production in {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Following the completion of APEX in late 1993, a two-week run on the {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta system at 6.1 and 6.3 MeV/u with 1 mg/cm{sup 2} targets provided, for the first time, data in which the expected sharp sum-energy lines should appear. Data from previous experiments show evidence for sharp sum-energy lines at 625, 748 and 805 keV, observed at bombarding energies from 5.9 to 6.3 MeV/u. The 625- and 809-keV lines display the characteristics of equal-energy back-to-back emission whereas the 748-keV line shows a rather different behavior. In our measurements, average beam currents of 2-3 pnA from the ATLAS accelerator were used to bombard 1-mg/cm{sup 2} rolled {sup 181}Ta targets, the energy loss in which corresponds to the ranges of bombarding energies over which the sharp sum-energy lines were previously reported. A run at 5.95 MeV/u for {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta followed in May 1994. These data were analyzed extensively. Sum-energy spectra measured in coincidence with scattered ions in the range 20{degrees} < {theta} < 68{degrees}. No evidence is found for the sharp sum-energy lines reported previously and, depending on the scenario assumed for the production mechanism and kinematics of the pairs, upper limits on cross sections at the 90% confidence limit range from 10-100 times smaller than the values that can be deduced from the earlier reports. We are in the process of refining the data analysis and simulations of the apparatus in order to finalize these numbers for publication.

  7. Fluxes of 238U decay series radionuclides in a dicalcium phosphate industrial plant.

    PubMed

    Casacuberta, N; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J

    2011-06-15

    The production of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) is part of the phosphate industry, which has been recently included in the positive list of the NORM industries defined in the revised version of the EU-BSS (Euratom 29/96). The objective of the present work is to study specific concentrations and fluxes of (238,234)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po at the different stages of the DCP production. Results showed highest activities of (238)U and (210)Pb were found in DCP (1500-2000 Bq kg(-1)); (230)Th and (210)Po were released together with the sludges (1600-2000 Bq kg(-1)) and (226)Ra presented particularly high activities in water (48 × 10(3) Bq m(-3)) and in the reactor scales (115 × 10(3) Bq kg(-1)). Fluxes of radionuclides showed that (238)U outflows were equally distributed between sludges (16 × 10(3) kBq h(-1)) and dicalcium phosphate (20 × 10(3) kBq h(-1)); (230)Th and (210)Po were almost entirely released in the sludges (30 × 10(3)kBq h(-1)) and the greatest (210)Pb outflow was the DCP current (25 × 10(3) kBq h(-1)). (226)Ra was mainly discharged through the water effluent (12 × 10(3) kBq h(-1)). This work highlights the importance of studying the industrial processes involving NORM, as minor changes in the production steps lead to different radionuclide distribution in the process.

  8. Influence of soil structure on the "Fv approach" applied to (238)U and (226)Ra.

    PubMed

    Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C

    2017-02-01

    The soil-to-plant transfer factors were determined in a granitic area for the two long-lived uranium series radionuclides (238)U and (226)Ra. With the aim to identify a physical fraction of soil whose concentration correlates linearly with the plant concentration, the soil compartment was analyzed in various stages. An initial study identified the soil compartments as being either bulk soil or its labile fraction. The bulk soil was subsequently divided into three granulometric fractions consisting of: coarse sand, fine sand, and silt and clay. The soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides for each of these three texture fractions was analyzed. Lastly, the labile fraction was extracted from each textural part, and the activity concentration of the radionuclides (238)U and (226)Ra was measured. In order to assess the influence of soil texture on the soil-to-plant transfer process, we sought to identify possible correlations between the activity concentration in the plant compartment and those found in the different fractions within each soil compartment. The results showed that the soil-to-plant transfer process for uranium and radium depends on soil grain size, where the results for uranium showed a linear relationship between the activity concentration of uranium in the plant and the fine soil fraction. In contrast, a linear relation between the activity concentration of radium in the plant and the soil coarse-sand fraction was observed. Additionally, the presence of phosphate and calcium in the soil of all of the compartments studied affected the soil-to-plant transfer of uranium and radium, respectively.

  9. Assessment of uranium exposure from total activity and 234U:238U activity ratios in urine.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, T; Bingham, D

    2011-03-01

    Radiation workers at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are monitored for uranium exposure by routine bioassay sampling (primarily urine sampling). However, the interpretation of uranium in urine and faecal results in terms of occupational intakes is difficult because of the presence of uranium due to intakes from environmental (dietary) sources. For uranium in urine data obtained using current analytical techniques at AWE, the mean, median and standard deviation of excreted uranium concentrations were 0.006, 0.002 and 0.012 μg per g creatinine, respectively. These values are consistent with what might be expected from local dietary intakes and the knowledge that occupational exposures at AWE are likely to be very low. However, some samples do exceed derived investigation levels (DILs), which have been set up taking account of the likely contribution from environmental sources. We investigate how the activity and isotopic composition of uranium in the diet affects the sensitivity of uranium in urine monitoring for occupational exposures. We conclude that DILs based on both total uranium in urine activity and also (234)U:(238)U ratios are useful given the likely variation in dietary contribution for AWE workers. Assuming a background excretion rate and that the enrichment of the likely exposure is known, it is possible to assess exposures using (234)U:(238)U ratios and/or total uranium activity. The health implications of internalised uranium, enriched to <5-8 % by mass (235)U, centre on its nephrotoxicity; the DILs for bioassay samples at AWE are an order of magnitude below the conservative recommendations made by the literature.

  10. Neutron capture cross section measurements for 238U in the resonance region at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. I.; Paradela, C.; Sirakov, I.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Gunsing, F.; Kim, G. N.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Lee, Y.-O.; Massarczyk, R.; Moens, A.; Moxon, M.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements were performed at the time-of-flight facility GELINA to determine the 238U(n, γ) cross section in the resonance region. Experiments were carried out at a 12.5 and 60m measurement station. The total energy detection principle in combination with the pulse height weighting technique was applied using C6D6 liquid scintillators as prompt γ-ray detectors. The energy dependence of the neutron flux was measured with ionisation chambers based on the 10B(n, α) reaction. The data were normalised to the isolated and saturated 238U resonance at 6.67 eV. Special procedures were applied to reduce bias effects due to the weighting function, normalization, dead time and background corrections, and corrections related to the sample properties. The total uncertainty due to the weighting function, normalization, neutron flux and sample characteristics is about 1.5%. Resonance parameters were derived from a simultaneous resonance shape analysis of the GELINA capture data and transmission data obtained previously at a 42m and 150m station of ORELA. The parameters of resonances below 500 eV are in good agreement with those resulting from an evaluation that was adopted in the main data libraries. Between 500 eV and 1200 eV a systematic difference in the neutron width is observed. Average capture cross section data were derived from the experimental capture yield in the energy region between 3.5 keV and 90 keV. The results are in good agreement with an evaluated cross section resulting from a least squares fit to experimental data available in the literature prior to this work. The average cross section data derived in this work were parameterised in terms of average resonance parameters and included in a least squares analysis together with other experimental data reported in the literature.

  11. 238U and 235U isotope fractionation upon oxidation of uranium-bearing rocks by fracture waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, I. V.; Golubev, V. N.; Chugaev, A. V.; Mandzhieva, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    The variations in 238U/235U values accompanying mobilization of U by fracture waters from uranium-bearing rocks, in which U occurs as a fine impregnation of oxides and silicates, were studied by the high-precision (±0.07‰) MC-ICP-MS method. Transition of U into the aqueous phase in the oxidized state U(VI) is accompanied by its isotope fractionation with enrichment of dissolved U(VI) in the heavy isotope 238U up to 0.32‰ in relation to the composition of the solid phases. According to the sign, this effect is consistent with the tendency of the behavior of 238U and 235U upon interaction of river waters with rocks of the catchment areas [11] and with the effect observed during oxidation of uraninite by the oxygen-bearing NaHCO3 solution [12].

  12. Simultaneous analysis of the elastic scattering and breakup channel for the reaction 11Li+208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-García, J. P.; Cubero, M.; Acosta, L.; Alcorta, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Buchmann, L.; Diget, C. A.; Falou, H. A.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gómez-Camacho, J.; Kanungo, R.; Lay, J. A.; Madurga, M.; Martel, I.; Moro, A. M.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Walden, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the elastic scattering and breakup channel for the reaction of 11Li on 208Pb at incident laboratory energies of 24.3 and 29.8 MeV, measured at the radioactive ion beam facility of TRIUMF, in Vancouver, Canada. A large yield of 9Li fragments was detected by four charged particle telescopes in a wide angular range. The experimental angular and energy distributions of these 9Li fragments have been compared to coupled-reaction-channel and continuum-discretized coupled-channel calculations. The large production of 9Li fragments at small angles can be explained by considering a direct breakup mechanism, while at medium-large angles a competition between direct breakup and neutron transfer to the continuum of the 208Pb target was observed.

  13. Barrier distributions derived from quasielastic backscattering of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, and 70Zn projectiles on a 208Pb target.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, S; Ikezoe, H; Nishio, K; Tsuruta, K; Jeong, S C; Watanabe, Y

    2007-11-02

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasielastic scattering of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, and 70Zn projectiles on a 208Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasielastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the 208Pb target.

  14. Barrier Distribution of Quasi-elastic Backward Scattering of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn and 86Kr on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.

    2009-03-01

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn and 86Kr projectiles on 208Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the 208Pb target.

  15. Relevance of single-particle and collective excitations in zirconium isotopes populated by neutron transfer reactions in the {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb system

    SciTech Connect

    Pajtler, M. Varga; Szilner, S.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Mijatović, T.; Soić, N.; Corradi, L.; Angelis, G. de; Fioretto, E.; Montanari, D.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Recchia, F.; Scarlassara, F.; Märginean, N.; Pollarolo, G.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Multineutron transfer reaction {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb has been studied at the energy close to the Coulomb barrier energy by using the PRISMA + CLARA set-up. In this fragment-γ coincidence measurement, the selective properties of the reaction mechanism in the population of the specific states have been discussed. Based on the observed γ transitions of neutron transfer channels, namely {sup 89–94}Zr isotopes, their level schemes have been constructed and updated.

  16. Relevance of single-particle and collective excitations in zirconium isotopes populated by neutron transfer reactions in the 90Zr+208Pb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajtler, M. Varga; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; de Angelis, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Lunardi, S.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Märginean, N.; Mengoni, D.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Recchia, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2015-10-01

    Multineutron transfer reaction 90Zr+208Pb has been studied at the energy close to the Coulomb barrier energy by using the PRISMA + CLARA set-up. In this fragment-γ coincidence measurement, the selective properties of the reaction mechanism in the population of the specific states have been discussed. Based on the observed γ transitions of neutron transfer channels, namely 89-94Zr isotopes, their level schemes have been constructed and updated.

  17. 238U/235U determinations of some commonly used reference materials and U-bearing accessory minerals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, D.; Noble, S.; McLean, N.; Bowring, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have determined 238U/235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials in addition to several U-bearing accessory phases (zircon and monazite) by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U-236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. The 238U/235U values for the natural uranium reference materials differ, by up to 0.1%, from the widely used ‘consensus’ value (137.88) with all having 238U/235U values less than 137.88. Similarly, initial 238U/235U data from zircon and monazite yield 238U/235U values that are lower than the ‘consensus’ value. The data obtained from U-bearing minerals is used to assess how the uncertainty in the 238U/235U ratio contributes to the systematic discordance observed in 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb dates (Mattinson, 2000; Schoene et al., 2006) which has traditionally been wholly attributed to error in the U decay constants. The 238U/235U determinations made on the synthetic reference materials yield results that are considerably more precise and accurate than the certified values (0.02% vs. 0.1% for CRM U500). The calibration of isotopic tracers used for U-daughter geochronology that are partially based upon these reference materials, and the resultant age determinations, will benefit from increased accuracy and precision. Mattinson, J.M., 2000. Revising the “gold standard”—the uranium decay constants of Jaffey et al., 1971. Eos Trans. AGU, Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract V61A-02. Schoene B., Crowley J.L., Condon D.C., Schmitz M.D., Bowring S.A., 2006, Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 426-445

  18. Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Capture on 234,236,238U Measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C.-Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2014-05-01

    A new measurement of the 238U(n, γ) cross section using a thin 48 mg/cm2 target was made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE over the energy range from 10 eV to 500 keV. The results confirm earlier measurements. Measurements of the gamma-ray emission spectra were also made for 238U(n, γ) as well as 234,236U(n, γ). These measurements help to constrain the radiative strength function used in the cross-section calculations.

  19. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  20. Effects of nuclear orientation on fusion and fission process for reactions using {sup 238}U target nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nishinaka, I.; Makii, H.; Nagame, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohtsuki, T.; Hirose, K.; Hofmann, S.

    2010-06-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions in the reaction of {sup 30}Si+{sup 238}U were measured at the energies around the Coulomb barrier. At the above-barrier energies, the mass distribution showed Gaussian shape. At the sub-barrier energies, asymmetric fission mode peaked at A{sub L}/A{sub H}approx =90/178 was observed. The asymmetric fission should be attributed to quasifission from the results of the measured evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections produced by {sup 30}Si+{sup 238}U. The cross-section for {sup 263}Sg at the above-barrier energy agree with the statistical model calculation which assumes that the measured fission cross-sections are equal to the fusion cross-sections, whereas the one for {sup 264}Sg measured at the sub-barrier energy is smaller than the calculation, indicating the presence for quasifission. The fragment mass distributions are compared to those for {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 238}U.

  1. 238U-230Th crystallization ages for the oldest domes of the Mono Craters, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mono Craters volcanic chain is one of the youngest areas of rhyolitic volcanism in the Mono Lake-Long Valley region of eastern California. Located just south of Mono Lake, the Mono Craters comprise at least 28 individual domes and flows (numbered 3-30, north to south); however, the timing and frequency of eruptions remain poorly resolved. The earliest signs of volcanic activity are preserved as numerous tephra layers (Ashes 1-19, top to bottom) in the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek formation of ancestral Mono Lake, which indicate that rhyolitic volcanism from Mono Craters began by at least ca. 62 ka [1]. Although the current chronology indicates that most of the Mono Craters are younger than ca. 20 ka [2-4], similar compositions of titanomagnetite from both pumice and lava potentially correlate several Wilson Creek tephras to porphyritic biotite-bearing domes 11, 24, and 19 of the Mono Craters [5], suggesting that multiple domes in the Mono Craters chain reflect volcanism older than ca. 20 ka. Ash 3 is correlated to dome 11 based on similar ca. 20 ka ages and titanomagnetite compositions [6]. More recently, we performed ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of unpolished rims of allanite and zircon from domes 24 and 19, yielding isochron ages of ca. 38 ka and ca. 42 ka, respectively. The age of dome 24 is consistent with the ca. 38 ka age of its potential correlative tephra layers [1, 5], indicating that dome 24 is likely the extrusive equivalent of Ashes 9-10. Dome 19 has titanomagnetite crystals with similar bimodal chemistry to titanomagnetites from Ash 15 [5]. The age of dome 19 is indistinguishable from the 238U-230Th age of Ash 15 [1], which erupted during a prominent geomagnetic excursion, originally designated as the "Mono Lake" excursion. Combining geochronological and titanomagnetite compositional data confirms that Ash 15 and its extrusive equivalent, dome 19, erupted during the Laschamp excursion. [1] Vazquez, J.A. and Lidzbarski, M.I. (2012) EPSL 357

  2. Uranium stable isotope fractionation in the Black Sea: Modern calibration of the 238U/235U paleo-redox proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, John M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Middag, Rob; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Reliable interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understanding of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, the world's largest anoxic basin. Paired measurements of 238U/235U and U concentration, supported by other redox parameters, were obtained for water column and sediment samples collected during the 2013 GA04N GEOTRACES expedition to the Black Sea. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV), resulting in up to 43% of U being removed from solution in euxinic bottom waters. Uranium reduction and removal is accompanied by a progressive shift in 238U/235U towards isotopically light values in the water column as heavier 238U is preferentially exported to sediments over lighter 235U. This gives rise to apparent isotope enrichment factors of ε = -0.63 ± 0.09‰ and ε = -0.84 ± 0.11‰ when U removal is modelled by Rayleigh and closed system equilibrium isotope fractionation, respectively. These ε values fall within the range determined for bacterial U reduction experiments, and together with a striking correlation between the distributions of U and H2S, implicate microbially-mediated U(VI)-U(IV) reduction as the primary mechanism controlling U isotopic shifts in the Black Sea. The 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the the 238U/235U of Black Sea bottom waters through the isotope enrichment factor of the U reduction reaction but the relationship between sedimentary and water column 238U/235U is complicated

  3. Mass yield distributions of fission products from photo-fission of 238U induced by 11.5-17.3 MeV bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Carrel, Frédérick; Kim, G. N.; Laine, Frédéric; Sari, Adrien; Normand, S.; Goswami, A.

    2013-07-01

    The yields of various fission products in the 11.5, 13.4, 15.0 and 17.3 MeV bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 238U have been determined by recoil catcher and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the electron linac, SAPHIR at CEA, Saclay, France. The mass yield distributions were obtained from the fission product yields using charge-distribution corrections. The peak-to-valley ( P/ V ratio, average light mass (< A L>) and heavy mass (< A H>) and average number of neutrons (< v>) in the bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 238U at different excitation energies were obtained from the mass yield data. From the present and literature data in the 238U ( γ, f ) and 238U ( n, f ) reactions at various energies, the following observations were obtained: i) The mass yield distributions in the 238U ( γ, f ) reaction at various energies of the present work are double-humped, similar to those of the 238U ( n, f ) reaction of comparable excitation energy. ii) The yields of fission products for A = 133-134, A = 138-140, and A = 143-144 and their complementary products in the 238U ( γ, f) reaction are higher than other fission products due to the nuclear structure effect. iii) The yields of fission products for A = 133-134 and their complementary products are slightly higher in the 238U ( γ, f ) than in the 238U ( n, f ) , whereas for A = 138-140 and 143-144 and their complementary products are comparable. iv) With excitation energy, the increase of yields of symmetric products and the decrease of the peak-to-valley ( P/ V ratio in the 238U ( γ, f) reaction is similar to the 238U ( n, f) reaction. v) The increase of < v> with excitation energy is also similar between the 238U ( γ, f ) and 238U ( n, f) reactions. However, it is surprising to see that the < A L> and < A H> values with excitation energy behave entirely differently from the 238U ( γ, f ) and 238U ( n, f ) reactions.

  4. Retardation of 238U and 232Th decay chain radionuclides in Long Island and Connecticut aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhaver, Sally A.; Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, Karl K.; Epler, Nathan; Cochran, J. K.

    1993-02-01

    Knowledge of the ability of an aquifer to retard the groundwater transport of toxic or radioactive ions can be inferred from the analysis of groundwater for the radionuclides of the 238U- and 232Th-decay chains. Groundwaters of varying chemical composition were analyzed from wells in Long Island, New York, and Connecticut. Aquifer lithologies are arkose, quartz sandstone, granite, and glacial drift. Adsorption ( k1) and desorption ( k2) coefficients for Ra and Pb were calculated using 222Rn activity as a measure of the supply of other α-recoil nuclides. Laboratory tests of the validity of this assumption were made by measuring the flux of 224Ra and 222Rn from aquifer solids. The ratio k 1/k 2 is the distribution coefficient, K, which is effectively equal to R ƒ, the retardation factor. The average value of K for Ra is 6 × 10 2 in Long Island aquifers and 5 × 10 4 in Connecticut. The distribution coefficient for Pb is 10 4 in Long Island and 10 5 in Connecticut. Results from this and other studies reveal a strong dependence of retardation on pH, ƒ O 2, and ionic strength that tends to overwhelm any dependence of retardation on lithology.

  5. 230Th/238U dating of hydrothermal sulfides from Duanqiao hydrothermal field, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifang; Tao, Chunhui; Li, Huaiming; Liang, Jin; Liao, Shili; Long, Jiangping; Ma, Zhibang; Wang, Lisheng

    2017-06-01

    Duanqiao hydrothermal field is located between the Indomed and Gallieni fracture zones at the central volcano, at 50°28'E in the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Twenty-eight subsamples from a relict chimney and massive sulfides were dated using the 230Th/238U method. Four main episodes of hydrothermal activity were determined according to the restricted results: 68.9-84.3, 43.9-48.4, 25.3-34.8, and 0.7-17.3 kyrs. Hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao probably started about 84.3 (±0.5) kyrs ago and ceased about 0.737 (±0.023) kyrs ago. The periodic character of hydrothermal activity may be related to the heat source provided by the interaction of local magmatism and tectonism. The estimated mean growth rate of the sulfide chimney is <0.02 mm/yr. This study is the first to estimate the growth rate of chimneys in the SWIR. The maximum age of the relict chimney in Duanqiao hydrothermal filed is close to that of the chimneys from Mt. Jourdanne (70 kyrs). The hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. The massive sulfides are younger than the sulfides from other hydrothermal fields such as Rainbow, Sonne and Ashadze-2. The preliminarily estimated reserves of sulfide ores of Duanqiao are approximately 0.5-2.9 million tons.

  6. Anomalies in the Charge Yields of Fission Fragments from the ^{238}U(n,f) Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J N; Lebois, M; Qi, L; Amador-Celdran, P; Bleuel, D; Briz, J A; Carroll, R; Catford, W; De Witte, H; Doherty, D T; Eloirdi, R; Georgiev, G; Gottardo, A; Goasduff, A; Hadyńska-Klęk, K; Hauschild, K; Hess, H; Ingeberg, V; Konstantinopoulos, T; Ljungvall, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Lorusso, G; Lozeva, R; Lutter, R; Marini, P; Matea, I; Materna, T; Mathieu, L; Oberstedt, A; Oberstedt, S; Panebianco, S; Podolyák, Zs; Porta, A; Regan, P H; Reiter, P; Rezynkina, K; Rose, S J; Sahin, E; Seidlitz, M; Serot, O; Shearman, R; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Smith, A G; Tveten, G M; Verney, D; Warr, N; Zeiser, F; Zielinska, M

    2017-06-02

    Fast-neutron-induced fission of ^{238}U at an energy just above the fission threshold is studied with a novel technique which involves the coupling of a high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer (MINIBALL) to an inverse-kinematics neutron source (LICORNE) to extract charge yields of fission fragments via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy. Experimental data and fission models are compared and found to be in reasonable agreement for many nuclei; however, significant discrepancies of up to 600% are observed, particularly for isotopes of Sn and Mo. This indicates that these models significantly overestimate the standard 1 fission mode and suggests that spherical shell effects in the nascent fission fragments are less important for low-energy fast-neutron-induced fission than for thermal neutron-induced fission. This has consequences for understanding and modeling the fission process, for experimental nuclear structure studies of the most neutron-rich nuclei, for future energy applications (e.g., Generation IV reactors which use fast-neutron spectra), and for the reactor antineutrino anomaly.

  7. Anomalies in the Charge Yields of Fission Fragments from the 238U (n ,f ) Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Lebois, M.; Qi, L.; Amador-Celdran, P.; Bleuel, D.; Briz, J. A.; Carroll, R.; Catford, W.; De Witte, H.; Doherty, D. T.; Eloirdi, R.; Georgiev, G.; Gottardo, A.; Goasduff, A.; Hadyńska-Klek, K.; Hauschild, K.; Hess, H.; Ingeberg, V.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Ljungvall, J.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Lorusso, G.; Lozeva, R.; Lutter, R.; Marini, P.; Matea, I.; Materna, T.; Mathieu, L.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Panebianco, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Porta, A.; Regan, P. H.; Reiter, P.; Rezynkina, K.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Seidlitz, M.; Serot, O.; Shearman, R.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Smith, A. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Verney, D.; Warr, N.; Zeiser, F.; Zielinska, M.

    2017-06-01

    Fast-neutron-induced fission of 238U at an energy just above the fission threshold is studied with a novel technique which involves the coupling of a high-efficiency γ -ray spectrometer (MINIBALL) to an inverse-kinematics neutron source (LICORNE) to extract charge yields of fission fragments via γ -γ coincidence spectroscopy. Experimental data and fission models are compared and found to be in reasonable agreement for many nuclei; however, significant discrepancies of up to 600% are observed, particularly for isotopes of Sn and Mo. This indicates that these models significantly overestimate the standard 1 fission mode and suggests that spherical shell effects in the nascent fission fragments are less important for low-energy fast-neutron-induced fission than for thermal neutron-induced fission. This has consequences for understanding and modeling the fission process, for experimental nuclear structure studies of the most neutron-rich nuclei, for future energy applications (e.g., Generation IV reactors which use fast-neutron spectra), and for the reactor antineutrino anomaly.

  8. 230Th/238U dating of hydrothermal sulfides from Duanqiao hydrothermal field, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifang; Tao, Chunhui; Li, Huaiming; Liang, Jin; Liao, Shili; Long, Jiangping; Ma, Zhibang; Wang, Lisheng

    2016-11-01

    Duanqiao hydrothermal field is located between the Indomed and Gallieni fracture zones at the central volcano, at 50°28'E in the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Twenty-eight subsamples from a relict chimney and massive sulfides were dated using the 230Th/238U method. Four main episodes of hydrothermal activity were determined according to the restricted results: 68.9-84.3, 43.9-48.4, 25.3-34.8, and 0.7-17.3 kyrs. Hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao probably started about 84.3 (±0.5) kyrs ago and ceased about 0.737 (±0.023) kyrs ago. The periodic character of hydrothermal activity may be related to the heat source provided by the interaction of local magmatism and tectonism. The estimated mean growth rate of the sulfide chimney is <0.02 mm/yr. This study is the first to estimate the growth rate of chimneys in the SWIR. The maximum age of the relict chimney in Duanqiao hydrothermal filed is close to that of the chimneys from Mt. Jourdanne (70 kyrs). The hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. The massive sulfides are younger than the sulfides from other hydrothermal fields such as Rainbow, Sonne and Ashadze-2. The preliminarily estimated reserves of sulfide ores of Duanqiao are approximately 0.5-2.9 million tons.

  9. Prompt fission neutron spectra in fast-neutron-induced fission of 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, V. V.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Capote, R.

    2015-07-01

    Prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) measurements for the neutron-induced fission of 238U are carried out at incident neutron energies of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MeV, respectively. The time-of-flight technique is employed to determine the energy of fission neutrons. The prompt fission neutron energy spectra so obtained are analyzed using Watt parametrization to derive the neutron multiplicity and average prompt fission neutron energy. The present experimental PFNS data are compared with the evaluated spectra taken from the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and the predictive calculations carried out using the empire-3.2 (Malta) code with built-in Los Alamos (LA) and Kornilov PFNS models. The sensitivity of the empire-3.2 LA model-calculated PFNS to the nuclear level density parameter of the average fission fragment and to the total kinetic energy is investigated. empire-3.2 LA model PFNS calculations that use Madland 2006-recommended values [D. G. Madland, Nucl. Phys. A 772, 113 (2006), 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.03.013] of the total kinetic energy and the level density parameter a =A /(10 ±0.5 ) compare very well to measured data at all incident neutron incident energies.

  10. In situ U-Pb rutile dating by LA-ICP-MS: 208Pb correction and prospects for geological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Thomas; Stockli, Daniel F.; Luvizotto, George L.; Barth, Matthias G.; Belousova, Elena; Wolfe, Melissa R.; Hinton, Richard W.

    2011-09-01

    Rutile is a common accessory mineral that occurs in a wide spectrum of metamorphic rocks, such as in blueschists, eclogites, and granulites and as one of the most stable detrital heavy minerals in sedimentary rocks. The advent of rutile trace element thermometry has generated increased interest in a better understanding of rutile formation. This study documents important analytical advances in in situ LA-ICP-MS U/Pb geochronology of rutile: (1) Matrix matching, necessary for robust in situ dating is fulfilled by calibrating and testing several rutile standards (R10, R19, WH-1), including the presentation of new TIMS ages for the rutile standard R19 (489.5 ± 0.9 Ma; errors always stated as 2 s). (2) Initial common lead correction is routinely applied via 208Pb, which is possible due to extremely low Th/U ratios (usually <0.003) in most rutiles. Employing a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to a quadrupole ICP-MS and using R10 as a primary standard, rutile U/Pb concordia ages for the two other rutile standards (493 ± 10 Ma for R19; 2640 ± 50 Ma for WH-1) and four rutile-bearing metamorphic rocks (181 ± 4 Ma for Ivrea metapelitic granulite; 339 ± 7 Ma for Saidenbach coesite eclogite; 386 ± 8 Ma for Fjortoft UHP metapelite; 606 ± 12 Ma for Andrelandia metepelitic granulite) always agree within 2% with the reported TIMS ages and other dating studies from the same localities. The power of in situ U/Pb rutile dating is illustrated by comparing ages of detrital rutile and zircon from a recent sediment from the Christie Domain of the Gawler Craton, Australia. While the U/Pb age spectrum from zircons show several pronounced peaks that are correlated with magmatic episodes, rutile U/Pb ages are marked by only one pronounced peak (at ca 1,675 Ma) interpreted to represent cooling ages of this part of the craton. Rutile thermometry of the same detrital grains indicates former granulite-facies conditions. The methods outlined in this paper should find wide application in studies

  11. Radiochemical study of the medium energy pion double charge exchange reactions: /sup 209/Bi(pi/sup +/pi/sup -/)/sup 209-x/At

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Carrier-free radiochemical techniques have been used to measure cross sections for the double charge exchange reactions of the type /sup 209/Bi(pi/sup +/, pi/sup -/xn)/sup 209-x/At for 100, 180, and 300 MeV incident pions. The observed formation of astatine products with mass numbers ranging from 208 to 205 is interpreted as evidence of processes in which energy deposited in the initial double charge exchange interaction is subsequently dissipated through neutron evaporation. The excitation functions for these reactions are seen to rise rapidly with decreasing incident pion energy with the maximum results for this study at 100 MeV. The astatine production cross secions measured for these positive pion irradiations of thick bismuth targets must be corrected for secondary processes, particularly the pion induced production of fast alpha particles which can contribute to the total cross sections through reactions like /sup 209/Bi(alpha,xn)/sup 213-x/At. The importance of these secondary contributions was studied through a series of negative pion irradiations of bismuth in which secondary pathways furnish the only means of producing astatine. The failure of evaporation calculations to reproduce the astatine product mass yields observed in these secondary studies suggests that direct mechanisms for energetic complex particle formation are quite important. Values for the alpha decay branches of /sup 207/At, /sup 208/At, and /sup 209/At were determined through a study of the electron capture and alpha decay characteristics of chemically purified astatine fractions.

  12. Measurements of cross sections for the 209Bi(n, 4n) reaction by using high energy neutrons with continuous energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyung Joo; Bak, Sang-In; Ham, Cheolmin; In, Eun Jin; Kim, Do Yoon; Myung, Hyunjeong; Shim, Chungbo; Shin, Jae Won; Zhou, Yujie; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    We measured 209Bi(n, 4n) cross sections at neutron energies En = 29.8 ± 1.8 MeV and En = 34.8 ± 1.8 MeV. Bismuth oxide samples were irradiated with the neutrons produced by impinging 30, 35 and 40 MeV proton beams on a 1.05 cm thick beryllium target, where the proton beams were from the MC-50 Cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The neutron flux for each proton beam energy Ep, ΦEp(En), has a broad spectrum with respect to En. By taking the difference in the neutron fluxes, the difference spectra, Φ40(En) -Φ35(En) and Φ35(En) -Φ30(En), are obatined and found to be peaked at En = 29.8 and 34.8 MeV, respectively, with a width of about 3.6 MeV. By making use of this observation and employing the TENDL-2009 library we could extract the 209Bi(n, 4n)206Bi cross sections at the aforementioned neutron energies.

  13. Study of heavy ion range in different solid state nuclear track detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, P. K.; Singh, Lakhwant; Singh, Gurinder; Kumar, Shyam

    2000-03-01

    The range of several heavy ions as 238U, 208Pb, 197Au, 139La, 58Ni and 56Fe in sodalime glass; 197Au and 58Ni in muscovite mica and Lexan polycarbonate; 209Bi and 197Au in CR-39 have been determined experimentally. The calculations of range for these projectile-target combinations have been made using the Benton and Henke [10], Mukherjee and Nayak [11], Ziegler et al. [12] and Hubert et al. [14] semiempirical formulations. Finally a comparison has been made with the experimental results.

  14. A modern framework for the interpretation of 238U/235U in studies of ancient ocean redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. B.; Romaniello, S.; Vance, D.; Little, S. H.; Herdman, R.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-08-01

    The abundance and isotope composition of redox sensitive elements in ancient sediments are increasingly used to understand the past ocean's geochemical state and the oxygenation history of the Earth. The redox transition of uranium (U) from soluble U+6 to relatively insoluble U+4 and its subsequent incorporation into reduced sediments has been used to deduce the redox state of the oceans in the past. Furthermore, recent analytical improvements have revealed significant 238U/235U fractionation during this redox transition, offering the potential for U isotopes to act as a redox proxy. However, the development of U isotopes as a geochemical tracer requires that U isotope systematics associated with redox changes, are well-characterized. This study focuses on U isotopes in recent sediments from the two largest modern anoxic ocean basins, the Black Sea and the Cariaco Basin, with the aim of advancing our understanding of the U isotope systematics in reducing marine environments. These anoxic sediments have high U accumulation rates and high 238U/235U ratios relative to seawater, in general agreement with a process that accumulates reduced U with a heavy isotopic composition. Using Al and Ca concentrations to correct for detrital and biogenic carbonate-bound U, we estimate the reduced authigenic U accumulated in the sediments and its 238U/235U. These results highlight the importance of isotopic mass balance constraints during diffusive transport and reaction of U from seawater and through pore-water, affecting the observed 238U/235U in sediments. Using these constraints, the average percentages of U depletion from top to bottom of the water column can be estimated, assuming batch-removal of U into anoxic sediments in a restricted basin. Using this framework, 238U/235U in modern anoxic sediments from the Black Sea imply U depletions in the water column of ∼30%, which is close to the observed ∼40% U depletion in the modern Black Sea water column at these depths

  15. Light and heavy transfer products in 136Xe+238U multinucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, A.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.; Corradi, L.; Mijatović, T.; Montanari, D.; Szilner, S.; Bazzacco, D.; Bowry, M.; Bracco, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Geibel, K.; Gengelbach, A.; Giaz, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Grebosz, J.; Hess, H.; John, P. R.; Jolie, J.; Judson, D. S.; Jungclaus, A.; Korten, W.; Leoni, S.; Lunardi, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D.; Pellegri, L.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Radeck, F.; Recchia, F.; Rosso, D.; Şahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Scarlassara, F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Steinbach, T.; Stezowski, O.; Szpak, B.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Vandone, V.; Wiens, A.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Multinucleon transfer reactions (MNT) are a competitive tool to populate exotic neutron-rich nuclei in a wide region of nuclei, where other production methods have severe limitations or cannot be used at all. Purpose: Experimental information on the yields of MNT reactions in comparison with theoretical calculations are necessary to make predictions for the production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. It is crucial to determine the fraction of MNT reaction products which are surviving neutron emission or fission at the high excitation energy after the nucleon exchange. Method: Multinucleon transfer reactions in +238U 136Xe have been measured in a high-resolution γ -ray/particle coincidence experiment. The large solid-angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA coupled to the high-resolution Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA) has been employed. Beamlike reaction products after multinucleon transfer in the Xe region were identified and selected with the PRISMA spectrometer. Coincident particles were tagged by multichannel plate detectors placed at the grazing angle of the targetlike recoils inside the scattering chamber. Results: Mass yields have been extracted and compared with calculations based on the grazing model for MNT reactions. Kinematic coincidences between the binary reaction products, i.e., beamlike and targetlike nuclei, were exploited to obtain population yields for nuclei in the actinide region and compared to x-ray yields measured by AGATA. Conclusions: No sizable yield of actinide nuclei beyond Z =93 is found to perform nuclear structure investigations. In-beam γ -ray spectroscopy is feasible for few-neutron transfer channels in U and the -2 p channel populating Th isotopes.

  16. Nuclear potentials for sub-barrier fusion and cluster decay in {sup 14}C, {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R. N.; Tretyakova, S. P.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Rowley, N.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2007-09-15

    Near-barrier fusion excitation functions for the {sup 14}C and {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb reactions have been analyzed in the framework of the barrier-passing model using different forms of the nuclear potential and the phenomenology of a fluctuating barrier. The best-fit fusion potentials were used to estimate cluster decay probabilities from the corresponding ground states of Ra and Th (i.e., for the inverse decay process). The analysis supports the ''{alpha}-decay-like'' scenario for carbon and oxygen emission from these nuclei.

  17. Investigation of constraints on few-neutron forces in neutron matter by empirical information on the neutron skin of 48Ca and 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    The neutron matter equation of state is calculated from two-neutron forces up to fifth order of the chiral expansion, and the order-by-order convergence of the predictions is investigated. Based on these equations of state, the binding energies and the neutron and proton density distributions in 208Pb and 48Ca are derived, with particular attention paid to the neutron skins, the focal point of this paper. Anticipating future experiments which will provide reliable information on the weak charge density in nuclei, the theoretical uncertainties and the possibility of constraining the size of few-neutron forces in neutron matter are discussed.

  18. Selective properties of neutron transfer reactions in the 90Zr + 208Pb system for the population of excited states in zirconium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga Pajtler, M.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; de Angelis, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Lunardi, S.; Jelavić Malenica, D.; Mărginean, N.; Mengoni, D.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Recchia, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    Nuclei produced via multineutron transfer channels have been studied in 90Zr + 208Pb close to the Coulomb barrier energy in a fragment-γ coincident measurement employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer coupled to the CLARA γ-array. The selective properties of the reaction mechanism have been discussed in terms of states and their strength excited in the neutron transfer channels leading to 89-94Zr isotopes. A strong population of yrast states, with energies up to ∼7.5 MeV has been observed.

  19. Light nuclides produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Kelic, A.; Rejmund, F.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Benlliure, J.; Pereira, J.; Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.

    2006-01-15

    The production of light and intermediate-mass nuclides formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the Fragment Separator at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, by shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. A total of 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced nuclides were determined with high precision. The results show that the nuclides are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced nuclides merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases.

  20. High precision measurement of the radiative capture cross section of 238U at the n_TOF CERN facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Durán, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heftrich, T.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Katabuchi, T.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The importance of improving the accuracy on the capture cross-section of 238U has been addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency, since its uncertainty significantly affects the uncertainties of key design parameters for both fast and thermal nuclear reactors. Within the 7th framework programme ANDES of the European Commission three different measurements have been carried out with the aim of providing the 238U(n,γ) cross-section with an accuracy which varies from 1 to 5%, depending on the energy range. Hereby the final results of the measurement performed at the n_TOF CERN facility in a wide energy range from 1 eV to 700 keV will be presented.

  1. Field analyses of (238)U and (226)Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Déjeant, Adrien; Bourva, Ludovic; Sia, Radia; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The radioactivities of (238)U and (226)Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The (238)U and (226)Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Counting neutrons from the spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U using scintillation detectors and mixed field analysers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Helen M. O'D.; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Jones, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    It is well documented that {sup 238}U decays by spontaneous fission, and that it is the main component of most nuclear fuels. As nuclear fuels are largely classed as Special Nuclear Material (SNM), they have to be fully accounted for by owners and processing facilities. One possible method for verifying declared amounts of SNM is to count the spontaneous neutrons produced from {sup 238}U. Using four EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors and a mixed field analyser, spontaneous neutrons from 16.4 g of depleted uranium (0.3% enrichment) have been assayed. The assay method shows promising results and this proof of principle will be researched further in order for it to be applied in an industrial setting. (authors)

  3. 234U /238U and 230Th /234U activity ratios in mineral phases of a lateritic weathered zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowson, Richard T.; Short, Stephen A.; Davey, Brian G.; Gray, David J.

    1986-08-01

    A selective phase extraction procedure was developed for the identification of the significant phases of a typical deep soil profile sampled in the vicinity of the Ranger No. 1 uranium ore body, Alligator Rivers region, N.T., Australia. The significant phases were identified as amorphous iron oxide, crystalline iron oxide and a clay/quartz resistate. The distribution of 238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra between the phases was measured. The results indicated that the amorphous iron oxide phase is in adsorption/desorption equilibrium with the ground water. The crystalline iron oxide phase contains a chemical control, the kinetics of which are commensurate with or less than the half-life of 230Th (7.52 × 10 4 y). The clay/quartz resistate is enriched in 238U descendants in such a way that they are not readily accessible to the ground water.

  4. Comparison of yields of neutron-rich nuclei in proton- and photon-induced 238U fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, F. A.; Bhowmick, Debasis; Basu, D. N.; Farooq, M.; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2016-11-01

    A comparative study of fission of actinides, especially 238U, by proton and bremsstrahlung photon is performed. The relative mass distribution of 238U fission fragments has been explored theoretically for both proton- and photon-induced fission. The integrated yield along with charge distribution of the products are calculated to find the neutron richness in comparison with the nuclei produced by the r process in nucleosynthesis. Some r -process nuclei in the intermediate-mass range for symmetric fission mode are found to be produced almost two orders of magnitude more for proton-induced fission than for photofission, although the rest of the neutron-rich nuclei in the asymmetric mode are produced in comparable proportion for both processes.

  5. Dating open systems by the 238U- 234U- 230Th method: application to Quaternary reef terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villemant, B.; Feuillet, N.

    2003-05-01

    The sedimentation conditions and diagenetic processes of biogenic and inorganic carbonates are such that the assumptions of a closed system evolution and the absence of initial Th invoked in classical 238U- 234U- 230Th dating methods are very often not fulfilled for such material. This problem is of interest for all studies requiring accurate dating of corals or aragonite-rich sediments as in palaeoclimatology or neotectonics. Extending the approach of Henderson and Slowey [Nature 404 (2000) 61-66], we propose a consistent model that takes into account possible initial 230Th excess and where continuous selective redistribution (gain or loss) of 234U, 234Th and 230Th is controlled by recoil processes. This model applied to Quaternary marine terraces in Barbados, Marie Galante (Lesser Antilles arc) and Pacific islands, is able to explain the large scatter in isotopic compositions observed in the series of cogenetic corals or sediments. We show that recoil processes generally tend to increase the ( 234U/ 238U) and ( 230Th/ 234U) ratios with time, leading to an overestimation of the apparent ages calculated using classical methods. On the basis of simple assumptions (identical 'marine' initial ( 234U/ 238U) 0 and ( 230Th/ 232Th) 0 ratios), we propose a method for calculating a best estimate of the age of cogenetic series. Our model offers an alternative way to date old reef terraces where corals are almost systematically altered and where classical dating methods do not apply. It may also explain the apparent variations of the ( 234U/ 238U) seawater initial ratio estimated from corals formed in the last 300 ka and the apparent uncoupling between sea-level highstands and high-latitude Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Our set of equations can be applied to all weathering processes where the mobility of U-series isotopes is controlled by recoil.

  6. Giant resonances in {sup 238}U within the quasiparticle random-phase approximation with the Gogny force

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, S.; Gosselin, G.; Martini, M.; Dupuis, M.; Hilaire, S.

    2011-01-15

    Fully consistent axially-symmetric deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations have been performed, using the same Gogny D1S effective force for both the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov mean field and QRPA matrix. New implementation of this approach leads to the applicability of QRPA to heavy deformed nuclei. Giant resonances and low-energy collective states for monopole, dipole, quadrupole, and octupole modes are predicted for the heavy deformed nucleus {sup 238}U and compared with experimental data.

  7. /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb in some vent waters of the Galapagos spreading center

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, K.K.

    1982-08-01

    The concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U and /sup 210/Pb have been measured in waters from the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden thermal fields at the Galapagos spreading center over a temperature range of approx.2.5--16 /sup 0/C. The /sup 226/Ra-T plots yield slopes of 0.112 and 0.036 dpm/kg /sup 0/C for the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden respectively yielding a global hydrothermal /sup 226/Ra flux less than 5% of that required to sustain the oceanic inventory. /sup 238/U concentration in waters <9 /sup 0/C is the same as that in ambient sea water whereas water hotter than approx.9 /sup 0/C shows a decreasing trend with temperature to zero /sup 238/U at approx.29 /sup 0/C. /sup 210/Pb concentration in Mussel Bed increases with temperature, and extrapolated to approx.350 /sup 0/C yields a /sup 210/Pb concentration considerably less than that expected from /sup 222/Rn decay and basalt alteration.

  8. Actinides produced by /sup 12/C + /sup 242/Pu and /sup 16/O + /sup 238/U reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, N.; Usuda, S.; Ichikawa, S.; Suzuki, T.; Magara, M.; Okashita, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Horiguchi, T.; Iwata, Y.; Shibata, S.; and others

    1986-09-01

    The cross sections for /sup 250/Fm, /sup 244-246/Cf, /sup 242-244/Cm, and /sup 242/Am/sup g-italic/ produced by the /sup 12/C+ /sup 242/Pu and the /sup 16/O+ /sup 238/U reactions leading to the same compound nucleus of /sup 254/Fm have been measured by using radiochemical methods. The excitation functions show that the difference between the /sup 12/C+ /sup 242/Pu and the /sup 16/O+ /sup 238/U reactions can be attributed mainly to the Coulomb barriers. Our results were compared with others reported previously for /sup 22/Ne+ /sup 232/Th, /sup 12/C+ /sup 238/U, /sup 12/C+ /sup 240,241/Pu, /sup 13/C+ /sup 241/Pu, /sup 16/O+ /sup 233/U, and /sup 16/O+ /sup 242/Pu reaction systems, and support a mechanism involving transfer of ..cap alpha..-particle clusters (C,Be,He) from projectile to target for the production of Cf and Cm isotopes.

  9. Investigation of the 238U(d ,p ) surrogate reaction via the simultaneous measurement of γ -decay and fission probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B.; Aïche, M.; Marini, P.; Mathieu, L.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Tornyi, T.; Wilson, J. N.; Barreau, G.; Boutoux, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Giacoppo, F.; Gunsing, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Lebois, M.; Lei, J.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Moro, A. M.; Renstrøm, T.; Roig, O.; Rose, S. J.; Sérot, O.; Siem, S.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Wiedeking, M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the 238U(d ,p ) reaction as a surrogate for the n +238U reaction. For this purpose we measured for the first time the γ -decay and fission probabilities of *239U simultaneously and compared them to the corresponding neutron-induced data. We present the details of the procedure to infer the decay probabilities, as well as a thorough uncertainty analysis, including parameter correlations. Calculations based on the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method and the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) were used to correct our data from detected protons originating from elastic and inelastic deuteron breakup. In the region where fission and γ emission compete, the corrected fission probability is in agreement with neutron-induced data, whereas the γ -decay probability is much higher than the neutron-induced data. We have performed calculations of the decay probabilities with the statistical model and of the average angular momentum populated in the 238U(d ,p ) reaction with the DWBA to interpret these results.

  10. Atmospheric aerosol measurements of 238U and 232Th at Fernald, Ohio, and implications on inhalation dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Robert Z; Jacob, Ethel M; Marschke, Stephen F; Praniti, David M

    2002-12-01

    Measurements of the aerosol size distribution of 238U and 232Th at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project site were made to improve the inhalation dose calculations to off-site individuals. For approximately 1 y an 8-stage cascade impactor was co-located with a high volume sampler and operated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site to collect aerosol samples. During most of the year, the site was dominated by giant particles with more than 70% of the mass of 238U above 15 microm. The seasonal average of the activity median aerodynamic diameter, based on the impactor samples, which excluded particles >15 microm, for both uranium and thorium was approximately 6.5 microm. These numbers reflect the activities at the site and the domination of the resuspension processes. During most sampling periods the size distribution was bimodal. Thorium concentrations were comparable to the uranium concentrations during the late spring and summer period and decreased to approximately 25% of the 238U concentration in the late summer. Fernald Environmental Management Project is required to calculate the maximum allowable dose from airborne emissions, excluding radon, to meet NESHAP compliance. These calculations assume an AMAD of 1 microm. We found that if you combine size distribution information with the latest ICRP 66 lung model you reduce the estimated dose by a factor of 7. Inclusion of the size distribution of radionuclides at any sampling site would substantially improve the dose estimates to the population.

  11. Measurement of evaporation residue cross-sections of the reaction 30Si + 238U at subbarrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nagame, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Tsuruta, K.; Hofmann, S.; Hessberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Mazzocco, M.; Schoett, H. J.; Antalic, S.; Saro, S.; Comas, V. F.; Heredia, J. A.

    2007-02-26

    The reaction 30Si + 238U {yields} 268Sg* was studied at beam energies close to the Coulomb barrier. At the above barrier energy of Ec.m. = 144.0 MeV (center-of-mass energy at half thickness of the target), we measured three decay chains of 263Sg produced by evaporation of five neutrons. The cross-section was (67{sub -37}{sup +67}) pb. At subbarrier energy of Ec.m. = 133.0 MeV we measured three spontaneously fissioning nuclei which we assigned to the isotope 264Sg. The half-life of (120{sub -44}{sup +126}) ms was determined. The production cross-section was (10{sub -6}{sup +10}) pb, which is about four orders magnitude larger than the calculation based on the one-dimensional barrier penetration model in the fusion process, showing fusion enhancement caused by the prolate deformation of 238U. At Ec.m. = 128.0 MeV an upper cross-section limit of 15 pb was measured. Compared to excitation functions measured for the lighter system 16O + 238U {yields} 254Fm*, a reduction of the fusion probability was observed at low beam energies indicating increasing competition from quasifission processes.

  12. Solubility of {sup 238}U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using “US in vitro” digestion method

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-29

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by “US P in vitro” digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 – 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 – 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  13. Accelerator driven neutron source design via beryllium target and (208)Pb moderator for boron neutron capture therapy in alternative treatment strategy by Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    The reactor has increased its area of application into medicine especially boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT); however, accelerator-driven neutron sources can be used for therapy purposes. The present study aimed to discuss an alternative method in BNCT functions by a small cyclotron with low current protons based on Karaj cyclotron in Iran. An epithermal neutron spectrum generator was simulated with 30 MeV proton energy for BNCT purposes. A low current of 300 μA of the proton beam in spallation target concept via 9Be target was accomplished to model neutron spectrum using 208Pb moderator around the target. The graphite reflector and dual layer collimator were planned to prevent and collimate the neutrons produced from proton interactions. Neutron yield per proton, energy distribution, flux, and dose components in the simulated head phantom were estimated by MCNPX code. The neutron beam quality was investigated by diverse filters thicknesses. The maximum epithermal flux transpired using Fluental, Fe, Li, and Bi filters with thicknesses of 7.4, 3, 0.5, and 4 cm, respectively; as well as the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio was 161. Results demonstrated that the induced neutrons from a low energy and low current proton may be effective in tumor therapy using 208Pb moderator with average lethargy and also graphite reflector with low absorption cross section to keep the generated neutrons. Combination of spallation-based BNCT and proton therapy can be especially effective, if a high beam intensity cyclotron becomes available.

  14. Novel Manifestation of {alpha}-Clustering Structures: New '{alpha}+{sup 208}Pb' States in {sup 212}Po Revealed by Their Enhanced E1 Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Astier, A.; Porquet, M.-G.; Petkov, P.; Delion, D. S.; Schuck, P.

    2010-01-29

    Excited states in {sup 212}Po were populated by {alpha} transfer using the {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,{sup 14}C) reaction, and their deexcitation {gamma} rays were studied with the Euroball array. Several levels were found to decay by a unique E1 transition (E{sub {gamma}}<1 MeV) populating the yrast state with the same spin value. Their lifetimes were measured by the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The values, found in the range 0.1-1.4 ps, lead to very enhanced transitions, B(E1)=2x10{sup -2}-1x10{sup -3} W.u. These results are discussed in terms of an {alpha}-cluster structure which gives rise to states with non-natural-parity values, provided that the composite system cannot rotate collectively, as expected in the '{alpha}+{sup 208}Pb' case. Such states due to the oscillatory motion of the {alpha}-core distance are observed for the first time.

  15. Testing the 234U/238U weathering tracer in a tropical granitoid watershed, Luquillo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Derry, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies have employed U-series disequilibria as a tracer of both weathering profile development and of timescale of erosion for whole watersheds. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of the behavior of the U- series isotopes in a previously well-characterized watershed in order to test this approach. In the Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, previous studies have determined both the rate of propagation of the chemical weathering front by regolith mass balance analysis, and the surface denudation rate using the cosmogenic 10Be tracer. Our study aims to determine whether the U-series approach provides regolith development and erosion rates in agreement with those previously determined. In order to better constrain interpretations based on U-series data, we have coupled the U-series analysis with analyses of trace element concentrations, δ^{30}Si, Ge/Si, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Used together, these geochemical tracers provide a powerful tool for understanding weathering reactions, chemical transfers within and out of the weathering profile, and the timing of these chemical transfers. Analyses of soil, saprolite and pore water samples reveal a complex history of U and Th transformations including mobilization of both U and Th in the soil followed by re-adsorption deeper in the profile. 234U/238U activity ratios in soil and saprolite show significant variability both with depth, and also among individual mineral phases at any particular depth. This variation among mineral phases, combined with the likely physical sorting of these phases during erosional transport, results in an additional isotopic fractionation unrelated to that imparted by the weathering process. This implies that suspended sediment samples taken from streamwater are unlikely to accurately reflect the average disequilibria carried by the secondary minerals phases in the soil and saprolite. Our analyses also reveal a significant contribution of atmospheric mineral

  16. Using 238U/235U ratios to understand the formation and oxidation of reduced uranium solids in naturally reduced zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemison, N.; Johnson, T. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Davis, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Uranium occurs in groundwater primarily as soluble and mobile U(VI), which can be reduced to immobile U(IV), often observed in sediments as uraninite. Numerous U(VI)-contaminated sites, such as the DOE field site in Rifle, CO, contain naturally reduced zones (NRZ's) that have relatively high concentrations of organic matter. Reduction of heavy metals occurs within NRZ's, producing elevated concentrations of iron sulfides and U(IV). Slow, natural oxidation of U(IV) from NRZ's may prolong U(VI) contamination of groundwater. The reduction of U(VI) produces U(IV) with a higher 238U/235U ratio. Samples from two NRZ sediment cores recovered from the Rifle site revealed that the outer fringes of the NRZ contain U(IV) with a high 238U/235U ratio, while lower values are observed in the center . We suggest that as aqueous U(VI) was reduced in the NRZ, it was driven to lower 238U/235U values, such that U(IV) formed in the core of the NRZ reflects a lower 238U/235U. Two oxidation experiments were conducted by injecting groundwater containing between 14.9 and 21.2 mg/L dissolved O2 as an oxidant into the NRZ. The oxidation of U(IV) from this NRZ increased aqueous U(VI) concentrations and caused a shift to higher 238U/235U in groundwater as U(IV) was oxidized primarily on the outer fringes of the NRZ. In total these observations suggest that the stability of solid phase uranium is governed by coupled reaction and transport processes. To better understand various reactive transport scenarios we developed a model for the formation and oxidation of NRZ's utilizing the reactive transport software CrunchTope. These simulations suggest that the development of isotopically heterogeneous U(IV) within NRZ's is largely controlled by permeability of the NRZ and the U(VI) reduction rate. Oxidation of U(IV) from the NRZ's is constrained by the oxidation rate of U(IV) as well as iron sulfides, which can prevent oxidation of U(IV) by scavenging dissolved oxygen.

  17. 234U/238U evidence for local recharge and patterns of groundwater flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paces, J.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Neymark, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U ratios in saturated-zone and perched ground water were used to investigate hydrologic flow and downgradient dilution and dispersion in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, a potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site. The U data were obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry on more than 280 samples from the Death Valley regional flow system. Large variations in both U concentrations (commonly 0.6-10 ??g 1-1) and 234U/238U activity ratios (commonly 1.5-6) are present on both local and regional scales; however, ground water with 234U/238U activity ratios from 7 up to 8.06 is restricted largely to samples from Yucca Mountain. Data from ground water in the Tertiary volcanic and Quaternary alluvial aquifers at and adjacent to Yucca Mountain plot in 3 distinct fields of reciprocal U concentration versus 234U/238U activity ratio correlated to different geographic areas. Ground water to the west of Yucca Mountain has large U concentrations and moderate 234U/238U whereas ground water to the east in the Fortymile flow system has similar 234U/238U, but distinctly smaller U concentrations. Ground water beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain has intermediate U concentrations but distinctive 234U/238U activity ratios of about 7-8. Perched water from the lower part of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain has similarly large values of 234U/238U. These U data imply that the Tertiary volcanic aquifer beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain is isolated from north-south regional flow. The similarity of 234U/238U in both saturated- and unsaturated-zone ground water at Yucca Mountain further indicates that saturated-zone ground water beneath Yucca Mountain is dominated by local recharge rather than regional flow. The distinctive 234U/238U signatures also provide a natural tracer of downgradient flow. Elevated 234U/238U in ground water from two water-supply wells east of Yucca Mountain are interpreted as the result of induced

  18. Dynamic polarization of light halo nuclei in strong fields: {sup 6}He+{sup 209}Bi elastic scattering below and close to the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Borowska, L.; Terenetsky, K.; Verbitsky, V.; Fritzsche, S.

    2007-09-15

    The elastic scattering of light halo nuclei in the field of heavy targets has been studied for collision energies below the Coulomb barrier. Based on the assumption that the neutron halo follows the projectile adiabatically along its classical trajectory, a dynamic polarization potential is derived which describes both the (electrical) polarization as well as the breakup of the projectile in the field of the target. Detailed computations have been carried out for the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He+{sup 209}Bi at energies between 14.7 MeV and 19.1 MeV near to the Coulomb barrier. It is demonstrated that the polarization of the halo nucleus leads to a clear decrease of the (elastic) scattering cross section in excellent agreement with a recent measurement by Aguilera et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5058 (2000)].

  19. Uranium ((238)U)-induced ROS and cell cycle perturbations, antioxidant responses and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in the freshwater iridescent shark fish Pangasius sutchi.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi

    2017-03-02

    The strategic plan of this study is to analyze any possible radiological impact on aquatic organisms from forthcoming uranium mining facilities around the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in the future. The predominantly consumed and dominant fish species Pangasius sutchi, which is available year-round at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, was selected for the study. To comprehend the outcome and to understand the mode of action of (238)U, the fish species Pangasius sutchi was exposed to ¼ and ½ of the LC50 doses of waterborne (238)U in a static system in duplicate for 21 days. Blood and organs, including the gills, liver, brain and muscles, were collected at different time periods-0h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h, 7, days 14days and 21 days-using ICP-MS to determine the toxic effects of uranium and the accumulation of (238)U concentrations. The bioaccumulation of (238)U in P. sutchi tissues was dependent on exposure time and concentration. The accumulation of uranium was, in order of magnitude, measured as gills>liver>brain>tissue, with the highest accumulation in the gills. It was observed that exposure to (238)U significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidase. The analysis of DNA fragmentation by comet assay and cell viability by flow cytometry was performed at different time intervals. DNA histograms by flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase in the G2/M phase and the S phase. The long-term (238)U exposure studies in fish showed increasing micronucleus frequencies in erythrocytes with greater exposure time. The higher the concentration of (238)U is, the greater is the effect observed, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and toxicity. A possible ROS-mediated (238)U toxicity mechanism and antioxidant responses have been proposed.

  20. Analysis and comparison of monoenergetic fast neutron fluence determination using 238U samples at different positions with respect to the neutron source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Liu, Xiang; Gao, Zhiqi; Wu, Hao; Liu, Jiaming

    2012-05-01

    Using two (238)U samples placed in a gridded ionization chamber and a parallel-plate fission chamber, fluence of monoenergetic fast neutrons was determined. Four runs of measurements were performed. Analysis showed that although the neutron fluences for the two (238)U samples differ by 20-33 times in the present work, the fluences at the position of the sample in the gridded ionization chamber determined by the two ways are in agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  1. TECHNICAL EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN PERKIN-ELMER DRCe AND ELAN 6000 FOR THE ANALYSIS OF 238U IN URINE BIOASSAY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C T; Collins, L J

    2007-09-05

    The LLNL Bioassay Laboratory recently purchased a Perkin-Elmer DRCe ICP-MS (DRCe) to replace the existing Perkin-Elmer Elan 6000 ICP-MS (Elan 6000) used for the analysis of {sup 238}U in urine bioassay samples. In accordance with section 5.7.2 of DOE-STD-1112-98, 'The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for Radiobioassay', this document demonstrates that the DRCe is technically equivalent to the Elan 6000. This paper documents: (1) Minor changes made in the procedure to improve the sensitivity; (2) Detection limits for the Elan 6000 and the DRCe; (3) Determination of the measurement uncertainty for the DRCe; and (4) Comparison of results from the DRCe versus the Elan 6000. A 1 mL aliquot of the sample is transferred to an auto sampler tube. Nitric acid and {sup 233}U (used as an internal standard) are added to the samples and the samples are digested in a microwave oven. The digested samples are diluted to 10 mL with deionized water and the {sup 238}U concentration is determined by ICP-MS. The ICP-MS is calibrated with a series of {sup 238}U standards. {sup 233}U is used as an internal standard to correct for suppression of the signal due to the sample matrix. The Elan 6000 is run in the peakhopping mode with 100 ms dwell times and 50 sweeps. The total integration time is 5,000 ms. The average of two measurements is used for the determination.

  2. 238U-230Th dating of chevkinite in high-silica rhyolites from La Primavera and Yellowstone calderas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Velasco, Noel O.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Bleick, Heather A.; Stelten, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Application of 238U-230Th disequilibrium dating of accessory minerals with contrasting stabilities and compositions can provide a unique perspective on magmatic evolution by placing the thermochemical evolution of magma within the framework of absolute time. Chevkinite, a Th-rich accessory mineral that occurs in peralkaline and metaluminous rhyolites, may be particularly useful as a chronometer of crystallization and differentiation because its composition may reflect the chemical changes of its host melt. Ion microprobe 128U-230Th dating of single chevkinite microphenocrysts from pre- and post-caldera La Primavera, Mexico, rhyolites yields model crystallization ages that are within 10's of k.y. of their corresponding K-Ar ages of ca. 125 ka to 85 ka, while chevkinite microphenocrysts from a post-caldera Yellowstone, USA, rhyolite yield a range of ages from ca. 110 ka to 250 ka, which is indistinguishable from the age distribution of coexisting zircon. Internal chevkinite-zircon isochrons from La Primavera yield Pleistocene ages with ~5% precision due to the nearly two order difference in Th/U between both minerals. Coupling chevkinite 238U-230Th ages and compositional analyses reveals a secular trend of Th/U and rare earth elements recorded in Yellowstone rhyolite, likely reflecting progressive compositional evolution of host magma. The relatively short timescale between chevkinite-zircon crystallization and eruption suggests that crystal-poor rhyolites at La Primavera were erupted shortly after differentiation and/or reheating. These results indicate that 238U-230Th dating of chevkinite via ion microprobe analysis may be used to date crystallization and chemical evolution of silicic magmas.

  3. sup 238 U- and sup 232 Th-series chronology of phonolite fractionation at Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, M.K. ); Volpe, A.M. ); Cashman, K.V. )

    1992-03-01

    Uranium, thorium, radium, and barium abundances and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th isotopic ratios determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry and ({sup 228}Th)/({sup 232}Th) activity ratios determined by alpha spectrometry are used to date anorthoclase growth and infer magma chamber residence times of phonolites erupted in 1984 and 1988 from Mount Erebus, Antarctica. The 1984 and 1988 glasses have slightly different ({sup 230}Th)/({sup 232}Th) ratios but both have a 10% excess of ({sup 230}Th) over ({sup 238}U) and equilibrium ({sup 228}Th) values. By comparing these data and Pb-isotopic data reported in SUN and HANSON (1975) to similar data for oceanic basalts, the duration of differentiation from basanite to phonolite is limited to less than 150,000 years. The anorthoclase separates have ({sup 230}Th)/({sup 238}U) ratios exceeding those of the associated glasses but have ({sup 230}Th)/({sup 232}Th) ratios like those of the glasses. Both glasses are depleted in {sup 226}Ra with respect to {sup 230}Th by about 25%, whereas associated anorthoclase separates have extreme excesses of {sup 226}Ra over {sup 230}Th and ({sup 228}Th)/({sup 232}Th) = 2.2. On a plot of ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba vs. ({sup 230}Th)/BA, the glass-anorthoclase pairs produce isochrons averaging 2,380 y, which represents the average age of anorthoclase growth in the shallow magma system at Erebus. The implied residence time of phonolite magmas in the shallow magma chamber system of Erebus is about 3,000 y. Final crystal growth occurred after intrusion into the convecting lava lake less than decades before eruption.

  4. IUPAC-IUGS status report on the half-lives of 238U, 235U and 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.; Bonardi, M. L.; De Bièvre, P.; Holden, N. E.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on the half-lives of the long-lived U radionuclides has been reviewed by the IUPAC-IUGS joint Task Group "Isotopes in Geosciences". 238U is assigned a half-life of (4.4683 ± 0.0096) Ga, i.e. a decay constant λ238 = (0.155125 ± 0.000333) Ga-1. The coverage factor is k = 2 for this and all other estimates presented here. The 238U half-life can be used as a reference for the half-lives/decay constants of all other isotopic geochronometers. A revision of the half-life of 235U based on intercomparison of natural geological samples is premature. The improved repeatability of mass spectrometric measurements has revealed Type B uncertainties that had been dismissed as subordinate in the past. The combined uncertainty of these as yet incompletely charted and quantified sources of Type B uncertainty may be no smaller than the currently accepted uncertainty of the α counting experiments. A provisional value for the 234U half-life can be calculated with the assumption of secular equilibrium in the analyzed natural samples. This assumption has not yet been verified independently and its metrological traceability appears sub-optimum. A Type B evaluation suggests that the ca. 0.17% offset between the N(234U)/N(238U) number-ratios of the natural samples used to estimate the 235U half-life and those of the four samples used to estimate the 234U half-life should be compounded into the standard measurement uncertainty of the latter. The resulting provisional uncertainty interval (k = 2) for the 234U half-life is (244.55-247.77) ka, corresponding to λ234 = (2.8203-2.8344) Ma-1.

  5. Probing the role of Skyrme interactions on the fission dynamics of the 6Li + 238U reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishita; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2017-06-01

    The performance of selected five Skyrme forces (out of a set of 240), tested by Dutra et al., is analyzed in view of fusion-fission dynamics. These forces are assumed to perform better for neutron-rich systems, so the choice of the reaction is accordingly made by opting for a neutron-rich target in 6Li + 238U reaction. This reaction is diagnosed further in reference to fusion hindrance within the dynamical approach of the cluster-decay model (DCM). In order to reduce the computational time, three Skyrme forces are figured out with the criteria that these forces cover the barrier characteristics of the remaining two forces as well. The fission cross-sections are successfully addressed at low energies for the 6Li + 238U reaction. However, at relatively higher energies, the excitation functions show theoretical suppression with respect to experimental data, which may be associated with the possible existence of incomplete fusion (ICF). For ICF, we have considered that the 6Li broke into 4He + 2H, as mentioned in the experimental work. The calculations of ICF are carried out for the 4He + 238U reaction with the selected Skyrme forces at E_{c.m.} = 26.20 and 27.51 MeV. These forces address the data nicely for the compound nucleus (CN) as well as ICF processes. Here, the NRAPR force seems to require lesser barrier modification as compared to the other forces, therefore it can be used as an alternate choice for calculating the interaction potential. Additionally, the prediction of cross-sections at lower energies has been done with DCM using the NRAPR force. The ℓ-dependent % barrier modification of the Skyrme forces undertaken is also worked out in reference to fusion hindrance at below barrier energies.

  6. Neutron multiplicity in the fission of 238U and 235U with neutrons up to 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Ethvignot, T; Devlin, M; Duarte, H; Granier, T; Haight, R C; Morillon, B; Nelson, R O; O'Donnell, J M; Rochman, D

    2005-02-11

    Prompt-fission-neutron multiplicities were measured for 238U(n,f) and 235U(n,f) from 0.4 to 200 MeV. The data are of great importance in connection with accelerator-coupled nuclear reactor systems incinerating actinides. We report that fission induced by 200 MeV neutrons produces approximately 10 more prompt neutrons than fission induced by reactor neutrons. Most neutrons are evaporated from the fission fragments and the prefission compound nucleus, as the preequilibrium emission of energetic neutrons accounts for a maximum of 15% of the prompt neutrons at 200 MeV.

  7. Neutron-deficient N{approx_equal}126 nuclei produced in 238U fragmentation: population of high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Walker, P. M.; Pearson, C. J.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gerl, J.; Hellstroem, M.; Becker, F.; Gorska, M.; Kelic, A.; Kopatch, Y.; Mandal, S.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Banu, A.; Geissel, H.; Grawe, H.; Kojouharov, I.; Lozeva, R.; Portillo, M.

    2006-04-26

    The population of metastable states produced in relativistic-energy fragmentation of a 238U beam has been measured. For states with high angular momentum, I=17({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and I=21.5({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), a higher population than expected has been observed, with the discrepancy increasing with angular momentum. By considering two sources for the angular momentum, related to single-particle and collective motions, a much improved description of the experimental results can be obtained. In addition, new results on the structure of 208Fr, 211Ra and 216Ac are reported.

  8. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich Fe isotopes populated in the {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardi, S.; Lenzi, S. M.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.; Beghini, S.; Mason, P.; Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Recchia, F.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A.; Vedova, F. Della; Gadea, A.; Corradi, L.; Angelis, G. de; Fioretto, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Orlandi, R.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.

    2007-09-15

    The neutron-rich Fe isotopes from A=61 to 66 were studied through multinucleon transfer reactions by bombarding a {sup 238}U target with a 400 MeV {sup 64}Ni beam. Unambiguous identification of prompt {gamma} rays belonging to each nucleus was achieved using coincidence relationships with the ions detected in a high-acceptance magnetic spectrometer. The new data extend our knowledge of the level structure of Fe isotopes, which is discussed in terms of the systematics of the region and compared with large-scale shell-model calculations.

  9. 206Pb-230Th-234U-238U and 207Pb-235U geochronology of Quaternary opal, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Amelin, Yuri V.; Paces, James B.

    2000-01-01

    U–Th–Pb isotopic systems have been studied in submillimeter-thick outermost layers of Quaternary opal occurring in calcite–silica fracture and cavity coatings within Tertiary tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. These coatings preserve a record of paleohydrologic conditions at this site, which is being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The opal precipitated from groundwater is variably enriched in 234U (measured 234U/238U activity ratio 1.124–6.179) and has high U (30–313 ppm), low Th (0.008–3.7 ppm), and low common Pb concentrations (measured 206Pb/204Pb up to 11,370). It has been demonstrated that the laboratory acid treatment used in this study to clean sample surfaces and to remove adherent calcite, did not disturb U–Th–Pb isotopic systems in opal. The opal ages calculated from 206Pb∗/238U and 207Pb∗/235U ratios display strong reverse discordance because of excess radiogenic 206Pb∗ derived from the elevated initial 234U. The data are best interpreted using projections of a new four-dimensional concordia diagram defined by 206Pb∗/238U, 207Pb∗/235U, 234U/238Uactivity, and 230Th/238Uactivity. Ages and initial 234U/238U activity ratios have been calculated using different projections of this diagram and tested for concordance. The data are discordant, that is observed 207Pb∗/235U ages of 170 ± 32 (2σ) to 1772 ± 40 ka are systematically older than 230Th/U ages of 34.1 ± 0.6 to 452 ± 32 ka. The age discordance is not a result of migration of uranium and its decay products under the open system conditions, but a consequence of noninstantaneous growth of opal. Combined U–Pb and 230Th/U ages support the model of slow mineral deposition at the rates of millimeters per million years resulting in layering on a scale too fine for mechanical sampling. In this case, U–Pb ages provide more accurate estimates of the average age for mixed multiage samples than 230Th/U ages, because ages based on shorter

  10. Uranium contents and (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in soil and earthworms in western Kosovo after the 1999 war.

    PubMed

    Di Lella, L A; Nannoni, F; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2005-01-20

    The uranium content and (235)U/(238)U atom ratio were determined in soils and earthworms of an area of Kosovo (Djakovica garrison), heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during the 1999 war. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the small-scale distribution of uranium and assess the influence of the DU added to the surface environment. The total uranium concentration and the (235)U/(238)U ratio of topsoils showed great variability and were inversely correlated. The highest uranium levels (up to 31.47 mg kg(-1)) and lowest (235)U/(238)U ratios (minimum 0.002147) were measured in topsoils collected inside, or very close to, the clusters of DU penetrator holes. Regarding the fractionation of uranium in the surface soils, the uranium concentrations in the soluble and exchangeable fractions increased as the total uranium concentration of the topsoils increased. High and rather uniform percentage contents of uranium (24-36%) were associated with the poorly crystalline iron oxide phases of soils. In the U-enriched soils the elevated levels of the element were probably due to the presence of very small, unevenly distributed oxidized DU particles. The total uranium concentration in earthworms was in the range 0.142-0.656 mg kg(-1), with the highest concentrations in Lumbricus terrestris. The juveniles of all three studied species seemed to accumulate uranium more than adults, probably due to age-related differences in metabolism. The (235)U/(238)U ratio in the earthworms was variable (0.005241-0.007266) and independent of both the total uranium contents in soils and the absolute uranium levels in the animals. Bioconcentration was greater at lower U concentrations in soil, probably due to an increasing rate of elimination of uranium by the earthworms as the soil contents of the element increase. The results of this study clearly indicate that DU was added to the soil of the study area. Nevertheless, the phenomenon was very limited spatially and the total

  11. Study of two- and multi-particle correlations in 12C+24Mg and 12C+208Pb reactions at E=35 AMeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, L.; Acosta, L.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; Chbihi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Francalanza, L.; Gnoffo, B.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Martel, I.; Minniti, T.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Veselsky, M.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    Two and multi particle correlations from the decay of sources produced in 12C+24Mg and 12C+208Pb collisions at E=35 AMeV have been studied by using the forward part (1° < θlab < 30°) of the CHIMERA multi-detector. Correlations and invariant mass spectroscopy are used to explore simultaneous and sequential decays of resonances in light isotopes with Z˜3-6, produced in peripheral collisions via the break-up of excited quasi-projectiles. Among them we mention 5Li, 6Li, 6Be, 8Be and the astrophysically important state in 12C decaying into three alpha particles. Results and future perspectives at the INFN-LNS will be presented.

  12. Investigation of the structure of deep hole states in {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb by means of inelastic proton scattering at 1 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob`ev, A.A.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Lobodenko, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    A missing-mass correlation spectrometer with overall energy resolution FWHM = 3.5 MeV is used to study the reactions (p, 2p) and (p, np) on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at energy T{sub 0} = 1.0 GeV under experimental conditions permitting complete kinematic reconstruction. Proton- and neutron-separation-energy spectra are obtained in a wide binding-energy range. Empirical regularities observed in the evolution of the principal parameters of deep hole states of protons and neutrons in going from light to heavy nuclei are discussed. Experimental data are analyzed by the Hartree-Fock method with Skyrme forces, as well as with modified Moszkowski {delta} interaction. 26 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Nulcear-structure studies with the sup 45 Sc, sup 144 Sm, and sup 208 Pb (p,n) reactions at 136 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajabodda'vati, M.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure neutron time-of-flight spectra from the (p,n) reaction on {sup 45}Sc, {sup 144}Sm, and {sup 208}Pb targets at about 136 MeV. In the {sup 45}Sc(p,n){sup 45}Ti reaction the author observes a 19/2{sup {minus}}, 17/2{sup {minus}} doublet at 4.3 MeV. Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) calculations for these transitions were performed using wave functions obtained from a shell-model calculation which considers five particles in the 1f-2p shell with no restriction. These calculations describe the experimental results well without renormalizational. The Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in {sup 45}Sc(p,n){sup 45}Ti was considered also; the strength observed in peaks is about 40% of the minimum value expected from the simple GT sum rule. In the {sup 144}Sm(p,n){sup 144}Eu reaction he observes a ({pi}h{sub 11/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2}{sup {minus}1}) 11+, O {Dirac h}w stretched state at 2.2 MeV of excitation. A DWIA calculation for this transition with only the simple shell-model wave function needs to be normalized by 0.55 to agree with the experiment. More realistic wave functions were obtained from a 3p-3h shell-model calculation. The DWIA normalization factor required using these wave functions is essentially unity (0.95). The total observed GT strength in peaks is 40% of the GT sum rule value. A single peak is observed to be strongly excited in the {sup 208}Pb(p,n)-{sup 208}Bi reaction at large angles. The present experiment reveals that the observed peak is too board to be a single state and that the angular distribution cannot be described well by a DWIA calculation assuming only a single transition.

  14. Measurements of /sup 234/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 230/Th in excreta of uranium-mill crushermen

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Jackson, P.O.; Brodacynski, G.G.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1982-07-01

    Uranium and thorium levels in excreta of uranium mill crushermen who are routinely exposed to airborne uranium ore dust were measured. The purpose was to determine whether /sup 230/Th was preferentially retained over either /sup 234/U or /sup 238/U in the body. Urine and fecal samples were obtained from fourteen active crushermen with long histories of exposure to uranium ore dust, plus four retired crushermen and three control individuals for comparison. Radiochemical procedures were used to separate out the uranium and thorium fractions, which were then electroplated on stainless steel discs and assayed by alpha spectrometry. Significantly greater activity levels of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U were measured in both urine and fecal samples obtained from uranium mill crushermen, indicating that uranium in the inhaled ore dust was cleared from the body with a shorter biological half-time than the daughter product /sup 230/Th. The measurements also indicated that uranium and thorium separate in vivo and have distinctly different metabolic pathways and transfer rates in the body. The appropriateness of current ICRP retention and clearance parameters for /sup 230/Th in ore dust is questioned.

  15. Primordial radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Badhan, K; Mehra, R

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h(-1). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg(-1) by Organization of Economic and Control Department. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity.

  16. Internal [sup 238]U-series systematics of pumice from the November 13, 1985, eruption of Nevado de Ruiz, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, S.J.; Williams, S.N. ); Sturchio, N.C. ); Murrell, M.T. )

    1993-03-01

    High-precision mass spectrometer and alpha scintillation measurements of [sup 238]U-series nuclides were obtained for whole-rock pumice and constituent mineral and glass separates to help interpret the timing and nature of magmatic processes that led up to the 1985 eruption of Nevado de Ruiz volcano. Internal isochron diagrams for [sup 226]Ra/Ba vs. [sup 230]Th/Ba and [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th vs. [sup 238]U/[sup 232]Th show that data define linear arrays, indicating an average crystallization age of 6.1 [+-] 0.5 ka (Ra-Th isochron) and 7 [+-] 6 ka (Th-U isochron). Stratigraphic, petrographic geochemical, repose time, and eruption volume data for the Holocene eruptive sequence of Nevado del Ruiz indicate that significant changes occurred in the subvolcanic magma chamber between eruptions R9 ([approx]8.6 ka) and R8 ([approx]3.0 ka). This coincides with the average crystallization age derived from the U-series data and may represent the injection of a new batch (or batches) of mantle-derived magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Crustal subsidence rate off Hawaii determined from sup 234 U/ sup 238 U ages of drowned coral reefs

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, K.R.; Szabo, B.J.; Simmons, K.R. ); Moore, J.G. )

    1991-02-01

    A series of submerged coral reefs off northwestern Hawaii was formed during (largely glacial) intervals when the rate of local sea-level rise was less than the maximum upward growth rate of the reefs. Mass-spectrometric {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ages for samples from six such reefs range from 17 to 475 ka and indicate that this part of the Hawaiian Ridge has been subsiding at a roughly uniform rate of 2.6 mm/yr for the past 475 ka. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ages are in general agreement with model ages of reef drowning (based on estimates of paleo-sea-level stands derived from oxygen-isotope ratios of deep-sea sediments), but there are disagreements in detail. The high attainable precision ({plus minus}10 ka or better on samples younger than {approximately}800 ka), large applicable age range, relative robustness against open-system behavior, and ease of analysis for this technique hold great promise for future applications of dating of 50-1,000 ka coral.

  18. Mass Yields and Average Total Kinetic Energy Release in Fission for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Dana

    2015-10-01

    Mass yield distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) in neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets were measured with a gridded ionization chamber. Despite decades of fission research, our understanding of how fragment mass yields and TKE depend on incident neutron energy is limited, especially at higher energies (above 5-10 MeV). Improved accuracy in these quantities is important for nuclear technology as it enhances our simulation capabilities and increases the confidence in diagnostic tools. The data can also guide and validate theoretical fission models where the correlation between the fragment mass and TKE is of particular value for constraining models. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE - WNR) provides a neutron beam with energies from thermal to hundreds of MeV, well-suited for filling in the gaps in existing data and exploring fission behavior in the fast neutron region. The results of the studies on target nuclei 235U, 238U, and 239Pu will be presented with a focus on exploring data trends as a function of neutron energy from thermal through 30 MeV. Results indicate clear evidence of structure due to multi-chance fission in the TKE . LA-UR-15-24761.

  19. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution measurements of 235U and 238U at CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 238U and 235U are used as standards in the fast neutron region up to 200 MeV. A high accuracy of the standards is relevant to experimentally determine other neutron reaction cross sections. Therefore, the detection effciency should be corrected by using the angular distribution of the fission fragments (FFAD), which are barely known above 20 MeV. In addition, the angular distribution of the fragments produced in the fission of highly excited and deformed nuclei is an important observable to investigate the nuclear fission process. In order to measure the FFAD of neutron-induced reactions, a fission detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) has been developed and successfully used at the CERN-n_TOF facility. In this work, we present the preliminary results on the analysis of new 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) data in the extended energy range up to 200 MeV compared to the existing experimental data.

  20. Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, R. C.

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. 234U/238U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M=6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  1. A dispersive optical model potential for nucleon induced reactions on 238U and 232Th nuclei with full coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, José Manuel; Soukhovitskiĩ, EfremS.; Capote, Roberto; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    A dispersive coupled-channel optical model potential (DCCOMP) that couples the ground-state rotational and low-lying vibrational bands of 238U and 232Th nuclei is studied. The derived DCCOMP couples almost all excited levels below 1 MeV of excitation energy of the corresponding even-even actinides. The ground state, octupole, beta, gamma, and non-axial bands are coupled. The first two isobar analogue states (IAS) populated in the quasi-elastic (p,n) reaction are also coupled in the proton induced calculation, making the potential approximately Lane consistent. The coupled-channel potential is based on a soft-rotor description of the target nucleus structure, where dynamic vibrations are considered as perturbations of the rigid rotor underlying structure. Matrix elements required to use the proposed structure model in Tamura coupled-channel scheme are derived. Calculated ratio R(U238/Th232) of the total cross-section difference to the averaged σT for 238U and 232Th nuclei is shown to be in excellent agreement with measured data.

  2. Spectral interference corrections for the measurement of (238)U in materials rich in thorium by a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the spectral interferences are investigated for the analytical peaks at 63.3 keV of (234)Th and 1001.0 keV of (234m)Pa, which are often used in the measurement of (238)U activity by the gamma-ray spectrometry. The correction methods are suggested to estimate the net peak areas of the gamma-rays overlapping the analytical peaks, due to the contribution of (232)Th that may not be negligible in materials rich in natural thorium. The activity results for the certified reference materials (CRMs) containing U and Th were measured with a well type Ge detector. The self-absorption and true coincidence-summing (TCS) effects were also taken into account in the measurements. It is found that ignoring the contributions of the interference gamma-rays of (232)Th and (235)U to the mixed peak at 63.3 keV of (234)Th ((238)U) leads to the remarkably large systematic influence of 0.8-122% in the measured (238)U activity, but in case of ignoring the contribution of (232)Th via the interference gamma-ray at 1000.7 keV of (228)Ac to the mixed peak at 1001 keV of (234m)Pa ((238)U) results in relatively smaller systematic influence of 0.05-3%, depending on thorium contents in the samples. The present results showed that the necessary correction for the spectral interferences besides self-absorption and TCS effects is also very important to obtain more accurate (238)U activity results. Additionally, if one ignores the contribution of (232)Th to both (238)U and (40)K activities in materials, the maximum systematic influence on the effective radiation dose is estimated to be ~6% and ~1% via the analytical peaks at 63.3 and 1001 keV for measurement of the (238)U activity, respectively.

  3. Trace metal cycling and 238U/235U in New Zealand's fjords: Implications for reconstructing global paleoredox conditions in organic-rich sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Moy, Christopher M.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing the history of ocean oxygenation provides insight into links between ocean anoxia, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. Certain redox-sensitive elements respond to changes in marine oxygen content through phase shifts and concomitant isotopic fractionation, providing new diagnostic proxies of past ocean hypoxia. Here we explore the behavior and inter-dependence of a suite of commonly utilized redox-sensitive trace metals (U, Mo, Fe, and Mn) and the emerging "stable" isotope system of U (238U/235U, or δ238U) in New Zealand fjords. These semi-restricted basins have chemical conditions spanning the complete redox spectrum from fully oxygenated to suboxic to intermittently anoxic/euxinic. In the anoxic water column, U and Mo concentrations decrease, while Fe and Mn concentrations increase. Similarly, signals of past euxinic conditions can be found by U, Mo, Fe, and Mn enrichment in the underlying sediments. The expected U isotopic shift toward a lower δ238U in the anoxic water column due to U(VI)-U(IV) reduction is not observed; instead, water column δ238U profiles are consistent in fjords of all oxygen content, falling within previously reported ranges for open ocean seawater (δ238U = -0.42 ± 0.07‰). Additionally, surface sediment δ238U results show evidence for competing U isotope fractionation processes. One site indicates increased export of 238U from seawater to the underlying sediments (fractionation between aqueous seawater U and particulate sediment U, or ΔU(aq)-U(solid) = -0.25‰), consistent with redox-driven fractionation. Another site suggests potential U(VI) adsorption-driven fractionation, reflecting increased export of 235U from seawater to sediments (ΔU(aq)-U(solid) = 0.25‰). We discuss several potential factors that could alter δ238U in waters and sediments beyond redox-driven shifts, including adsorption to organic matter in waters of high primary productivity, reaction rates for competing processes of U adsorption and

  4. Towards A Modern Calibration Of The 238U/235U Paleoredox Proxy: Apparent Uranium Isotope Fractionation Factor During U(VI)-U(IV) Reduction In The Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, J. M.; Stirling, C. H.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understating of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin and significant removal of U from the water column and high U accumulation rates in modern underlying sediments have been documented. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV). The primary results of this study are two-fold. First, significant 238U/235U fractionation was observed in the water column of the Black Sea, suggesting the reduction of U induces 238U/235U fractionation with the preferential removal of 238U from the aqueous phase. Second, the 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the water column through the isotope fractionation factor of the reduction reaction but is influenced by mass transport processes. These results provide important constraints on the use of 238U/235U as a proxy of the redox state of ancient oceans.

  5. 238U-Series in Fe Oxy/Hydroxides by LA-MC-ICP-MS, New Insights Into Weathering Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, J.; McCulloch, M.; Eggins, S.; Grun, R.; Eggleton, R.

    2003-12-01

    The establishment of a geochronological framework for weathering processes is essential for an understanding of the evolution of the regolith and its dynamics. However, there are few robust answers regarding the absolute age of weathering and its rates. Nowadays, 40Ar/39Ar analysis of Mn-Oxides (cryptomelane) and K-bearing secondary sulphates have provided one of the few generally reliable chronometers (e.g. 1), but is restricted to high-K secondary phases. This work presents a different approach to obtain geochronological information from weathering minerals, namely measurement of 238U-series disequilibria in authigenic Fe oxy/hydroxides. These may be potentially useful recorders of weathering processes as they commonly occur as weathering products and have high affinity towards dissolved uranyl complexes. Furthermore, U-Th fractionation during weathering has been extensively reported [2], effectively resetting the U/230Th geochronometer. LA-MC-ICP-MS facilitates in situ measurement of 238U-series disequilibria in authigenic microcrystalline iron oxy/hydroxides (precipitated between cracks and veins in partially and heavily weathered chlorite-muscovite schist) and pisoliths (ferruginous concretions). Contrary to previous studies [e.g. 3], in situ measurement of 238U-nuclides enables selective analysis or iron oxy/hydroxides phases, minimizes contributions from allogenic phases and, reduces the need of mathematical corrections to obtain the activity ratios for the authigenic phase [4, 5]. The results suggest that supergene iron oxy/hydroxides are good recorders of weathering processes; they precipitate during the early stages of weathering, reflect the U-isotopic composition of the groundwater, appear to act as closed-systems in weathering conservative environments, and behave in a predictable fashion when subjected to intense weathering and leaching conditions. The 230Th-ages of the iron oxy/hydroxides indicate that the timing and intensity of weathering appears

  6. Recrystallization effects of swift heavy 209Bi ions irradiation on electrical degradation in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min; Li, Yun; Huang, Mingmin; Gao, Bo; Zhao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the phenomenon that the recrystallization effects of swift heavy 209Bi ions irradiation can partially recovery damage with more than 1 × 1010 ions/cm2 is investigated by the degradation of the electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with swift heavy ion irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements clearly indicated that E0.62 defect induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, which was a recombination center, could result in the increase of reverse leakage current (IR) at fluence less than 1 × 109 ions/cm2 and the recovery of IR at fluence more than 1 × 1010 ions/cm2 in 4H-SiC SBD. The variation tendency of IR is consisted with the change of E0.62 defect. Furthermore, it is reasonable explanation that the damage or defect formed at low fluence in SiC may be recovered by further swift heavy ion irradiation with high fluence, which is due to the melting with the ion tracks of the amorphous zones through a thermal spike and subsequent epitaxial recrystallization initiated from the neighboring crystalline regions.

  7. The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.; Campbell, P.; Porcelli, D.; McKee, B.

    2004-01-01

    Natural concentrations of 238U and ??234U values were determined in estuarine surface waters and pore waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. Discharge from large, tropical rivers is a major source of dissolved and solid materials transported to the oceans, and are important in defining not only oceanic mass budgets, but also terrestrial weathering rates. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon, pH and total suspended matter revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0-16.6, and likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. An inner-shelf pore water profile indicated the following diagenetic processes: extensive (???1 m) zones of Fe(III) - and, to a lesser degree, Mn(IV) - reduction in the absence of significant S(II) concentrations appeared to facilitate the formation of various authigenic minerals (e.g., siderite, rhodocrosite and uraninite). The pore water dissolved 238U profile co-varied closely with Mn(II). Isotopic variations as evidenced in ??234U pore waters values from this site revealed information on the origin and history of particulate uranium. Only after a depth of about 1 m did the ??234U value approach unity (secular equilibrium), denoting a residual lattice bound uranium complex that is likely an upper-drainage basin weathering product. This suggests that the enriched ??234U values represent a riverine surface complexation product that is actively involved in Mn-Fe diagenetic cycles and surface

  8. The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarzenski, Peter; Campbell, Pamela; Porcelli, Don; McKee, Brent

    2004-12-01

    Natural concentrations of 238U and δ234U values were determined in estuarine surface waters and pore waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. Discharge from large, tropical rivers is a major source of dissolved and solid materials transported to the oceans, and are important in defining not only oceanic mass budgets, but also terrestrial weathering rates. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon, pH and total suspended matter revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0-16.6, and likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. An inner-shelf pore water profile indicated the following diagenetic processes: extensive (˜1 m) zones of Fe(III)—and, to a lesser degree, Mn(IV)—reduction in the absence of significant S(II) concentrations appeared to facilitate the formation of various authigenic minerals (e.g., siderite, rhodocrosite and uraninite). The pore water dissolved 238U profile co-varied closely with Mn(II). Isotopic variations as evidenced in δ234U pore waters values from this site revealed information on the origin and history of particulate uranium. Only after a depth of about 1 m did the δ234U value approach unity (secular equilibrium), denoting a residual lattice bound uranium complex that is likely an upper-drainage basin weathering product. This suggests that the enriched δ234U values represent a riverine surface complexation product that is actively involved in Mn-Fe diagenetic cycles and surface

  9. Decay Measurement of 283Cn Produced in the 238U(48Ca,3n) Reaction Using GARIS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Daiya; Morimoto, Kouji; Haba, Hiromitsu; Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Takeyama, Mirei; Yamaki, Sayaka; Komori, Yukiko; Yanou, Shinya; Goto, Shin-ichi; Morita, Kosuke

    2017-08-01

    The production of 283Cn in the hot fusion reaction of 238U(48Ca,3n) was confirmed using a new gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II. At the excitation energies of the compound nucleus E* = 34.5 MeV, two decay events from 283Cn were observed, resulting in the cross section of σ 3n = 2.0 - 1.3 + 2.7 pb. One is the spontaneous fission with decay time τ = 14.4 s. The other is the 9.45 MeV α-decay with τ = 5.4 s, followed by the spontaneous fission of 279Ds (154 ms).

  10. γ-ray studies of the fission of 238U induced by 12C, spectroscopy and fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Theisen, Ch.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T. P.; Aiche, M.; Aleonard, M. M.; Chemin, J. F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Belier, G.; Meot, V.; Ethvignot, Th.; Durell, J.; Grimwood, D.; Phillips, W. R.; Roach, A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Deloncle, I.; Porquet, M. G.; Astier, A.; Perries, S.; Redon, N.

    1998-10-01

    Fission studies have been known for a long time to provide neutron-rich nuclei in various states of excitation energy, spin and deformation. Although many studies have been performed concerning fission fragments from spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission, a renewed interest in fission-fragment spectroscopy has occurred with the elaboration of large Ge detector arrays such as EUROBALL. We have recently performed an experiment with EUROBALL III using SAPhIR; a fission-fragment detector made from photovoltaic cells. The compact and versatile geometry of SAPhIR allows it to be installed inside the γ-ray detector, and to obtain additional information from the fission process as well as a timing reference. Neutron-rich nuclei have been populated in the fusion-fission reaction 238U+12C leading to the compound nucleus 250Cf. First results of this experiment are presented.

  11. Measurement of activation of helium gas by 238U beam irradiation at about 11 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashio, A.; Tanaka, K.; Imao, H.; Uwamino, Y.

    2017-09-01

    A new helium-gas stripper system has been applied at the 11 A MeV uranium beam of the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory of the RIKEN accelerator facility. Although the gas stripper is important for the heavy-ion accelerator facility, the residual radiation that is generated is a serious problem for maintenance work. The residual dose was evaluated by using three-layered activation samples of aluminium and bismuth. The γ-rays from produced radionuclides with in-flight fission of the 238U beam and from the material of the chamber activated by neutrons were observed by using a Ge detector and compared with the values calculated by using the Monte-Carlo simulation code PHITS.

  12. New neutron-rich microsecond isomers observed among fission products of {sup 238}U at 80 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Folden, C. M. III; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Portillo, M.; Nettleton, A. S.; Amthor, A. M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Kubo, T.; Takeda, H.; Loveland, W.; Manikonda, S. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Nakao, T.; Souliotis, G. A.; Strong, B. F.; Tarasov, O. B.

    2009-06-15

    Eight new isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclides have been discovered in fission fragments produced by the reaction of an 80 MeV/nucleon {sup 238}U beam with a {sup 9}Be target and separated in-flight using the A1900 fragment separator. The experiment was conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University. Gamma rays were detected in a high-purity germanium detector located at the focal plane within a time window of 20 {mu}s following ion implantation. In some cases the isomers were observed to decay into previously reported states, allowing us to assign the initial decay from the isomeric state. Among the outcomes, the results suggest that many studies on the nuclear structure of medium-mass neutron-rich nuclei are feasible at projectile fragmentation facilities using induced fission.

  13. On the Search for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Signatures of 235U and 238U above 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Bertozzi, William; Korbly, Steve; Ledoux, Robert; Park, William H.

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence is a physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that could be used for the identification and characterization of materials. The technique involves the detection of prompt discrete-energy photons emitted from a sample that is exposed to MeV-energy photons. Potential applications of the technique range from detection of high explosives to characterization of special nuclear materials such as 235U. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Passport Systems have collaborated to conduct a pair of measurements to search for a nuclear resonance fluorescence response of 235U above 3 MeV and of 238U above 5 MeV using an 8 g sample of highly enriched uranium and a 90 g sample of depleted uranium. No new signatures were observed. The minimum detectable integrated cross section for 235U is presented.

  14. On the Search for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Signatures of 235U and 238U above 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Bertozzi, William; Korbly, Steve; Ledoux, Robert; Park, William H.

    2008-11-14

    Abstract–Nuclear resonance fluorescence is a physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that could be used for the identification and characterization of materials. The technique involves the detection of prompt discrete-energy photons emitted from a sample that is exposed to photons in the MeV energy range. Potential applications of the technique range from detection of high explosives to characterization of special nuclear materials such as 235U. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Passport Systems have collaborated to conduct a a pair of measurements to search for a nuclear resonance fluorescence response of 235U above 3 MeV and of 238U above 5 MeV using an 8 g sample of highly enriched uranium and a 90 g sample of depleted uranium. No new signatures were observed. The minimum detectable integrated cross section for 235U is presented.

  15. The dissolved uranium concentration and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in groundwaters from spas of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity due to (238)U and (234)U in 75 water sources from spas located in 14 municipalities in São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. These waters are extensively utilized for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other uses. The water samples were taken from springs and pumped tubular wells drilled into different aquifer systems in the Paraná and Southeastern Shield hydrogeological provinces. The measurements of alpha-emitting radionuclides were also accompanied by the monitoring of temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, dissolved gases (O2, CO2, H2S, radon, thoron) and major constituents. The dissolved U concentration data were lognormally distributed. The median and mean values corresponded to 0.02 and 0.09 μg/L, respectively. Significant relationships were found among the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) of dissolved uranium, the total dissolved solids (TDS) and dissolved bicarbonate contents, and also between the AR and dissolution rate in the monitored sites. The logU versus AR diagram used for the hydrogeochemical prospecting of concealed U deposits indicated that the water sources were mainly from reduced environments. The possibility of using the reciprocal of the dissolved U concentration and AR data to determine mixing volumes of different groundwater masses was demonstrated. The highest dissolved U concentration (4.82 μg/L) was well below the maximum allowed by WHO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactive transport of uranium in a groundwater bioreduction study: Insights from high-temporal resolution 238U/235U data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, A. E.; Johnson, T. M.; Lundstrom, C. C.; Laubach, P. G.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a detailed investigation of U isotopes in conjunction with a broad geochemical investigation during field-scale biostimulation and desorption experiments. This investigation was carried out in the uranium-contaminated alluvial aquifer of the Rifle field research site. In this well-characterized setting, a more comprehensive understanding of U isotope geochemistry is possible. Our results indicate that U isotope fractionation is consistently observed across multiple experiments at the Rifle site. Microbially-mediated reduction is suggested to account for most or all of the observed fractionation as abiotic reduction has been demonstrated to impart much smaller, often near-zero, isotopic fractionation or isotopic fractionation in the opposite direction. Data from some time intervals are consistent with a simple model for transport and U(VI) reduction, where the fractionation factor (ε = +0.65‰ to +0.85‰) is consistent with experimental studies. However, during other time intervals the observed patterns in our data indicate the importance of other processes in governing U concentrations and 238U/235U ratios. For instance, we demonstrate that departures from Rayleigh behavior in groundwater systems arise from the presence of adsorbed species. We also show that isotope data are sensitive to the onset of oxidation after biostimulation ends, even in the case where reduction continues to remove contaminant uranium downstream. Our study and the described conceptual model support the use of 238U/235U ratios as a tool for evaluating the efficacy of biostimulation and potentially other remedial strategies employed at Rifle and other uranium-contaminated sites.

  17. Coupling groundwater residence time and 234U/238U isotopic ratios in a granitic catchment (Vosges, Eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viville, Daniel; Aquilina, Luc; Ackerer, Julien; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Granet, Mathieu; Perrone, Thierry; Chabaux, François

    2016-04-01

    Weathering processes are active in surface waters but groundwater also represents no neglectable chemical fluxes. As residence-time in groundwater are high, silicate weathering might take place and control Si, Ca and C fluxes. Weathering processes can be deduced from U isotopic ratios but the kinetics of these processes remain relatively poorly constrained. In order to better characterize these processes, we have coupled residence-times deduced from anthropogenic gases (CFC and SF6) analysis and 234U/238U isotopic ratios determination. Samples were collected in the Strengbach catchment (Hydro-geochemical Observatory OHGE, Vosges, eastern France). Two campaigns were carried out in May and August 2015 during two highly contrasted hydro-climatic periods. Both springs and boreholes down to 80 m depth have been sampled. A very clear geochemical distinction is observed between groundwater from surface springs and deeper groundwater from boreholes. Springs show much lower residence-time (few years) and specific chemical composition. Deeper groundwater have residence-time of several decades and different geochemical composition. A clear SF6 production is observed with increasing SF6 concentrations with residence-time. The campaign of May is characterized by highly groundwater levels and spring fluxes. All groundwater show very low residence time, except in the boreholes at depth greater than 40 m. Conversely, during low groundwater-level period in August, the residence times are much higher and CFC concentrations indicate a large mixing process between surface groundwater and deeper levels. The 234U/238U isotopic ratios confirm this vertical zonation in the boreholes, with much higher activity ratios in the deep ground-waters from borehole than in the surface and spring waters; Such high U activity ratios are indicative of long water-rock interactions, which is consistent with the long residence times deducted from the CFC and SF6 data.

  18. 238U-234U-230Th disequilibrium in hydrogenous oceanic Fe-Mn crusts: Palaeoceanographic record or diagenetic alteration?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chabaux, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Cohen, A.S.; Hein, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed TIMS study of (234Uexc/238U), (230Th/232Th), and Th/U ratios have been performed on the outermost margin of ten hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and west-central Indian Ocean. Th/U concentration ratios generally decrease from the crust's surface down to 0.5-1 mm depth and growth rates estimated by uranium and thorium isotope ratios are significantly different in Fe-Mn crusts from the Peru Basin and the west-central Indian Ocean. Fe-Mn crusts from the same geographical area define a single trend in plots of Ln (234Uexc/238U) vs. Ln(230Th/232Th) and Th/U ratios vs. age of the analysed fractions. Results suggest that (1) hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts remain closed-systems after formation, and consequently (2) the discrepancy observed between the 230Th and 234U chronometers in Fe-Mn crusts, and the variations of the Th/U ratios through the margin of Fe-Mn crusts, are not due to redistribution of uranium and thorium isotopes after oxyhydroxide precipitation, but rather to temporal variations of both Th/U and initial thorium activity ratios recorded by the Fe-Mn layers. Implications of these observations for determination of Fe-Mn crust growth-rates are discussed. Variations of both Th/U and initial Th activity ratios in Fe-Mn crusts might be related to changes in particle input to seawater and/or changes in ocean circulation during the last 150 ka. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Mapping radon hazard areas using (238)U measurements and geological units: a study in a high background radiation city of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Wang, Nanping; Chu, Xingming; Li, Ting; Zheng, Ling; Yan, Shouliang; Li, Shijun

    In order to identify radon-prone areas and evaluate radon risk level, a soil gas radon survey combined with gamma-ray spectrometry measurements was carried out in Shenzhen City, south China. Meanwhile, the statistical analysis was applied to evaluate the distribution of measured results. This paper presents the methodology of the radon risk assessment. A radon risk map was accomplished based on a combination of soil gas radon concentration (RC), soil air permeability (Perm.) and uranium ((238)U) concentration. The results showed that the distribution of soil gas RC and radon-prone areas were closely related to geologic distribution of uranium ((238)U) and local lithology.

  20. Detection of inherited monazite in the Manaslu leucogranite by 208Pb/(232Th) ion microprobe dating: Crystallization age and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. Mark; McKeegan, K. D.; LeFort, P.

    1995-07-01

    Although leucogranites are among the least petrologically variable of all igneous rocks, ironically they are among the most difficult to reliably date. The High Himalayan leucogranites have been the subject of numerous geochronological investigations because of their interrelationship with the most significant tectonic features of that mountain belt. For a variety of reasons linked to the minimum melt composition of these leucogranites, these dating studies have not been entirely successful. We report results of a new ion microprobe dating method based on the decay of 232Th to 208Pb in monazite that has directly revealed the presence of inherited Pb in monazite from the Manalsu granite, casting doubt on its previously accepted age. Monazite ages obtained from this leucogranite yield two distinct populations, a large number of ages with a normal distribution and mean age of 22.4 ± 0.5 Ma (±2 S.E.) that we interpret to be the crystallization age, and a smaller inherited fraction with an age of ca. 600 Ma. Because formation of the granite is thought to be related to slip on the Main Central Thrust, both this date and a second less precise result from a structurally similar pluton near Mt. Everest indicate that the Main Central Thrust was active in the interval 24-22 Ma, but do not constrain its initiation. Together with crosscutting relationships, these data require that movement on the North Himalayan Fault occurred prior to 22 Ma at both locations.

  1. The study of neutron-rich nuclei production in the region of the closed shell N=126 in the multi-nucleon transfer reaction 136Xe+208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, K.; Harca, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Corradi, L.; Valiente-Dobon, J.; Fioretto, E.; Montanari, D.; Stefanini, A. M.; Vardaci, E.; Quero, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Strano, E.; Pollarolo, G.; Piot, J.; Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Ackermann, D.; Chubarian, G.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2016-04-01

    The unexplored area of heavy neutron rich nuclei is extremely important for nuclear astrophysics investigations and, in particular, for the understanding of the r-process of astrophysical nucleogenesis. For the production of heavy neutron rich nuclei located along the neutron closed shell N=126 (probably the last "waiting point" in the r-process of nucleosynthesis) the low-energy multi-nucleon transfer reaction 136Xe+208Pb at Elab=870MeV was explored. Due to the stabilizing effect of the closed neutron shells in both nuclei, N=82 and N=126, and the rather favorable proton transfer from lead to xenon, the light fragments formed in this process are well bound and the Q-value of the reaction is nearly zero. Measurements were performed with the PRISMA spectrometer in coincidence with an additional time-of-flight (ToF) arm on the +20 beam line of the PIAVE-ALPI accelerator in Legnaro, Italy. The PRISMA spectrometer allows identification of the A, Z and velocity of the projectile-like fragments (PLF), while the second arm gives access to the target-like fragments (TLF). Details on the experimental setup and preliminary results are reported.

  2. Mass, total kinetic energy, and neutron multiplicity correlations in the binary fragmentation of +208Pb 50Ti at 294 MeV bombarding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appannababu, S.; Cinausero, M.; Marchi, T.; Gramegna, F.; Prete, G.; Bermudez, J.; Fabris, D.; Collazuol, G.; Saxena, A.; Nayak, B. K.; Kailas, S.; Bruno, M.; Morelli, L.; Gelli, N.; Piantelli, S.; Pasquali, G.; Barlini, S.; Valdré, S.; Vardaci, E.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Degerlier, M.; Jhingan, A.; Behera, B. R.; Kravchuk, V. L.

    2016-10-01

    The correlations between mass distributions of the binary fragments, total kinetic energy (TKE), and neutron multiplicity have been investigated for the reaction +208Pb 50Ti at 294 MeV bombarding energy. Although this reaction has been used to synthesize the Rf (Z =104 ) superheavy element, a complete study of its fragmentation dynamics is still not available in the literature. In this work, average neutron multiplicities were extracted as a function of different fragment mass splits and TKE windows. A weak increase of the prescission neutron multiplicity is observed going from asymmetric to symmetric mass splits. A fission delay time of 4.5 ×10-20 s has been extracted for the symmetric fission. The neutron multiplicity extracted for the symmetric mass split was used to derive the average number of neutrons emitted in the spontaneous fission of 258Rf. The extrapolated value of 4.7 ±1.4 is found to be consistent with systematics of spontaneous and neutron-induced fission in heavy nuclei and with the results of previous works for superheavy nuclei with Z =116 and Z =124 .

  3. In-situ U/Pb rutile dating by LA-ICP-MS: 208Pb correction and prospects for thermochronological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Luvizotto, G. L.; Barth, M. G.; Wolfe, M. R.; Hinton, R. W.; Berndt-Gerdes, J.; Kooijman, E.

    2009-12-01

    The advent of rutile thermometry brought an increasing interest in understanding rutile formation and its temporal evolution. Here we report progress on several fronts of in situ U-Pb rutile geochronology: (1) Matrix matching, necessary for robust in situ dating is fullfilled by calibrating and testing rutile standards (R10 and R19), including the presentation of new TIMS ages for the rutile standard R19. (2) Common lead correction is routinely applied via 208Pb, which is possible due to extremely low Th/U ratios (usually <0.003) in most rutiles. Employing a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to a quadrupole ICP-MS and using R10 as a primary standard, rutile U/Pb ages for the other rutile standard and four rutile-bearing metamorphic rocks always agree better than 2% with the reported TIMS ages and other dating studies from the same localities. The methods outlined in this contribution should find wide application in thermochronological studies that require age information of single spots, e.g., single-crystal zoning and texturally-controlled dating. With this information we are able to address the effect of shielding of inclusion phases by robust host minerals.

  4. Barrier Distribution of Quasi-elastic Backward Scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr on {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.

    2009-03-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  5. Barrier Distributions Derived from Quasielastic Backscattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, and {sup 70}Zn Projectiles on a {sup 208}Pb Target

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Tsuruta, K.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y.

    2007-11-02

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasielastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, and {sup 70}Zn projectiles on a {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasielastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  6. Internal tides and sediment dynamics in the deep sea—Evidence from radioactive 234Th/ 238U disequilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Nycander, Jonas; Waniek, Joanna J.; Lampitt, Richard S.

    2008-12-01

    Residual flow, barotropic tides and internal (baroclinic) tides interact in a number of ways with kilometer-scale seafloor topography such as abyssal hills and seamounts. Because of their likely impact on vertical mixing such interactions are potentially important for ocean circulation and the mechanisms and the geometry of these interactions are a matter of ongoing studies. In addition, very little is known about how these interactions are reflected in the sedimentary record. This multi-year study investigates if flow/topography interactions are reflected in distributional patterns of the natural short-lived (half-life: 24.1 d) particulate-matter tracer 234Th relative to its conservative (non-particle-reactive) and very long-lived parent nuclide 238U. The sampling sites were downstream of, or surrounded by, fields of short seamounts and, therefore, very likely to be influenced by nearby flow/topography interactions. At the sampling sites between about 200 and 1000 m above the seafloor recurrent 'fossil' disequilibria were detected. 'Fossil' disequilibria are defined by clearly detectable 234Th/ 238U disequilibria (total 234Th radioactivity < 238U radioactivity, indicating a history of intense particulate 234Th scavenging and particulate-matter settling from the sampled parcel of water) and conspicuously low particle-associated 234Th activities. 'Fossil' disequilibria were centered at levels in the water column that correspond to the average height of the short seamounts near the sampling sites. This suggests the 'fossil' disequilibria are formed on the seamount slopes. Moreover, the magnitude of the 'fossil' disequilibria suggests that the slopes of the short seamounts in the study region are characterized by particularly vigorous fluid dynamics. Since 'fossil' disequilibria already occurred at ˜ O(1-10 km) away from the seamount slopes it is likely that these vigorous fluid dynamics rapidly decay away from the slopes on scales of O(1-10 km). These conclusions

  7. Low export flux of particulate organic carbon in the central Arctic Ocean as revealed by 234Th:238U disequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, P.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Stimac, I.; NöThig, E.-M.; Lepore, K.; Moran, S. B.

    2010-10-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice has accelerated in recent years. With the decline in sea ice cover, the Arctic Ocean biogeochemistry is undergoing unprecedented change. A key question about the changing Arctic Ocean biogeochemistry is concerning the impact of the shrinking sea ice cover on the particulate organic carbon (POC) export from the upper Arctic Ocean. Thus far, there are still very few direct measurements of POC export in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean. A further issue is that the magnitude of the POC export so far documented in this region remains controversial. During the ARK-XXII/2 expedition to the Arctic Ocean from 28 July to 7 October in 2007, we conducted a high-resolution study of POC export using 234Th/238U disequilibrium. Depth profiles of total 234Th in the upper 200 m were collected at 36 stations in the central Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas, i.e., the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea and the Laptev Sea. Samples were processed using a small-volume MnO2 coprecipitation method with addition of a yield tracer, which resulted in one of the most precise 234Th data sets ever collected. Thorium-234 deficit with respect to 238U was found to be evident throughout the upper 100 m over the Arctic shelves. In comparison, 234Th deficit was confined to the upper 25 m in the central Arctic Ocean. Below 25 m, secular equilibrium was approached between 234Th and 238U. The observed 234Th deficit was generally associated with enhanced total chlorophyll concentrations, indicating that in situ production and export of biogenic particles are the main mechanism for 234Th removal in the Arctic Ocean. Thorium-234-derived POC fluxes were determined with a steady state model and pump-normalized POC/234Th ratios on total suspended particles collected at 100 m. Results showed enhanced POC export over the Arctic shelves. On average, POC export fluxes over the various Arctic shelves were 2.7 ± 1.7 mmol m-2 d-1 (the Barents Sea), 0.5 ± 0.8 mmol m-2 d-1 (the Kara

  8. 234U/238U isotope data from groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples near Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Horton, Robert J.; Otton, James K.; Ketterer, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases 234U/238U isotope data, expressed as activity ratios, and uranium concentration data from analyses completed at Northern Arizona University for groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples that were collected in and around Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona, in 2008.

  9. Predicted yields of new neutron-rich isotopes of nuclei with Z=64-80 in the multinucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Scheid, W.

    2010-05-15

    The production cross sections of new neutron-rich isotopes of nuclei with charge numbers Z=64-80 are estimated for future experiments in the multinucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U at bombarding energy E{sub c.m.}=189 MeV close to the Coulomb barrier.

  10. Uranium 238U/235U isotope ratios as indicators of reduction: results from an in situ biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Charles John; Lundstrom, Craig C; Johnson, Thomas M; Sanford, Robert A; Long, Philip E; Williams, Kenneth H

    2010-08-01

    The attenuation of groundwater contamination via chemical reaction is traditionally evaluated by monitoring contaminant concentration through time. However, this method can be confounded by common transport processes (e.g., dilution, sorption). Isotopic techniques bypass the limits of concentration methods, and so may provide improved accuracy in determining the extent of reaction. We apply measurements of 238U/235U to a U bioremediation field experiment at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge Site in Rifle, Colorado. An array of monitoring and injection wells was installed on a 100 m2 plot where U(VI) contamination was present in the groundwater. Acetate-amended groundwater was injected along an up-gradient gallery to encourage the growth of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (e.g., Geobacter species). During amendment, U concentration dropped by an order of magnitude in the experiment plot. We measured 238U/235U in samples from one monitoring well by MC-ICP-MS using a double isotope tracer method. A significant approximately 1.00 per thousand decrease in 238U/235U occurred in the groundwater as U(VI) concentration decreased. The relationship between 238U/235U and concentration corresponds approximately to a Rayleigh distillation curve with an effective fractionation factor (alpha) of 1.00046. We attribute the observed U isotope fractionation to a nuclear field shift effect during enzymatic reduction of U(VI)(aq) to U(IV)(s).

  11. Investigating Uranium Mobility Using Stable Isotope Partitioning of 238U/235U and a Reactive Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjack, M.; Johnson, T. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Shiel, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    We report a numerical reactive transport model which explicitly incorporates the effectively stable isotopes of uranium (U) and the factors that influence their partitioning in bioactive systems. The model reproduces trends observed in U isotope ratios and concentration measurements from a field experiment, thereby improving interpretations of U isotope ratios as a tracer for U reactive transport. A major factor contributing to U storage and transport is its redox state, which is commonly influenced by the availability of organic carbon to support metal-reducing microbial communities. Both laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that biogenic reduction of U(VI) fractionates the stable isotope ratio 238U/235U, producing an isotopically heavy solid U(IV) product. It has also been shown that other common reactive transport processes involving U do not fractionate isotopes to a consistently measurable level, which suggests the capacity to quantify the extent of bioreduction occurring in groundwater containing U using 238U/235U ratios. A recent study of a U bioremediation experiment at the Rifle IFRC site (Colorado, USA) applied Rayleigh distillation models to quantify U stable isotope fractionation observed during acetate amendment. The application of these simplified models were fit to the observations only by invoking a "memory-effect," or a constant source of low-concentration, unfractionated U(VI). In order to more accurately interpret the measured U isotope ratios, we present a multi-component reactive transport model using the CrunchTope software. This approach is capable of quantifying the cycling and partitioning of individual U isotopes through a realistic network of transport and reaction pathways including reduction, oxidation, and microbial growth. The model incorporates physical heterogeneity of the aquifer sediments through zones of decreased permeability, which replicate the observed bromide tracer, major ion chemistry, U concentration, and U

  12. Effect of projectile breakup on fission-fragment mass distributions in the Li,76 + 238U reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, S.; Pal, A.; Rath, P. K.; Nayak, B. K.; Singh, N. L.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, Varinderjit; Jhingan, A.; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Sodaye, S.; Appannababu, S.; Prasad, E.; Kailas, S.

    2014-12-01

    Background: Detailed studies on the effect of the breakup of weakly bound projectile on fission are scarce. Distinguishing the events of compound nuclear (CN) fission from the breakup or transfer induced fission to understand the properties of measured fission fragments is difficult but desirable. Purpose: To investigate the effect of projectile breakup and its breakup threshold energy on fission-fragment (FF) mass distributions and folding angle distributions for Li,76 + 238U reactions and find out the differences in the properties of the fission events produced by complete fusion (CF) from the total fusion (TF). Methods: The FF mass and folding angle distributions have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier using gas detectors by time-of-flight technique. The results are compared with the ones involving tightly bound projectiles as well as predictions from systematics to bring out the effect of the breakup. Results: A sharp increase in the peak to valley (P:V) ratio of FF mass distribution with the decrease in bombarding energy for Li,76 + 238U reactions is observed when all events are assumed to be CN fission. As the beam energy falls through the fusion barrier, the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the FF folding angle distribution is found to increase at sub-barrier energies, unlike the reactions involving tightly bound projectiles where a linear decrease in FWHM is expected. By selecting pure CN events from the scatter plot of the velocity components of the composite nuclei, the energy dependence of the deduced FWHM is found to be consistent with the ones involving tightly bound projectiles. Similarly, the P:V ratio obtained for the selected CN events is consistent with the theoretical calculations as well as the experimental data for the proton induced reaction forming similar CN. Conclusions: The presence of projectile breakup induced fission and a relatively low breakup threshold for 6Li compared to 7Li explains the observed differences in

  13. Determination of extremely low (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in environmental samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using high-efficiency sample introduction.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2006-01-01

    A method by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed which allows the measurement of (236)U at concentration ranges down to 3 x 10(-14)g g(-1) and extremely low (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in soil samples of 10(-7). By using the high-efficiency solution introduction system APEX in connection with a sector-field ICP-MS a sensitivity of more than 5,000 counts fg(-1) uranium was achieved. The use of an aerosol desolvating unit reduced the formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH(+)/U(+) down to a level of 10(-6). An abundance sensitivity of 3 x 10(-7) was observed for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio measurements at mass resolution 4000. The detection limit for (236)U and the lowest detectable (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio were improved by more than two orders of magnitude compared with corresponding values by alpha spectrometry. Determination of uranium in soil samples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) resulted in that the (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio is a much more sensitive and accurate marker for environmental contamination by spent uranium in comparison to the (235)U/(238)U isotope ratio. The ICP-MS technique allowed for the first time detection of irradiated uranium in soil samples even at distances more than 200 km to the north of Chernobyl NPP (Mogilev region). The concentration of (236)U in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers varied from 2 x 10(-9)g g(-1) within radioactive spots close to the Chernobyl NPP to 3 x 10(-13)g g(-1) on a sampling site located by >200 km from Chernobyl.

  14. Retardation of [sup 238]U and [sup 232]Th decay chain radionuclides in Long Island and Connecticut aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, S.A.; Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, K.K. ); Epler, N.; Cochran, J.K. )

    1993-02-01

    Knowledge of the ability of an aquifer to retard the groundwater transport of toxic or radioactive ions can be inferred from the analysis of groundwater for the radionuclides of the [sup 238]U- and [sup 232]Th-decay chains. Groundwaters of varying chemical composition were analyzed from wells in Long Island, New York, and Connecticut. Aquifer lithologies are arkose, quartz sandstone, granite, and glacial drift. Adsorption (k[sub 1]) and desorption (k[sub 2]) coefficients for Ra and Pb were calculated using [sup 222]Rn activity as a measure of the supply of other [alpha]-recoil nuclides. Laboratory tests of the validity of this assumption were made by measuring the flux of [sup 224]Ra and [sup 222]Rn from aquifer solids. The ratio k[sub 1]/k[sub 2] is the distribution coefficient, K, which is effective equal to R[sub f], the retardation factor. The average value of K for Ra is 6 [times] 10[sup 2] in Long Island aquifers and 5 [times] 10[sup 4] in Connecticut. The distribution coefficient for Pb is 10[sup 4] in Long Island and 10[sup 5] in Connecticut. Results from this and other studies reveal a strong dependence of retardation on pH, f[sub o[sub 2

  15. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  16. 234U and 238U concentration in brine from geopressured aquifers of the northern Gulf of Mexico basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 234U and 238U concentration in brine from six Gulf Coast geopressured aquifers has been determined. The results reveal very low uranium concentrations (from 0.003 to 0.03 ??g/l) and uranium activity ratios slightly greater than unity (from 1.06 to 1.62). Reducing conditions within the aquifers are responsible for the low uranium concentrations. The uranium activity ratios observed are well below those calculated using theoretical considerations of alpha-particle recoil effects. This can be explained by interference with alpha-recoil nuclides entering the liquid phase as a result of quartz overgrowths on sand grains and high-temperature re-equilibration that tends to minimize the effects of the alpha-recoil process. The fact that the uranium activity ratios of the brines are slightly greater than unity instead of the equilibrium value of 1.000 indicates that either the alpha particle recoil blocking and re-equlibration effects are not complete or that another process is operative that enriches the fluid in excess 234U by selectively removing uranium from radiation induced damage sites in the mineral (sand grain) matrix. ?? 1981.

  17. Fission-fragment properties in 238U(n ,f ) between 1 and 30 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, D. L.; Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A. B.; Mosby, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bryś, T.; Vidali, M.

    2016-11-01

    The fragment mass and kinetic energy in neutron-induced fission of 238U has been measured for incident energies from 1 to 30 MeV at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The change in mass distributions over this energy range were studied, and the transition from highly asymmetric to more symmetric mass distributions is observed. A decrease in average total kinetic energy (TKE ¯) with increasing excitation energy is observed, consistent with previous experimental work. Additional structure at multichance fission thresholds is present in the TKE ¯ data. The correlations between fragment masses and total kinetic energy and how that changes with excitation energy of the fissioning compound nucleus were also measured. The fission mass yields and average total kinetic energy are important for fission-based technologies such as nuclear reactors to understand nuclear waste generation and energy output when developing new and advanced concepts. The correlations between fragment mass and kinetic energy are needed both as input for theoretical calculations of the deexcitation process in fission fragments by prompt radiation emission and for validating advanced theoretical fission models describing the formation of the primordial fragments.

  18. 234Th: 238U disequilibrium as an indicator of sediment resuspension in Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, G. K. P.; Pates, J. M.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Kaberi, H.

    2005-12-01

    234Th: 238U disequilibria have been used extensively as tracers of particle dynamics in marine environments. 234Th ( t1/2=24.1 days) can be used as "proxy" for particle reactive pollutants, due to their similar rapid rate of scavenging onto particles and subsequent removal from the water column, to the sediments. Radioactive disequilibrium can be exploited to determine the rates and time-scales of processes occurring over days to months; in this instance the residence times of dissolved and particulate species with the benthic nepheloid layer (BNL). Three sampling cruises were undertaken in Thermaikos Gulf (NW Aegean Sea) during contrasting periods, to examine the impact of natural and anthropogenic activity on sediment resuspension. September and October 2001 represented background and trawling periods, respectively; January 2002 represented a mixed period, of trawling and storms. Dissolved 234Th is scavenged actively at the BNL, in the presence of suspended particulate material (SPM), with a mean residence time of 16 days. There is a weak inverse correlation between dissolved 234Th residence time and SPM concentration in the BNL, with the shortest residence times occurring during October 2001. No relationship was observed between particulate 234Th activities and SPM concentrations, indicating that particles are rapidly removed from the system, either by sinking or advection. The mean particulate 234Th residence time is 5 days.

  19. Yield and recoil properties of iodine isotopes from the interaction of 240 MeV 12C with 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.; Lee, C. H.; Moody, K. J.; Kudo, H.; Lee, D.; Seaborg, G. T.

    1987-12-01

    The independent yields, recoil properties, and forward-to-backward ratios (F/B) of iodine isotopes from the interaction of 240 MeV 12C with 238U have been measured radiochemically by the thick-target/thick-catcher method. The isotopic yield distribution curve has been constructed and is found to consist of two overlapping Gaussians, peaking at A=126.5 and 133.8 with width parameters of 2.29 and 2.04 mass units, respectively. All the measured iodine isotopes had ranges of 7.7+/-0.4 mg/cm2. The neutron-deficient products have F/B of 1.76+/-0.14, but the neutron-excessive products have F/B of only 1.09+/-0.06. The yield curve was analyzed with the liquid drop model and the recoil curve was analyzed by the standard two-step vector model; the results show that the neutron-deficient products are formed from nonequilibrium processes and the neutron-excessive products are formed from the normal low-energy fission process.

  20. Comparative measurement of prompt fission γ -ray emission from fast-neutron-induced fission of 235U and 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebois, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Halipré, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Marini, P.; Schmitt, C.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Zakari, A.-A.

    2015-09-01

    Prompt fission γ -ray (PFG) spectra have been measured in a recent experiment with the novel directional fast-neutron source LICORNE at the ALTO facility of the IPN Orsay. These first results from the facility involve the comparative measurement of prompt γ emission in fast-neutron-induced fission of 235U and 238U . Characteristics such as γ multiplicity and total and average radiation energy are determined in terms of ratios between the two systems. Additionally, the average photon energies were determined and compared with recent data on thermal-neutron-induced fission of 235U . PFG spectra are shown to be similar within the precision of the present measurement, suggesting that the extra incident energy does not significantly impact the energy released by prompt γ rays. The origins of some small differences, depending on either the incident energy or the target mass, are discussed. This study demonstrates the potential of the present approach, combining an innovative neutron source and new-generation detectors, for fundamental and applied research on fission in the near future.

  1. The Use of the Photofission of 238U for a Neutron-Rich Radioactive Ion Beams Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllős, O.; Kliman, J.

    2003-10-01

    The fission fragments yield for photofission of 238U, induced by bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energies of 25 and 50MeV was evaluated to estimate the possibility of producing the neutron-rich nuclei. The systematics coming from A.C. Wahl's Zp model 1 for charge distribution of fission fragments were used. Results for xenon and krypton isotopes are compared with experimental data 2 obtained on the DRIBs 3 (Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams) facility for neutron-rich nuclei production in Flerov Laboratory. The fission rate and fission density in production target for metallic uranium and UCx compounds were simulated with Geant4 4 simulation toolkit to design the target geometry, The fission rate dependence on material of the electron stopping target was examined, At nominal beam values on microtron MT-25 (Ie = 20μA, Ee = 25MeV) up to 2.1011 fissions/s could be achieved. Then the production rate of neutron-rich isotopes reaching order of 109s-1. The induced activity in the production target depending on an irradiation time was calculated for radiation protection purposes and target safety estimation. The cumulation of actinide nuclei was also calculated.

  2. Photo-fission Product Yield Measurements at Eγ=13 MeV on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, M.; Finch, S. W.; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured Fission Product Yields (FPYs) in photo-fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu at TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS) using mono-energetic photons of Eγ = 13 MeV. Details of the experimental setup and analysis procedures will be discussed. Yields for approximately 20 fission products were determined. They are compared to neutron-induced FPYs of the same actinides at the equivalent excitation energies of the compound nuclear systems. In the future photo-fission data will be taken at Eγ = 8 . 0 and 10.5 MeV to find out whether photo-fission exhibits the same so far unexplained dependence of certain FPYs on the energy of the incident probe, as recently observed in neutron-induced fission, for example, for the important fission product 147Nd. Work supported by the U. S. Dept. of Energy, under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033, and by the NNSA, Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program, Grant No. DE-NA0001838 and the Lawrence Livermore, National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. The CIELO Collaboration: Neutron Reactions on 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235,238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Dupont, E.; Bauge, E.; Blokhin, A.; Bouland, O.; Brown, D. A.; Capote, R.; Carlson, A.; Danon, Y.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dunn, M.; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R. A.; Frankle, S. C.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Z.; Grimes, S. M.; Hale, G. M.; Herman, M.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ishikawa, M.; Iwamoto, N.; Iwamoto, O.; Jandel, M.; Jacqmin, R.; Kawano, T.; Kunieda, S.; Kahler, A.; Kiedrowski, B.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A. J.; Leal, L.; Lee, Y. O.; Lestone, J. P.; Lubitz, C.; MacInnes, M.; McNabb, D.; McKnight, R.; Moxon, M.; Mughabghab, S.; Noguere, G.; Palmiotti, G.; Plompen, A.; Pritychenko, B.; Pronyaev, V.; Rochman, D.; Romain, P.; Roubtsov, D.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Salvatores, M.; Simakov, S.; Soukhovitskiı˜, E. Sh.; Sublet, J. C.; Talou, P.; Thompson, I.; Trkov, A.; Vogt, R.; van der Marck, S.

    2014-04-01

    CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. The focus will initially be on a small number of the highest-priority isotopes, namely 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235,238U, and 239Pu. This paper identifies discrepancies between various evaluations of the highest priority isotopes, and was commissioned by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency WPEC (Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation) during a meeting held in May 2012. The evaluated data for these materials in the existing nuclear data libraries - ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-4.0, CENDL-3.1, ROSFOND, IRDFF 1.0 - are reviewed, discrepancies are identified, and some integral properties are given. The paper summarizes a program of nuclear science and computational work needed to create the new CIELO nuclear data evaluations.

  4. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  5. A precise 232Th-208Pb chronology of fine-grained monazite: Age of the Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Tatsumoto, M.; Li, X.; Premo, W.R.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages on monazite and bastnaesite for the world's largest known rare earth elements (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit, the Bayan Obo of Inner Mongolia, China. The monazite samples, collected from the carbonate-hosted ore zone, contain extremely small amounts of uranium (less than 10 ppm) but up to 0.7% ThO2. Previous estimates of the age of mineralization ranged from 1.8 to 0.255 Ga. Magnetic fractions of monazite and bastnaesite samples (<60-??m size) showed large ranges in 232Th 204Pb values (900-400,000) and provided precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages for paragenetic monazite mineralization ranging from 555 to 398 Ma within a few percent error (0.8% for two samples). These results are the first indication that REE mineralization within the giant Bayan Obo ore deposit occurred over a long period of time. The initial lead isotopic compositions (low 206Pb 204Pb and high 208Pb 204Pb) and large negative ??{lunate}Nd values for Bayan Obo ore minerals indicate that the main source(s) for the ores was the lower crust which was depleted in uranium, but enriched in thorium and light rare earth elements for a long period of time. Zircon from a quartz monzonite, located 50 km south of the ore complex and thought to be related to Caledonian subduction, gave an age of 451 Ma, within the range of monazite ages. Textural relations together with the mineral ages favor an epigenetic rather than a syngenetic origin for the orebodies. REE mineralization started around 555 Ma (disseminated monazite in the West, the Main, and south of the East Orebody), but the main mineralization (banded ores) was related to the Caledonian subduction event ca. 474-400 Ma. ?? 1994.

  6. Geochronology and petrogenesis of MORB from the Juan de Fuca and Gorda ridges by 238U230Th disequilibrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Janecky, D.R.; Delaney, J.R.; Clague, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    A highly precise mass spectrometric method of analysis was used to determine 238U234U230Th232Th in axial and off-axis basalt glasses from Juan de Fuca (JDF) and Gorda ridges. Initial 230Th activity excesses in the axial samples range from 3 to 38%, but generally lie within a narrow range of 12 to 15%. Secondary alteration effects were evaluated using ??234U and appear to be negligible; hence the 230Th excesses are magmatic in origin. Direct dating of MORB was accomplished by measuring the decrease in excess 230Th in off-axis samples. 238U230Th ages progressively increase with distance from axis. Uncertainties in age range from 10 to 25 ka for UTh ages of 50 to 200 ka. The full spreading rate based on UTh ages for Endeavour segment of JDF is 5.9 ?? 1/2 cm/yr, with asymmetry in spreading between the Pacific (4.0 ?? 0.6 cm/yr) and JDF (1.9 ?? 0.6 cm/yr) plates. For northern Gorda ridge, the half spreading rate for the JDF plate is found to be 3.0 ?? 0.4 cm/yr. These rates are in agreement with paleomagnetic spreading rates and topographic constraints. This suggests that assumptions used to determine ages, including constancy of initial 230Th 232Th ratio over time, are generally valid for the areas studied. Samples located near the axis of spreading are typically younger than predicted by these spreading rates, which most likely reflects recent volcanism within a 1-3 km wide zone of crustal accretion. Initial 230Th/232Th ratios and 230Th activity were also used to examine the recent Th/U evolution and extent of melting of mantle sources beneath these ridges. A negative anomaly in 230Th 232Th for Axial seamount lavas provides the first geochemical evidence of a mantle plume source for Axial seamount and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain and indicates recent depletion of other JDF segment sources. Large 230Th activity excesses for lavas from northern Gorda ridge and Endeavour segment indicate formation from a lower degree of partial melting than other segments. An

  7. Particulate organic carbon export from the North and South Atlantic gyres: The 234Th/ 238U disequilibrium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomalla, Sandy; Turnewitsch, Robert; Lucas, Mike; Poulton, Alex

    2006-07-01

    Subtropical ocean gyres are believed to be characterized by low carbon export from the surface into the deep ocean. However, due to their large areas, even relatively small average export could be of significance for the global carbon cycle. To better constrain carbon export from the surface ocean in such regions, radioactive disequilibria between the particle-reactive, short-lived radionuclide 234Th (half-life 24.1 d) and its parent 238U were used to estimate fluxes of 234Th and particulate organic carbon (POC) from surface waters of the North and South Atlantic subtropical gyres and their fringes. Samples were collected between ˜50°S and ˜50°N as part of the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme during April/May 2004 (AMT14). Application of a steady-state model to the 234Th data revealed particle export from the surface ( 234Th deficit) and, in one instance, some evidence for shallow particle remineralisation at depth ( 234Th excess). Export fluxes of POC were calculated from water column 234Th / 238U disequilibria and the POC to 234Th ratios on large rapidly sinking particles (>50 μm). Based on latitudinal distributions of selected hydrographic and biological parameters within the topmost 300 m of the water column, the transect was divided into six regions: 'temperate' (35°-50°N and 35°-50°S), 'oligotrophic' (20°-35°N and 5°-35°S), 'equatorial' (5°S-5°N), and 'upwelling' (5°-20°N). The lowest 234Th-derived POC export fluxes were found in the oligotrophic gyres and ranged from 0 in the northern to 6 mmol C m -2 d -1 in the southern oligotrophic, indicating a tightly coupled food web. Enhanced POC export was associated with the equatorial region (25 mmol C m -2 d -1) and the upwelling region north of the equator (15 mmol C m -2 d -1). POC export in the temperate regions ranged from 7 mmol C m -2 d -1 to a maximum of 41 mmol C m -2 d -1. High fluxes at the poleward edges of the oligotrophic gyres probably result from episodic nutrient

  8. Use of 234U and 238U isotopes to identify fertilizer-derived uranium in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.; Orem, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Surface water and peat in the northern Everglades have very low natural concentrations of U and are therefore sensitive to the addition of small amounts of U from anthropogenic sources such as fertilizer. Peat samples collected along a nutrient gradient in the northern Everglades have unusually high concentrations of U (> 1 ??g/g, dry basis) and also have a distinctive 234U/238U activity ratio (AR). AR values for U-enriched peat fall in the narrow range of AR values for commercial phosphate fertilizer (1.00 ??0.05) In contrast, AR values for low-U peat from background sites exceed 1.05. The spatial distribution of anomalous U concentration, and of fertilizer-like AR values in peat, parallel a previously documented pattern of P enrichment These results strongly suggest that some of the U in nutrient-impacted peatlands is fertilizer-derived. Agricultural drainage water sampled in the northern Everglades has high concentrations of dissolved U (0.3-2.4 ??g/1) compared to surface water from background sites ( 1.05). Synoptic sampling of surface water along drainage canals indicate that Lake Okeechobee, and some drainage from agricultural fields, are sources of dissolved U, whereas wetlands farther downstream act as sinks for U. Historically cultivated agricultural soft has only a marginally elevated (+0.2 ??g/g) average concentration of U compared to nearby uncultivated soil and incorporates only 20% of the U from an aqueous solution that was slurried with the soil. In contrast, a similar experiment with fresh Everglades peat indicated uptake of 90% of the added U. These experiments support the proposed removal of U from agricultural fields and concentration of U in downstream peatlands. The methodology of this study can be used to describe the behavior of fertilizer-derived U in other low-U environments.

  9. A beta-alpha coincidence counting system for measurement of trace quantities of 238U and 232Th in aqueous samples at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M.; Doucas, G.; Fergani, H.; Jelley, N. A.; Majerus, S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Perry, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment was built to measure the total flux of 8B solar neutrinos via the neutral current disintegration deuterium nuclei. This process can be mimiced by daughter isotopes of 232Th and 238U which can photodisintegrate the deuterium nucleus. Measurement of the concentration of such radioisotopes in the heavy water was critical to the success of the experiment. A radium assay technique using Hydrous Titanium Oxide coated filters was developed for this purpose and it was used in conjunction with a delayed beta-alpha coincidence counting system. The design, calibration and operation of this counting system are described in this paper. The counting efficiency for 232Th (224Ra) and 238U (226Ra) were measured to be 50 ± 5% and 62 ± 7%

  10. Low-energy fission investigated in reactions of 750 AMeV238U-ions with Pb and Be targets. I. Nuclear charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Geissel, H.; Aumann, T.; Dessagne, Ph.; Donzaud, C.; Hanelt, E.; Heinz, A.; Hesse, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, Ch.; Münzenberg, G.; Pfützner, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schwab, W.; Stéphan, C.; Sümmerer, K.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1996-12-01

    Charge distributions of fragments from low energy nuclear fission are investigated in reactions of highly fissile238U projectiles at relativistic energies (750 A·MeV) with a heavy (Pb) and a light (Be) target. The fully stripped fission fragments are separated by the Fragment Separator (FRS). Their high kinetic energies in the laboratory system allow the identification of all atomic numbers by using Multiple-Sampling Ionization Chambers (MUSIC). The elemental distributions of fragments observed at larger magnetic rigidities than the238U projectiles show asymmetric break-up and odd-even effects. They indicate a low energy fission process, induced mainly by dissociation in the electro-magnetic field for the U/Pb-system, or by peripheral nuclear interactions for the U/Be-system.

  11. Resonance Region Covariance Analysis Method and New Covariance Data for {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C. Arbanas, G.; Wiarda, D.; Derrien, H.

    2008-12-15

    Resonance-parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) evaluations in the resolved resonance region were done for {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu using the computer code SAMMY. The retroactive approach of the code SAMMY was used to generate the RPCMs for {sup 233}U and {sup 235}U. RPCMs for {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu were generated together with the resonance parameter evaluations. The RPCMs were then converted in the ENDF format using the File32 representation. Alternatively, for computer storage reasons, the File32 was converted in the File33 cross section covariance matrix (CSCM). Both representations were processed using the computer code PUFF-IV. This paper describes the procedures used to generate the RPCM with SAMMY.

  12. Towards the high-accuracy determination of the 238U fission cross section at the threshold region at CERN - n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakaki, M.; Audouin, L.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Colonna, N.; Dupont, E.; Duran, I.; Gunsing, F.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Le Naour, C.; Leong, L. S.; Mastromarco, M.; Paradela, C.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Aerts, G.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Becares, V.; Becvar, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortes, G.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Goncalves, I. F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gurusamy, P.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Heinitz, S.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kaeppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Konovalov, V.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez, T.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Musumarra, A.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perkowski, J.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, L.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rudolf, G.; Rubbia, C.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wallner, A.; Walter, S.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wiesher, M.; Wisshak, K.; Wright, T.; Zugec, P.

    2016-03-01

    The 238U fission cross section is an international standard beyond 2 MeV where the fission plateau starts. However, due to its importance in fission reactors, this cross-section should be very accurately known also in the threshold region below 2 MeV. The 238U fission cross section has been measured relative to the 235U fission cross section at CERN - n_TOF with different detection systems. These datasets have been collected and suitably combined to increase the counting statistics in the threshold region from about 300 keV up to 3 MeV. The results are compared with other experimental data, evaluated libraries, and the IAEA standards.

  13. Intermediate mass fragment emission in 32S + 51V, 109Ag, and 238U collisions at E = 31.6 MeV A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machner, H.; Nolte, M.; Palarczyk, M.; Kutsarova, T.

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate mass fragment emission for reactions of 32S + 51V, 109Ag, and 238U has been studied. Double differential cross sections were analysed in terms of the generalised moving source model yielding charge distributions. Isotope ratios show strong fragment mass dependencies. The data were successfully reproduced by the coalescence model as well as by statistical multifragmentation model calculations. Quantum molecular dynamics model calculations were not so successful.

  14. Comparison of activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in different Layers of subsurface Structures in Dei-Dei and Kubwa, Abuja, northcentral Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Omeje; Wagiran, Husin; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Lee, Siak Kuan; Sabri, Soheil

    2013-10-01

    The study of activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K of rock samples from site one (S1L1-S1L11, 70 m) and site two (S2L1-S2L9, 60 m) boreholes in Dei-Dei and Kubwa was presented and the first time in the region to be compared. Activity concentrations were analysed using a high resolution co-axial HPGe gamma ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration ranges in site one borehole were from 45±1 to 98±6 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, from 18±2 to 37±4 Bq kg-1 for 238U and from 254 ±32 Bq kg-1 to 1195 ±151 Bq kg-1 for 40K. The activity concentration ranges in site two borehole were from 32±3 to 84±7 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, from 15±2 to 52±5 Bq kg-1 for 238U and from 119±15 to 705±94 for 40K Bq kg-1. Significantly higher concentration of 232Th and 238U occurs in samples collected from S1L7, S1L11 and S2L1 layers. These zones experienced granitic intrusions produced by denudation and tectonism. 40K in rock samples of S1L4 and S2L4 activity concentrations is close; it could be that biotite granitic intrusion that is inferred as the formation in that layer reflects the same activity of potassium in rock's radioactivity measurement. The area requires further investigation of soil geochemistry and activity concentration of radionuclides in groundwater.

  15. Uranium 238U/235U isotope ratios as indicators of reduction: Results from an in situ biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp IV, C.J.; Lundstrom, C.C.; Johnson, T.M.; Sanford, R.A.; Long, P.E.; Williams, K.H.

    2010-02-01

    The attenuation of groundwater contamination via chemical reaction is traditionally evaluated by monitoring contaminant concentration through time. However, this method can be confounded by common transport processes (e.g. dilution, sorption). Isotopic techniques bypass the limits of concentration methods, and so may provide improved accuracy in determining the extent of reaction. We apply measurements of {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U to a U bioremediation field experiment at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge Site in Rifle, Colorado (USA). An array of monitoring and injection wells was installed on a 100 m{sup 2} plot where U(VI) contamination was present in the groundwater. Acetate-amended groundwater was injected along an up-gradient gallery to encourage the growth of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (e.g. Geobacter species). During amendment, U concentration dropped by an order of magnitude in the experiment plot. We measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in samples from one monitoring well by MC-ICP-MS using a double isotope tracer method. A significant {approx}1.00{per_thousand} decrease in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U occurred in the groundwater as U(VI) concentration decreased. The relationship between {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U and concentration corresponds approximately to a Rayleigh distillation curve with an effective fractionation factor ({alpha}) of 1.00046. We attribute the observed U isotope fractionation to a nuclear field shift effect during enzymatic reduction of U(VI){sub (aq)} to U(IV){sub (s)}.

  16. Double beta decay of Uranium-238: Proton reactions of {sup 238}U in 5--12 MeV range. Final report, April 15, 1987--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Turkevich, A.; Economou, T.E.

    1993-06-01

    This report is in two parts. The first part reports on the experimental work determining the half-life for double beta decay of {sup 238}U to {sup 238}PU to be (2.0 {plus_minus} 0.6) {times} 10{sup 21} years. This is the first evidence for a third mode of decay of this heaviest naturally occurring nucleus. This rate is about 10{sup 6} times slower than spontaneous fission, which itself is about 10{sup 6} times slower than alpha decay. The implication of this double beta decay to neutrino masses depends on uncertain theoretical calculations of the rate for such a heavy nucleus. The second part reports on yields of principal fission products from 5.6, 7.3, 9.4, and 11.5 MeV proton interactions with {sup 238}U. The yields at 11.5 MeV are similar to those from 14 MeV neutron fission of {sup 238}U. At the same time, the production cross sections of {sup 238}Np at the same energies are determined. This nuclide is produced as often as fission at the lowest energy but only 3.8% as often at the highest energy.

  17. Uranium ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U) contamination of the environment surrounding phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the uranium concentration ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U) and values of the activity ratio (234)U/(238)U in soil samples collected near phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland). On the basis of the studies it was found that the values of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in the analyzed soils collected in the vicinity of phosphogypsum dump in Wiślinka are in most cases close to one and indicate the phosphogypsum origin of the analyzed nuclides. The obtained results of uranium concentrations are however much lower than in previous years before closing of the phosphogypsum stockpile. After this process and covering the phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka with sewage sludge, phosphogypsum particles are successfully immobilized. In the light of the results the use of phosphate fertilizers seems to be a major problem. Prolonged and heavy rains can cause leaching accumulated uranium isotopes in the phosphogypsum stockpile, which will be washed into the Martwa Wisła and on the fields in the immediate vicinity of this storage.

  18. Assay Methods for 238U, 232Th, and 210Pb in Lead and Calibration of 210Bi Bremsstrahlung Emission from Lead

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Eggemeyer, Tere A.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Thommasson, Kimbrelle S.

    2016-02-13

    Assay methods for measuring 238U, 232Th, and 210Pb concentrations in refined lead are presented. The 238U and 232Th concentrations are assayed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after anion exchange column separation on dissolved lead samples. The 210Pb concentration is inferred through α-spectroscopy of a daughter isotope, 210Po, after chemical precipitation separation on dissolved lead samples. Subsequent to the 210Po α-spectroscopy assay, a method for evaluating 210Pb concentrations in solid lead samples was developed via measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation from β-decay of a daughter isotope, 210Bi, by employing a 14-crystal array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Ten sources of refined lead were assayed. The 238U concentrations were <34 microBq/kg and the 232Th concentrations ranged <0.6 – 15 microBq/kg, as determined by the ICP-MS assay method. The 210Pb concentrations ranged from ~0.1 – 75 Bq/kg, as inferred by the 210Po α-spectroscopy assay method.

  19. Quantification of 235U and 238U activity concentrations for undeclared nuclear materials by a digital gamma-gamma coincidence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Yi, Jing; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, Kurt; Hauck, Barry; Kramer, Gary H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of verifying depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), low enriched uranium (LEU) and high enriched uranium (HEU) by a developed digital gamma-gamma coincidence spectroscopy. The spectroscopy consists of two NaI(Tl) scintillators and XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results demonstrate that the spectroscopy provides an effective method of (235)U and (238)U quantification based on the count rate of their gamma-gamma coincidence counting signatures. The main advantages of this approach over the conventional gamma spectrometry include the facts of low background continuum near coincident signatures of (235)U and (238)U, less interference from other radionuclides by the gamma-gamma coincidence counting, and region-of-interest (ROI) imagine analysis for uranium enrichment determination. Compared to conventional gamma spectrometry, the method offers additional advantage of requiring minimal calibrations for (235)U and (238)U quantification at different sample geometries. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fixation of radionuclides in the 238U decay series in the vicinity of mineralized zones: 1. The Austatom Uranium Prospect, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvington, P. J.

    1983-03-01

    The minimum age of a zone of secondary uranium mineralization, located at the Austatom Prospect in the Alligator Rivers region of Australia, is estimated to be 3.6 × 10 5y. This is derived from a geochronological model based on retarded leaching of 234U with respect to 238U and on ratios within the ore of these members of the 238U decay series. Although kaolinite is a dominant mineral in the weathered schist-host-rocks, retarded dissolution of 234U occurs only in the presence of the clay minerals illite and montmorillonite. In their absence the reverse occurs. A model is proposed to explain the results. Ratios of 230Th to 238U indicate that the mineralization has probably remained stationary within the weathered schist for at least 1 to 2 × 10 5y. Future use of clay minerals as buffers in radioactive waste repositories is supported by the excellent long-term retention obtained for oxidized uranium, probably due in part to isomorphic substitution into the clay crystal lattice.

  1. Distribution of long-lived radionuclides of the 238U series in the sediments of a small river in a uranium mineralized region of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2002-01-01

    A study is presented on the distribution and mobilization of the natural U isotopes (238U and 234U), 230Th, and 226Ra in the sediments of a small river crossing an uranium mineralized zone where a disused uranium mine is located. Due to the preferential directions for surface run-off waters and to the mine's situation, one sampling point along the river bed was identified as a point of accumulation of radionuclides. The average values of the activity concentrations (Bq/kg) in this sediment sample were 5,025, 5,055, 5,915 and 1,694 for 238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra, respectively, while the respective average values of the activity concentrations (Bq/kg) for the sediment sample considered to give the background level were 125, 124, 131 and 370. Isotopic ratios between the descendants of 238U served to clarify some paths of distribution, involving the soils nearest to the sampling points and the location of these points with respect to the disused mine. The differences in behaviour found between the uranium, thorium and radium isotopes were associated to the mobility of these radionuclides in the fluvial system studied. Correlations between the radionuclide activity concentration ratios and stable element concentrations in the sediment samples were also investigated.

  2. Measurement of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs in foodstuffs samples collected from coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2016-05-01

    This study represents a total of 245 samples collected. The activities of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in samples of vegetables, tea, cereal (rice, wheat and corn), meat, poultry, freshwater product, seafood and seaweed that collected from the 30km safety zone of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) area. All the samples radionuclide activities were quantified by using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.13, 0.16, 0.11, 68 and 0.02, respectively. The arithmetic mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.34, 0.65, 0.32, 111 and 0.09, respectively. Results of this study were compared with others, the measured values are the same with those of a previous investigation. Radiation doses due to the consumption of these foodstuffs to humans are estimated to comprise around 37-46% of the annual dose limit for public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of 230Th-238U in Zircon from the Minoan Eruption, Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Song, E. J.; Storm, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Minoan eruption (ca. 1600 BCE; 40-80 km3 dense rock equivalent) occurred after a ca. 18 ka period of dormancy followed by rapid reinvigoration through arrival of new magma from deep reservoirs colliding with evolved magmas in shallow storage. Although zoned phenocrysts indicate brief timescales ranging between years to decades for final pre-eruptive magma recharge and mixing, it remains unclear how magma accumulation vs. crystallization were balanced in the subvolcanic reservoir during the preceding inter-eruptive cycle. To directly probe magma presence over the repose interval prior to the Minoan eruption and further back in time, we reconnoitered the potential of U-Th zircon geochronology to date the crystallization of individual zircon crystals from pumice from the Minoan eruption. Zircon crystals were extracted from composite pumice samples (several kg each) from basal fall out deposits using gravity and magnetic separation. Etching in cold HF removed adherent glass and revealed the shape of crystals, which were pressed into indium metal to expose unpolished rims to the ion beam of a CAMECA IMS 1270 secondary ionization mass spectrometer. Adherent glass was ubiquitous, indicating that crystals were in contact with melt at the time of eruption. Six of 18 crystals were in 230Th/238U secular equilibrium, two crystals yielded ages of ca. 160 ka, and the remaining rims dated between eruption age and ca. 20 ka. Low Th/U of some secular equilibrium zircon suggests recycling of metamorphic basement zircon, which is also indicated by the presence of rutile in heavy mineral separates. U-Th dates also reveal recycling of zircon from Pleistocene intrusions that likely represent left-over magma from antecedent eruption cycles. We tentatively interpret the dominant zircon population with near-eruption to ca. 20 ka ages to indicate continuous melt presence underneath Santorini during the last repose interval. Distinguishing a hiatus in zircon crystallization between 20 ka

  4. Doorway-state analysis of the fine structure in the giant quadrupole resonance in 208Pb observed in inelastic electron scattered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchenbach, J.; Pingel, K.; Holzwarth, G.; Kühner, G.; Richter, A.

    1983-11-01

    The fine structure observed in high resolution inelastic electron scattering data obtained at DALINAC for 208Pb in the excitation energy range of the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) has been analysed under the assumption that the measured strongly fragmented E2 strength distribution is due to the coupling of one or two doorway states to a large number of more complicated states. The coupling matrix elements derived from the analysis allow the determination of the escape and spreading widths Γ ↑ and Γ ↓, the excitation energies Ed, the energy shifts ΔEd, and their energy dependence, for the underlying doorways.

  5. 238U series isotopes and 232Th in carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: implications to dissolved uranium abundances in Ganga-Indus source waters.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Dalai, Tarun K; Krishnaswami, S

    2003-01-01

    238U and (232)Th concentrations and the extent of (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th radioactive equilibrium have been measured in a suite of Precambrian carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya. These measurements were made to determine their abundances in these deposits, their contributions to dissolved uranium budget of the headwaters of the Ganga and the Indus in the Himalaya and to assess the impact of weathering on (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th radioactive equilibrium in them. (238)U concentrations in Precambrian carbonates range from 0.06 to 2.07 microg g(-1). The 'mean' U/Ca in these carbonates is 2.9 ng U mg(-1) Ca. This ratio, coupled with the assumption that all Ca in the Ganga-Indus headwaters is of carbonate origin and that U and Ca behave conservatively in rivers after their release from carbonates, provides an upper limit on the U contribution from these carbonates, to be a few percent of dissolved uranium in rivers. There are, however, a few streams with low uranium concentrations, for which the carbonate contribution could be much higher. These results suggest that Precambrian carbonates make only minor contributions to the uranium budget of the Ganga-Indus headwaters in the Himalaya on a basin wide scale, however, they could be important for particular streams. Similar estimates of silicate contribution to uranium budget of these rivers using U/Na in silicates and Na* (Na corrected for cyclic and halite contributions) in river waters show that silicates can contribute significantly (approximately 40% on average) to their U balance. If, however, much of the uranium in these silicates is associated with weathering resistant minerals, then the estimated silicate uranium component would be upper limits. Uranium concentration in black shales averages about 37 microg g(-1). Based on this concentration, supply of U from at least approximately 50 mg of black shales per liter of river water is needed to balance the average river water U concentration, 1.7 microg L

  6. Biological availability of (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus.

    PubMed

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Voinikava, K V; Ivanova, T G; Papenia, M V

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of (238+239+240)Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m(-2) and (137)Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m(-2). It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037-0.11 for (234)U, 0.036-0.10 for (238)U and 0.11-0.43 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32-4.4, 0.24-3.9 and 0.14-6.9 Bq kg(-1) accordingly. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of (234)U and (238)U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036-0.42 and 0.041-0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of (226)Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031-1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005-0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the

  7. Resolving the early chronology of Mono Craters volcanism with combined 238U-230Th and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Marcaida, M.; Mangan, M.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Stelten, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    California's largest locus of Pleistocene-Holocene rhyolitic volcanism is the Mono Lake-Long Valley region of eastern California. The Mono Craters chain marks the northern portion of this locus, and is composed of at least 28 individual domes of high-silica rhyolite. The record of Holocene volcanism at Mono Craters is relatively well constrained by tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating. However, the timing and frequency of late Pleistocene dome emplacement is poorly resolved, with most of the chronology based on hydration-rind dating of obsidian. A well-exposed archive of late Pleistocene volcanism from Mono Craters is recorded by tephra beds (ashes numbered 1-19, youngest to oldest) of the informal Wilson Creek formation that accumulated in ancestral Mono Lake. To resolve a precise chronology for late Pleistocene volcanism at Mono Craters and tune the time-series of explosive volcanism preserved by Wilson Creek tephras, we performed ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of allanite and zircon together with laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar dating of sanidine from rhyolite domes that yield the oldest hydration rind ages and have relatively subdued morphology. Sanidine from multiple domes, including both hornblende-biotite and fayalite-bearing rhyolite types, yield 40Ar/39Ar ages up to ca. 25 ka. Ion microprobe analyses of unpolished rims on indium-mounted allanite and zircon crystals yield U-Th isochron ages that are indistinguishable from their associated sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages. However, the interiors of sectioned allanite crystals yield model U-Th ages that may be up to 30 kyr older than their rims. Rims on allanite and zircon from ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of the Wilson Creek stratigraphy yield isochron ages of ca. 27-62 ka [1], which are supported by ages from magnetostratigraphy [2]. Ash 3 contains titanomagnetites that are compositionally distinct from other Wilson Creek tephras, but match those in the hornblende-biotite rhyolite of dome 11. Rims on allanite and

  8. Reconstruction of the 236U input function for the Northeast Atlantic Ocean: Implications for 129I/236U and 236U/238U-based tracer ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Marcus; Casacuberta, Núria; Vockenhuber, Christof; Elsässer, Christoph; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Herrmann, Jürgen; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-11-01

    A reconstruction of historical discharges of 236U into the Northeast Atlantic Ocean by nuclear installations is presented. The nuclear reprocessing facilities Sellafield (SF), Great Britain (GB) and La Hague (LH), France and potentially also the nuclear fuel processing installation Springfields (SP), GB represent the main contributors of 236U in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Because data on 236U releases is lacking, 236U discharges from SP and SF are estimated based on the U-isotopic systematics found in the discharges from LH. The resulting reconstruction of 236U releases indicates that, until 2013, a total of (95 ± 32) kg of 236U was discharged from SF, SP, and LH. In a second step, the reconstructed 236U releases are combined with 129I data from literature and oceanic and atmospheric box models are used to derive the 129I/236U and 236U/238U input functions that, for example, can be used to calculate tracer ages of Atlantic Waters in the Arctic Ocean. Our conceptual results show that the combination of 129I/236U and 236U/238U generally allows the estimation of tracer ages over the past approximately 25 years if contributions of 236U from global fallout are considered. Finally, as a proof of concept, the new method is applied to calculate tracer ages of Arctic Ocean surface samples (collected in 2011/2012) and the results are in good agreement with literature data. We conclude that the combination of 129I/236U with 236U/238U in a dual tracer approach provides a sensitive tool for the calculation of tracer ages and ventilation rates in the North Atlantic region.

  9. Trace element distribution and 235U/238U ratios in Euphrates waters and in soils and tree barks of Dhi Qar province (southern Iraq).

    PubMed

    Riccobono, Francesco; Perra, Guido; Pisani, Anastasia; Protano, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    To assess the quality of the environment in southern Iraq after the Gulf War II, a geochemical survey was carried out. The survey provided data on the chemistry of Euphrates waters, as well as the trace element contents, U and Pb isotopic composition, and PAH levels in soil and tree bark samples. The trace element concentrations and the (235)U/(238)U ratio values in the Euphrates waters were within the usual natural range, except for the high contents of Sr due to a widespread presence of gypsum in soils of this area. The trace element contents in soils agreed with the common geochemistry of soils from floodplain sediments. Some exceptions were the high contents of Co, Cr and Ni, which had a natural origin related to ophiolitic outcrops in the upper sector of the Euphrates basin. The high concentrations of S and Sr were linked to the abundance of gypsum in soils. A marked geochemical homogeneity of soil samples was suggested by the similar distribution pattern of rare earth elements, while the (235)U/(238)U ratio was also fairly homogeneous and within the natural range. The chemistry of the tree bark samples closely reflected that of the soils, with some notable exceptions. Unlike the soils, some tree bark samples had anomalous values of the (235)U/(238)U ratio due to mixing of depleted uranium (DU) with the natural uranium pool. Moreover, the distribution of some trace elements (such as REEs, Th and Zr) and the isotopic composition of Pb in barks clearly differed from those of the nearby soils. The overall results suggested that significant external inputs occurred implying that once formed the DU-enriched particles could travel over long distances. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in tree bark samples showed that phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene were the most abundant components, indicating an important role of automotive traffic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the (p,xn) cross sections from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for (p,xn) reactions (x ranges from 0 to 8) from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons at the Brookhaven AGS Linac injector. Chemical yields were determined by using /sup 239/Np and /sup 233/Pa as tracers. Yield patterns obtained in this work can be compared to the experimental results and theoretical calculations from earlier work, and they are consistent within the framework of intranuclear cascade followed by neutron evaporation and fission competition.

  11. Yields of neutron-rich isotopes around Z = 28 produced in 30 MeV proton-induced fission of 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, K.; Andreyev, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Dean, S.; Franchoo, S.; Górska, M.; Helariutta, K.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Mueller, W. F.; Prasad, N. V. S. V.; Raabe, R.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Van Duppen, P.; Van Roosbroeck, J.; Van de Vel, K.; Weissman, L.

    Heavy 65-70Co, 68-74Ni, 70-76Cu and 74-81Ga isotopes were produced at the LISOL facility by means of 30 MeV proton-induced fission of 238U. Production rates were deduced and compared to two types of cross-section calculations: the empirical model (V. Rubchenya, private communication) and the PROFI code. Comparison with experimental data favors the latter model. Yields using different beam-target combinations and different energies are calculated and discussed.

  12. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.

    PubMed

    Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

    2013-01-01

    An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported.

  13. Investigations on the activity concentrations of 238U, 226RA, 228RA, 210PB and 40K in Jordan phosphogypsum and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Ahmad, N; Shehadeh, H; Afaneh, F; Maghrabi, M; Gerstmann, U; Höllriegl, V; Oeh, U

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K) in Jordanian phosphate ore, fertilizer material and phosphogypsum piles were investigated. The results show the partitioning of radionuclides in fertilizer products and phosphogypsum piles. The outcome of this study will enrich the Jordanian radiological map database, and will be useful for an estimation of the radiological impact of this industrial complex on the immediate environment. The activity concentration of (210)Pb was found to vary from 95 +/- 8 to 129 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 111 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) in fertilizer samples, and from 364 +/- 8 to 428 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 391 +/- 30 Bq kg(-1) in phosphogypsum samples; while in phosphate wet rock samples, it was found to vary between 621 +/- 9 and 637 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 628 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1). The activity concentration of (226)Ra in fertilizer samples (between 31 +/- 4 and 42 +/- 5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 37 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much smaller than the activity concentration of (226)Ra in phosphogypsum samples (between 302 +/- 8 and 442 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 376 +/- 62 Bq kg(-1)). In contrast, the activity concentration of (238)U in fertilizer samples (between 1011 +/- 13 and 1061 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1033 +/- 22 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much higher than the activity concentration of (238)U in phosphogypsum samples (between 14 +/- 5 and 37 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 22 +/- 11 Bq kg(-1)). This indicates that (210)Pb and (226)Ra show similar behaviour, and are concentrated in phosphogypsum piles. In addition, both isotopes enhanced the activity concentration in phosphogypsum piles, while (238)U enhanced the activity concentration in the fertilizer. Due to the radioactivity released from the phosphate rock processing plants into the environment, the highest collective dose commitment for the lungs

  14. Quantification of transfer of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in mosses of a semi-natural ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Mihailović, N; Gajić, B

    2010-02-01

    There is a lack of appropriate data on transfer of some radionuclides on many terrestrial biota groups. To expand the available data concentration ratios of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in mosses are presented in this paper. The relationship between concentration ratios of radionuclides and physicochemical characteristics of the underlying soil was also investigated. The data on concentration ratios obtained here will provide a useful addition to the currently used database of transfer parameters, particularly for natural radionuclides.

  15. 238U and 232Th series nuclides in groundwater from the J-13 well at the Nevada Test Site: Implications for ion retardation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhaver, Sally A.; Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, Karl K.; Shaw, Henry

    1992-07-01

    The activities of members of the 238U and 232Th decay chains have been determined in water from well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site near Yucca Mountain. Using 222Rn as a measure of recoil flux, adsorption (k1) and desorption (k2) rate constants for Ra and Pb have been determined. The ratio (k1/k2), defined as the dimensionless distribution coefficient, K, is 1.3 × 104 for Ra and 2.7 × 104 for Pb and is estimated to be about 104 for Th.

  16. EXCALIBUR-at-CALIBAN: a neutron transmission experiment for {sup 238}U(n,n'{sub continuum}γ) nuclear data validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, David; Leconte, Pierre; Destouches, Christophe; Casoli, Pierre; Chambru, Laurent; Chanussot, Didier; Chateauvieux, Herve; Gevrey, Gaetan; Guilbert, Frederique; Lereuil, Hugues; Rousseau, Guillaume; Schaub, Muriel; Heusch, Murielle; Meplan, Olivier; Ramdhane, Mourad

    2015-07-01

    Two recent papers justified a new experimental program to give a new basis for the validation of {sup 238}U nuclear data, namely neutron induced inelastic scattering and transport codes at neutron fission energies. The general idea is to perform a neutron transmission experiment through natural uranium material. As shown by Hans Bethe, neutron transmissions measured by dosimetric responses are linked to inelastic cross sections. This paper describes the principle and the results of such an experience called EXCALIBUR performed recently (January and October 2014) at the CALIBAN reactor facility. (authors)

  17. Study on the radioactivity and soil-to-plant transfer factor of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U radionuclides in irrigated farms from the northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-08-01

    The present study addresses the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U for 13 types of vegetables and agricultural crops planted under semi-arid environment in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. Crop plants along with plant-growing soils were collected from selected farms, which are irrigated from the non-renewable Saq aquifer, and investigated for their radioactivity content by means of alpha spectrometry after applying a radiochemical separation procedure. Hence, TF data for plant roots, green parts (stem and leaves) and fruits were calculated and contrasted to those reported in the literature. Substantial differences were observed in the TFs of Ra and U radioisotopes among plant species. In crop fruits, eggplant exhibited the highest uptake of (226)Ra (TF value of 0.11), while beans (0.16) have the highest TF for (234)U and (238)U. The geometric mean TF values indicated that the crop roots tend to accumulate Ra and U about four to six-folds higher than fruits. The relation between TF values and soil concentrations showed a weak correlation. Activity ratios between radionuclides in crop plants indicated the preferential translocation of U in fruits than Ra even though Ra is more available for root uptake. The fruit/root (F/R) ratios obtained for the investigated plants shown that pepper had the smallest F/R ratios (0.07 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.02 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively), while the highest F/R ratios were observed in potatoes (0.71 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.10 and 0.40 ± 0.08 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively). The TF and F/R ratios data of natural radionuclides in the study region can hopefully improve the scientific knowledge for future studies.

  18. Violence of heavy-ion reactions from neutron multiplicity: 11 to 20A-italic MeV /sup 20/Ne+ /sup 238/U

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, U.; Ingold, G.; Hilscher, D.; Lehmann, M.; Schwinn, E.; Zank, P.

    1986-07-14

    The suitability of the neutron multiplicity as a gauge for the violence of medium-energy heavy-ion reactions is investigated for the first time. For this purpose the number of neutrons emitted from fission reactions induced by 220-, 290-, and 400-MeV /sup 20/Ne on /sup 238/U is registered event-by-event with a large 4..pi.. scintillator tank. It is shown that the neutron multiplicity is indeed closely related to the two quantities characterizing the violence: the induced total intrinsic excitation and the linear momentum transfer.

  19. Predictions of characteristics of prompt-fission γ -ray spectra from the n +238U reaction up to En=20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, A.; Billnert, R.; Oberstedt, S.

    2017-09-01

    Systematics from 2001, describing prompt-fission γ -ray spectra (PFGS) characteristics as a function of mass and atomic number of the fissioning system, was revisited and parameters were revised, based on recent experimental results. Although originally expressed for spontaneous and thermal-neutron induced fission, validity for fast neutrons was assumed and applied to predict PFGS characteristics for the reaction n +238U up to incident neutron energies of En=20 MeV . The results from this work are in good agreement with corresponding results from both model calculations and experiments.

  20. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium ((234)U, (238)U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of (234)U/(238)U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  1. Activity ratios of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra for transport mechanisms of elevated uranium in alluvial aquifers of groundwater in south-western (SW) Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Karpe, R K; Rout, S; Gautam, Y P; Mishra, M K; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved uranium (U), its isotopic composition ((234)U, (235)U, (238)U) and two long lived Ra isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in alluvial aquifers of groundwater were determined to investigate the groundwater flow pattern in the south-western (SW) Punjab, India. Particular attention was given to the spatial variability of activity ratios (ARs) of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra to predict the possible sources and supply process of U into the water from the solid phase. The measured groundwater (234)U/(238)U ARs were ∼1 or >1 in the shallow zone (depth < 30 m) with high U concentration and <1 in the deeper zone (depth > 30 m) with relatively low U concentration. The simultaneous elevated U concentration and (234)U/(238)U ARs in waters were possibly due to differences in imprints of rock-water interactions under hydrologic conditions. However, (234)U/(238)U ARs < 1 clearly indicate the lack of recharge from surface water to groundwater leading to (234)U deficit in groundwater. This deficit might be also attributed to alpha recoil processes under strong dissolution. Overall, the decreasing pattern of (234)U/(238)U ARs observed from SE to SW or NW ward clearly indicates a groundwater flow paths from SE to SW/NW. Similarly, (226)Ra/(238)U ARs < 1 for all water samples reflect that the precursor (238)U is fairly mobile relative to (226)Ra. This might be due to unusually high amount of (238)U in groundwaters and subsequently the different geochemistry of the two isotopes. On the other hand, (226)Ra/(228)Ra ARs in groundwaters varied widely and observed about 50-300 times higher than (238)U/(232)Th ARs in granitic rocks or soils. Such elevation in ARs might be attributed to different dissolution properties of their parents during water-rock interactions or lattice damage during decay or local enrichments of uranium in the aquifers.

  2. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. < 3% accuracies. Emitted-neutron resolutions are quantitatively defined and vary from approx. = 0.1 to 0.35 MeV. The experimental results are corrected for fisson-neutron contributions to obtain pseudo-elastic-neutron-scattering cross sections which, together with the neutron total cross sections, define the non-elastic cross sections to within well specified energy resolutions. These results imply inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections which are compared with comparable quantities derived from ENDF/B-V. Good general agreement is noted for /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for /sup 240/Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of /sup 239/Pu.

  3. Isotope ratios of (235)U/(238)U and (137)Cs/(235)U in black rain streaks on plaster wall caused by fallout of the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Fujikawa, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    Radiological investigations of fallout from the atomic bomb detonated over Hiroshima city on 6 August 1945 are important to estimate doses for inhabitants. The authors have analyzed the concentrations of (137)Cs, (235)U, and (238)U in streaks of black rain caused by the atomic bomb using gamma-ray spectroscopy and the ICP-QMS method. The black rain streaks were deposited on a plaster wall of a house located 3.7 km west of the hypocenter that has been kept in the same condition as after the rainfall. Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) was detected from black streak samples. Concentration of (137)Cs in the black rain streaks is twice as high as fallout deposition on the ground in this area. A (235)U/(238)U atom ratio of 0.00887 was found, which is higher than the natural ratio, reflecting the fact that the atomic bomb "Little Boy" used enriched uranium as fuel. The ratio (137)Cs/(235)U was determined to be 0.0091, which is about eight times higher than the estimated ratio of 0.00113 based on the fission yield.

  4. Determination of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in riverbank soil along the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Santawamaitre, T; Malain, D; Al-Sulaiti, H A; Bradley, D A; Matthews, M C; Regan, P H

    2014-12-01

    The activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in riverbank soil along the Chao Phraya river basin was determined through gamma-ray spectrometry measurements made using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 13.9 ↔ 76.8, 12.9 ↔ 142.9 and 178.4 ↔ 810.7 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The anthropogenic radionuclide, (137)Cs, was not observed in statistically significant amounts above the background level in the current study. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above the ground surface, the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent, the values of the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index associated with all the soil samples in the present work were evaluated. The results indicate that the radiation hazard from primordial radionuclides in all soil samples from the area studied in this current work is not significant.

  5. Initial Design Calculations for a Detection System that will Observe Resonant Excitation of the 680 keV state in 238U

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Hagmann, C

    2007-01-26

    We present calculations and design considerations for a detection system that could be used to observe nuclear resonance fluorescence in {sup 238}U. This is intended as part of an experiment in which a nearly monochromatic beam of light incident on a thin foil of natural uranium resonantly populates the state at 680 keV in {sup 238}U. The beam of light is generated via Compton upscattering of laser light incident on a beam of relativistic electrons. This light source has excellent energy and angular resolution. In the current design study we suppose photons emitted following de-excitation of excited nuclei to be observed by a segmented array of BGO crystals. Monte Carlo calculations are used to inform estimates for the design and performance of this detector system. We find that each detector in this array should be shielded by about 2 cm of lead. The signal to background ratio for each of the BGO crystals is larger than ten. The probability that a single detector observes a resonant photon during a single pulse of the light source is near unity.

  6. Characterisation of airborne uranium and thorium contamination in northern England through measurement of U, Th and 235U/238U in tree bark.

    PubMed

    Bellis, D J; Ma, R; McLeod, C W

    2001-02-01

    Samples of tree bark were collected from four locations in Northern England (a typical rural site, a coal-fired power station, a uranium (isotopic) enrichment plant and a nuclear fuel fabrication facility), to assess the nature and extent of airborne uranium and thorium contamination. The U and Th concentrations of bark were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after conventional nebulisation of bark digests, whilst measurement of 235U/238U isotopic ratio utilised high efficiency nebulisation. Uranium concentrations varied between and within the sites (range, 0.01-12 micrograms g-1), with maximum values recorded within 1 km of the nuclear fuel fabrication plant (Springfields). In comparison, the concentration of Th in bark was low (mean, 0.018 microgram g-1) at all sites with the exception of the area affected by coal combustion (0.2-0.8 microgram g-1). The U/Th ratio varied from 0.5 to 3900 compared with the average crustal ratio of 0.3. Low values (< 2) were recorded at the 'coal' and 'rural' sites whilst Capenhurst and Springfields showed high values indicating the relative magnitude of uranium elevation. Significant enrichment of the natural 235U/238U ratio (0.00725) was observed near the nuclear installations, in particular, the enrichment plant (Capenhurst).

  7. Uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, R.C.

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M = 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  8. Potential human health risk by 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" reservoir (Northern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Porres, M. Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, M. A.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Cabral-Lares, M.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Conchos River is one of the most important in northern Mexico and the main surface waterway in the arid state of Chihuahua. The Luis L. Leon dam produces the Luis L. Leon Reservoir, which is the last major reservoir before the Conchos River enters the Rio Grande at the Texas-Chihuahua border. Activity concentrations (AC) of 234,238U and 210Po in fillet and liver of three stocked fish species (Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus), as well as in water from the Luis L. Leon reservoir were determined. 238U and 234U ACs in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus species, present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bqṡkg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues respect to their concentrations in water was determined. Lepomis cyanellus species showed the highest BAF for total uranium in fillet, with value 1.5. The annual effective dose for uranium in adults by fish consumption in this work ranged from 4.46×10-3 to 3.68×10-2 μSvṡyear-1. The difference in concentrations of uranium in fillet among the studied species is likely primarily due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  9. Identification of new neutron-rich isotopes produced by in-flight fission of ^238U at 345 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohtake, Masao; Inabe, Naohito; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kanenobu

    2009-10-01

    At RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN Nishina Center, an in-flight radioactive isotope beam separator BigRIPS[1] was commissioned in 2007. Then we made a search for new isotopes using in-flight fission of a ^238U beam at 345 MeV/u, and observed two new palladium isotopes ^125Pd and ^126Pd.[2] In November 2008, we revisited this experiment with improved experimental conditions and better tuning of BigRIPS. The intensity of the ^238U beam was 1.6x10^9 particle/sec on average, which was about 40 times higher than in 2007. The search was performed for three Bρ settings that targeted different isotope regions. The achieved resolution of particle identification was good enough to well identify fission fragments even if some of them were not fully stripped. We observed more than 20 new isotopes with Z = 26 to 53, including ^128Pd, which demonstrated the RI-beam production power of BigRIPS at RIBF. The details of the experiment will be reported. [1]T. Kubo, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B204, 97(2003). [2]T. Ohnishi et al, J. Phys. Soci. Jpn. 77, 083201(2008).

  10. Measurements of yields of fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with high-energy p, d and n beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.A.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was performed at the Michigan State University cyclotron to determine the yields of neutron-rich fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with 100-MeV neutrons, 200-MeV deuterons and 200-MeV protons. Several 1-mm-thick {sup 238}U foils were irradiated for 100-second intervals sequentially for each configuration and the ten spectra were added for higher statistics. The three successive spectra, each for a 40 s period, were accumulated for each sample. Ten foils were irradiated. Successive spectra allowed us to determine approximate half-lives of the gamma peaks. Several arrangements, which were similar to the setup we plan to use in our radioactive beam proposal, were used for the production of fission products. For the high-energy neutron irradiation, U foils were placed after a 5-inch-long, 1-inch-diameter Be cylinder which stopped the 200-MeV deuteron beam generating 100-MeV neutrons. Arrangements for deuteron irradiation included direct irradiation of U foils, placing U foils after different lengths of (0.5 inch, 1.0 inch and 1.5 inch) 2-inch diameter U cylinder. Since the deuteron range in uranium is 17 mm, some of the irradiations were due to the secondary neutrons from the deuteron-induced fission of U. Similar arrangements were also used for the 200-MeV proton irradiation of the {sup 238}U foils. In all cases, several neutron-rich fission products were identified and their yields determined. In particular, we were able to observe Sn in all the runs and determine its yield. The data show that with our proposed radioactive device we will be able to produce more than 10{sup 12} {sup 132}Sn atoms per second in the target. Assuming an overall efficiency of 1 %, we will be able to deliver one particle nanoampere of {sup 132}Sn beam at a target location. Detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray spectra is in progress.

  11. Production of new neutron-rich isotopes of heavy elements in fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Pereira, J.; Audouin, L.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Junghans, A. R.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2010-10-15

    The production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been investigated using cold-fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies. The experiment performed at the high-resolving-power magnetic spectrometer Fragment Separator at GSI made it possible to identify 40 new heavy neutron-rich nuclei: {sup 205}Pt, {sup 207-210}Au, {sup 211-216}Hg, {sup 214-217}Tl, {sup 215-220}Pb, {sup 219-224}Bi, {sup 223-227}Po, {sup 225-229}At, {sup 230,231}Rn, and {sup 233}Fr. The production cross sections of these nuclei were also determined and used to benchmark reaction codes that predict the production of nuclei far from stability.

  12. Physical characteristics of LWRs and SCLWRs loaded by ({sup 233}U-Th-{sup 238}U) oxide fuel with small additions of {sup 231}Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, E.G.; Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G.

    2007-07-01

    The paper investigates the possibility and attractiveness of using (U-Th) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs) and in light-water reactors with super-critical coolant parameters (SCLWRs). It is proposed to dilute {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U to enhance the proliferation resistance of this fissionable isotope. If is noteworthy that she idea was put forward for the first time by she well known American physicist and participant of the Manhattan Project Dr. T. Taylor. Various fuel compositions are analyzed and compared on fuel breeding, achievable values of fuel burn-up and cross-sections of parasitic neutron absorption. It is also demonstrated that small {sup 231}Pa additions (several percent) into the fuel allows: to increase fuel burn-up, to achieve more negative temperature reactivity coefficient of coolant and to enhance nonproliferation of the fuel. (authors)

  13. Production of new superheavy Z=108-114 nuclei with {sup 238}U, {sup 244}Pu, and {sup 248,250}Cm targets

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Li Junqing

    2009-11-15

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model, production cross sections of new superheavy nuclei with charged numbers Z=108-114 are analyzed systematically. Possible combinations based on the actinide nuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 244}Pu, and {sup 248,250}Cm with the optimal excitation energies and evaporation channels are pointed out to synthesize new isotopes that lie between the nuclides produced in the cold fusion reactions and the {sup 48}Ca-induced fusion reactions experimentally, which are feasible to be constructed experimentally. It is found that the production cross sections of superheavy nuclei decrease drastically with the charged numbers of compound nuclei. Larger mass asymmetries of the entrance channels enhance the cross sections in 2n-5n channels.

  14. (238)U/(235)U isotope ratios of crustal material, rivers and products of hydrothermal alteration: new insights on the oceanic U isotope mass balance.

    PubMed

    Noordmann, Janine; Weyer, Stefan; Georg, R Bastian; Jöns, Svenja; Sharma, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the U isotope composition, n((238)U)/n((235)U), of major components of the upper continental crust, including granitic rocks of different age and post-Archaean shales, as well as that of rivers (the major U source to the oceans) was investigated. Furthermore, U isotope fractionation during the removal of U at mid-ocean ridges, an important sink for U from the oceans, was investigated by the analyses of hydrothermal water samples (including low- and high-temperature fluids), low-temperature altered basalts and calcium carbonate veins. All analysed rock samples from the continental crust fall into a limited range of δ(238)U between -0.45 and -0.21 ‰ (relative to NBL CRM 112-A), with an average of -0.30 ± 0.15 ‰ (2 SD, N = 11). Despite differences in catchment lithologies, all major rivers define a relatively narrow range between -0.31 and -0.13 ‰, with a weighted mean isotope composition of -0.27 ‰, which is indistinguishable from the estimate for the upper continental crust (-0.30 ‰). Only some tributary rivers from the Swiss Alps display a slightly larger range in δ(238)U (-0.29 to +0.01 ‰) and lower U concentrations (0.87-3.08 nmol/kg) compared to the investigated major rivers (5.19-11.69 nmol/kg). These findings indicate that only minor net U isotope fractionation occurs during weathering and transport of material from the continental crust to the oceans. Altered basalts display moderately enriched U concentrations (by a factor of 3-18) compared to those typically observed for normal mid-ocean ridge basalts. These, and carbonate veins within altered basalts, show large U isotope fractionation towards both heavy and light U isotope compositions (ranging from -0.63 to +0.27 ‰). Hydrothermal water samples display low U concentrations (0.3-1 nmol/kg) and only limited variations in their U isotope composition (-0.43 ± 0.25 ‰) around the seawater value. Nevertheless, two of the investigated fluids display

  15. Ground water contamination with (238)U, (234)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb from past uranium mining: cove wash, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Dias da Cunha, Kenya Moore; Henderson, Helenes; Thomson, Bruce M; Hecht, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the study are to present a critical review of the (238)U, (234)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb levels in water samples from the EPA studies (U.S. EPA in Abandoned uranium mines and the Navajo Nation: Red Valley chapter screening assessment report. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Francisco, 2004, Abandoned uranium mines and the Navajo Nation: Northern aum region screening assessment report. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Francisco, 2006, Health and environmental impacts of uranium contamination, 5-year plan. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Franciso, 2008) and the dose assessment for the population due to ingestion of water containing (238)U and (234)U. The water quality data were taken from Sect. "Data analysis" of the published report, titled Abandoned Uranium Mines Project Arizona, New Mexico, Utah-Navajo Lands 1994-2000, Project Atlas. Total uranium concentration was above the maximum concentration level for drinking water (7.410-1 Bq/L) in 19 % of the water samples, while (238)U and (234)U concentrations were above in 14 and 17 % of the water samples, respectively. (226)Ra and (210)Pb concentrations in water samples were in the range of 3.7 × 10(-1) to 5.55 × 102 Bq/L and 1.11 to 4.33 × 102 Bq/L, respectively. For only two samples, the (226)Ra concentrations exceeded the MCL for total Ra for drinking water (0.185 Bq/L). However, the (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios varied from 0.11 to 47.00, and ratios above 1.00 were observed in 71 % of the samples. Secular equilibrium of the natural uranium series was not observed in the data record for most of the water samples. Moreover, the (235)U/(total)U mass ratios ranged from 0.06 to 5.9 %, and the natural mass ratio of (235)U to (total)U (0.72 %) was observed in only 16 % of the water samples, ratios above or below the natural ratio could not be explained based on data reported by U.S. EPA. In addition, statistical evaluations showed no correlations among the distribution of the radionuclide concentrations

  16. Charge distribution of light mass fission products in the fast neutron induced fission of (232)Th, (238)U, (240)Pu and (244)Cm.

    PubMed

    Naik, Haladhara; Singh, Ram Janam; Dange, Shrikant Pandurang

    2017-09-01

    Fractional cumulative yields (FCY) of various light mass fission products in the fast neutron induced fission of (232)Th, (238)U, (240)Pu and (244)Cm have been determined by using the off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. From present and literature data, width of isobaric charge distribution (σZ), the most probable charge (ZP) and the experimental charge polarization (∆ΖEXPT) as a function of fragment mass were deduced. The ∆ΖEXPT values from the present work for light mass chains and earlier work for heavy mass chains show oscillating nature due to nuclear structure effect. The ∆ΖMPE values based on minimum potential energy surface were theoretically calculated, which shows a systematic decrease trend with the approach of symmetric split due to the liquid drop behaviour of the fissioning nucleus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of 45 New Neutron-Rich Isotopes Produced by In-Flight Fission of a 238U Beam at 345 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsuya Ohnishi,; Toshiyuki Kubo,; Kensuke Kusaka,; Atsushi Yoshida,; Koichi Yoshida,; Masao Ohtake,; Naoki Fukuda,; Hiroyuki Takeda,; Daisuke Kameda,; Kanenobu Tanaka,; Naohito Inabe,; Yoshiyuki Yanagisawa,; Yasuyuki Gono,; Hiroshi Watanabe,; Hideaki Otsu,; Hidetada Baba,; Takashi Ichihara,; Yoshitaka Yamaguchi,; Maya Takechi,; Shunji Nishimura,; Hideki Ueno,; Akihiro Yoshimi,; Hiroyoshi Sakurai,; Tohru Motobayashi,; Taro Nakao,; Yutaka Mizoi,; Masafumi Matsushita,; Kazuo Ieki,; Nobuyuki Kobayashi,; Kana Tanaka,; Yosuke Kawada,; Naoki Tanaka,; Shigeki Deguchi,; Yoshiteru Satou,; Yosuke Kondo,; Takashi Nakamura,; Kenta Yoshinaga,; Chihiro Ishii,; Hideakira Yoshii,; Yuki Miyashita,; Nobuya Uematsu,; Yasutsugu Shiraki,; Toshiyuki Sumikama,; Junsei Chiba,; Eiji Ideguchi,; Akito Saito,; Takayuki Yamaguchi,; Isao Hachiuma,; Takeshi Suzuki,; Tetsuaki Moriguchi,; Akira Ozawa,; Takashi Ohtsubo,; Michael A. Famiano,; Hans Geissel,; Anthony S. Nettleton,; Oleg B. Tarasov,; Daniel P. Bazin,; Bradley M. Sherrill,; Shashikant L. Manikonda,; Jerry A. Nolen,

    2010-07-01

    A search for new isotopes using in-flight fission of a 345 MeV/nucleon 238U beam has been carried out at the RI Beam Factory at the RIKEN Nishina Center. Fission fragments were analyzed and identified by using the superconducting in-flight separator BigRIPS. We observed 45 new neutron-rich isotopes: 71Mn, 73,74Fe, 76Co, 79Ni, 81,82Cu, 84,85Zn, 87Ga, 90Ge, 95Se, 98Br, 101Kr, 103Rb, 106,107Sr, 108,109Y, 111,112Zr, 114,115Nb, 115,116,117Mo, 119,120Tc, 121,122,123,124Ru, 123,124,125,126Rh, 127,128Pd, 133Cd, 138Sn, 140Sb, 143Te, 145I, 148Xe, and 152Ba.

  18. Quantification of Uncertainties due to 235,238U, 239,240,241Pu and Fission Products Nuclear Data Uncertainties for a PWR Fuel Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, D. F.; Rochman, D.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    Uncertainty analysis on reactivity and discharged inventory for a typical PWR fuel element as a result of uncertainties in 235,238U, 239,240,241Pu, and fission products nuclear data was performed. The Total Monte-Carlo (TMC) method was applied using the deterministic transport code DRAGON. The nuclear data used in this study is from the JEFF-3.1 evaluations, with the exception of the nuclear data files for U, Pu and fission products isotopes, which are taken from the nuclear data library TENDL-2012. Results show that the calculated total uncertainty in keff (as result of uncertainties in nuclear data of the considered isotopes) is virtually independent on fuel burnp and amounts to 700 pcm. The uncertainties in inventory of the discharged fuel is dependent on the element considered and lies in the range 1-15% for most fission products, and is below 5% for the most important actinides.

  19. Absolute and relative cross section measurements of 237Np(n,f) and 238U(n,f) at the National Physical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, Paula; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Göök, Alf; Vidali, Marzio; Hawkes, Nigel P.; Roberts, Neil J.; Taylor, Graeme C.; Thomas, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Cross section measurements in the fast energy region are being demanded as one of the key ingredients for modelling Generation-IV nuclear power plants. However, in facilities where there are no time-of-flight possibilities or it is not convenient to use them, using the 235U(n,f) cross section as a benchmark would require a careful knowledge of the room scatter in the experimental area. In this paper we present measurements of two threshold reactions, 238U(n,f) and 237Np(n,f), that could become a standard between their fission threshold and 2.5 MeV, if the discrepancies shown in the evaluations and in some experimental data can be solved. The preliminary results are in agreement with the present ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.

  20. High-accuracy determination of the 238U/235U fission cross section ratio up to ≈1 GeV at n_TOF at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Calviani, M.; Tarrío, D.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Le Naour, C.; Duran, I.; Colonna, N.; Audouin, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Ventura, A.; Aerts, G.; Altstadt, S.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Diakaki, M.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Heinitz, S.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Konovalov, V.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Musumarra, A.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perkowski, J.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, L.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rudolf, G.; Rubbia, C.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wallner, A.; Walter, S.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wiesher, M.; Wisshak, K.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The 238U to 235U fission cross section ratio has been determined at n_TOF up to ≈1 GeV, with two different detection systems, in different geometrical configurations. A total of four datasets has been collected and compared. They are all consistent to each other within the relative systematic uncertainty of 3-4%. The data collected at n_TOF have been suitably combined to yield a unique fission cross section ratio as a function of neutron energy. The result confirms current evaluations up to 200 MeV. Good agreement is also observed with theoretical calculations based on the INCL ++/ Gemini++ combination up to the highest measured energy. The n_TOF results may help solve a long-standing discrepancy between the two most important experimental datasets available so far above 20 MeV, while extending the neutron energy range for the first time up to ≈1 GeV.

  1. The cumulative effect of three decades of phosphogypsum amendments in reclaimed marsh soils from SW Spain: (226)Ra, (238)U and Cd contents in soils and tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Enamorado, Santiago M; Hurtado, M Dolores; Andreu, Luis; Delgado, Antonio

    2008-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of the phosphate fertiliser industries, has been applied as soil amendment to reduce Na saturation in soils, as in the reclaimed marsh area from SW Spain, where available PG has a typical fingerprint of 710+/-40 Bq kg(-1) of (226)Ra, 165+/-15 Bq kg(-1) of (238)U and 2.8+/-0.4 mg kg(-1) of Cd. This work was focussed on the cumulative effects of PG amendments on the enrichment of these pollutants in cultivated soils and plants (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill L.) from the area studied, where PG has been applied since 1978 at recommended rates of 20-25 Mg ha(-1) every 2-3 years. A field experiment was conducted over three years to compare activity concentrations of (226)Ra ((214)Pb) and (238)U ((234)Th) in non-reclaimed soils, reclaimed soils with no additional PG application, and reclaimed soils with two additional PG applications. A non-significant effect of two PG amendments (in three years) was observed when compared with non-amended reclaimed plots. Nevertheless, a significant (p<0.05) enrichment of (226)Ra was observed in the surface horizon (0-30 cm) of reclaimed plots relative to deeper horizons and also when compared with the surface horizon of non-reclaimed soil (p<0.05), thereby revealing the cumulative effect of three decades of PG applications. Furthermore, the effect of a continuous application of PG was studied by analysing soils and tomato fruits from six commercial farms with different cumulative rates of PG applied. Cadmium concentrations in tomatoes, which were one order of magnitude higher than those found in tomatoes from other areas in South Spain, were positively correlated (r = 0.917) with (226)Ra-concentration in soils, which can be considered an accurate index of the cumulative PG rate of each farm.

  2. Influence of a Decaying Cyclonic Eddy on Biogenic Silica and Particulate Organic Carbon in the Tropical South China Sea Based on 234Th-238U Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weifeng; Chen, Min; Zheng, Minfang; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Xinxing; Qiu, Yusheng; Xu, Wangbin; Ma, Lili; Lin, Zhiyu; Hu, Wangjiang; Zeng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Eddies play a critical role in regulating the biological pump by pumping new nutrients to the euphotic zone. However, the effects of cyclonic eddies on particle export are not well understood. Here, biogenic silica (BSi) and particulate organic carbon (POC) exports were examined inside and outside a decaying cyclonic eddy using 234Th-238U disequilibria in the tropical South China Sea. For the eddy and outside stations, the average concentrations of BSi in the euphotic zone were 0.17±0.09 μmol L-1 (mean±sd, n = 20) and 0.21±0.06 μmol L-1 (n = 34). The POC concentrations were 1.42±0.56 μmol L-1 (n = 34) and 1.30±0.46 μmol L-1 (n = 51). Both BSi and POC abundances did not show change at the 95% confidence level. Based on the 234Th-238U model, BSi export fluxes in the eddy averaged 0.18±0.15 mmol Si m-2 d-1, which was comparable with the 0.40±0.20 mmol Si m-2 d-1 outside the eddy. Similarly, the average POC export fluxes were 1.5±1.4 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 1.9±1.3 mmol C m-2 d-1 for the eddy and outside stations. From these results we concluded that cyclonic eddies in their decaying phase have little effect on the abundance and export of biogenic particles. PMID:26317555

  3. Radionuclides (40K, 232Th and 238U) and Heavy Metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb) Distribution Assessment at Renggam Landfill, Simpang Renggam, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, E.; FahrulRazi, MJ; Azhar, ATS; Hazreek, ZAM; Shakila, A.; Norshuhaila, MS; Omeje, M.

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of radioactivity levels and the distribution of heavy metals in soil samples at CEP Farm landfill, Renggam in Johor State was to determine the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metal concentrations of this landfill. The background radiation was monitored to estimate the exposure level. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were determined using HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy whereas the heavy metal concentration was measured using X-RF analysis. The mean exposure rate at the landfill site was 36.2±2.4 μR hr-1 and the annual effective dose rate at the landfill site was 3.19 ± 0.22 mSv yr-1. However, residential area has lower mean exposure dose rate of about 16.33±0.72 μR hr-1 and has an annual effective dose rate of 1.43±0.06 mSv yr-1 compared to landfill sites. The mean activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th at landfill site were 239.95±15.89 Bq kg-1, 20.90±2.49 Bq kg-1 and 40.61±4.59 Bq kg-1, respectively. For heavy metal compositions, Cr, Ni and Cu have mean concentration of 232±10 ppm, 23±2 ppm, and 46±19 ppm, respectively. Whereas, Zn has concentration of 64±9 ppm and concentration of 12±1 ppm and 71±2 ppm was estimated for As and Pb respectively. The higher activity concentration of 40K down the slope through leaching process whereas the higher activity level of 238U content at the landfill site may be attributed to the soil disruption to local equilibrium.

  4. Influence of a Decaying Cyclonic Eddy on Biogenic Silica and Particulate Organic Carbon in the Tropical South China Sea Based on 234Th-238U Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weifeng; Chen, Min; Zheng, Minfang; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Xinxing; Qiu, Yusheng; Xu, Wangbin; Ma, Lili; Lin, Zhiyu; Hu, Wangjiang; Zeng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Eddies play a critical role in regulating the biological pump by pumping new nutrients to the euphotic zone. However, the effects of cyclonic eddies on particle export are not well understood. Here, biogenic silica (BSi) and particulate organic carbon (POC) exports were examined inside and outside a decaying cyclonic eddy using 234Th-238U disequilibria in the tropical South China Sea. For the eddy and outside stations, the average concentrations of BSi in the euphotic zone were 0.17±0.09 μmol L-1 (mean±sd, n = 20) and 0.21±0.06 μmol L-1 (n = 34). The POC concentrations were 1.42±0.56 μmol L-1 (n = 34) and 1.30±0.46 μmol L-1 (n = 51). Both BSi and POC abundances did not show change at the 95% confidence level. Based on the 234Th-238U model, BSi export fluxes in the eddy averaged 0.18±0.15 mmol Si m-2 d-1, which was comparable with the 0.40±0.20 mmol Si m-2 d-1 outside the eddy. Similarly, the average POC export fluxes were 1.5±1.4 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 1.9±1.3 mmol C m-2 d-1 for the eddy and outside stations. From these results we concluded that cyclonic eddies in their decaying phase have little effect on the abundance and export of biogenic particles.

  5. Feasibility of Colliding-beam fast-fission reactor via 238U80++238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV beam with suppressed plutonium and direct conversion of fission fragment (FF) energy into electricity and/or Rocket propellant with high specific impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Hester, Tim; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-uranium colliding beam experiment1, used fully ionized 238U92+ at energy 100GeV --> <-- 100 GeV, has measured total σ = 487 b. Reaction rate of colliding beams is proportional to neutron flux-squared. First functional Auto-Collider3-6, a compact Migma IV, 1 m in diameter, had self-colliding deuterons, D+, of 725 KeV --> <-- 725 KeV, resulting in copious production of T and 3He. U +U Autocollider``EXYDER'' will use strong-focusing magnet7, which would increase reaction rate by 104. 80 times ionized U ions accelerated through 3 MV accelerator, will collide beam 240 MeV --> <-- 240 MeV. Reaction is: 238U80+ +238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV. Using a simple model1 fission σf ~ 100 b. Suppression of Pu by a factor of 106 will be achieved because NO thermal neutron fission can take place; only fast, 1-3 MeV, where σabs is negligible. Direct conversion of 95% of 430 MeV produced is carried by electrically charged FFs which are magnetically funneled for direct conversion of energy of FFs via electrostatic decelerators4,11. 90% of 930 MeV is electrically recoverable. Depending on the assumptions, we project electric _ power density production of 20 to 200 MWe m-3, equivalent to Thermal 1.3 - 13 GWthm-3. If one-half of unburned U is used for propulsion while rest powers system, heavy FF ion mass provides specific impulse Isp = 106 sec., 103 times higher than current rocket engines.

  6. 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria in plagioclase from recent mixed magmas at Mount Hood: constraints on crystal storage timescales and eruption triggering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppich, G. R.; Cooper, K. M.; Kent, A. J.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Uranium-series crystal ages, interpreted within a textural and geochemical framework, can provide insight into crystal storage timescales and eruption triggering processes. Mount Hood is a mixing-driven volcano that consistently erupts magmas of intermediate composition. Mixed magmas incorporate plagioclase derived from mafic and silicic end-member magmas (Kent AJR; Darr C; Koleszar AM; Salisbury MJ; Cooper KM. 2010. Preferential eruption of andesitic magmas through recharge filtering. Nature Geosci.). We measured 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria for four plagioclase size fractions, groundmass separates, and mafic inclusions from the Timberline (1500 a) and Old Maid (215 a) eruptive sequences. Measured (230Th)/(238U) was 1.126-1.143 for Timberline plagioclase and 1.127-1.143 for Old Maid plagioclase. Measured (226Ra)/(230Th) was 1.22-1.62 for Timberline plagioclase and 1.27-1.43 for Old Maid plagioclase. Corrections were performed for the presence of groundmass in the >500 µm plagioclase separates, and large plagioclase + groundmass in the <500 µm plagioclase separates. Small (<500 µm) plagioclase, derived from mafic magma, records enriched present-day (226Ra)/Ba relative to equilibrium with liquid proxies (groundmass and mafic inclusions), leading to undefined Ra-Th model ages. However, the measured disequilibria require that the majority of plagioclase in the separate is young (<<10 ka). Large (>500 µm) plagioclase, derived from the silicic mixing end-member, records (238U)/(230Th) disequilibrium and minor (226Ra)/(230Th) disequilibrium. Ra-Th model ages are 5-10 ka. Rims of large plagioclase crystallized within weeks of eruption (Kent et al., 2010), suggesting that the 5-10 ka Ra-Th model ages are averages of young rim growth and old cores, which could be >10 ka. Crystallization timescales of large plagioclase cores are longer than timescales of repose between eruptions, suggesting that the crystals must have been present yet remained untapped during older

  7. Transfer Rates of 238U and 232Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs

    PubMed Central

    Tshivhase, Victor M.; Njinga, Raymond L.; Mathuthu, Manny; Dlamini, Thulani C.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as 238U and 232Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of 238U and 232Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula) from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS), located at longitude 27°55′00″E and latitude 26°09′30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa) was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF) values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of 238U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10−2 was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of 232Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29), followed by E. globulus (0.10) and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10−2). The ratio of TF average value i.e., 238U to 232Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula. PMID:26690462

  8. 234U/238U Disequilibrium along stylolitic discontinuities in deep Mesozoic limestone formations of the Eastern Paris basin: evidence for discrete uranium mobility over the last 1-2 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, P.; Hillaire-Marcel, C. E.; Michelot, J.-L.; Doucelance, R.; Ghaleb, B.; Buschaert, S.

    The (234U/238) equilibrium state of borehole core samples from the deep, low-permeability limestone formations surrounding the target argilite layer of the Meuse/Haute-Marne experimental site of the French agency for nuclear waste management -ANDRA- (Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs) was examined to improve understanding of naturally occurring radionuclide behaviour in such geological settings. Highly precise, accurate MC-ICP-MS measurements of the (234U/238U) activity ratio show that limestone samples characterised by pressure dissolution structures (stylolites or dissolution seams) display systematic (234U/238U) disequilibria, while the pristine carbonate samples remain in the secular equilibrium state. The systematic feature is observed throughout the zones marked by pressure dissolution structures: (i) the material within the seams shows a deficit of 234U over 238U ((234U/238U) down to 0.80) and (ii) the surrounding carbonate matrix is characterised by an activity ratio greater than unity (up to 1.05). These results highlight a centimetric-scale uranium remobilisation in the limestone formations along these sub-horizontal seams. Although their nature and modalities are not fully understood, the driving processes responsible for these disequilibria were active during the last 1-2 Ma.

  9. Chemical fertilizers as a source of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and trace metal pollutant of the environment in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshahri, Fatimh; Alqahtani, Muna

    2015-06-01

    The specific activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (222)Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study, 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabian markets. The specific activities of (238)U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kg(-1); (226)Ra ranged from 5.60 ± 2.80 to 392 ± 18 Bq kg(-1); and (40)K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16,476 ± 820 Bq kg(-1). The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.20 ± 1.20 to 1532 ± 160 Bq m(-3) and from 1.60 to 774 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for six local samples (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) and single superphosphate (SSP)) and one imported sample (Sulfate of Potash (SOP)) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kg(-1). The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample diammonium phosphate (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy h(-1). The highest annual effective dose was in triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers (2.1 mSv y(-1)). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP, and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg, and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

  10. Distinct 238U/235U ratios and REE patterns in plutonic and volcanic angrites: Geochronologic implications and evidence for U isotope fractionation during magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-09-01

    Angrites are differentiated meteorites that formed between 4 and 11 Myr after Solar System formation, when several short-lived nuclides (e.g., 26Al-26Mg, 53Mn-53Cr, 182Hf-182W) were still alive. As such, angrites are prime anchors to tie the relative chronology inferred from these short-lived radionuclides to the absolute Pb-Pb clock. The discovery of variable U isotopic composition (at the sub-permil level) calls for a revision of Pb-Pb ages calculated using an ;assumed; constant 238U/235U ratio (i.e., Pb-Pb ages published before 2009-2010). In this paper, we report high-precision U isotope measurement for six angrite samples (NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and the IRMM-3636 U double-spike. The age corrections range from -0.17 to -1.20 Myr depending on the samples. After correction, concordance between the revised Pb-Pb and Hf-W and Mn-Cr ages of plutonic and quenched angrites is good, and the initial (53Mn/55Mn)0 ratio in the Early Solar System (ESS) is recalculated as being (7 ± 1) × 10-6 at the formation of the Solar System (the error bar incorporates uncertainty in the absolute age of Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions - CAIs). An uncertainty remains as to whether the Al-Mg and Pb-Pb systems agree in large part due to uncertainties in the Pb-Pb age of CAIs. A systematic difference is found in the U isotopic compositions of quenched and plutonic angrites of +0.17‰. A difference is also found between the rare earth element (REE) patterns of these two angrite subgroups. The δ238U values are consistent with fractionation during magmatic evolution of the angrite parent melt. Stable U isotope fractionation due to a change in the coordination environment of U during incorporation into pyroxene could be responsible for such a fractionation. In this context, Pb-Pb ages derived from pyroxenes fraction should be corrected using the U isotope composition

  11. The 238U/235U isotope ratio of the Earth and the solar system: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The ratio of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar system. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U ratio, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar system [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U ratio in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope ratio, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial

  12. High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using 238U-230Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yield ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and delimit the timing of basal Wilson Creek sedimentation to the interval between 26.8±2.1 and 61.7±1.9 ka. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields an age of 40.8±1.9 ka, indicating that the event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The new ages support a depositional chronology from magnetostratigraphy that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to regional climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation.

  13. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (Hex).

  14. New prompt fission neutron spectra measurements in the 238U(n,f) reaction with a dedicated setup at LANSCE/WNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Benoit; Marini, Paola; Bélier, Gilbert; Bonnet, Thomas; Chatillon, Audrey; Taieb, Julien; Etasse, David; Devlin, Matthew; Haight, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) measurement in the 238U(n,f) reaction was performed at LANSCE/WNR facility. Evaluated data show discrepancies on the low (below 1 MeV) and high (above 5 MeV) energy parts in the PFNS for different major and minor actinides. The goal is to improve these measurements in a wide range of incident energy. The energy of the incoming neutron, inducing the fission, and the prompt neutron energies, are measured by time-of-flight method. A dedicated fission chamber was developed, in order to improve alpha-fission discrimination, timing resolution, actinide mass, and to reduce the amount of neutron scattering. To detect prompt neutrons, the 54 Chi-Nu scintillator cells array were surrounding the fission chamber. High statistics were recorded during this experiment, allowing a precise study of PFNS behavior as a function of incident neutron energy, from 1 MeV to 200 MeV. This experiment also showed that all the new tools developed to improve PFNS measurements are performing. Therefore, measurements of PFNS with others actinides such as 239Pu are planned.

  15. Spatial variations of particle export in the South China Sea and the Luzon Strait based on 234Th-238U disequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the spatial variations of particulate organic carbon (POC) export derived from 234Th/238U disequilibria based on the summer cruise in 2014, covering the South China Sea (SCS) and Luzon Strait. Thorium-234 was sampled using a small-volume MnO2 co-precipitation technique, which maximized the spatial resolution of 234Th distribution. A stratified structure of 234Th activities was observed with a subsurface maximum of the 234Th deficit, as seen in many other oligotrophic regimes. The high resolution sampling and the site and depth-specific POC/234Th ratio on suspended particles allowed us to estimate the 234Th fluxes and POC export. POC fluxes were higher in the basin of the northern SCS, with an average of 3.2 mmolC m-2 d-1 as compared to the lower value of 1.7mmolC m-2 d-1 for the southern SCS and 1.2 mmolC m-2 d-1 for the Luzon Strait. Such pattern might be related to variation of nutrient supply and the primary production. Combined with the historical data the interannual variation of POC fluxes in the northern SCS will be examined and presented.

  16. High precision 230Th/232Th and 234U/238U measurements using energyfiltered ICP magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaozhong; Rehkamper, Mark; Lee, Der-Chuen; Halliday, Alex N.

    1997-12-01

    We have developed new chemical and mass spectrometric techniques for the precise determination of 234U/238U and 230Th/232Th ratios in geological materials. The isotope ratio measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma double focusing magnetic sector multiple-collector mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) equipped with an additional energy filter. Following sample dissolution, U and Th are first separated from the rock matrix by a new and highly efficient column chromatographic procedure utilizing TRU-Spec resin. The strong affinity of U and Th for this material allows the use of extremely small ( < 0.5 ml resin) columns, even for the processing of silicate samples as large as ~5 g. Our new mass-spectrometric techniques permit precise corrections for mass discrimination and gain variation during analysis. As a consequence, the precision and external reproducibility of uranium and thorium isotopic analysis is improved by a factor of ~3-5 compared with previous results by conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). A sensitivity of ~0.04% is routinely achieved for Th and this is comparable to the best values achieved by TIMS for large sample sizes. Recent instrumental improvements, however, have further increased our sensitivity by about a factor of five. Our Th and U isotope data for standard reference materials and other geological samples are in excellent agreement with previously published values from other laboratories, further highlighting the reliability and analytical capabilities of our new techniques.

  17. Sources of alluvium in a coastal plain stream based on radionuclide signatures from the 238U and 232Th decay series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Kevin M.; Santschi, Peter H.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Herbert, Bruce E.

    2002-11-01

    Discerning alluvial sources and their change over time or distance is a fundamental question in hydrology and geology, often critical in identifying impacts of human and natural perturbations on fluvial systems. Surfaces of upland interfluves and subsoils, sources of alluvium in the lower Loco Bayou basin, Texas, were distinguished using the isotope ratios 226Ra/232Th, 226Ra/230Th, and 230Th/232Th. Channel alluvium indicates a transition from interfluve surface to subsoil sources during flood (subsoil ˜34% to ˜91%, over about 8 km) and bank-full stages (subsoil ˜9% to ˜74%, over about 12 km), with distance downstream. These results indicate strong coupling between hillslope and channel processes, reflecting land use change from forested to agricultural, concentrated in lower Loco Bayou. This methodology shows that sediment sources can be differentiated based upon landscape placement where lithologic contrast is absent. The geochemistry, long half-lives, and fractionation of 238U and 232Th decay series radionuclides during pedogenic and fluvial processes in humid climates suggest that these methods are applicable in a wide variety of fluvial systems.

  18. Identification of 45 new neutron-rich isotopes produced by in-flight fission of a {sup 238}U beam at 345 MeV/nucleon.

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, T.; Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Manikonda, S.; Nolen, J.

    2010-07-12

    A search for new isotopes using in-flight fission of a 345 MeV/nucleon {sup 238}U beam has been carried out at the RI Beam Factory at the RIKEN Nishina Center. Fission fragments were analyzed and identified by using the superconducting in-flight separator BigRIPS. We observed 45 new neutron-rich isotopes: {sup 71}Mn, {sup 73,74}Fe, {sup 76}Co, {sup 79}Ni, {sup 81,82}Cu, {sup 84,85}Zn, {sup 87}Ga, {sup 90}Ge, {sup 95}Se, {sup 98}Br, {sup 101}Kr, {sup 103}Rb, {sup 106,107}Sr, {sup 108,109}Y, {sup 111,112}Zr, {sup 114,115}Nb, {sup 115,116,117}Mo, {sup 119,120}Tc, {sup 121,122,123,124}Ru, {sup 123,124,125,126}Rh, {sup 127,128}Pd, {sup 133}Cd, {sup 138}Sn, {sup 140}Sb, {sup 143}Te, {sup 145}I, {sup 148}Xe, and {sup 152}Ba.

  19. R-Matrix Analysis of 238U High Resolution Neutron Transmissions and Capture Cross Sections in the Energy Range 0 keV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    The neutron resonance parameters of 238U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990 and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 to 200 pcm.

  20. Synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes in the 238U(26Mg, xn)264-xRf reaction and study of their decay properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M; Gates, J.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dvorak, J.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Loveland, W.; Nelson, S.L.; Pang, G.K.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Turler, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2008-01-15

    Isotopes of rutherfordium (258-261Rf) were produced in irradiations of 238U targets with 26Mg beams. Excitation functions were measured for the 4n, 5n and 6n exit channels. Production of 261Rf in the 3n exit channel with a cross section of 28+92-26 pb was observed. Alpha decay of 258Rf was observed for the first time with an alpha-particle energy of 9.05+-0.03 MeV and an alpha/total decay branching ratio of 0.31+-0.11. In 259Rf, the electron capture/total decay branching ratio was measured to be 0.15+-0.04. The measured half-lives for 258Rf, 259Rf and 260Rf were 14.7+1.2-1.0 ms, 2.5+0.4-0.3 s and 22.2+3.0-2.4 ms, respectively, in agreement with literature data. The systematics of the alpha decay Q values and of the partial spontaneous fission half-lives were evaluated for even-even nuclides in the region of the N = 152, Z = 100 deformed shell. The influence of the N = 152 shell on the alpha decay Q values for rutherfordium was observed to be similar to that of the lighter elements (96<_ Z<_ 102). However, the N = 152 shell does not stabilize the rutherfordium isotopes against spontaneous fission, as it does in the lighter elements (96<_ Z<_102).

  1. Observation of new neutron-rich micro-second isomers among fission products of ^238U at 345 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Daisuke; Nakao, Taro; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohtake, Masao; Inabe, Naohito; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kanenobu; Gono, Yasuyuki

    2009-10-01

    In the production of the radioactive isotope (RI) beam using projectile fragment separators, γ rays emitted from metastable states, isomers, of the reaction products can be used as a fingerprint of the isotope that is analyzed in the separator. In the operation of the superconducting in-flight RI beam separator BigRIPS [1] at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the detection of such γ rays plays important roles not only in the identification of the RI beam [2] but also in searching for new isomers, providing valuable spectroscopic information on the isotopes. In the recent new-isotope production experiment with BigRIPS using in-flight fission of 345 MeV/nucleon ^238U at the beam intensity around 0.3 pnA, we have observed a number of short-lived isomeric decays which include unknown decays from more than 10 isotopes, using three clover-type Ge detectors with a beam stopper of aluminum. The primal result of the observations will be reported. [1] T. Kubo: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003) 97. [2] T. Ohnishi et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 77 (2008) 083201.

  2. sup 234 U/ sup 238 U and sup 230 Th/ sup 234 U activity ratios in the collidal phases of aquifers in lateritic weathered zones

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.A.; Lowson, R.T. ); Ellis, J. )

    1988-11-01

    A procedure was developed for comparing solute and colloid phases of groundwaters in contact with uranium ore bodies at Nabarlek and Koongarra in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, Australia. Single-pass ultrafiltration of large volumes with cut-offs of 18 nm and 1 {mu}m was used. Colloids were composed of Fe and Si species with sorbed U and U daughters. Uranium isotopes were mostly present as soluble species. Thorium was significantly associated with the colloids. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios (ARs) were similar in solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies but further down-gradient colloids were generally more depleted of {sup 234}U than the solute. The {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ARs rose from very low values for both solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies through several orders of magnitude to much higher values further down-gradient. Colloid {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ARs were always significantly greater than solute ARs. Results were consistent with a systematic leaching of U from colloids going down-gradient and very little mobilization of ore body. {sup 230}Th relative to U. Ubiquitous complexes {sup 232}Th appeared to suppress the solubility of {sup 230}Th.

  3. 234U /238U and 230Th /234U activity ratios in the colloidal phases of aquifers in lateritic weathered zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Stephen A.; Lowson, Richard T.; Ellis, John

    1988-11-01

    A procedure was developed for comparing solute and colloid phases of groundwaters in contact with uranium ore bodies at Nabarlek and Koongarra in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, Australia. Single-pass ultrafiltration of large volumes with cut-offs of 18 nm and 1 μm was used. Colloids were composed of Fe and Si species with sorbed U and U daughters. Uranium isotopes were mostly present as soluble species. Thorium was significantly associated with the colloids. The 234U /238U activity ratios (ARs) were similar in solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies but further down-gradient colloids were generally more depleted of 234U than the solute. The 230Th /234U ARs rose from very low values for both solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies through several orders of magnitude to much higher values further down-gradient. Colloid 230Th /234U ARs were always significantly greater than solute ARs. Results were consistent with a systematic leaching of U from colloids going down-gradient and very little mobilization of ore-body 230Th relative to U. Ubiquitous complexed 232Th appeared to suppress the solubility of 230Th.

  4. High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using 238U-230Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yield ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and delimit the timing of basal Wilson Creek sedimentation to the interval between 26.8±2.1 and 61.7±1.9 ka. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields an age of 40.8±1.9 ka, indicating that the event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The new ages support a depositional chronology from magnetostratigraphy that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to regional climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation.

  5. Energy Dependence of Neutron-Induced Fission Product Yields of 235U, 238U and 239Pu Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Matthew; Tornow, Werner; Tonchev, Anton; Vieira, Dave; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Arnold, Charles; Fowler, Malcolm; Stoyer, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements have been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission products between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of activation utilizing specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. The dual-fission chambers are back-to-back ionization chambers encasing a target with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the fission rate in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting was performed on well-shield HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months per activation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 4.6 and 14.8 MeV.

  6. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Anisa Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad

    2016-01-22

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (I{sub geo}) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (H{sub ex})

  7. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Matthew; Arnold, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Krishichayan; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  8. Theoretical analyses of (n,xn) reactions on sup 235 U, sup 238 U, sup 237 Np, and sup 239 Pu for ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analyses were performed of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu between 0.01 and 20 MeV in order to calculate neutron emission cross sections and spectra for ENDF/B-VI evaluations. Coupled-channel optical model potentials were obtained for each target nucleus by fitting total, elastic, and inelastic scattering cross section data, as well as low-energy average resonance data. The resulting deformed optical model potentials were used to calculate direct (n,n{prime}) cross sections and transmission coefficients for use in Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory analyses. A fission model with multiple barrier representation, width fluctuation corrections, and preequilibrium corrections were included in the analyses. Direct cross sections for higher-lying vibrational states were calculated using DWBA theory, normalized using B(E{ell}) values determined from (d,d{prime}) and Coulomb excitation data, where available, and from systematics otherwise. Initial fission barrier parameters and transition state density enhancements appropriate to the compound systems involved were obtained from previous analyses, especially fits to charged-particle fission probability data. The parameters for the fission model were adjusted for each target system to obtain optimum agreement with direct (n,f) cross section measurements, taking account of the various multichance fission channels, that is, the different compound systems involved. The results from these analyses were used to calculate most of the neutron (n,n), (n,n{prime}), and (n,xn) cross section data in the ENDF/B/VI evaluations for the above nuclei, and all of the energy-angle correlated spectra. The deformed optical model and fission model parameterizations are described. Comparisons are given between the results of these analyses and the previous ENDF/B-V evaluations as well as with the available experimental data. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate.

    PubMed

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Manjón, Guillermo

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its (226)Ra content and to the (222)Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of (222)Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km(2) from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged (226)Ra concentrations for the stack were 730+/-60 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). (222)Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m(-2)h(-1), but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with (226)Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  10. 234U/238U and δ87Sr in peat as tracers of paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Paces, James B.; Alpers, Charles N.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Neymark, Leonid; Bullen, Thomas D.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the history of paleosalinity over the past 6000+ years in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta), which is the innermost part of the San Francisco Estuary. We used a combination of Sr and U concentrations, d87Sr values, and 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) in peat as proxies for tracking paleosalinity. Peat cores were collected in marshes on Browns Island, Franks Wetland, and Bacon Channel Island in the Delta. Cores were dated using 137Cs, the onset of Pb and Hg contamination from hydraulic gold mining, and 14C. A proof of concept study showed that the dominant emergent macrophyte and major component of peat in the Delta, Schoenoplectus spp., incorporates Sr and U and that the isotopic composition of these elements tracks the ambient water salinity across the Estuary. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Sr and U in the three main water sources contributing to the Delta (seawater, Sacramento River water, and San Joaquin River water) were used to construct a three-end-member mixing model. Delta paleosalinity was determined by examining variations in the distribution of peat samples through time within the area delineated by the mixing model. The Delta has long been considered a tidal freshwater marsh region, but only peat samples from Franks Wetland and Bacon Channel Island have shown a consistently fresh signal (<0.5 ppt) through time. Therefore, the eastern Delta, which occurs upstream from Bacon Channel Island along the San Joaquin River and its tributaries, has also been fresh for this time period. Over the past 6000+ years, the salinity regime at the western boundary of the Delta (Browns Island) has alternated between fresh and oligohaline (0.5-5 ppt).

  11. Implications for Seawater 234U/238U Composition and Weathering on Glacial-Interglacial Timescales Based on Modern and Fossil Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutcharavan, P. M.; Dutton, A.; Ellwood, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    U-Th dating of fossil corals provides absolute age constraints on records of ancient sea level and climate change and is also used to calibrate the radiocarbon timescale. Unfortunately, coralline aragonite is susceptible to diagenesis, requiring screening procedures to identify altered samples. One commonly employed screening method assesses the initial δ234U value, which represents seawater 234U/238U composition at the time of coral skeleton formation. Seawater δ234U is typically assumed to have remained constant during recent glacial-interglacial cycles; hence corals with initial δ234U­ values that are significantly different than that of modern seawater are typically rejected as being diagenetically altered. However, this approach is complicated by (1) uncertainty in the appropriate value to use for modern seawater, arising from discrepancies between different measurements of modern seawater and/or corals, and (2) the possibility that seawater δ234U has varied on glacial-interglacial timescales. To address these two issues, we present and analyze a compilation of over 2,000 individual U-series coral measurements from 60,000 years ago to present. By normalizing for the 234U decay constant used and correcting for inter-lab variability, including offsets introduced by different types of standards and variability between different aliquots of the same standard, this study reconciles multiple independent measurements of δ234U in modern corals and seawater over several decades, causing nearly all measurements to converge on a value of 145‰. Additionally, the fossil coral record demonstrates a salient increase in δ234U of 7‰ in-step with the last deglaciation. The coupling of δ234U variability with changes Pb-isotope compositions of Fe-Mn crusts suggest that physical weathering of high U and Pb-bearing mineral phases in glaciated regions may be responsible for the observed changes in seawater chemistry that are critical to interpreting U-Th dates of fossil

  12. Thallium, uranium, and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios in the digestive gland of American lobster (Homarus americanus) from an industrialized harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.L.; Uthe, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have concentrated on elements such as thallium (TI). Uranium (U) has been studied as a radionuclide of concern in food and the environment. Foodstuffs contain 10-100 ng U{center_dot}{sup -1} with vegetables and cereals contributing most heavily to the daily intake of ca 1.5 ug U. Between 10-30% of ingested U is absorbed, with most being stored in bone. Rainbow trout (onchorynchus mykiss) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) from a lake with naturally high radioactivity contained < 5 ng U{center_dot}g{sup -1} in the flesh. Trout bone contained 40 ng U{center_dot}g{sup -1}. Higher tissue U concentrations occurred in fish from areas receiving U mining wastes. Bioconcentration factors for bone and flesh were estimated to be low, 118 and 14.7, respectively. This paper describes the Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of Tl and U in digestive gland tissue from lobsters captured in the vicinity of Belledune Harbor, New Brunswick, Canada. The harbor is the site of a lead smelter, a fertilizer plant, and a coal-fired power station (the latter due to enter production in late 1993) and thus has the potential of adding significant amounts of Tl to the local marine environment. The accumulation of Tl from water by marine shellfish is low, at least for bivalves, and the accumulated Tl is eliminated in a number of days when the animals are transferred to clean water. Bioconcentration factors for U in finfish ranged from 0.4-17 for larger species. However, because of the high concentrations of various trace elements in lobster digestive gland, its desirability as a foodstuff, and its relatively large size (approximately 20% of the edible tissue yield), we have investigated Tl and U concentrations and {sup 235U}/{sup 238U} ratios in it. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Nuclear orientation in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 238}U and synthesis of the new isotope {sup 268}Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Hofmann, S.; Hessberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Heinz, S.; Heredia, J. A.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Schaedel, M.; Antalic, S.; Saro, S.; Aritomo, Y.

    2010-08-15

    The synthesis of isotopes of the element hassium was studied using the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 238}U{yields}{sup 272}Hs{sup *}. At a kinetic energy of 163.0 MeV in the center-of-mass system we observed one {alpha}-decay chain starting at the isotope {sup 267}Hs. The cross section was 1.8{sub -1.5}{sup +4.2} pb. At 152.0 MeV one decay of the new isotope {sup 268}Hs was observed. It decays with a half-life of 0.38{sub -0.17}{sup +1.8} s by 9479{+-}16 keV {alpha}-particle emission. Spontaneous fission of the daughter nucleus {sup 264}Sg was confirmed. The measured cross section was 0.54{sub -0.45}{sup +1.3} pb. In-beam measurements of fission-fragment mass distributions were performed to obtain information on the fusion probability at various orientations of the deformed target nucleus. The distributions changed from symmetry to asymmetry when the beam energy was changed from above-barrier to sub-barrier values, indicating orientation effects on fusion and/or quasifission. It was found that the distribution of symmetric mass fragments originates not only from fusion-fission, but has a strong component from quasifission. The result was supported by a calculation based on a dynamical description using the Langevin equation, in which the mass distributions for fusion-fission and quasifission fragments were separately determined.

  14. Stable (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and radioactive (210Pb) lead isotopes in 1 year of growth of Sphagnum moss from four ombrotrophic bogs in southern Germany: Geochemical significance and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Zaccone, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and 1 year later the production of plant matter was harvested in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Radioactive, 210Pb was determined in solid samples using ultralow background gamma spectrometry while total Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were determined in acid digests using ICP-SMS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. The greatest variations within a given sampling site were in the range 212-532 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb activity, whereas 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb varied less than 1%. The median values of all parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were not significantly different. The median activities of 210Pb (Bq kg-1) in the mosses collected from the bogs in NBF (HO = 372 ± 56, n = 55; WI = 342 ± 58, n = 93) were slightly less from those in OB (GS = 394 ± 50, n = 55; KL = 425 ± 58, n = 24). However, the mosses in the NBF bogs exhibited much greater productivity (187-202 g m-2 a-1) compared to those of OB (71-91 g m-2 a-1), and this has a profound impact on the accumulation rates of 210Pb (Bq m-2 a-1), with the bogs in the NBF yielding fluxes (HO = 73 ± 30; WI = 65 ± 20) which are twice those of OB (GS = 29 ± 11; KL = 40 ± 13). Using the air concentrations of 210Pb measured at Schauinsland (SIL) in the southern Black Forest and average annual precipitation, the atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb at SIL (340 Bq m-2 a-1) exceeds the corresponding values obtained from the mosses by a factor of five, providing the first quantitative estimate of the net retention efficiency of 210Pb by Sphagnum. When the 210Pb activities of all moss samples are combined (n = 227), a significant decrease with increasing plant production rate is observed; in contrast, total Pb concentrations show the opposite trend. The contrasting

  15. SHE research at RIKEN/GARIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Kosuke

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution, heavy-element research at RIKEN, Japan is reviewed. Nuclei of the heaviest elements were produced by the reactions 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds, 209Bi(64Ni, n)272Rg, 208Pb(70Zn, n)277Cn, and 209Bi(70Zn, n)278113. Alpha decays of those products and their consecutive alpha/spontaneous fission decays were studied using a gas-filled type recoil separator. New nuclei, 278113, 274Rg, and 270Mt, were observed in the 209Bi + 70Zn reaction.

  16. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2).

  17. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s--50,000s for neutron fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Final report, June 1, 1992--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schier, W. A.; Couchell, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    This is a final reporting on the composition of separate beta and gamma decay heat measurements following neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu and on cumulative and independent yield measurements of fission products of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. What made these studies unique was the very short time of 0.1 s after fission that could be achieved by incorporating the helium jet and tape transport system as the technique for transporting fission fragments from the neutron environment of the fission chamber to the low-background environment of the counting area. This capability allowed for the first time decay heat measurements to extend nearly two decades lower on the logarithmic delay time scale, a region where no comprehensive aggregate decay heat measurements had extended to. This short delay time capability also allowed the measurement of individual fission products with half lives as short as 0.2s. The purpose of such studies was to provide tests both at the aggregate level and at the individual nuclide level of the nation`s evaluated nuclear data file associated with fission, ENDF/B-VI. The results of these tests are in general quite encouraging indicating this data base generally predicts correctly the aggregate beta and aggregate gamma decay heat as a function of delay time for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Agreement with the measured individual nuclide cumulative and independent yields for fission products of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U was also quite good although the present measurements suggest needed improvements in several individual cases.

  18. Characterization of bauxite residue (red mud) for (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using neutron activation analysis and the radiation dose levels as modeled by MCNP.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Sharp, A; Wang, S; Pontikes, Y; Tkaczyk, A H

    2017-07-01

    This study employs thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantitatively and specifically determine absorption dose rates to various body parts from uranium, thorium and potassium. Specifically, a case study of bauxite residue (red mud) from an industrial facility was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the NAA approach for radiological safety assessment, using small sample sizes to ascertain the activities of (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. This proof-of-concept was shown to produce reliable results and a similar approach could be used for quantitative assessment of other samples with possible radiological significance. (238)U and (232)Th were determined by epithermal and thermal neutron activation analysis, respectively. (235)U was determined based on the known isotopic ratio of (238)U/(235)U. (40)K was also determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis to measure total potassium content and then subtracting its isotopic contribution. Furthermore, the work demonstrates the application of Monte Carlo Neutral-Particle (MCNP) simulations to estimate the radiation dose from large quantities of red mud, to assure the safety of humans and the surrounding environment. Phantoms were employed to observe the dose distribution throughout the human body demonstrating radiation effects on each individual organ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discriminating assimilants and decoupling deep- vs. shallow-level crystal records at Mount Adams using 238U-230Th disequilibria and Os isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jicha, B.R.; Johnson, C.M.; Hildreth, W.; Beard, B.L.; Hart, G.L.; Shirey, S.B.; Singer, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    A suite of 23 basaltic to dacitic lavas erupted over the last 350??kyr from the Mount Adams volcanic field has been analyzed for U-Th isotope compositions to evaluate the roles of mantle versus crustal components during magma genesis. All of the lavas have (230Th/238U) > 1 and span a large range in (230Th/232Th) ratios, and most basalts have higher (230Th/232Th) ratios than andesites and dacites. Several of the lavas contain antecrysts (crystals of pre-existing material), yet internal U-Th mineral isochrons from six of seven lavas are indistinguishable from their eruption ages. This indicates a relatively brief period of time between crystal growth and eruption for most of the phenocrysts (olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite) prior to eruption. One isochron gave a crystallization age that is ~ 20-25??ka older than its corresponding eruptive age, and is interpreted to reflect mixing of older and juvenile crystals or a protracted period of magma storage in the crust. Much of the eruptive volume since 350??ka consists of lavas that have small to moderate 230Th excesses (2-16%), which are likely inherited from melting of a garnet-bearing intraplate ("OIB-like") mantle source. Following melt generation and subsequent migration through the upper mantle, most Mt. Adams magmas interacted with young, mafic lower crust, as indicated by 187Os/188Os ratios that are substantially more radiogenic than the mantle or those expected via mixing of subducted material and the mantle wedge. Moreover, Os-Th isotope variations suggest that unusually large 230Th excesses (25-48%) and high 187Os/188Os ratios in some peripheral lavas reflect assimilation of small degree partial melts of pre-Quaternary basement that had residual garnet or Al-rich clinopyroxene. Despite the isotopic evidence for lower crustal assimilation, these processes are not generally recorded in the erupted phenocrysts, indicating that the crystal record of the deep-level 'cryptic' processes has been

  20. Crystallisation ages in coeval silicic magma bodies: 238U-230Th disequilibrium evidence from the Rotoiti and earthquake flat eruption deposits, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charlier, B.L.A.; Peate, D.W.; Wilson, C.J.N.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Storey, M.; Brown, S.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The timescales over which moderate to large bodies of silicic magma are generated and stored are addressed here by studies of two geographically adjacent, successive eruption deposits in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. The earlier, caldera-forming Rotoiti eruption (>100 km3 magma) at Okataina volcano was followed, within months at most, by the Earthquake Flat eruption (??? 10 km3 magma) from nearby Kapenga volcano; both generated nonwelded ignimbrite and coeval widespread fall deposits. The Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat deposits are both crystal-rich high-silica rhyolites, with sparse glass-bearing granitoid fragments also occurring in Rotoiti lag breccias generated during caldera collapse. Here we report 238U-230Th disequilibrium data on whole rocks and mineral separates from representative Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat pumices and the co-eruptive Rotoiti granitoid fragments using TIMS and in situ zircon analyses by SIMS. Multiple-grain zircon-controlled crystallisation ages measured by TIMS from the Rotoiti pumice range from 69??3 ka ( 350 ka, with a pronounced peak at 70-90 ka. The weighted mean of isochrons is 83??14 ka, in accord with the TIMS data. One glass-bearing Rotoiti granitoid clast yielded an age of 57??8 ka by TIMS (controlled by Th-rich phases that, however, are not apparently present in the juvenile pumices). Another glass-bearing Rotoiti granitoid yielded SIMS zircon model ages peaking at 60-90 ka, having a similar age distribution to the pumice. Age data from pumices are consistent with a published 64??4 ka eruptive age (now modified to 62??2 ka), but chemical and/or mineralogical data imply that the granitoid lithics are not largely crystalline Rotoiti rhyolite, but instead represent contemporaneous partly molten intrusions reflecting different sources in their chemistries and mineralogies. Similarly, although the Earthquake Flat eruption immediately followed (and probably was triggered by) the Rotoiti event, age data from juvenile material

  1. Eruption and magma crystallization ages of Las Tres Vírgenes (Baja California) constrained by combined 230Th/ 238U and (U-Th)/He dating of zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hausback, Brian P.

    2006-11-01

    Las Tres Vírgenes volcano is a calc-alkaline composite cone located near the main Gulf of California escarpment on the E coast of the Baja California peninsula. High-sensitivity ion microprobe U-series ( 230Th/ 238U) ages for zircon from La Vírgen tephra average 121 - 10 + 12 ka (1σ; MSWD = 2.7), with discrete age peaks at ˜ 100 and 160 ka. The noble gas mass spectrometric (U-Th)/He zircon age, corrected for disequilibrium and pre-eruptive storage, is 36 ± 3 ka. This result for the eruption age of La Vírgen tephra is significantly older than previously postulated historic or Holocene ages that were based on an 18th century map reference and 14C dating of accidental charcoal, respectively. The new (U-Th)/He zircon age is consistent with a > 26 ± 4 ka age derived from cosmogenic He exposure dating of an overlying basaltic lava flow [Hausback, B.P. and Abrams, M.J., 1996. Plinian eruption of La Virgen Tephra, Volcán Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 77(46, Suppl.): 813-814.]. U-Pb zircon analysis of ignimbrites erupted from the adjacent Early Pleistocene La Reforma and El Aguajito calderas yielded ages of 1.38 ± 0.03 Ma ( n = 12; MSWD = 1.0) and 1.17 ± 0.07 Ma ( n = 23; MSWD = 1.3), respectively. No evidence for these ages is found among La Vírgen zircons, whereas pre-Quaternary zircon xenocrysts are common. The La Vírgen magma, therefore, evolved unrelated to Early Pleistocene magmatism in adjacent calderas, but assimilated local basement rocks. A gap between average Th-U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages suggests that zircon crystallization was discontinuous in the La Vírgen magma chamber. In addition, partial resorption of zircon suggests episodic thermal rejuvenation, most likely by basaltic recharge. Based on the zircon record, the > 100 ka lifetime of the thermal anomaly that sustained repeated intrusive pulses significantly exceeds the age of the last eruption. This strengthens the view that Tres

  2. Mid-ocean ridge basalt generation along the slow-spreading, South Mid-Atlantic Ridge (5-11°S): Inferences from 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Simon; Kokfelt, Thomas; Hauff, Folkmar; Haase, Karsten; Lundstrom, Craig; Hoernle, Kaj; Yeo, Isobel; Devey, Colin

    2015-11-01

    U-series disequilibria have provided important constraints on the physical processes of partial melting that produce basaltic magma beneath mid-ocean ridges. Here we present the first 238U-230Th-226Ra isotope data for a suite of 83 basalts sampled between 5°S and 11°S along the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This section of the ridge can be divided into 5 segments (A0-A4) and the depths to the ridge axis span much of the global range, varying from 1429 to 4514 m. Previous work has also demonstrated that strong trace element and radiogenic isotope heterogeneity existed in the source regions of these basalts. Accordingly, this area provides an ideal location in which to investigate the effects of both inferred melt column length and recycled materials. 226Ra-230Th disequilibria indicate that the majority of the basalts are less than a few millennia old such that their 230Th values do not require any age correction. The U-Th isotope data span a significant range from secular equilibrium up to 32% 230Th excess, also similar to the global range, and vary from segment to segment. However, the (230Th/238U) ratios are not negatively correlated with axial depth and the samples with the largest 230Th excesses come from the deepest ridge segment (A1). Two sub-parallel and positively sloped arrays (for segments A0-2 and A3 and A4) between (230Th/238U) and Th/U ratios can be modelled in various ways as mixing between melts from peridotite and recycled mafic lithologies. Despite abundant evidence for source heterogeneity, there is no simple correlation between (230Th/238U) and radiogenic isotope ratios suggesting that at least some of the trace element and radiogenic isotope variability may have been imparted to the source regions >350 kyr prior to partial melting to produce the basalts. In our preferred model, the two (230Th/238U) versus Th/U arrays can be explained by mixing of melts from one or more recycled mafic lithologies with melts derived from chemically heterogeneous

  3. 187Re - 232Th - 238U nuclear geochronometry: constraining magmatism in East-Antarctica and the break-up of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2017-04-01

    187Re - 232Th - 238U nuclear geochronometry is a new dating method for astronomy, earth and planetary sciences [1-4]. Nucleogeochronometric Rhenium-Osmium two-point-isochron (TPI) ages are calculated using a nuclear geochronometer as one data point in a two-point-isochron diagram [5-7]. The IVREA chronometer, for example, is one of five terrestrial nuclear geochronometers identified so far [8]. Here, it is used to constrain the magmatism of the Ferrar flood basalt province, which has been related to continental rifting and the break-up of Gondwana in the Jurassic.TPI ages for seven (basaltic) andesite whole rock samples from the Prince Albert Mountains (Victoria Land, Antarctica) are calculated. An isochron age of 172 ± 5 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.194 ± 0.023) has previously been published for these rocks [9]. Initial TPI 187Os/188Osi ratios show only minor scatter between 187Os/188Osi = 0.2149 ± 0.0064 and 187Os/188Osi = 0.22231 ± 0.00080, in agreement with the enigmatic, suprachondritic 187Os/188Osi = 0.194 ± 0.023 from the isochron [9]. TPI ages for the Mount Joyce samples range from 125.4 ± 9.9 Ma to 139 ± 17 Ma and thus constrain the youngest magmatic event(s) in the Transantarctic Mountains. For the Thumb Point basalt, a TPI age of 219 ± 81 Ma is calculated. Despite of its large uncertainty, the age itself is in agreement with the Triassic 224 Ma and 240 Ma events reported from North Patagonia [10]. The TPI age of 186.1 ± 8.1 Ma from the Ricker Hill basalt can be clearly distinguished from the Mount Murray TPI age of 158 ± 14 Ma, while at Brimstone Peak two TPI age groups of 155 ± 14 Ma and 175.3 ± 3.1 Ma are observed. From this it may be concluded that the seven TPI ages indicate episodic magmatic activity in East-Antarctica between 125 Ma and 219 Ma, leading to the break-up of Gondwana. This picture is consistent with the geochronology of the Antarctic Peninsula, Patagonia, the Karoo and the Ferrar mafic rocks [10]. Thus, besides constraining

  4. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 238U at the CERN n_TOF facility in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gunsing, F.; Žugec, P.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; n TOF Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the 238U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behavior of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross section of 238U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were proposed and carried out within the 7th Framework Project ANDES of the European Commission. The results of one of these 238U(n ,γ ) measurements performed at the n_TOF CERN facility are presented in this work. The γ -ray cascade following the radiative neutron capture has been detected exploiting a setup of two C6D6 liquid scintillators. Resonance parameters obtained from this work are on average in excellent agreement with the ones reported in evaluated libraries. In the unresolved resonance region, this work yields a cross section in agreement with evaluated libraries up to 80 keV, while for higher energies our results are significantly higher.

  5. Experimental study of the {sup 238}U({sup 36}S,3-5n){sup 269-271}Hs reaction leading to the observation of {sup 270}Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Graeger, R.; Gorshkov, A.; Tuerler, A.; Yakushev, A.; Ackermann, D.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Hessberger, F. P.; Huebner, A.; Jaeger, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Lommel, B.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B.; Chelnokov, M.; Chepigin, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Petrushkin, O.; Dvorak, J.

    2010-06-15

    The deformed doubly magic nucleus {sup 270}Hs has so far only been observed as the four-neutron (4n) evaporation residue of the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, where a maximum cross section of 3 pb was measured. Theoretical studies on the formation of {sup 270}Hs in the 4n evaporation channel of fusion reactions with different entrance channel asymmetry in the framework of a two-parameter Smoluchowski equation predict that the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 226}Ra and {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U result in higher cross sections due to lower reaction Q values, in contrast to simple arguments based on the reaction asymmetry, which predict opposite trends. Calculations using hivap predict cross sections for the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U that are similar to those of the {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm reaction. Here, we report on the first measurement of evaporation residues formed in the complete nuclear fusion reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and the observation of {sup 270}Hs, which is produced in the 4n evaporation channel, with a measured cross section of 0.8{sub -0.7}{sup +2.6} pb at 51-MeV excitation energy. The one-event cross-section limits (68% confidence level) for the 3n, 4n, and 5n evaporation channels at 39-MeV excitation energy are 2.9 pb, while the cross-section limits of the 3n and 5n channel at 51 MeV are 1.5 pb. This is significantly lower than the 5n cross section of the {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm reaction at similar excitation energy.

  6. Plant uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K from a coal ash and slag disposal site and control soil under field conditions: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Skoko, Božena; Marović, Gordana; Babić, Dinko; Šoštarić, Marko; Jukić, Mirela

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K by plants that grow on a coal ash and slag disposal site known for its higher content of naturally occurring radionuclides. Plant species that were sampled are common for the Mediterranean flora and can be divided as follows: grasses & herbs, shrubs and trees. To compare the activity concentrations and the resultant concentration ratios of the disposal site with those in natural conditions, we used control data specific for the research area, obtained for plants growing on untreated natural soil. Radionuclide activity concentrations were determined by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Media parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content) were also analysed. We confirmed significantly higher activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb in ash and slag compared to control soil. However, a significant increase in the radionuclide activity concentration in the disposal site's vegetation was observed only for (226)Ra. On the contrary, a significantly smaller activity concentration of (40)K in ash and slag had no impact on its activity concentration in plant samples. The calculated plant uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb is significantly smaller in comparison with the uptake at the control site, while it is vice versa for (40)K. No significant difference was observed between the disposal site and the control site's plant uptake of (232)Th. These results can be the foundation for further radioecological assessment of this disposal site but also, globally, they can contribute to a better understanding of nature and long-term management of such disposal sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved 206Pb/238U microprobe geochronology by the monitoring of a trace-element-related matrix effect; SHRIMP, ID-TIMS, ELA-ICP-MS and oxygen isotope documentation for a series of zircon standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, L.P.; Kamo, S.L.; Allen, C.M.; Davis, D.W.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Valley, J.W.; Mundil, R.; Campbell, I.H.; Korsch, R.J.; Williams, I.S.; Foudoulis, C.

    2004-01-01

    Precise isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) documentation is given for two new Palaeozoic zircon standards (TEMORA 2 and R33). These data, in combination with results for previously documented standards (AS3, SL13, QGNG and TEMORA 1), provide the basis for a detailed investigation of inconsistencies in 206Pb/238U ages measured by microprobe. Although these ages are normally consistent between any two standards, their relative age offsets are often different from those established by ID-TIMS. This is true for both sensitive high-resolution ion-microprobe (SHRIMP) and excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS) dating, although the age offsets are in the opposite sense for the two techniques. Various factors have been investigated for possible correlations with age bias, in an attempt to resolve why the accuracy of the method is worse than the indicated precision. Crystallographic orientation, position on the grain-mount and oxygen isotopic composition are unrelated to the bias. There are, however, striking correlations between the 206Pb/238U age offsets and P, Sm and, most particularly, Nd abundances in the zircons. Although these are not believed to be the primary cause of this apparent matrix effect, they indicate that ionisation of 206Pb/238U is influenced, at least in part, by a combination of trace elements. Nd is sufficiently representative of the controlling trace elements that it provides a quantitative means of correcting for the microprobe age bias. This approach has the potential to reduce age biases associated with different techniques, different instrumentation and different standards within and between laboratories. Crown Copyright ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of the 238U neutron-capture cross section and gamma-emission spectra from 10 eV to 100 keV using the DANCE detector at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John L; Couture, A J; Keksis, A L; Vieira, D J; O' Donnell, J M; Jandel, M; Haight, R C; Rundberg, R S; Kawano, T; Chyzh, A; Baramsai, B; Wu, C Y; Mitchell, G E; Becker, J A; Krticka, M

    2010-01-01

    A careful new measurement of the {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}) cross section from 10 eV to 100 keV has been made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. DANCE is a 4{pi} calorimetric scintillator array consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} crystals. Measurements were made on a 48 mg/cm{sup 2} depleted uranium target. The cross sections are in general good agreement with previous measurements. The gamma-ray emission spectra, as a function of gamma multiplicity, were also measured and compared to model calculations.

  9. Photofission cross-section ratio measurement of 235 U/ 238 U using monoenergetic photons in the energy range of 9.0–16.6 MeV

    DOE PAGES

    Krishichayan,; Bhike, Megha; Finch, S. W.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Photofission cross-section ratios of 235U and 238U have been measured using monoenergetic photon beams from the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source facility at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. These measurements have been performed in small energy steps between 9.0 and 16.6 MeV using a dual-fission ionization chamber. The measured cross-section ratios are compared with the previous experimental data as well as with the recent evaluated nuclear data library ENDF.

  10. Porosity of the melting zone and variations in the solid mantle upwelling rate beneath Hawaii: Inferences from {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}U-{sup 231}Pa disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, K.W.W.; DePaolo, D.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Baldridge, W.S.; Goldstein, S.; Clague, D.; Jull, M.

    1999-12-01

    Measurements of {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}U-{sup 231}Pa disequilibria in a suite of tholeiitic-to-basanitic lavas provide estimates of porosity, solid mantle upwelling rate and melt transport times beneath Hawaii. The observation that ({sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U) {gt} 1 indicates that garnet is required as a residual phase in the magma sources for all of the lavas. Both chromatographic porous flow and dynamic melting of a garnet peridotite source can adequately explain the combined U-Th-Ra and U-Pa data for these Hawaiian basalts. For chromatographic porous flow, the calculated maximum porosity in the melting zone ranges from 0.3--3% for tholeiites and 0.1--1% for alkali basalts and basanites, and solid mantle upwelling rates range from 40 to 100 cm/yr for tholeiites and from 1 to 3 cm/yr for basanites. For dynamic melting, the escape or threshold porosity is 0.5--2% for tholeiites and 0.1--0.8% for alkali basalts and basanites, and solid mantle upwelling rates range from 10 to 30 cm/yr for tholeiites and from 0.1 to 1 cm/yr for basanites. Assuming a constant melt productivity, calculated total melt fractions range from 15% for the tholeiitic basalts to 3% for alkali basalts and basanites.

  11. 235U, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in marine sediments along the northern coast of Oman Sea using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2012-09-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in sediment samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz canyon to Goatr seaport, as the first time has been determined. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. Sediments from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs using two high purity germanium detectors with 38.5% and 55% relative efficiencies. The concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.01 and 2.87 Bq/kg, 11.83 and 22.68 Bq/kg, 10.7 and 25.02 Bq/kg, 222.89 and 535.07 Bq/kg and 0.14 and 2.8 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of melt generation beneath mid-ocean ridge axes: Theoretical analysis based on [sup 238]U-[sup 230]Th-[sup 226]Ra and [sup 235]U-[sup 231]Pa disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenwei Qin )

    1993-04-01

    Although slow melting favors the generation of basaltic melt from a mantle matrix with large radioactive disequilibrium between two actinide nuclides (McKenzie, 1985a), it results in long residence time in a magma chamber, during which the disequilibrium may be removed. An equilibrium melting model modified after McKenzie (1985a) is presented here which suggests that, for a given actinide parent-daughter pair, there exists a specific melting rate at which disequilibrium between these two nuclides reaches its maximum. This melting rate depends on the decay constant of the daughter nuclide concerned and the magma chamber volume scaled to that of its source. For a given scaled chamber size, large radioactive disequilibrium between two actinide nuclides in basalts will be observed if the melting rate is such that the residence time of the magma in the chamber is comparable to the mean life of the daughter nuclide. With a chamber size 1% in volume of the melting source, the melting rates at which maximum disequilibrium in basalts is obtained are 10[sup [minus]7], 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7], and 3 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] y[sup [minus]1], respectively for [sup 238]U-[sup 230]Th, [sup 235]U-[sup 231]Pa, and [sup 230]Th-[sup 226]Ra. This implies that, while large disequilibrium between [sup 238]U-[sup 230]Th and between [sup 235]U-[sup 231]Pa may occur together, large [sup 230]Th-[sup 226]Ra disequilibrium will not coexist with large [sup 238]U-[sup 230]Th disequilibrium, consistent with some observations. The active mantle melting zone which supplies melt to a ridge axis is inferred to be only about 10 km thick and 50 km wide. The fraction of melt present in such a mantle source at any time is about 0.01 and 0.04, respectively, if melting rate is 10[sup [minus]7] and 10[sup [minus]6] y[sup [minus]1]. The corresponding residence time of the residual melt in the matrix is 10[sup 5] and 4 [times] 10[sup 4] y. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Fission-fragment total kinetic energy and mass yields for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 238U with En =200 keV - 30 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, D. L.; Tovesson, F.; Brys, T.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Laptev, A.; Meharchand, R.; Manning, B.; Mayorov, D.; Meierbachtol, K.; Mosby, S.; Perdue, B.; Richman, D.; Shields, D.; Vidali, M.

    2017-09-01

    The average Total Kinetic Energy (TKE) release and fission-fragment yields in neutron-induced fission of 235U and 238U was measured using a Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. These observables are important nuclear data quantites that are relevant to applications and for informing the next generation of fission models. The measurements were performed a the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and cover En = 200 keV - 30 MeV. The double-energy (2E) method was used to determine the fission-fragment yields and two methods of correcting for prompt-neutron emission were explored. The results of this study are correlated mass and TKE data.

  14. Spin-alignment and g-factor measurement of the I^{π} = 12+ isomer in 192Pb produced in the relativistic-energy fragmentation of a 238U beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Gerl, J.; Neyens, G.; Atanasova, L.; Balabanski, D. L.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Caceres, L.; Camera, F.; Ciemała, M.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Chamoli, S. K.; Chmel, S.; Daugas, J. M.; Detistov, P.; Doornenbal, P.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grȩbosz, J.; Hass, M.; Hoischen, R.; Ilie, G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Jolie, J.; Kojuharov, I.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kulessa, R.; Lach, M.; Lakshmi, S.; Leoni, S.; Lo Bianco, G.; Lozeva, R.; Maier, K. H.; Mallion, S.; Mazurek, K.; Mȩczyński, W.; Million, B.; Montanari, D.; Myalski, S.; Petrache, C.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Prokopowicz, W.; Rudolph, D.; Saito, N.; Saito, T. R.; Saltarelli, A.; Simpson, G. S.; Styczeń, J.; Vermeulen, N.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Ziȩbliński, M.

    2010-08-01

    The feasibility of measuring g -factors using the TDPAD method applied to high-energy, heavy fragmentation products is explored. The 2623keV ensuremath I^{π}=12^+ isomer in 192Pb with tau = 1.57 μs has been produced using the fragmentation of a 1 A GeV 238U beam. The results presented demonstrate for the first time that such heavy nuclei produced in a fragmentation reaction with a relativistic beam are sufficiently well spin-aligned. Moreover, the rather large value of the alignment, 28(10)% of the maximum possible, is preserved during the separation process allowing the determination of magnetic moments. The measured values of the lifetime, tau = 1.54(9) μs, and the g -factor, g = - 0.175(20) , agree with the results of previous investigations using fusion-evaporation reactions.

  15. Use of radiometric ((234/238)U and (228/226)Ra) and mass spectrometry ((87/86)Sr) methods for studies of the stability of groundwater reservoirs in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, P; Bem, H; Romer, R L

    The uranium ((234)U/(238)U) and radium ((228)Ra/(226)Ra) activity ratios and (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratio in thermal groundwater, subsurface water (groundwater) and river water from Poddebice and Uniejow were determined. The uranium and radium activity ratios and strontium isotopic ratio varied from 0.629 to 1.471, from 0.396 to 4.961 and from 0.708438 to 0.710344, respectively. The results for the thermal groundwater samples showed that the radiometric method together with mass spectrometry stable strontium isotope ratio measurements can be used for underground water transport studies. On the basis of the uranium and radium activity and the strontium isotopic ratio differences in subsurface water (groundwater) and in river water, any possible water influx between these adjacent reservoirs can be observed. The obtained results exclude any water transport from surface and subsurface water to thermal ground water reservoirs in this region of Poland.

  16. Time-dependent mean-field determination of the excitation energy in transfer reactions: Application to the reaction 238U on 12C at 6.14 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scamps, G.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Lacroix, D.; Farget, F.

    2017-02-01

    The internal excitation of nuclei after multinucleon transfer is estimated by using the time-dependent mean-field theory. Transfer probabilities for each channel as well as the energy loss after reseparation are calculated. By combining these two pieces of information, we show that the excitation energy distribution of the transfer fragments can be obtained separately for the different transfer channels. The method is applied to the reaction involving a 238U beam on a 12C target, which has recently been measured at GANIL. It is shown that the excitation energy calculated with the microscopic theory compares well with the experimental observation, provided that the competition with fusion is properly taken into account. The reliability of the excitation energy is further confirmed by the comparison with the phenomenological heavy-ion phase-space model at higher center-of-mass energies.

  17. Potential human health risk by metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" Reservoir (Northern México).

    PubMed

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E

    2014-06-25

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq∙kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26, 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bq∙kg-1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13-0.39, 0.005-0.126 and 0.009-0.08 mg∙kg-1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11-0.43, 0.002-0.039 and 0.02-0.26 mg∙kg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg-1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  18. Carbon export fluxes and export efficiency in the central Arctic during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012: a joint 234Th/238U and 210Po/210Pb study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Martí, Montserrat; Puigcorbé, Viena; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M.; Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Peeken, Ilka; Masqué, Pere

    2016-07-01

    The Arctic sea-ice extent reached a record minimum in September 2012. Sea-ice decline increases the absorption of solar energy in the Arctic Ocean, affecting primary production and the plankton community. How this will modulate the sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the ocean surface remains a key question. We use the 234Th/238U and 210Po/210Pb radionuclide pairs to estimate the magnitude of the POC export fluxes in the upper ocean of the central Arctic in summer 2012, covering time scales from weeks to months. The 234Th/238U proxy reveals that POC fluxes at the base of the euphotic zone were very low (2 ± 2 mmol C m-2 d-1) in late summer. Relationships obtained between the 234Th export fluxes and the phytoplankton community suggest that prasinophytes contributed significantly to the downward fluxes, likely via incorporation into sea-ice algal aggregates and zooplankton-derived material. The magnitude of the depletion of 210Po in the upper water column over the entire study area indicates that particle export fluxes were higher before July/August than later in the season. 210Po fluxes and 210Po-derived POC fluxes correlated positively with sea-ice concentration, showing that particle sinking was greater under heavy sea-ice conditions than under partially ice-covered regions. Although the POC fluxes were low, a large fraction of primary production (>30%) was exported at the base of the euphotic zone in most of the study area during summer 2012, indicating a high export efficiency of the biological pump in the central Arctic.

  19. Target for the heaviest element production at RIKEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, D.; Morimoto, K.; Yoneda, A.; Hasebe, H.; Yoshida, A.; Haba, H.; Goto, S.; Kudo, H.; Morita, K.

    2008-06-01

    A new gas-cooled rotating target system was developed for the heaviest element production. A target wheel with a diameter of 30.0 cm could be rotated up to 3000 rpm. A helium gas introduced into the target chamber mounted upstream of a gas-filled recoil separator, which enables an effective gas cooling of the target. The development has led to the successful production of heavy nuclides via cold fusion reactions of 208Pb( 64Ni,n) 271Ds, 209Bi( 64Ni,n) 272Rg, 208Pb( 70Zn,n) 277112, and 209Bi( 70Zn,n) 278113.

  20. The mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation at Yellowstone caldera: New insights from 238U-230Th crystallization ages, trace-elements, and isotope compositions of zircon and sanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau hosts one of the largest Quaternary magmatic systems on Earth, with caldera forming eruptions at ~2.1 Ma, ~1.3 Ma, and ~0.64 Ma, as well as numerous intracaldera rhyolitic eruptions between caldera-forming events. The most recent post-caldera eruptive episode at Yellowstone produced the Central Plateau Member (CPM) of the Plateau Rhyolite, which erupted intermittently between ca. 170-70 ka with a cumulative volume ≥600 km3. Thus, the CPM rhyolites provide snapshots of a large silicic magmatic system though time. We examine five CPM rhyolites that erupted from ~125 ka to ~70 ka, and constrain the mechanisms and timescales of generating eruptible rhyolites at Yellowstone caldera by comparing (1) 238U-230Th crystallization ages and trace-element compositions of the interiors and surfaces (i.e., unpolished rims) of individual zircons with (2) bulk 238U-230Th crystallization ages and in situ major-element, Ba, and Pb isotope data for sanidines hosted in each rhyolite. The zircon age and trace-element data show that zircons in CPM rhyolites record crystallization from their respective eruption age to >150 ka before eruption, with most zircon surfaces crystallizing close to eruption and many interiors crystallizing 10 kyr to 150 kyr before eruption. At any given age, zircon surfaces have homogeneous trace-element compositions relative to zircon interiors for most elements and element ratios. For example, when considering data from all five CPM rhyolites, the zircon surfaces and interiors show similar broad trends in Eu/Eu* and U/Th over time, but the surfaces display less scatter. These observations suggest that the zircon surfaces grew from a more homogeneous region of the magma reservoir relative to where the zircon interiors grew. Although the zircon surfaces and interiors are similar in some elements and element ratios (e.g., Eu/Eu*, U/Th) at a given age, zircon surfaces and interiors display distinct (Y, MREE, HREE)/(P, U) ratios at a given

  1. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México)

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A.; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  2. Measurement of the 209Bi(n ,4 n )206Bi and 169Tm(n ,3 n )167Tm cross sections between 23.5 and 30.5 MeV relevant to reaction-in-flight neutron studies at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, M. E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Champine, B.; Combs, D. C.; Finch, S.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A.; Henry, E.; Krishichayan, Rundberg, R.; Tornow, W.; Wilhelmy, J.; Yeamans, C.

    2017-08-01

    At the National Ignition Facility, experiments are being performed to measure charged-particle stopping powers in the previously unexplored warm dense plasma regime. These measurements are done using reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons from an inertial confinement fusion system. RIF neutrons are produced with a continuum of energies up to 30 MeV. By making activation measurements utilizing threshold reactions for neutrons in the energy range of 15 209Bi(n ,4 n )206Bi reaction, with a threshold of 22.5 MeV. The cross sections were measured at the 10 MV tandem Van De Graaff accelerator at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory with quasimonoenergetic neutrons between 23.5 and 30.5 MeV, where few previous measurements have been made. Cross-section data are compared to calculations and other available measurements.

  3. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Pradyumna; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Dubey, J S; Vidyasagar, D; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2013-03-01

    A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 µSv y(-1), respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 µSv y(-1). The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from (226)Ra for cereals and drinking water and (40)K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide (137)Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. (226)Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources.

  4. Neutron spectral and angular distribution measurements for 113 and 256 MeV protons on range-thick Al and sup 238 U targets using the foil activation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Intasorn, A.

    1989-07-01

    Second neutron yields, energy spectra, and angular distributions have been measured at seven angles from 0 to 150{degree} for 113 and 256 MeV protons stopped in range-thick targets of aluminum and depleted uranium ({sup 238}U). Thin foil stacks of ten different materials were activated by secondary neutrons at distances of 20--30 cm from the targets. Following each irradiation, 30--40 different activation products were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. These activation rates were then used to adjust neutron energy spectra calculated by the HETC computer code. Activation cross sections were taken from ENDF/BV below 20 MeV, from literature values tested in Be(d,n) fields up to 50 MeV, and from proton spallation data and calculations from 50--250 MeV. Spectral adjustments were made with the STAY'SL computer code using a least-squares technique to minimize {chi}{sup 2} for a covariance matrix determined from uncertainties in the measured activities, cross sections, and calculated flux spectra. Neutron scattering effects were estimated from foil packets irradiated at different distances from the target. Proton effects were measured with (p,n) reactions. Systematic differences were found between the adjusted and calculated neutron spectra, namely, that HETC underpredicts the neutron flux at back angles by a factor of 2--3 and slightly overpredicts the flux at forward angles. 19 refs., 23 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Neutron scattering cross sections for /sup 232/Th and /sup 238/U inferred from proton scattering and charge exchange measurements. [7 MeV, 26 and 27 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.; Grimes, S.M.; Pohl, B.A.; Poppe, C.H.; Wong, C.

    1980-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the (p,n) reactions to the isobaric analog states (IAS) of /sup 232/Th and /sup 238/U targets were measured at 26 and 27 MeV. The analysis of the data was done in conjunction with the proton elastic and inelastic (2/sup +/, 4/sup +/, 6/sup +/) differential cross sections measured at 26 MeV. Because collective effects are important in this mass region, deformed coupled-channels calculations were carried out for the simultaneous analysis of the proton and neutron outgoing channels. The sensitivity of the calculations was studied with respect to the optical model parameters used in the calculations, the shape of the nuclear charge distribution, the type of coupling scheme assumed among the levels, the magnitude of the deformation parameters, and the magnitude of the isovector potentials, V/sub 1/ and W/sub 1/. A Lane model-consistent analysis of the data was used to infer optical potential parameters for 6- to 7-MeV neutrons. The neutron elastic differential cross sections obtained from these calculations are compared with measurements available in the literature, and with results obtained using neutron parameters from global sets reported at these energies. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Neutron Resonance Parameters of 238U and the Calculated Cross Sections from the Reich-Moore Analysis of Experimental Data in the Neutron Energy Range from 0 keV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H

    2005-12-05

    The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.

  7. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, M.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T.; Vieira, D.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tonchev, A.; Stoyer, M.; Bhike, M.; Krishichayan, F.; Tornow, W.; Fowler, M.

    2015-10-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and ?-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. ?-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. These results are compared to previous measurements and theoretical estimates. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDoE by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. POC and particulate 234 Th export fluxes estimated using 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium in an enclosed Eastern Mediterranean region (Saronikos Gulf and Elefsis Bay, Greece) in seasonal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Florou, Heleny; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring, short-lived and highly particle-reactive radionuclide tracer 234Th in the dissolved and particulate phase were determined at 7 shallow-water stations (maximum depths: 30 (S.1 and S.2), 65 (S.3), 97 (S.5), 105 (S.6) and 220 m (S.4 and S.7) in Saronikos Gulf and Elefsis Bay (central Aegean Sea, Greece) during 3 seasonal cruises (summer 2008, autumn 2008 and winter 2009) to assess the time scales of the dynamics and the depositional fate of particulate matter (POC, particulate 234Th). For that reason, in situ filtrating systems were deployed in several depths of the water column consisting of GF/A disc prefilters to scavenge particulate fraction of 234Th and organic carbon and impregnated cartridges to adsorb dissolved 234Th. The obtained data showed average particulate 234Th activity concentrations of 3.7 ± 0.4 Bq m -3 in summer, 2.1 ± 0.2 Bq m -3 in autumn and 2.4 ± 0.2 Bq m -3 in winter. The respective average dissolved 234Th activity concentrations were 30.1 ± 2.8 Bq m -3 in summer, 30.2 ± 2.9 Bq m -3 in autumn and 27.4 ± 3.0 Bq m -3 in winter. The activity ratios of total 234Th and its long-lived conservative parent 238U were below unity in most of the stations indicating radioactive disequilibrium throughout the water column, thus very dynamic trace-metal scavenging and particle export from the water column. These profiles ( 234Th and 238U) were used to estimate the export fluxes and scavenging rates of 234Th, as well as their residence times in the water column. The average cumulative export fluxes of particulate 234Th were estimated to be 33 ± 4 Bq m -2 d -1 in summer, 35 ± 5 Bq m -2 d -1 in autumn and 45 ± 6 Bq m -2 d -1 in winter, whereas the respective average cumulative scavenging rates of dissolved 234Th were 39 ± 5, 33 ± 5 and 50 ± 7 Bq m -2 d -1. Moreover, the cumulative average residence times of 234Th were 25 ± 4 d in summer, 45 ± 6 d in autumn and 64 ± 7 d in winter 2009 for the

  9. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s - 50,000s for neturon fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Progress report, June 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schier, W.A.; Couchell, G.P.

    1997-05-01

    In the investigations reported here, a helium-jet/tape-transport system was used for the rapid transfer of fission products to a low-background environment where their aggregate beta and gamma-ray spectra were measured as a function of delay time after neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Beta and gamma-ray energy distributions have been deduced for delay times as short as 0.2 s and extending out to 100,000s. Instrumentation development during the initial phase of the project included: (1) assembly and characterization of a NaI(Tl) spectrometer for determining aggregate gamma-ray energy distributions, (2) development and characterization of a beta spectrometer (having excellent gamma-ray rejection) for measuring aggregate beta-particle energy distributions, (3) assembly and characterization of a Compton-suppressed HPGe spectrometer for determining gamma-ray intensities of individual fission products to deduce fission-product yields. Spectral decomposition and analysis codes were developed for deducing energy distributions from measured aggregate beta and gamma spectra. The aggregate measurements in the time interval 0.2 - 20s after fission are of special importance since in this region data from many short-lived nuclei are missing and summation calculations in this region rely on model calculations for a large fraction of their predicted beta and gamma decay heat energy spectra. Comparison with ENDF/B-VI fission product data was performed in parallel with the measurements through a close collaboration with Dr. T. England at LANL, assisted by one of our graduate students. Such aggregate measurements provide tests of the Gross Theory of beta decay used to calculated missing contributions to this data base. Fission-product yields deduced from the HPGe studies will check the accuracy of the semi-empirical Gaussian dispersion model used presently by evaluators in the absence of measured yields.

  10. Cogenetic late Pleistocene rhyolite and cumulate diorites from Augustine Volcano revealed by SIMS 238U-230Th dating of zircon, and implications for silicic magma generation by extraction from mush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-12-01

    Volcano, a frequently active andesitic island stratocone, erupted a late Pleistocene rhyolite pumice fall that is temporally linked through zircon geochronology to cumulate dioritic blocks brought to the surface in Augustine's 2006 eruption. Zircon from the rhyolite yield a 238U-230Th age of ˜25 ka for their unpolished rims, and their interiors yield a bimodal age populations at ˜26 ka and a minority at ˜41 ka. Zircon from dioritic blocks, ripped from Augustine's shallow magmatic plumbing system and ejected during the 2006 eruption, have interiors defining a ˜26 ka age population that is indistinguishable from that for the rhyolite; unpolished rims on the dioritic zircon are dominantly younger (≤12 ka) indicating subsequent crystallization. Zircon from rhyolite and diorite overlap in U, Hf, Ti, and REE concentrations although diorites also contain a second population of high-U, high temperature grains. Andesites that brought dioritic blocks to the surface in 2006 contain zircon with young (≤9 ka) rims and a scattering of older ages, but few zircon that crystallized during the 26 ka interval. Both the Pleistocene-age rhyolite and the 2006 dioritic inclusions plot along a whole-rock compositional trend distinct from mid-Holocene-present andesites and dacites, and the diorites, rhyolite, and two early Holocene dacites define linear unmixing trends often oblique to the main andesite array and consistent with melt (rhyolite) extraction from a mush (dacites), leaving behind a cumulate amphibole-bearing residue (diorites). Rare zircon antecrysts up to ˜300 ka from all rock types indicate that a Quaternary center has been present longer than preserved surficial deposits.

  11. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U-230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U-230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  12. Use of 234U and 238U isotopes to evaluate contamination of near-surface groundwater with uranium-mill effluent: A case study in south-central Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Chafin, D.T.; Banta, E.R.; Szabo, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The 234U/238U alpha activity ratio (AR) was determined in 47 samples of variably uraniferous groundwater from the vicinity of a uranium mill near Canon City, Colorado. The results illustrate that uranium isotopes can be used to determine the distribution of uranium contamination in groundwater and to indicate processes such as mixing and chemical precipitation that affect uranium concentrations. Highly to moderately contaminated groundwater samples collected from the mill site and land immediately downgradient from the mill site contain more than 100 ??g/l of dissolved uranium and typically have AR values in the narrow range of 1.0-1.06. Other samples from the shallow alluvial aquifer farther downgradient from the mill contain 10-100 ??g/1 uranium and plot along a broad trend of increasing AR (1.06-1.46) with decreasing uranium concentration. The results are consistent with mixing of liquid mill waste (AR ??? 1.0) with alluvial groundwater of small, but variable, uranium concentrations and AR of 1.31.5. In the alluvial aquifer, the spatial distribution of wells with AR values less than 1.3 is consistent with previous estimates of the probable distribution of contamination, based on water chemistry and hydrology. Wells more distant from the area of probable contamination have AR values that are consistently greater than 1.3 and are indicative of little or no contamination. The methodology of this study can be extended usefully to similar sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing provided that local geohydrologic settings promote uranium mobility and that introduced uranium contamination is isotopically distinct from that of local groundwater.

  13. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for incident neutron energies between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    DOE PAGES

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; ...

    2016-01-06

    In this study, Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varyingmore » degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual

  14. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gooden, M.E.; Arnold, C.W.; Becker, J.A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M.M.; Howell, C.R.; Kelley, J.H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Tonchev, A.P.; Tornow, W.; and others

    2016-01-15

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber

  15. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma

  16. Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions {sup 233,238}U, {sup 242}Pu, and {sup 248}Cm+{sup 48}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Utyonkov, V.K.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Polyakov, A.N.; Shirokovsky, I.V.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Gulbekian, G.G.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Gikal, B.N.; Mezentsev, A.N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V.G.; Sukhov, A.M.; Voinov, A.A.; Buklanov, G.V.; Subotic, K.; Zagrebaev, V.I.; Itkis, M.G.; Patin, J.B.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the dependence of the production cross sections of the isotopes {sup 282,283}112 and {sup 286,287}114 on the excitation energy of the compound nuclei {sup 286}112 and {sup 290}114. The maximum cross section values of the xn-evaporation channels for the reaction {sup 238}U({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 286-x}112 were measured to be {sigma}{sub 3n}=2.5{sub -1.1}{sup +1.8} pb and {sigma}{sub 4n}=0.6{sub -0.5}{sup +1.6} pb; for the reaction {sup 242}Pu({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 290-x}114: {sigma}{sub 2n}{approx}0.5 pb, {sigma}{sub 3n}=3.6{sub -1.7}{sup +3.4} pb, and {sigma}{sub 4n}=4.5{sub -1.9}{sup +3.6} pb. In the reaction {sup 233}U({sup 48}Ca,2-4n){sup 277-279}112 at E*=34.9=2.2 MeV we measured an upper cross section limit of {sigma}{sub xn}{<=}0.6 pb. The observed shift of the excitation energy associated with the maximum sum evaporation residue cross section {sigma}{sub ER}(E*) to values significantly higher than that associated with the calculated Coulomb barrier can be caused by the orientation of the deformed target nucleus in the entrance channel of the reaction. An increase of {sigma}{sub ER} in the reactions of actinide targets with {sup 48}Ca is consistent with the expected increase of the survivability of the excited compound nucleus upon closer approach to the closed neutron shell N=184. In the present work we detected 33 decay chains arising in the decay of the known nuclei {sup 282}112, {sup 283}112, {sup 286}114, {sup 287}114, and {sup 288}114. In the decay of {sup 287}114({alpha}){yields}{sup 283}112({alpha}){yields}{sup 279}110(SF), in two cases out of 22, we observed decay chains of four and five sequential {alpha} transitions that end in spontaneous fission of {sup 271}Sg (T{sub {alpha}}{sub /SF}=2.4{sub -1.0}{sup +4.3} min) and {sup 267}Rf (T{sub SF}{approx}2.3 h), longer decay chains than reported previously. We observed the new nuclide {sup 292}116 (T{sub {alpha}}=18{sub -6}{sup +16} ms,E{sub {alpha}}=10.66{+-}0.07 MeV) in the irradiation of the

  17. GSI experiments on the synthesis of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Lavrentev, A.; Leino, M. E.; Münzenberg, G.; Popeko, A. G.; Saro, S.; Stodel, Ch.; Yeremin, A. N.

    1998-02-01

    Evaporation residue production was investigated at SHIP in cold fusion reactions of Pb- and Bi-target nuclei with projectiles of elements between Ti (Z=22) and Se (Z=34) leading to compound nuclei ZCN=104-116. The isotopes 269110, 271110, 272111, and 277112 of the elements Z=110, Z=111 and Z=112 were unambiguously identified for the first time in bombardments of 208Pb, 209Bi with 62,64Ni and 70Zn. Excitation functions for 50Ti+208Pb and 58Fe+208Pb were measured with high precision, three new spontaneous fission (sf) activities 253104, 254104, 258106 were identified. A small α-decay branch of the even-even nucleus 256104 (bα≈0.003) was confirmed, allowing to estimate mass excesses Δmc2 for N-Z=48 nuclei up to 264Hs (Z=108). An analysis of the α-decay chains observed in a bombardment of 209Bi with 58Fe projectiles showed evidence for an isomeric state in 266Mt (Z=109). We further report on an attempt to produce element 116 and a second isotope of element 112 by the reactions 82Se+208Pb and 68Zn+208Pb, respectively.

  18. PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTION AND NU-BAR COVARIANCES FOR WPEC SUBGROUP 26

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN,D.

    2007-01-31

    We report preliminary cross section covariances developed for the WPEC Subgroup 26 for 45 out of 52 requested materials. The covariances were produced in 15- and 187-group representations as follows: (1) 36 isotopes ({sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56,56}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90,91,92,94}Zr, {sup 166,167,168,170}Er, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am, {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) were evaluated using the BNL-LANL methodology. For the thermal region and the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, the methodology has been based on the Atlas-Kalman approach, in the fast neutron region the Empire-Kalman method has been used; (2) 6 isotopes ({sup 155,156,157,158,160}Gd and {sup 232}Th) were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0; and (3) 3 isotopes ({sup 1}H, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) were taken from JENDL-3.3. For 6 light nuclei ({sup 4}He, {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}B, {sup 12}C), only partial cross section covariance results were obtained, additional work is needed and they do not report the results here. Likewise, the cross section covariances for {sup 235}U, which they recommend to take from JENDL-3.3, will be included once the multigroup processing is successfully completed. Covariances for the average number of neutrons per fission, total {nu}-bar, are provided for 10 actinides identified as priority by SG26. Further work is needed to resolve some of the issues and to produce covariances for the full set of 52 materials.

  19. Geochemical cycling and depositional patterns across the northeast region of the Greenland Ice Sheet as determined from trace element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, G. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Courville, Z.; Hawley, R. L.; Lutz, E.; Overly, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is both a repository of climate history and a major driver in Arctic and global climate. Between 1952 and 1955, Carl Benson led a series of traverses of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), and characterized the GIS via mapping of the spatial distribution of annual net accumulation and classifying the diagenetic glacier facies (Benson, 1962). While polar ice sheets represent a unique archive of past atmospheric and climatic conditions, little information exists on large-scale geographical trends in trace element snow chemistry across GIS because of the remote, challenging location. In the spring of 2011, we undertook a 1120 km traverse of the GIS from Thule Air Base to Summit Station. Samples from 11 snow pits and 3 firn cores, dated by stable water isotopes, were analyzed and evaluated in seasonal resolution for their trace element content (23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 32S, 39K, 44Ca, 47Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 88Sr, 111Cd, 133Cs, 138Ba, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U). Here, we present an initial analysis of the spatial gradients of these trace elements and an interpretation of how their depositional patterns characterize the GIS. The seasonal trends coupled with spatial variability of certain trace elements establish the behavior of specific aerosols (e.g. dust, sea salt, pollution), which will be useful in quantifying geochemical cycling across the GIS and comparing characterizations with results from Benson's traverses. Benson, CS. 1962. Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet. SIPRE Research Report, 70, 89 pp.

  20. Asymptotic and near-target direct breakup of 6Li and 7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkal, Sunil; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Cook, K. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Carter, I. P.; Jeung, D. Y.; Mohanto, G.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Prasad, E.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Williams, E.; Gasques, L. R.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Linares, R.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Li,76 and 9Be are weakly bound against breakup into their cluster constituents. Breakup location is important for determining the role of breakup in above-barrier complete fusion suppression. Recent works have pointed out that experimental observables can be used to separate near-target and asymptotic breakup. Purpose: Our purpose is to distinguish near-target and asymptotic direct breakup of Li,76 in reactions with nuclei in different mass regions. Method: Charged particle coincidence measurements are carried out with pulsed Li,76 beams on 58Ni and 64Zn targets at sub-barrier energies and compared with previous measurements using 208Pb and 209Bi targets. A detector array providing a large angular coverage is used, along with time-of-flight information to give definitive particle identification of the direct breakup fragments. Results: In interactions of 6Li with 58Ni and 64Zn, direct breakup occurs only asymptotically far away from the target. However, in interactions with 208Pb and 209Bi, near-target breakup occurs in addition to asymptotic breakup. Direct breakup of 7Li into α -t is not observed in interactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. However, near-target dominated direct breakup was observed in measurements with 208Pb and 209Bi. A modified version of the Monte Carlo classical trajectory model code platypus, which explicitly takes into account lifetimes associated with unbound states, is used to simulate sub-barrier breakup reactions. Conclusions: Near-target breakup in interactions with Li,76 is an important mechanism only for the heavy targets 208Pb and 209Bi. There is insignificant near-target direct breakup of 6Li and no direct breakup of 7Li in reactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. Therefore, direct breakup is unlikely to suppress the above-barrier fusion cross section in reactions of Li,76 with 58Ni and 64Zn nuclei.

  1. Estimating total fusion cross sections by using a coupled-channel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kim, K. S.; Kim, T. H.; So, W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the total fusion cross sections for the 6He + 209Bi, 6Li + 209Bi,9Be + 208Pb, 10Be + 209Bi, and 11Li + 208Pb systems by using a coupled-channel (CC) method and compare the results with the experimental data. In the CC approach for the total fusion cross sections, we exploit a globally determined Wood-Saxon potential with Akyüz-Winther parameters and couplings of the ground state to the low-lying excited states in the projectile and the target nuclei. The total fusion cross sections obtained with the CC are compared with those obtained without the CC couplings. The latter approach is tantamount to a one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Finally, our approach is applied to understand new data for the 11Li+208Pb system. Possible ambiguities inherent in those approaches are discussed in detail for further applications to the fusion system of halo and/or neutron-rich nuclei.

  2. GSI experiments on the synthesis of superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Stodel, Ch.; Lavrentev, A.; Popeko, A. G.; Yeremin, A. N.; Leino, M. E.; Saro, S.

    1998-02-15

    Evaporation residue production was investigated at SHIP in cold fusion reactions of Pb- and Bi-target nuclei with projectiles of elements between Ti (Z=22) and Se (Z=34) leading to compound nuclei Z{sub CN}=104-116. The isotopes {sup 269}110, {sup 271}110, {sup 272}111, and {sup 277}112 of the elements Z=110, Z=111 and Z=112 were unambiguously identified for the first time in bombardments of {sup 208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi with {sup 62,64}Ni and {sup 70}Zn. Excitation functions for {sup 50}Ti+{sup 208}Pb and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb were measured with high precision, three new spontaneous fission (sf) activities {sup 253}104, {sup 254}104, {sup 258}106 were identified. A small {alpha}-decay branch of the even-even nucleus {sup 256}104 (b{sub {alpha}}{approx_equal}0.003) was confirmed, allowing to estimate mass excesses {delta}mc{sup 2} for N-Z=48 nuclei up to {sup 264}Hs (Z=108). An analysis of the {alpha}-decay chains observed in a bombardment of {sup 209}Bi with {sup 58}Fe projectiles showed evidence for an isomeric state in {sup 266}Mt (Z=109). We further report on an attempt to produce element 116 and a second isotope of element 112 by the reactions {sup 82}Se+{sup 208}Pb and {sup 68}Zn+{sup 208}Pb, respectively.

  3. {sup 209}Bi NMR in heavy-electron system YbBiPt

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.P.; Le, L.P.; Heffner, R.H.; Ahrens, E.T.; Fisk, Z.; Canfield, P.C.

    1994-06-01

    Bismuth NMR Knight shift and spin lattice relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1} are reported between 35--325K in the low-carrier heavy fermion system YbBiPt. The Knight shift is strongly temperature dependent and negative. Its temperature dependence tracks the bulk susceptibility with a hyperfine coupling constant A{sub hf} = {minus}7.89 kOe/{mu}B. At low temperatures 1/T{sub 1} exhibits a dramatic increase, such that the average 4f spin correlation time {tau}{sub f} shows a crossover behavior at about 75K. The rate 1/{tau}{sub f} is proportional to temperature, but with a different proportionality constant above and below about 75K. The linear temperature dependence is consistent with non-interacting 4f local moments which are relaxed via Korringa-type scattering with the conduction electrons. Below 75K, we infer that the reduced thermal excitation of a higher crystal-field multiplet is responsible for the dramatic decrease in the rate of 4f relaxation.

  4. On the search for a (n,f) cross-section reference at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, I.; Ventura, A.; Lo Meo, S.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Paradela, C.

    2017-09-01

    The (n,f) cross-sections proposed as references by the IAEA for 235U, 238U and 209Bi are compared with a new analysis that combines the measurements performed at CERN-n_TOF of their cross-section ratios with new calculations done using Monte Carlo codes based on phenomenological models INCL+ +, GEMINI+ +, and ABLA07. The calculations are cross-checked with those for the (p,f) reactions, where experimental values are available. We have evaluated in this way the (n,f) cross sections for 238U, 235U and 209Bi, in the intermediate energy region going from 190 MeV to 2 GeV. Our results definitively discard the JENDL/HE-2007 evaluations above 300 MeV, falling inside the confidence corridor proposed by IAEA but for the points around 300-400 MeV where a discrepancy is to be noticed.

  5. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester, New York, 8/1/79-7/31/80

    SciTech Connect

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms at the SuperHILAC and LAMPF is reported. Preprints of five articles and manuscripts of four recent conference papers are given, along with complete citations of publications and a list of personnel. Significant work was performed in the following areas: the bombarding energy dependence of the /sup 209/Bi + /sup 136/Xe reaction; the fragment yields for specific Z and A for projectile-like fragments produced in the reaction of 8.3-MeV/u /sup 56/Fe ions with targets of /sup 56/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, /sup 209/Bi, and /sup 238/U; and time distributions of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture for muonic /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu. (RWR)

  6. Cluster structure effects of projectile in7Li+208Pb reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, P. K.; Ashaduzzaman, Md; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; La Rana, G.; Davide, F.; Pulcini, A.; Quero, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Romoli, M.; Gelli, N.

    2017-06-01

    Inclusive and exclusive cross sections have been measured for different projectile breakup channels. It is observed that the inclusive cross sections are larger than the exclusive ones. It is found that other processes, besides the direct breakup channel, significantly contribute to the inclusive channels. A clear α+x cluster structure has been found from coincidence data.

  7. Theoretical analysis of 208Pb(p,n) spectra at 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.; Osterfeld, F.

    1989-02-01

    Forward angle spectra of the 208(p,n) reaction at Ep=200 MeV are analyzed within a microscopic model assuming that the measured cross section is a result of correlated one-particle-one-hole spin-isospin transitions only. We find that the data are essentially in agreement with the strength predictions of the random-phase approximation. We also find that the observed shapes of the spectra can only be explained by introducing a strongly asymmetric damping of the collective spin-flip modes.

  8. Superheavy research at RIKEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Kosuke

    2010-03-01

    At RIKEN, Japan, we performed experiments to study the productions and decays of the heaviest elements produced by 208Pb- and 209Bi- based ‘cold fusion’ reactions. A gas-filled recoil separator GARIS was used for the study. In the study of 209Bi(70Zn, n) reaction, we observed two decay chains originating from an isotope of the 113th element, 178113, which were assigned firstly by generic correlation of the alpha decay chains connected into the previously known decay of 266Bh and 262Db via previously unknown alpha decays of 278113, 274Rg, and 270Mt. In addition, decay properties of an isotope 266Bh and its daughter nucleus 262Db produced by the 248Cm(23Na, 5n) reaction were studied. 266Bh was clearly identified from the correlation of the known nuclide, 262Db, providing further confirmation of the discovery of 278113.

  9. Entrance channel dynamics of hot and cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the entrance channel dynamics for the reactions {sup 70}Zn+{sup 208}Pb and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U by using the fully microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. We calculate excitation energies and capture cross sections relevant for the study of superheavy formations. We discuss the deformation dependence of the ion-ion potential for the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U system and perform an alignment angle averaging for the calculation of the capture cross section. The results show that this approach can generate results in good agreement with experiments and other theories.

  10. Fusion-fission and quasifission in the reactions with heavy ions leading to the formation of Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.

    2012-10-20

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm,{sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to Hs isotopes have been measured. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs*, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U the considerable part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the symmetric fragments originate mainly from fusion-fission process for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for the reactions studied.

  11. Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs{sup *}

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; Goes Brennand, E. de

    2011-06-15

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs{sup *}, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

  12. Fractional processes and nuclear disassembly in very-heavy-ion collisions in the Fermi energy regime

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, W.U.

    1991-01-01

    Exclusive measurements of charged products and neutrons were performed for the reactions {sup 197}Au + (29 MeV/u) {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi + (28.2 MeV/u) {sup 136}Xe. The multiplicities of neutrons and charged particles are found to indicate collision impact parameters with different sensitivities. Characteristic correlations observed between massive products and light particles suggest the dominance of the damped-reaction mechanism in the Fermi energy domain. For central collisions, massive fragments are no longer observed, and a considerable fraction of the mass of the system is found disassembled into light particles and clusters. 75 refs., 19 figs.

  13. Isomer ratio measurements as a probe of the dynamics of breakup and incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Peatey, T.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Newton, J. O.

    2006-12-15

    The incomplete fusion mechanism following breakup of {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 9}Be projectiles incident on targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb is investigated through isomer ratio measurements for the {sup 212}At and {sup 211}Po products. The phenomenological analysis presented in this paper indicates that incomplete fusion brings relatively more angular momentum into the system than equivalent reactions with a direct beam of the fused fragment. This is attributed to the trajectories of breakup fragments. Calculations with a 3D classical trajectory model support this. Isomer ratio measurements for incomplete fusion reactions can provide a test of new theoretical models of breakup and fusion.

  14. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  15. Fusion by Diffusion Model Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczyński, J.

    A complete set of 27 excitation functions for synthesis of superheavy nuclei produced in cold fusion reactions was analyzed in terms of the "Fusion by Diffusion Model" of Światecki et al., modified to account for the angular momentum dependence of the fusion hindrance factor. The data on cold fusion reactions originate from experiments carried out at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo and LBNL Berkeley in which 208Pb and 209Bi targets were bombarded with the variety of projectiles ranging from 48,50Ti to 70Zn.

  16. Analysis of nucleon-induced fission cross sections of lead and bismuth at energies from 45 to 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofyev, A.V.; Mashnik, S.G.; Sierk, A.J.

    1998-08-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of the Cascade-Exciton model (CEM) of nuclear reactions to fission cross sections and hoping to learn more about intermediate-energy fission, the authors use an extended version of the CEM, as realized in the code CEM95 to perform a detailed analysis of proton- and neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb nuclei and of the linear momentum transfer to the fissioning nuclei in the 45--500 meV energy range.

  17. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  18. Remark on: the neutron spherical optical-model absorption.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    The energy-dependent behavior of the absorption term of the spherical neutron optical potential for doubly magic {sup 208}Pb and the neighboring {sup 209}Bi is examined. These considerations suggest a phenomenological model that results in an intuitively attractive energy dependence of the imaginary potential that provides a good description of the observed neutron cross sections and that is qualitatively consistent with theoretical concepts. At the same time it provides an alternative to some of the arbitrary assumptions involved in many conventional optical-model interpretations reported in the literature and reduces the number of the parameters of the model.

  19. Reaction-dependent spin population and evidence of breakup in {sup 18}O

    SciTech Connect

    Hojman, D.; Pacheco, A.J.; Testoni, J.E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Cardona, M.A.; Fernandez-Niello, J.O.; Kreiner, A.J.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V.; Bazzacco, D.; Lenzi, S.M.; Lunardi, S.; Alvarez, C. Rossi; Ur, C.; Burlon, A.; Debray, M.E.; De Angelis, G.; De Poli, M.

    2006-04-15

    Angular distributions and angular correlations have been measured for the emission of one and two {alpha}-particles in the {sup 18}O+{sup 207,208}Pb,{sup 209}Bi reactions at several beam energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results rule out fusion evaporation as the main reaction mechanism for the channels involving {alpha}-particle emission and support the interpretation of the breakup of the {sup 18}O projectiles into at least {sup 14}C+{alpha} and {sup 10}Be+{sup 8}Be before fusion.

  20. Determination of 238u/235u, 236u/238u and uranium concentration in urine using sf-icp-ms and mc-icp-ms: an interlaboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Randall R; Thirlwall, Matthew F; Pickford, Chris; Horstwood, Matthew; Gerdes, Axel; Anderson, James; Coggon, David

    2006-02-01

    Accidental exposure to depleted or enriched uranium may occur in a variety of circumstances. There is a need to quantify such exposure, with the possibility that the testing may post-date exposure by months or years. Therefore, it is important to develop a very sensitive test to measure precisely the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at low levels of concentration. The results of an interlaboratory comparison using sector field (SF)-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and multiple collector (MC)-ICP-MS for the measurement of uranium concentration and U/U and U/U isotopic ratios of human urine samples are presented. Three urine samples were verified to contain uranium at 1-5 ng L and shown to have natural uranium isotopic composition. Portions of these urine batches were doped with depleted uranium (DU) containing small quantities of U, and the solutions were split into 100 mL and 400 mL aliquots that were subsequently measured blind by three laboratories. All methods investigated were able to measure accurately U/U with precisions of approximately 0.5% to approximately 4%, but only selected MC-ICP-MS methods were capable of consistently analyzing U/U to reasonable precision at the approximately 20 fg L level of U abundance. Isotope dilution using a U tracer demonstrates the ability to measure concentrations to better than +/-4% with the MC-ICP-MS method, though sample heterogeneity in urine samples was shown to be problematic in some cases. MC-ICP-MS outperformed SF-ICP-MS methods, as was expected. The MC-ICP-MS methodology described is capable of measuring to approximately 1% precision the U/U of any sample of human urine over the entire range of uranium abundance down to <1 ng L, and detecting very small amounts of DU contained therein.

  1. Comparison of complementary reactions for the production of {sup 261,262}Bh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Folden III, C. M.; Dragojevic, I.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Sudowe, R.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eichler, R.

    2008-08-15

    Two heavy-ion induced fusion reactions producing {sup 261,262}Bh were studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. An excitation function for the production of {sup 262}Bh via the reaction {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr,n){sup 262}Bh was measured with a maximum cross section from a fit to the data of 430 {+-} 110 pb observed at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 15.7 MeV. New data have been measured for the 1n exit channel of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn, n){sup 262}Bh reaction. We present an updated excitation function with an observed maximum cross section of 530{+-}100 pb at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.1 MeV. Events corresponding to the 2n exit channel for the {sup 209}Bi({sup 54}Cr,2n){sup 261}Bh and {sup 208}Pb({sup 55}Mn,2n){sup 261}Bh reactions were also observed and are presented as partial excitation functions. The measured decay properties correspond well with existing experimental data. We compare these experimental results to cross section predictions from a model by Swiatecki et al. and discuss entrance channel effects on the magnitude of 1n cross sections.

  2. Age of the moon: An isotopic study of uranium-thorium-lead systematics of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1970-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb in Apollo 11 samples studied are low (U. 0.16 to 0.87; Th, 0.53 to 3.4; Pb, 0.29 to 1.7, in ppm) but the extremely radiogenic lead in samples allows radiometric dating. The fine dust and the breccia have a concordant age of 4.66 billion years on the basis of 207Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/238U, 207Pb/235U, and 208Pb/232Th ratios. This age is comparable with the age of meteorites and with the age generally accepted for the earth. Six crystalline and vesicular samples are distinctly younger than the dust and breccia. The 238U/235U ratio is the same as that in earth rocks, and 234U is in radioactive equilibrium with parent 238U.

  3. Age of the moon: an isotopic study of uranium-thorium-lead systematics of lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Tatsumoto, M; Rosholt, J N

    1970-01-30

    Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb in Apollo 11 samples studied are low (U. 0.16 to 0.87; Th, 0.53 to 3.4; Pb, 0.29 to 1.7, in ppm) but the extremely radiogenic lead in samples allows radiometric dating. The fine dust and the breccia have a concordant age of 4.66 billion years on the basis of (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (206)Pb/(238)U, (207)Pb/(235U), and(208)Pb/(232)Th ratios. This age is comparable with the age of meteorites and with the age generally accepted for the earth. Six crystalline and vesicular samples are distinctly younger than the dust and breccia. The (238)U/(235)U ratio is the same as that in earth rocks, and (234)U is in radioactive equilibrium with parent (238)U.

  4. Formation of superheavy elements in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolańczuk, Robert

    2001-04-01

    We calculate the formation cross sections of transactinides (superheavy elements), as well as heavy actinides (No and Lr), which have been or might be obtained in fusion reactions with the evaporation of only one neutron. We use both more realistic fusion barrier and survival probability of the compound nucleus in comparison with the original phenomenological model [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2634 (1999)] that prompted the Berkeley experiment on the synthesis of a new superheavy element 118 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1104 (1999)]. Calculations are performed for asymmetric and symmetric target-projectile combinations and for reactions with stable and radioactive-ion beams. The formation cross sections measured at GSI-Darmstadt for transactinides and heavy actinides, as well as that for superheavy element 118 reported by the LBNL-Berkeley group, are reproduced within a factor of 2.4, on average. Based on the obtained relatively large cross sections, we predict that optimal reactions with stable beams for the synthesis of so far unobserved superheavy elements 119, 120, and 121 are 209Bi(86Kr, 1n)294119, 208Pb(88Sr, 1n)295120, and 209Bi(88Sr, 1n)296121, respectively. This is because of the magic of both the target and the projectile that leads to larger Q value and, consequently, lower effective fusion barrier with larger transmission probability. The same effect is responsible for relatively large cross sections predicted for the symmetric reactions 136Xe(124Sn, 1n)259Rf, 136Xe(136Xe, 1n)271Hs,138Ba(136Xe, 1n)273110, and 140Ce(136Xe, 1n)275112. Although shell effects in the magic nuclei 124Sn, 136Xe, 138Ba, and 140Ce are not as strong as in 208Pb and 209Bi, they act on both the target and the projectile and lead to the prediction of measurable cross sections.

  5. Measurement of 238U muonic x-rays with a germanium detector setup

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ernst I; Jason, Andrew; Miyadera, Haruo; Hoteling, Nathan J; Heffner, Robert H; Adelmann, Andreas; Stocki, Trevor; Mitchell, Lee

    2009-01-01

    In the field of nuclear non-proliferation muon interactions with materials are of great interest. This paper describes an experiment conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland where a muon beam is stopped in a uranium target. The muons produce characteristic muonic x-rays. Muons will penetrate shielding easily and the produced characteristic x-rays can be used for positive isotope identification. Furthermore, the x-rays for uranium isotopes lie in the energy range of 6-7 MeV, which allows them to have an almost optimal mean free path in heavy shielding such as lead or steel. A measurement was conducted at PSI to prove the feasibility of detecting muonic x-rays from a large sample of depleted uranium (several kilograms) with a germanium detector. In this paper, the experimental setup and analysis of the measurement itself is presented.

  6. Decay Studies of {sup 238}U Fission Products at the HRIBF (Oak Ridge)

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K.P.

    2014-06-15

    An overview of decay studies of neutron-rich nuclei performed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is given. Examples are presented of impact of HRIBF results on nuclear structure, astrophysics and applied studies.

  7. Difficulties in using 234u/238u ratios to detect enriched or depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Robert L

    2008-03-01

    Uranium that is highly enriched in U (HEU) is also often also enriched in U because it too is a lower-mass isotope than U and thus its concentration would be preferentially increased in any mass-sensitive enrichment process. Thus the ratio U/U might be regarded as a surrogate for U/U-the usual measure of enrichment. For this reason it has been suggested that U/U measurements be used to detect contamination by HEU. The purpose of this Note is to point out that, because of alpha-recoil effects, U/U varies widely in natural systems, and for this reason it would not be a dependable indicator of the presence of HEU. The same variations would cause U/U ratios to be doubtful indicators of depleted uranium.

  8. Analysis of TPC Single Sextant U-238/U-235 Engineering In-Beam Data

    SciTech Connect

    Tony Hill

    2012-09-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4p- detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. This TPC has been shipped and installed at LANSCE and is collecting further engineering data for the full system scale up next year.

  9. Particle Transport of 234U- 238U in the Kalix River and in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, P. S.; Porcelli, D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ingri, J.

    1998-02-01

    The role of particles for U isotope transport was investigated in the Kalix River watershed, a particle-poor, Fe/Mn-rich river in northern Sweden, and in the Baltic Sea estuary. Particles >0.45μm are strongly enriched in U and contain 20-50% of the total riverine uranium budget and <1% of the total U in brackish waters (3-7 PSU). The particles have high δ 234U which is close to that of dissolved U in the associated water, indicating that U on particles is dominantly nondetrital and isotopically exchanges rapidly with the ambient dissolved U. Particles at the river mouth are dominated by nondetrital Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. Uranium and Fe are strongly correlated, clearly demonstrating that secondary Fe-oxyhydroxide is the major carrier of U in river water. There is no evidence for significant association of U with Mn-oxyhydroxide. Apparent U distribution coefficients ( K̂dFe) were calculated for U between the authigenic Fe on particles and the solution. These values appear to be relatively constant throughout the year. This suggests an equilibrium between Fe in solution and authigenic Fe-oxyhydroxides on detrital particles. High values of K̂dFe calculated for one summer as well as high U concentrations in brackish waters can be explained by U scavenging by biogenic phases with low authigenic Fe content.

  10. Coulomb Excitation and Few Nucleon Transfer Reactions with ^209Bi Beams on ^237Np and ^241Am Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Saleem, K.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Caggiano, J.; Heinz, A.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Sonzogni, A.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Hackman, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Cline, D.; Wu, C.; Machiavelli, A. O.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Seabury, E. H.

    2002-10-01

    Two separate Coloumb excitation measurements have been performed at ATLAS using Pb beams, at bombarding energies ˜ 15% above the Coulomb barrier, incident upon ^237Np and ^241Am targets. Using these reactions, γ-ray coincidence data were collected with the Gammasphere array. In both measurements, rotational bands built on a πi_13/2 configuration were observed to high-spin in the target nuclei. From these new data and those available for even- and odd-A U and Pu isotopes, we have concluded that the i_13/2 quasiprotons dominate the observed alignments in this mass region and that there is little contribution from aligning j_15/2 neutron pairs. This is unexpected based on Cranked Shell Model predictions which indicate that both quasiparticle pairs should be involved in the observed alignment processes.

  11. Measurements of charge state distributions of 0.74 and 1.4 MeV /u heavy ions passing through dilute gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharrer, P.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Barth, W.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Bevcic, M.; Gerhard, P.; Groening, L.; Horn, K. P.; Jäger, E.; Krier, J.; Vormann, H.

    2017-04-01

    In many modern heavy-ion accelerator facilities, gas strippers are used to increase the projectile charge state for improving the acceleration efficiency of ion beams to higher energies. For this application, the knowledge on the behavior of charge state distributions of heavy-ions after passing through dilute gases is of special interest. Charge state distributions of uranium (238U), bismuth (209Bi), titanium (50Ti), and argon (40Ar) ion beams with energies of 0.74 MeV /u and 1.4 MeV /u after passing through hydrogen (H2 ), helium (He), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), nitrogen (N2 ), oxygen (O2 ), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) gases were measured. Gas stripper target thicknesses up to 100 μ g /cm2 were applied. The observed behavior of the charge state distributions, including their width and mean charge state, are discussed. The measurements show the highest equilibrium charge state at 1.4 MeV /u for 238U on H2 gas of 29.2 ±1.2 . Narrow charge state distributions are observed for 238U and 209Bi on H2 and He gas, which are highly beneficial, e.g., for the production of beams of high intensities in accelerators.

  12. Isomeric states observed in heavy neutron-rich nuclei populated in the fragmentation of a 208Pb beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, S. J.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pietri, S.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Maier, K. H.; Regan, P. H.; Rudolph, D.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hoischen, R.; Gerl, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Cáceres, L.; Doornenbal, P.; Geissel, H.; Grębosz, J.; Kelic, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Montes, F.; Prokopwicz, W.; Saito, T.; Schaffner, H.; Tashenov, S.; Heinz, A.; Pfützner, M.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Benzoni, G.; Jungclaus, A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bowry, M.; Brandau, C.; Brown, A.; Bruce, A. M.; Catford, W. N.; Cullen, I. J.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Estevez, M. E.; Gelletly, W.; Ilie, G.; Jolie, J.; Jones, G. A.; Kmiecik, M.; Kondev, F. G.; Krücken, R.; Lalkovski, S.; Liu, Z.; Maj, A.; Myalski, S.; Schwertel, S.; Shizuma, T.; Walker, P. M.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.

    2011-10-01

    Heavy neutron-rich nuclei were populated via the fragmentation of a E/A=1 GeV 20882Pb beam. Secondary fragments were separated and identified and subsequently implanted in a passive stopper. By the detection of delayed γ rays, isomeric decays associated with these nuclei have been identified. A total of 49 isomers were detected, with the majority of them observed for the first time. The newly discovered isomers are in 204,20580Hg, 201,202,204,20579Au, 197,203,20478Pt, 195,199-20377Ir, 193,197-19976Os, 19675Re, 190,19174W, and 18973Ta. Possible level schemes are constructed and the structure of the nuclei discussed. To aid the interpretation, shell-model as well as BCS calculations were performed.

  13. The {sup 136}Xe + {sup 208}Pb Reaction: A Test of Models of Multi-nucleon Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J. S.; Yanez, R.; Loveland, W.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.

    2015-06-22

    The yields of over 200 projectile-like fragments (PLFs) and target-like fragments (TLFs) from the interaction of (E-c.m. = 450 MeV) Xe-136 with a thick target of Pb-208 were measured using Gammasphere and off-line gamma-ray spectroscopy, giving a comprehensive picture of the production cross sections in this reaction. The measured yields were compared to predictions of the GRAZING model and the predictions of Zagrebaev and Greiner using a quantitative metric, the theory evaluation factor tef. The GRAZING model predictions are adequate for describing the yields of nuclei near the target or projectile but they grossly underestimate the yields of all other products. The predictions of Zagrebaev and Greiner correctly describe the magnitude and maxima of the observed TLF transfer cross sections for a wide range of transfers (Delta Z = -8 to Delta Z = +2). However, for Delta Z = +4, the observed position of the maximum in the distribution is four neutrons richer than the predicted maximum. The predicted yields of the neutron-rich N = 126 nuclei exceed the measured values by two orders of magnitude. Correlations between TLF and PLF yields are discussed.

  14. Dynamic studies of {sup 11}Li and its core {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cubero, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Alcorta, M.; Madurga, M.; Tengblad, O.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Diget, C.; Galaviz, D.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M.; Mukha, I.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P.

    2010-04-26

    We measured the scattering of the halo nucleus {sup 11}Li and its core {sup 9}Li on the lead target at TRIUMF at energies below and around to the Coulomb barrier. We report here on our preliminary analysis of the inclusive breakup reaction.

  15. Coast-to-interior gradients and recent trends in physical and chemical properties of near-surface snow and firn in northwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, G. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Hawley, R. L.; Caughey, S. K.; Courville, Z.; Howley, J.; Lutz, E.; Overly, T. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which holds enough ice to raise global sea levels by approximately 7 m, is a major driver of Arctic and global climate. Observations over the past two decades have documented changes including notable increases in ice discharge, significant warming in coastal regions, and expanded areal extent of annual surface melt (e.g., Rignot and Thomas, 2002; Mote, 2007; Hanna and others, 2008). In contrast, observations document little change in temperature or accumulation in the central regions of the ice sheet (Hanna and others, 2008, 2011). The 1120 km-long Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT), between Thule Air Base in northwest Greenland and Summit Station in central Greenland, is a logistics traverse that follows a nearly identical route taken by Carl Benson and the US Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE) between 1952 and 1955 (Benson, 1962). Observations from the SIPRE and GrIT traverses provide two snapshots of surface conditions across the northwest region of the GIS separated by 56 years. Hawley and others (in review) observe an increase in snow accumulation rates along the GrIT traverse route based on internal reflecting horizons in radar data dated with firn cores, with larger accumulation increases observed in the coastal region near Thule. Here we expand upon the analysis of Hawley and others (in review) by determining coast-to-interior gradients in snow accumulation, density, hardness (Rammsonde), and snow chemistry using samples from 18 snow pits and 3 firn cores collected during the 2010 and 2011 GrIT traverses. Snow pit and firn core samples were analyzed for trace element (23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 32S, 39K, 44Ca, 47Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 88Sr, 111Cd, 133Cs, 138Ba, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U) concentrations and stable water isotope ratios (δD, δ18O), and were dated by seasonal oscillations in chemical concentrations and isotope ratios. We compare the GrIT data to those of

  16. Decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and collectivity around double midshell

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2015-10-15

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes with A ≈ 170, which locate near the middle of the major shells for both proton and neutron between the doubly magic nuclei {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb, have been investigated by means of decay spectroscopy techniques at the RIBF facility at RIKEN. The nuclei of interest were produced by in-flight fission of a high-intensity {sup 238}U beam at 345 MeV/u. In this contribution, scientific motivations, the details of experimental procedures, and some prospects of the data analysis are reported.

  17. Decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and collectivity around double midshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes with A ≈ 170, which locate near the middle of the major shells for both proton and neutron between the doubly magic nuclei 132Sn and 208Pb, have been investigated by means of decay spectroscopy techniques at the RIBF facility at RIKEN. The nuclei of interest were produced by in-flight fission of a high-intensity 238U beam at 345 MeV/u. In this contribution, scientific motivations, the details of experimental procedures, and some prospects of the data analysis are reported.

  18. Nuclear molecule formation and time delay in collisions of nuclei with Z1 + Z2 ≥ 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S.; Beliuskina, O.; Comas, V.; Devaraja, H. M.; Heinz, C.; Hofmann, S.; Kozulin, E.; Morherr, F.; Münzenberg, G.; Ackermann, D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Kindler, B.; Lom