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Sample records for 20c aux system

  1. Evaluation of the API 20C yeast identification system for the differentiation of some dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; McGinnis, M R; Pincus, D H; Goldson, P R; Kerkering, T M

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-seven isolates of Cladosporium spp., Exophiala spp., Fonsecaea spp., Lecythophora hoffmannii, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Phialophora spp., Wangiella dermatitidis, and Xylohypha bantiana were used to evaluate the API 20C Yeast Identification System for the differentiation of dematiaceous fungi. Using the API 20C system, we were able to distinguish most species of Phialophora and Cladosporium and to separate L. hoffmannii from the species of Phialophora tested; X. bantiana from C. carrionii, C. resinae, and C. sphaerospermum; and W. dermatitidis from Exophiala jeanselmei and Exophiala spinifera. Ninety-two (60.1%) of 153 possible species-pair combinations were separated. PMID:2808678

  2. New Volleyballenes: Y20C60 and La20C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Two new stable Volleyballenes, the Y20C60 and La20C60 molecular clusters, are proposed on the basis of first-principles density functional theory. In conjunction with recent findings for the scandium system, these findings establish Volleyballene M20C60 molecules as a general class of stable molecules within the fullerene family. Both Y20C60 and La20C60 molecules have Th point group symmetries and relatively large HOMO-LUMO gaps.

  3. New Volleyballenes: Y20C60 and La20C60.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Two new stable Volleyballenes, the Y20C60 and La20C60 molecular clusters, are proposed on the basis of first-principles density functional theory. In conjunction with recent findings for the scandium system, these findings establish Volleyballene M20C60 molecules as a general class of stable molecules within the fullerene family. Both Y20C60 and La20C60 molecules have Th point group symmetries and relatively large HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27487765

  4. New Volleyballenes: Y20C60 and La20C60

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Two new stable Volleyballenes, the Y20C60 and La20C60 molecular clusters, are proposed on the basis of first-principles density functional theory. In conjunction with recent findings for the scandium system, these findings establish Volleyballene M20C60 molecules as a general class of stable molecules within the fullerene family. Both Y20C60 and La20C60 molecules have Th point group symmetries and relatively large HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27487765

  5. Sc20C60: a volleyballene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable.An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sc20C60: a Volleyballene_SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07784b

  6. Mutation in domain II of IAA1 confers diverse auxin-related phenotypes and represses auxin-activated expression of Aux/IAA genes in steroid regulator-inducible system.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Joung; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-12-01

    Most of Aux/IAA genes are rapidly induced by auxin. The Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins sharing the four conserved domains. Domain II is critical for rapid degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. Among these gene family members, IAA1 is one of the earliest auxin-inducible genes. We used a steroid hormone-inducible system to reveal putative roles and downstream signaling of IAA1 in auxin response. Arabidopsis transgenic plants were generated expressing fusion protein of IAA1 (IAA1-GR) or IAA1 with a mutation in domain II (iaa1-GR) and the glucocorticoid hormone-binding domain (GR). IAA1-GR transgenic plants did not exhibit any discernable phenotypic differences by DEX treatment that allows nuclear translocation of the fusion protein. In contrast, diverse auxin-related physiological processes including gravitropism and phototropism were impaired by DEX treatment in roots, hypocotyls, stems, and leaves in iaa1-GR transgenic plants. Auxin induction of seven Aux/IAA mRNAs including IAA1 itself was repressed by DEX treatment, suggesting that IAA1 functions in the nucleus by mediating auxin response and might act as a negative feedback regulator for the expression of Aux/IAA genes including IAA1 itself. Auxin induction of Aux/IAA genes in the presence of cycloheximide can be repressed by DEX treatment, showing that the repression of transcription of the Aux/IAAs by the iaa1 mutant protein is primary. Wild-type IAA1-GR could not suppress auxin induction of IAA1 and IAA2. These results indicate that inhibition of auxin-activated transcription of Aux/IAA genes by the iaa1 mutant protein might be responsible for alteration of various auxin responses.

  7. Sc20C60: a volleyballene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as "Volleyballene". Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (∼1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. PMID:26878201

  8. The specific role of FAM20C in dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Yuan, B; Ruest, L B; Feng, J Q; Qin, C

    2015-02-01

    FAM20C is an evolutionarily reserved molecule highly expressed in mineralized tissues. Previously we demonstrated that Sox2-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice, in which Fam20C was ubiquitously inactivated, had dentin and enamel defects as well as hypophosphatemic rickets. We also showed that K14-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice, in which Fam20C was specifically inactivated in the epithelium, had enamel defects but lacked hypophosphatemia and defects in the bone and dentin. These results indicated that the enamel defects in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice were independent of dentin defects and hypophosphatemia. To determine if the dentin defects in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice were associated with the enamel defects and hypophosphatemia, we crossed Fam20C(fl/fl) mice with Wnt1-Cre and Osr2-Cre transgenic mice to inactivate Fam20C in the craniofacial mesenchymal cells that form dentin and alveolar bone. The resulting Wnt1-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) and Osr2-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice showed remarkable dentin and alveolar bone defects, while their enamel did not show apparent defects. The serum FGF23 levels in these mice were higher than normal but lower than those in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice; they developed a mild type of hypophosphatemia that did not cause major defects in long bones. These results indicate that the dentin defects in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20C(fl/fl) mice were independent of the enamel defects.

  9. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  10. The Specific Role of FAM20C in Dentinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Ruest, L.B.; Feng, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    FAM20C is an evolutionarily reserved molecule highly expressed in mineralized tissues. Previously we demonstrated that Sox2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice, in which Fam20C was ubiquitously inactivated, had dentin and enamel defects as well as hypophosphatemic rickets. We also showed that K14-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice, in which Fam20C was specifically inactivated in the epithelium, had enamel defects but lacked hypophosphatemia and defects in the bone and dentin. These results indicated that the enamel defects in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice were independent of dentin defects and hypophosphatemia. To determine if the dentin defects in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice were associated with the enamel defects and hypophosphatemia, we crossed Fam20Cfl/fl mice with Wnt1-Cre and Osr2-Cre transgenic mice to inactivate Fam20C in the craniofacial mesenchymal cells that form dentin and alveolar bone. The resulting Wnt1-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl and Osr2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice showed remarkable dentin and alveolar bone defects, while their enamel did not show apparent defects. The serum FGF23 levels in these mice were higher than normal but lower than those in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice; they developed a mild type of hypophosphatemia that did not cause major defects in long bones. These results indicate that the dentin defects in the Sox2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice were independent of the enamel defects. PMID:25515778

  11. Calibration of longwavelength exotech model 20-C spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Robinson, B.; Silva, L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of the Exotech model 20-C field spectroradiometer which measures the spectral radiance of a target in the wavelength ranges 0.37 to 2.5 microns (short wavelength unit), 2.8 to 5.6 microns and 7.0 to 14 microns (long wavelength unit) is given. Wavelength calibration of long wavelength unit was done by knowing the strong, sharp and accurately known absorption bands of polystyrene, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methyl cyclohexane (liquid) in the infrared wavelength region. The spectral radiance calibration was done by recording spectral scans of the hot and the cold blackbodies and assuming that spectral radiance varies linearly with the signal.

  12. 17 CFR 200.20c - Office of Filings and Information Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Information Services. 200.20c Section 200.20c Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... General Organization § 200.20c Office of Filings and Information Services. The Office of Filings and Information Services is responsible for the receipt and initial handling of all public documents filed at...

  13. FAM20A binds to and regulates FAM20C localization

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Yoshio; Lin, Ju-Hsien; Govitvattana, Nattanan; Lin, I-Ping; Venkitapathi, Sundharamani; Alamoudi, Ahmed; Husein, Dina; An, Chunying; Hotta, Hak; Kaku, Masaru; Mochida, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the Family with sequence similarity (FAM) 20 gene family are associated with mineralized tissue phenotypes in humans. Among these genes, FAM20A mutations are associated with Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) with gingival hyperplasia and nephrocalcinosis, while FAM20C mutations cause Raine syndrome, exhibiting bone and craniofacial/dental abnormalities. Although it has been demonstrated that Raine syndrome associated-FAM20C mutants prevented FAM20C kinase activity and secretion, overexpression of the catalytically inactive D478A FAM20C mutant was detected in both cell extracts and the media. This suggests that FAM20C secretion doesn’t require its kinase activity, and that another molecule(s) may control the secretion. In this study, we found that extracellular FAM20C localization was increased when wild-type (WT), but not AI-forms of FAM20A was co-transfected. On the other hand, extracellular FAM20C was absent in the conditioned media of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Fam20a knock-out (KO) mouse, while it was detected in the media from WT MEFs. We also showed that cells with the conditioned media of Fam20a WT MEFs mineralized, but those with the conditioned media of KO MEFs failed to mineralize in vitro. Our data thus demonstrate that FAM20A controls FAM20C localization that may assist in the extracellular function of FAM20C in mineralized tissues. PMID:27292199

  14. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-26

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis.

  15. Identification and Analyses of AUX-IAA target genes controlling multiple pathways in developing fiber cells of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Deepti; Sawant, Samir V

    2013-01-01

    Technological development led to an increased interest in systems biological approaches in plants to characterize developmental mechanism and candidate genes relevant to specific tissue or cell morphology. AUX-IAA proteins are important plant-specific putative transcription factors. There are several reports on physiological response of this family in Arabidopsis but in cotton fiber the transcriptional network through which AUX-IAA regulated its target genes is still unknown. in-silico modelling of cotton fiber development specific gene expression data (108 microarrays and 22,737 genes) using Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) reveals 3690 putative AUX-IAA target genes of which 139 genes were known to be AUX-IAA co-regulated within Arabidopsis. Further AUX-IAA targeted gene regulatory network (GRN) had substantial impact on the transcriptional dynamics of cotton fiber, as showed by, altered TF networks, and Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and metabolic pathway associated with its target genes. Analysis of the AUX-IAA-correlated gene network reveals multiple functions for AUX-IAA target genes such as unidimensional cell growth, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, nucleosome organization, DNA-protein complex and process related to cell wall. These candidate networks/pathways have a variety of profound impacts on such cellular functions as stress response, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. While these functions are fairly broad, their underlying TF networks may provide a global view of AUX-IAA regulated gene expression and a GRN that guides future studies in understanding role of AUX-IAA box protein and its targets regulating fiber development.

  16. AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, A; Kargul, J; May, S T; Muller, P; Delbarre, A; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    1999-01-01

    Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling. PMID:10205161

  17. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butylcyclohexane C10H20+C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1141, LB3336_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butylcyclohexane C10H20 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1141, LB3336_V)' providing data from direct measurement of mass density at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butylcyclohexane C10H20 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1242, LB3403_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butylcyclohexane C10H20 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1242, LB3403_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from density measurements at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  20. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  1. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis. PMID:25537657

  2. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis. PMID:25537657

  3. Expression of FAM20C in the osteogenesis and odontogenesis of mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofang; Hao, Jianjun; Xie, Yixia; Sun, Yao; Hernandez, Brianda; Yamoah, Albert K; Prasad, Monica; Zhu, Qinglin; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin

    2010-11-01

    Mutations in FAM20C were recently identified as the cause of lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia, which highlighted the important role of this molecule in biomineralization. No systematic studies have been performed to evaluate the expression pattern of this relatively new molecule in the developmental processes of bone and tooth. In the present study, we analyzed in detail the expression profile of FAM20C during osteogenesis and odontogenesis using ISH and IHC approaches. The specimens analyzed were mouse tissues spanning embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to postnatal 8 weeks. The earliest presence of FAM20C was observed at E14.5. During osteogenesis, FAM20C mRNA was detected in the chondrocytes and osteoblasts of the long bone, whereas its protein was observed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone and in the cytoplasm of the chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. During odontogenesis, FAM20C mRNA was detected in the ameloblasts, odontoblasts, cementoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts, whereas its protein was observed in the matrices of dentin, enamel, and alveolar bone and in the cytoplasm of the aforementioned cells. The temporospatial expression profile revealed in this study indicates that FAM20C is an ECM protein that may play an important role in controlling the mineralization of bone and tooth.

  4. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butylcyclohexane C10H20 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1342, LB3377_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butylcyclohexane C10H20 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1342, LB3377_V)' providing data by calculation of isothermal compressibility from direct measurements of mass densities at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  6. Comparison of geometric, electronic, and vibrational properties for isomers of small fullerenes C20-C36.

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Edyta; Witek, Henryk A; Irle, Stephan

    2007-07-26

    We employ the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method for computing geometric, electronic, and vibrational properties for various topological isomers of small fullerenes. We consider all 35 five- and six-member rings containing isomers of small fullerenes, C20, C24, C26, C28, C30, C32, C34, and C36, as first part of a larger effort to catalog CC distance distributions, valence CCC angle distributions, electronic densities of states (DOSs), vibrational densities of states (VDOSs), and infrared (IR) and Raman spectra for fullerenes C20-C180. Common features among the fullerenes are identified and properties characteristic for each specific fullerene isomer are discussed. PMID:17429953

  7. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Fang, David D; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2012-07-15

    Members of the Aux/IAA gene family encode proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-regulated gene expression and regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. Here, we provide the first identification and characterization of nine cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the Aux/IAA family in cotton. These were designated GhAux1 to GhAux9 (Gossypiumhirsutum Aux/IAA). The proteins encoded by these nine genes had either whole or partially conserved domains of the Aux/IAA superfamily, with sequence identity ranging from 14% to 69%. A pair of homeologs exists for each Aux/IAA in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 with high identity both in ORF sequences and amino acid level. Tissue- and organ-specific analysis showed that transcripts of GhAux1, GhAux2, and GhAux3 were abundant in vegetative organs, whereas GhAux4, GhAux5, GhAux6, and GhAux7 were preferentially expressed in ovules on the day of anthesis. GhAux8 and GhIAA16 (previously reported) were also preferentially expressed during fiber developmental stages, especially GhAux8 in fiber early elongation stages, and GhIAA16 in fiber initiation and secondary cell wall thickening stage. GhAux9 was specifically expressed in developing fibers. During the fiber initiation stage, except for GhAux3 and GhAux6, the expression of the other eight GhAuxs in various lintless-fuzzless and linted-fuzzless mutants demonstrated that they were significantly up-regulated compared with linted-fuzzy TM-1. PMID:22575728

  8. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  9. Comparative study between ERA-20C and ERA INTERIM reanalysis datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisztina Balázs, Zita; Ihász, István

    2016-04-01

    The continuous development of the 20th century had a positive effect on the meteorological forecasts as well. Thanks to that the numerical models and their forecasts became more precise by the end of the century. Therefore in the 1990s scientists required to verify the results of previous numerical models with the available new technologies. In this way now it is possible to get a more accurate picture of the atmosphere's past. To meet this need reanalyses were improved. Reanalyses not only help to represent the conditions of the atmosphere more precisely, but they also help to recognize the errors of the numerical models. All these progresses are the basics of making trustworthy forecasts, and getting precise results of global climate models as well. Thanks to the innovation of data-assimilated methods and further technical developments several reanalysis projects were improved in the last decades. In our current studies we are making a proper, comparative study between the two most modern ECMWF reanalysis datasets (ERA INTERIM, ERA-20C). In the first step we assigned three periods of ERA-20C (1901-2000, 1901-1950 and 1951-2000) where we examine several selected parameters. We also assigned a collective period from both ERA INTERIM and ERA-20C (1981-2010). Four different meteorological parameters - 500 hPa height, 850 hPa temperature, mean sea level pressure, and ice coverage in the Arctic- Circle regions were investigated in our study. Emphasis is also placed on extreme weather situations. Firstly we are monitoring the detectability and the changes in frequencies of rapid cyclones in the period 1981-2010 collectively in both reanalysis datasets. Besides we examine some selected cyclones' frequency and spatial location in three periods of ERA-20C (1901-2000, 1901-1950 and 1951-2000). By the results we can recognize the strengths and weaknesses of the two reanalyses. It is a great benefit for all the reanalysis users, such as climate researchers, and the developers

  10. Immortalized Mouse Floxed Fam20c Dental Papillar Mesenchymal and Osteoblast Cell Lines Retain Their Primary Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Peihong; Liu, Ying; Jani, Priyam H.; Lu, Yongbo; Chen, Shuo; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Fam20c is essential for the normal mineralization of dentin and bone. The generation of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines carrying floxed Fam20c allele can offer valuable tools for the study of the roles of Fam20c in the mineralization of dentin and bone. The limited capability of the primary odontoblasts and osteoblasts to proliferate necessitates the development of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines serving as substitutes for the study of differentiation and mineralization of the odontoblasts and osteoblasts. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. The isolated primary mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts were immortalized by the infection of lentivirus containing Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (SV40 T-Ag). The immortalization of floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts was verified by the long-term passages and genomic integration of SV40 T-Ag. The immortalized floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines not only proliferated at a high rate and retained the morphology of their primary counterparts, but also preserved the dentin and bone specific gene expression as the primary dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts did. Consistently, the capability of the primary floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts to mineralize was also inherited by the immortalized dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. Thus, we have successfully generated the immortalized mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. PMID:25833681

  11. Stress corrosion evaluation of HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1993-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation was undertaken on HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel in support of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. This alloy was tested in plate, bar, and ring forging forms. Several heat treating procedures yielded ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 1,407 to 1,489 MPa (204 to 216 ksi). The test environments were high humidity, alternate immersion in 3.5-percent NaCl, and 5-percent salt spray. Stress levels ranged from 25 to 90 percent of the yield strengths. The majority of the tests were conducted for 90 days. Even though the specimens rusted significantly in salt spray and alternate immersion, no failures occurred. Therefore, it can be concluded that this alloy, in the forms and at the strength levels tested, is highly resistant to SCC in salt and high humidity environments.

  12. Lifetime Measurement of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} State in {sup 20}C

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Paschalis, S.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Gros, S.; Jeppesen, H. B.; Lee, I. Y.; Starosta, K.; Baugher, T.; Gade, A.; McDaniel, S.; Miller, D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Voss, P.; Walsh, K. A.; Bazin, D.; Grinyer, G. F.; Weisshaar, D.

    2011-09-02

    Establishing how and when large N/Z values require modified or new theoretical tools is a major quest in nuclear physics. Here we report the first measurement of the lifetime of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state in the near-dripline nucleus {sup 20}C. The deduced value of {tau}{sub 2{sub 1}{sup +}}=9.8{+-}2.8(stat){sub -1.1}{sup +0.5}(syst) ps gives a reduced transition probability of B(E2;2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub g.s.}{sup +})=7.5{sub -1.7}{sup +3.0}(stat){sub -0.4}{sup +1.0}(syst) e{sup 2} fm{sup 4} in good agreement with a shell model calculation using isospin-dependent effective charges.

  13. Food contamination by C 20-C 50 mineral paraffins from the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, Hans-Peter; Grob, Koni; Biedermann, Maurus; Noti, Anja

    Most foods from plant origin usually contain 1-10 mg/kg (dry weight) of non-resolved isomeric alkanes in the range of the n-alkanes C 20-C 50 which are assumed to be residues from mineral oil products (in addition to the natural paraffins). In edible vegetable oils, concentrations may exceed 100 mg/kg. Since it was suspected that this contamination was mostly of environmental origin, particulate matter from air was analysed for the same range of paraffins. In a road tunnel, around 5 μg/m 3 of such paraffins were found, corresponding to about 3% of the fine dust (PM10). The composition corresponded to that found in the particulate matter from the exhaust of diesel engines, which in turn largely corresponded to engine (lubricating) oil. In Swiss cities, the C 20-C 50 mineral paraffins in the PM10 from ambient air amounted to 0.1-1.5 μg/m 3 (about 1% of the dust) and seemed to primarily originate from incomplete combustion of heating and diesel oil, lubricating oil, and road tar debris. On the countryside, the concentrations were around 0.03 μg/m 3 (0.3% of the dust). Soil contained 0.5-10 mg/kg of these paraffins. The similarity of the molecular weight (volatility) distribution suggests that the food contamination with paraffins, is mostly from the air. A substantial proportion probably consists of lubricating oil. If this hypothesis is confirmed, measures should be investigated to reduce this contamination.

  14. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  15. Overexpression of Dmp1 fails to rescue the bone and dentin defects in Fam20C knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingya; Yuan, Baozhi; Lu, Yongbo; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    FAM20C is a kinase phosphorylating the small-integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs), a group of extracellular matrix proteins that are essential for bone and dentin formation. Previously, we showed that Sox2-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice had bone and dentin defects, along with hypophosphatemia and significant downregulation of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1). While the assumed phosphorylation failure of the SIBLINGs is likely associated with the defects in the Fam20C-deficient mice, it remains unclear if the downregulation of Dmp1 contributes to these phenotypes. In this study, we crossed 3.6 kb Col1-Dmp1 transgenic mice with 3.6 kb Col1-Cre;Fam20Cfl/fl mice to overexpress Dmp1 in the mineralized tissues of Fam20C conditional knockout (cKO) mice. X-ray, micro-computed tomography, serum biochemistry and histology analyses showed that expressing the Dmp1 transgene failed to rescue the bone and dentin defects, as well as the serum levels of FGF23 and phosphate in the Fam20C-cKO mice. These results indicated that the downregulation of Dmp1 may not directly associate with, or significantly contribute to the bone and dentin defects in the Fam20C-cKO mice.

  16. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  17. Upstream Stimulatory Factor is Required for Human Angiotensinogen Expression and Differential Regulation by the A-20C Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Matthew E.; Tian, Xin; Liu, Xuebo; Davis, Deborah R.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2008-01-01

    Among naturally-occurring polymorphisms in the 5’ flanking region of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, the −20 and −217 polymorphisms have the strongest effects on AGT regulation in AGT-expressing cells derived from liver, kidney, brain, and fat. These polymorphisms may affect allele-specific transcription factor binding, and the high-expressing alleles are both relatively common. We show herein that the −20C allele has higher transcriptional activity than −20A, and the −20A allele confers no additional transactivation potential beyond that of a mutated vector. Gel shift assays show that USF1 and USF2 preferentially bind the −20C allele whereas the −20A allele retains a low affinity USF binding site. Plasmid immunoprecipitation assays confirmed preferential association of USF1 with the −20C allele in transfected HepG2 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that USF1 binds to the endogenous AGT −20C allele in CCF cells, the only cell line tested that carries the −20C allele, and to the human AGT promoter in liver and adipose tissue from transgenic mice. Transduction of AGT-expressing cells with shRNAs specifically targeting USF1 or USF2, resulted in cell- and allele-specific attenuation of AGT promoter activity. In vivo, knockdown of USF expression in the liver of transgenic mice expressing the −20C allele of AGT resulted in lower AGT expression, a decrease in circulating human AGT protein, but no change in expression of GAPDH or HNF-4α. We conclude that USF1 functionally and differentially regulates AGT expression via the −20 polymorphism and that the differential expression exhibited by −20 can be accounted for by differential association with USF1. PMID:18802024

  18. Les ADAF : Application aux binaires X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Jean-Francois

    2001-01-01

    Based on the fundamental review by Narayan et al. (1998), this lecture for the ``23ieme Ecole du CNRS de Goutelas'' on binary systems describes the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) and their applications to black hole X-ray binaries. The possibility of using ADAFs to explore the event horizons of black holes is highlighted.

  19. Coupleurs fibres - metasurfaces aux frequences THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Martin

    Metamaterials are a class of arficial materials where the electromagnetic properties can be tailored during the design process. Currently demonstrated properties are varied, ranging from frequency filters to enhancement of quentum effects such as photon spin Hall effect. While these materials are mastered from a theoretical point of view, their fabrication is much more complicated. It is generally accepted that metamaterial elements must be under the effective medium limit (Lambda < lambda/10). Moreover, assembly of a 3D periodical system becomes much more complicated for small elements. For this reason, metamaterials are usually printed in 2D, on a surface, which are called metasurfaces. Generally, these are produced for the THz frequencies (˜ 1012 Hz) or lower to have a large wavelength and thus easy fabrication. Working at THz frequencies also carries additional problems. Absorption in traditional optical mediums is typically large (for exemple, BK7 glass has losses of 20 dB / cm) and powers supplied by THz sources are generally weak ( 100 muW for a THz-TDS standard source). Metasurfaces can thus play an important role by replacing traditional mediums. Moreover, we can use the resonant properties of metamaterials to produce sensors and other devices. Currently, the metasurfaces are used in conjuction with a free-space beam instead of a typical waveguide, which may be problematic when implementing devices. A simple solution to this problem is to use the metamaterial as a standard coupler by placing a waveguide above the metasurface. As stated before, we generally consider metasurfaces as effective mediums, where the permittivity is insensitive to the angle of the incident beam. However, a large amount of publications on this subject shows that this is not respected. This can have a huge impact on properties of a coupler based on such a material. First, modelisation is not a simple 2D mode calculation with a simple expression for permittivity. Second, contra

  20. Executive function in rats is impaired by low (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Lonart, György; Parris, Brian; Johnson, Angela M; Miles, Scott; Sanford, Larry D; Singletary, Sylvia J; Britten, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is a potential health risk in long-term space travel and represents a significant risk to the central nervous system. The most harmful component of galactic cosmic radiation is the HZE [high mass, highly charged (Z), high energy] particles, e.g., (56)Fe particle. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to doses of HZE-particle radiation that an astronaut will receive on a deep space mission (i.e., ∼20 cGy) resulted in pronounced deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rodents. Neurocognitive tasks that are dependent upon other regions of the brain, such as the striatum, are also impaired after exposure to low HZE-particle doses. These data raise the possibility that neurocognitive tasks regulated by the prefrontal cortex could also be impaired after exposure to mission relevant HZE-particle doses, which may prevent astronauts from performing complex executive functions. To assess the effects of mission relevant (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles on executive function, male Wistar rats received either sham treatment or were irradiated and tested 3 months later for their ability to perform attentional set shifting. Compared to the controls, rats that received 20 cGy of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles showed significant impairments in their ability to complete the attentional set-shifting test, with only 17% of irradiated rats completing all stages as opposed to 78% of the control rats. The majority of failures (60%) occurred at the first reversal stage, and half of the remaining animals failed at the extra-dimensional shift phase of the studies. The irradiated rats that managed to complete the tasks did so with approximately the same ease as did the control rats. These observations suggest that exposure to mission relevant doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles results in the loss of functionality in several regions of the cortex: medical prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated cortex, posterior cingulated

  1. Executive function in rats is impaired by low (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Lonart, György; Parris, Brian; Johnson, Angela M; Miles, Scott; Sanford, Larry D; Singletary, Sylvia J; Britten, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is a potential health risk in long-term space travel and represents a significant risk to the central nervous system. The most harmful component of galactic cosmic radiation is the HZE [high mass, highly charged (Z), high energy] particles, e.g., (56)Fe particle. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to doses of HZE-particle radiation that an astronaut will receive on a deep space mission (i.e., ∼20 cGy) resulted in pronounced deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rodents. Neurocognitive tasks that are dependent upon other regions of the brain, such as the striatum, are also impaired after exposure to low HZE-particle doses. These data raise the possibility that neurocognitive tasks regulated by the prefrontal cortex could also be impaired after exposure to mission relevant HZE-particle doses, which may prevent astronauts from performing complex executive functions. To assess the effects of mission relevant (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles on executive function, male Wistar rats received either sham treatment or were irradiated and tested 3 months later for their ability to perform attentional set shifting. Compared to the controls, rats that received 20 cGy of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles showed significant impairments in their ability to complete the attentional set-shifting test, with only 17% of irradiated rats completing all stages as opposed to 78% of the control rats. The majority of failures (60%) occurred at the first reversal stage, and half of the remaining animals failed at the extra-dimensional shift phase of the studies. The irradiated rats that managed to complete the tasks did so with approximately the same ease as did the control rats. These observations suggest that exposure to mission relevant doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles results in the loss of functionality in several regions of the cortex: medical prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated cortex, posterior cingulated

  2. Die Attachment for -120 C to +20 C Thermal Cycling of Microelectronics for Future Mars Rovers: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschman, Randall K.; Sokolowski, Witold M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Active thermal control for electronics on Mars Rovers imposes a serious penalty in weight, volume, power consumption, and reliability. Thus, we propose that thermal control be eliminated for future Rovers. From a functional standpoint there is no reason that the electronics could not operate over the entire temperature range of the Martian environment, which can vary from a low of approximately equal -90 C to a high of approximately equal +20 C during the Martian night and day. The upper end of this range is well within that for conventional electronics. Although the lower end is considerably below that for which conventional--even high-reliability electronics is designed or tested, it is well established that electronic devices can operate to such low temperatures. The primary concern is reliability of the overall electronic system, especially in regard to the numerous daily temperature cycles that it would experience over the duration of a mission on Mars. Accordingly, key reliability issues have been identified for elimination of thermal control on future Mars Rovers. One of these is attachment of semiconductor die onto substrates and into packages. Die attachment is critical since it forms a mechanical, thermal and electrical interface between the electronic device and the substrate or package. This paper summarizes our initial investigation of existing information related to this issue, in order to form an opinion whether die attachment techniques exist, or could be developed with reasonable effort, to withstand the Mars thermal environment for a mission duration of approximately I year. Our conclusion, from a review of literature and personal contacts. is that die attachment can be made sufficiently reliable to satisfy the requirements of future Mars Rovers. Moreover, it appears that there are several possible techniques from which to choose and that the requirements could be met by judicious selection from existing methods using hard solders, soft solders

  3. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  4. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  5. Liquid-liquid equilibria for hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane at {minus}20 and 20 C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-03-01

    1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is presently under consideration as a replacement for trichlorofluoromethane, which is widely used as a foam blowing agent. 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane is the major raw material for the production of poly(vinylidene fluoride). These two materials are normally manufactured by the fluorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane or vinylidene chloride with hydrogen fluoride. A phase separator is normally used to retrieve hydrogen fluoride from the product stream. To design the phase separator, liquid-liquid equilibrium data are required. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system (hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been measured at {minus}20 and 20 C. The results are correlated with the NRTL model, and the relevant parameters are presented.

  6. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  7. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers-an overview.

    PubMed

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning.

  8. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  9. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  10. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  11. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  12. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  13. Arabidopsis aux1rcr1 mutation alters AUXIN RESISTANT1 targeting and prevents expression of the auxin reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Multilevel interactions of the plant hormones ethylene and auxin coordinately and synergistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. This study isolated the AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) allele aux1(rcr1) (RCR1 for REVERSING CTR1-10 ROOT1) that suppressed the root growth inhibition conferred by the constitutive ethylene-response constitutive triple response1-10 (ctr1-10) allele. The aux1(rcr1) mutation resulted from an L126F substitution at loop 2 of the plasma membrane-associated auxin influx carrier protein AUX1. aux1(rcr1) and the T-DNA insertion mutant aux1-T were both defective in auxin transport and many aspects of the auxin response. Unexpectedly, expression of the auxin-response reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex was substantially prevented by the aux1(rcr1) but not the aux1-T mutation, even in the presence of the wild-type AUX1 allele. Following treatment with the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), DR5:GUS expression in aux1(rcr1) and aux1-T occurred mainly in the root apex and mature zone. NAA-induced DR5:GUS expression in the root apex was markedly prevented by ethylene in genotypes with aux1(rcr1) but not in aux1-T genotypes and the wild type. The effect of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression seemed to be associated with AUX1-expressing domains. Green fluorescence protein-fused aux1(rcr1) was localized in the cytoplasm and probably not to the plasma membrane, indicating important roles of the Lys(126) residue at loop 2 in AUX1 targeting. The possible effects of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression are discussed.

  14. Exposure to low doses (20 cGy) of Hze results in spatial memory impairment in rats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, Richard; Johnson, Angela; Davis, Leslie; Green-Mitchell, Shamina; Chabriol, Olivia; Sanford, Larry; Drake, Richard

    INTRODUCTION. Current models predict that the astronauts on a mission to a deep space destination, such as Mars, will be exposed to 25 cGy of Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The long-term consequence of exposure to such doses is largely unknown, but given that 1.3 Gy of X-rays has been reported to lead to long-term cognitive deficits (Shore et al, 1976) and that CGR have an RBE of 2-5, it is likely that the predicted 25 cGy of GCR will lead to defects in the cognitive ability of the astronauts during and after the mission. Our studies are designed to help define the GCR dose that will lead to defects in complex working memory, and also to elucidate the mechanisms whereby hadronic radiation diminishes neurocognitive function. The identification of such processes would provide an opportunity for post-mission surveillance, and hopefully will lead to intervention strategies that will ameliorate or attenuate GCR-induced neurocognitive deficits. MATERIALS METHODS. Four-week old male Wistar rats were exposed to either X-rays or 1 GeV 56Fe. At three or six months post exposure the performance of the rats in the Barnes' Maze (Spatial memory) was established. The duration and frequency of REM sleep was also monitored to determine if the neurocognitive deficits arose due to reduced memory consolidation as a result of diminished REM sleep. We used a novel, but maturing technique, called MALDI-MS imaging (or MALDI-MSI), to identify specific regions of the brain where the neuroproteome differs in rats that have developed spatial memory impairments. RESULTS. 11.5 Gy of X-rays led to reduced performance in the Barnes's maze. In contrast, exposure to 20 cGy of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe) resulted in a significant impairment of spatial memory performance as measured in the Barnes' Maze, which was manifested by an increase in relative escape latency REL over a 5 day testing period. Such an increase in REL could arise from the rats becoming less able, or perhaps less willing, to locate the

  15. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (20 C)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Usually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 C/min in a low-temperature (80 C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; 20 C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type. ?? 2009 Cambridge University Press.

  16. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  20. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  1. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  2. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H.; Jalili, Espanta; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Crosby, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB–Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  3. The Acquisition of Aux. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypriotaki, Lyn

    This report examines the question of whether grammatical rules are globally learned and applied. It also attempts to determine the underlying word order in English as well as the developmental sequence of the acquisition of Aux. A sentence-repetition test using positive statements, positive questions, and negative questions was administered to 30…

  4. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  5. Comparision of the evolution of the Hadley Circulation between ECMWF ERA-20C centennial reanalysis and the atmospheric model ensemble ERA-20CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Roberta; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    This study compares the evolution of the Hadley Circulation (HC) during the 20th Century in two recent datasets: ERA-20CM and ERA-20C. ERA-20CM is an ensemble of Atmospheric Model simulations forced by 10 different realizations of prescribed SSTs and by radiative forcing that follow CMIP5 protocol. ERA-20C is a single simulation that is similarly forced by the analyzed SST, but it additionally assimilates surface pressure and marine winds. This comparison allows to highlight the effect of the data assimilation on magnitude of the HC trends, and helps to identify differences in the HC structure between reanalysis and AMIP-simulation. The assimilation introduces relevant differences between ERA-20CM and ERA-20C in characteristics and trends of the HCs. In ERA-20C HCs are weaker and the whole Northern Hemisphere HC is shifted southward than in ERA-20CM. Furthermore, the magnitude of trends is larger and more statistically significant in ERA-20C than in ERA-20CM, and only ERA-20C supports a change of the HC strength. Both datasets show large multidecadal variability across 20th Century, which raises doubts on the interpretation of all recent behaviors as the onset of sustained long term trends. However, while the strengthening of the ERA-20C Southern Hemisphere HC is possibly an artifact introduced by data assimilation, the southward shift of the Southern Edge and widening of the Southern Hemisphere HC are robust features in both datasets. The widening of the whole tropical circulation is primary linked to the expansion of the Southern Hemisphere HC and it has accelerated in the last three decades. width of the Southern Hemisphere HCs throughout the 20th Century is mainly correlated to the mean global temperature, but changes in the meridional temperature gradient and planetary wave activity have a role, as well. Furthermore, we integrated the analysis in a long-term perspective with CMIP5 experiments, to analyze HC sensitivity to surface temperature from Last Glacial

  6. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  7. Genetics of Aux/IAA and ARF action in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Liscum, E; Reed, J W

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of auxin signal-response pathways have been made in recent years. Much of this new knowledge has come through the study of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations have been identified in a wide variety of auxin-response components, including auxin transporters, protein kinases and phosphatases, components of a ubiquitin-proteosome pathway, and transcriptional regulators. This review focuses on mutations that affect auxin-modulated transcription factors, in particular those in the Aux/IAA and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes. Mutants in members of these related gene families exhibit phenotypes that indicate both unique localized functions, as well as overlapping redundant functions, throughout plant development - from embryogenesis to flowering. Effects of specific mutations on Aux/IAA and ARF protein functions at the biochemical and physiological levels will be discussed. We will also discuss potential mechanisms for interactions between auxin and light response pathways that are suggested by these mutants.

  8. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  10. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Su, L Y; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, J P; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology.

  11. Disruptions in AUX1-dependent auxin influx alter hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bethany B; Stowe-Evans, Emily L; Harper, Reneé M; Celaya, R Brandon; Ljung, Karin; Sandberg, Göran; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling, leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if co-irradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations--map1 (modifier of arf7 phenotypes 1)--was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1--a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmacological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  12. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  13. The Morne Aux Diables volcano, Dominica, Lesser Antilles: A stratigraphic and petrologic study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, G. L.; Smith, A. L.; Rheubottom, A. N.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Morne Aux Diables is a topographically distinct stratovolcano located at the northernmost end of the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. In 2007, observations were conducted, and over 3,000 digital photographs were taken, of the well-exposed sea cliffs around Dominica. These observations, together with photogeological analysis of approximately 500 of these digital photographs of sea cliffs around the northern part of Dominica, have significantly improved our understanding of the geology of Morne aux Diables volcano, which previously had been based on scattered land exposures. The photographs were used to identify genetic packages of strata related to volcanogenic events and trace them around large sectors of the volcano's flanks. Based on these new studies, together with previous data, Morne aux Diables appears to have undergone two periods of activity, an older period dated between 2.1-1.5 Ma and a younger period dated at around 50,000 years B.P. Deposits associated with the older cone-forming activity are primarily composed of block and ash flows and surges associated with Pelean-style activity. These can be subdivided into a number of sequences based on the presence of paleosols. Domes associated with these eruptions are found both in the central vent area as well as around the flanks of the volcano. The upper deposits in the sea cliffs on the eastern, northern and western flanks are a thick sequence of surges that have been provisionally correlated with a well-exposed sequence of semi-vesicular block and ash flows and surge deposits at Morne a Louis on the west coast. The presence of these surge deposits at the top of the sea cliffs suggests that the older period of activity ended with open-crater Asama-style eruptions. Following an extensive quiescent period, renewed Pelean-style activity produced valley-fill block and ash flow and surge deposits, exposed on both the eastern and western sides of the volcano, together with associated domes (both central and

  14. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  15. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  16. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  17. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  18. Morne aux Diables. a potentially active volcano in northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheubottom, A. N.; Smith, A. L.; Roobol, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    The island of Dominica, which is located near the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc, comprises at least 8 potentially active volcanoes. One of these is Morne aux Diables, an isolated composite cone situated at the extreme northern end of the island. Age dating suggests that the main cone building activity occurred between 1.5 and 1.0 million years ago. Exposed on the volcano's flanks however are a number of unconsolidated valley-fill block and ash flow deposits suggesting more recent activity. One of these deposits, on the north-east flank of the volcano, has been recently dated at > 46,000 years B.P. Other evidence of potential activity from this center includes the presence of warm (27°C), acidic (pH 1.6), sulfate-rich springs on the summit of the volcano, hot springs on the coast, and the occurrence in 2002 and 2003 of shallow earthquake swarms partially located beneath the volcano. Morne aux Diables is dominantly composed of deposits of block and ash flows and associated domes from Pelean-style activity, however, semi-vesicular andesite block and ash flows and surges (Asama-style activity) and pumiceous lapilli falls (Plinian-style activity) are locally abundant. The Pelean domes are located both in the summit region and along the southern flanks of the volcano. Petrologically, the volcano is composed of a monotonous series of porphyritic andesites and dacites containing phenocrysts of plagioclase+augite-hypersthene with very sparse crystals of hornblende and quartz. Petrological models suggest the Morne aux Diables andesites and dacites can be produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma (such as those erupted from centers such as Morne Anglais and Morne Plat Pays in the south). Minor variations within this suite of andesites and dacites can be related to upper crustal fractionation of phenocryst phases.

  19. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  20. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  1. Variability on different time scales of Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in latest 20th century reanalyses ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Wild, Simon; Kruschke, Tim; Ulbrich, Uwe; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms are responsible for a large portion of damages all around the globe. Thus, knowledge about the temporal variability of these events during the past is of high socio-economic importance. In this study, the temporal variability of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms during the past century are analysed using ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR reanalysis datasets. Cyclones are identified using six hourly mean sea level pressure fields whereas wind storms are identified based on near-surface wind speeds. Analyses focus on wintertime events over both hemispheres and also for several subregions. Long-term trends as well as higher-frequency variability are investigated. Therefore, cyclone and wind storm time series are low-pass filtered with a cut-off frequency of 1/31 years using 31 weights and the high-frequency time series are obtained by calculating the residuum of the original and low pass-filtered time series. To analyse long-term trends, a linear regression model is fitted to the original time series for three different periods: 1901-1930, 1931-1960 and 1961-1999. Results suggest substantial differences regarding long-term trends between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclones and wind storm events, especially during the first half of the 20th century. In general, a better agreement is found for extreme cyclones compared to all cyclones. Furthermore, high-frequency variability over the Northern Hemisphere is in good agreement for cyclones and wind storms over most regions and throughout the century, with the highest correlations found at the end of the 20th century. Analyses for the Southern Hemisphere show smaller agreement between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclone and wind storms regarding their high-frequency variability. The results of this study indicate that no reliable conclusion regarding long-term variability of cyclones and wind storms can be drawn, based on solely these two 20th century reanalysis products. However, analyses

  2. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  3. Precise AuxPt1‑x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1‑x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1‑x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1‑x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  4. MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-11-17

    Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

  5. Impaired Spatial Memory Performance in Adult Wistar Rats Exposed to Low (5-20 cGy) Doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe Particles.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Jewell, Jessica S; Miller, Vania D; Davis, Leslie K; Hadley, Melissa M; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged deep space missions to planets and asteroids will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation, comprised of low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiations, high-energy protons and high-Z and energy (HZE) particles, such as (56)Fe nuclei. In prior studies with rodents exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses likely to be encountered during deep space missions (<20 cGy) investigators reported impaired hippocampal-dependent neurocognitive performance and further observed substantial variation among the irradiated animals in neurocognitive impairment, ranging from no observable effects to severe impairment. These findings point to the importance of incorporating quantitative measures of interindividual variations into next generation risk assessment models of radiation risks on neurocognition. In this study, 269 male proven breeder Wistar rats were exposed to 1 GeV/n (56)Fe at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cGy, and tested for spatial memory performance on the Barnes maze at three months after exposure. The radiation response data were compared using changes in mean cohort performance and by the proportion of poor responders using the performance benchmark of two standard deviations below the mean value among the sham-irradiated cohort. Acute exposures to mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe reduced the mean spatial memory performance at three months after exposure (P < 0.002) and increased the proportions of poor performers, 2- to 3-fold. However, a substantial fraction of animals in all exposure cohorts showed no detectable change in performance, compared to the distribution of sham-irradiated animals. Our findings suggest that individualized metrics of susceptibility or resistance to radiation-induce changes in neurocognitive performance will be advantageous to the development of probabilistic risk assessment models for HZE-induced neurocognitive impairment.

  6. Impaired Spatial Memory Performance in Adult Wistar Rats Exposed to Low (5-20 cGy) Doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe Particles.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Jewell, Jessica S; Miller, Vania D; Davis, Leslie K; Hadley, Melissa M; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged deep space missions to planets and asteroids will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation, comprised of low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiations, high-energy protons and high-Z and energy (HZE) particles, such as (56)Fe nuclei. In prior studies with rodents exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses likely to be encountered during deep space missions (<20 cGy) investigators reported impaired hippocampal-dependent neurocognitive performance and further observed substantial variation among the irradiated animals in neurocognitive impairment, ranging from no observable effects to severe impairment. These findings point to the importance of incorporating quantitative measures of interindividual variations into next generation risk assessment models of radiation risks on neurocognition. In this study, 269 male proven breeder Wistar rats were exposed to 1 GeV/n (56)Fe at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cGy, and tested for spatial memory performance on the Barnes maze at three months after exposure. The radiation response data were compared using changes in mean cohort performance and by the proportion of poor responders using the performance benchmark of two standard deviations below the mean value among the sham-irradiated cohort. Acute exposures to mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe reduced the mean spatial memory performance at three months after exposure (P < 0.002) and increased the proportions of poor performers, 2- to 3-fold. However, a substantial fraction of animals in all exposure cohorts showed no detectable change in performance, compared to the distribution of sham-irradiated animals. Our findings suggest that individualized metrics of susceptibility or resistance to radiation-induce changes in neurocognitive performance will be advantageous to the development of probabilistic risk assessment models for HZE-induced neurocognitive impairment. PMID:26943453

  7. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Gan, Defang; Zhuang, Dan; Ding, Fei; Yu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  8. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  9. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  10. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  11. [Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an Aux/IAA gene (RgIAA1) from Rehmannia glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Qing; Tian, Yun-He; Li, Ming-Jie; Yang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Bao; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Chen, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-12-01

    To clone and analyze a member of the Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, RgIAA1, from Rehmannia glutinosa. The transcriptional EST database of R. glutinosa was used to clone the new Aux/IAA gene by cDNA probe of AtIAA14. Bioinformatics was applied to analyze the sequence characteristics of RgIAA1 protein and construct phylogenetiC trees. Quantitative RT-PCR has been applied to detect the transcription level of RgIAA1 in seven tissues as well as in leaves under three stresses. The results showed that, the cDNA sequence of RgIAA1 contains 903 bp was obtained. The open reading frame (ORF) of RgIAA1 was 681 bp encoding 226 amino acids, which has typical structural domains and characteristic sequence of Aux/IAA family proteins. RgIAA1 showed the highest expression level in unfolded leaf, followed by the stem. And the expression of RglAA1 was quickly decreased with leaf growing up. The transcription level increased under continuous cropping conditions while it reduced both in salinity and waterlogging stresses. RgIAA1, an Aux/IAA gene from R. glutinosa has been obtained for the first time, which can lay the foundation for further studies about its molecular function in development and responses to stress.

  12. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  13. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  14. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  15. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  16. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  17. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  18. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor IAA9 is involved in fruit development and leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-10-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose-response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  19. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4]- (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Xue-Bin; Vorpagel, Erich; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity, electronic structures, and bonding of gold halides using tetrahalide [AuX4](-) anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4](-) (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were experimentally produced in the gas phase, and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, exhibiting rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. As expected, Au-X bonds in such series contain generally increasing covalency when halogen ligands become heavier. We calculated the adiabatic electron detachment energies as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional theory methods with scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects. The computationally simulated photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) tends to be preferred when the halides become heavier along the Periodic Table. This series of molecules provides an example for manipulating the oxidation state of metals in complexes through ligand design. PMID:26550845

  20. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  1. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  2. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants.

  3. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  4. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  5. 20C, a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, protects PC12 cells against rotenone-induced apoptosis via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju-yang; Yuan, Yu-he; Yan, Jia-qing; Wang, Ya-nan; Chu, Shi-feng; Zhu, Cheng-gen; Guo, Qing-lan; Shi, Jian-gong; Chen, Nai-hong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our preliminary study shows that a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, 2-[4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenol (designated 20C), protects PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury. In this study we investigated whether 20C exerted neuroprotective action in a cell model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: A cell model of Parkinson's disease was established in PC12 cells by exposure to rotenone (4 μmol/L) for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed, and intracellular ROS level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and oxidative stress-related proteins Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 were examined using Western blotting. The mRNA levels of HO-1 and NQO1 were determined with RT-PCR. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was observed with immunofluorescence staining. Results: Treatment with rotenone significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, accompanied by marked increases in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Rotenone also increased ROS accumulation, reduced MMP, and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 as well as the mRNA and protein levels of the Nrf2 downstream target genes HO-1 and NQO1 in PC12 cells. Co-treatment with 20C (0.01–1 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated rotenone-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA partially reversed the protective effects of 20C in rotenone-treated PC12 cells. Conclusion: The bibenzyl compound 20C protects PC12 cells from rotenone-induced apoptosis, at least in part, via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27180985

  6. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  7. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  8. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Luo, Sha; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Xiyu; Wang, Xianling; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with auxin response factors (ARFs). So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutations in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa) homolog of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein–protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein–protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene 8) was reduced in transgenic plants. PMID:26082787

  9. Croissance Par Epitaxie EN Phase Vapeur aux Organo - et Caracterisation des Heterostructures Contraintes a Base de Phosphur de Indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chuong Anh

    Trois systemes heteroepitaxiaux a base de InP:InP/Si, InAs/InP et InAsP/InP ont ete fabriques par epitaxie en phase vapeur aux organo-metalliques (EPVOM)conventionelle. En plus l'epitaxie par couches atomiques (ECA) a ete utilisee pour fabriquer des puits quantiques ultra-minces et des superreseaux a courte periode InAs/InP. L'epitaxie de InP sur le silicium pose des problemes lies a un desaccord de maille de 8%. Les resultats indiquent une relaxation totale de la couche de InP a la temperature de croissance. La contrainte residuelle observee par diffraction de rayons X a haute resolution (DRXHR) et photoluminescence s'explique par une difference dans les coefficients de dilatation thermique de InP et due Si. L'incorporation des impuretes ainsi que la diffusion d'atomes de Si du substrat dans la couche epitaxiale de InP dependent fortement des parametres de croissance. Les resultats montrents que le reseau de dislocations dans les couches de InP deposees sur un substrat de Si mesoriente est suffisamment asymetrique pour creer des constraintes locales. Celles-ci peuvent etre analysees par diffraction de rayons X. Par contre le systeme heteroepitaxial InAs/InP, dont le desaccord de maille est 3.2% peut etre realise sans dislocation a condition que l'epaisseur de toute heterostructure soit gardee inferieure a l'epaisseur critique. Des puits quantiques InAsP/InP a la temperature ambiante montre clairement l'inter et technologique du systeme InAs_ {x}P_{1-x}/InP pour la realisation de dispositifs tels que les modulateurs optiques. L'ECA a ete utilisee pour realiser des puits quantiques simples et des superreseaux a courte periode InAs/InP. Nous avons demontre que cette technique permet d'obtenir des interfaces tres abruptes et des epaisseurs bien definies, et de faire des heterostructures que peuvent combiner une large gamme de semiconducteurs de composition et desaccords de maille varies. Finalement nous avons fait une etude approfondie des modes vibratoires dans les

  10. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  12. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  13. RE16AuxAl13-x with RE = La-Nd, Sm (x≤ 3.37): synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties of an intermetallic solid solution with barrelane analogue units.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Frank; Janka, Oliver

    2016-09-21

    During phase analytical investigations in the rare-earth element rich side of the ternary system cerium-gold-aluminum, the new ternary rare-earth (RE) gold aluminides with a composition of RE16AuxAl13-x (RE = La-Nd, Sm, x≤ 3.37) have been synthesized first by reactive eutectics of RE/Au with Al. Single crystals of high quality can be obtained by this method. The title compounds can be selectively prepared by annealing arc-melted beads of appropriate composition below the peritectic point of the respective system. Like prototypic La16Al13, the representatives of the solid solution RE16AuxAl13-x (RE = La-Nd, Sm; x≤ 3.37) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system (space group P6[combining macron]2m, a = 916.6-890.4 pm, c = 1122.4-1090.1 pm) with one formula unit per unit cell. Single crystal investigations revealed Au/Al mixing on three of the four crystallographic aluminum sites. These sites form an empty (Au/Al)11 barrelane analogous unit, coordinated solely by the respective rare-earth atoms. In addition one independent Al site with a fivefold capped trigonal prismatic arrangement, a so called Edshammar polyhedron, exists. Magnetic measurements of Ce16Au3Al10 revealed two antiferromagnetic transitions with Neél-temperatures of 7.7(1) and 2.7(1) K and a magnetic moment of μeff = 2.48(1) μB, Pr16Au3Al10 shows ferromagentic ordering with a Curie-temperature of 19.8(1) K and a magnetic moment of μeff = 3.58(1) μB. PMID:27512911

  14. RE16AuxAl13-x with RE = La-Nd, Sm (x≤ 3.37): synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties of an intermetallic solid solution with barrelane analogue units.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Frank; Janka, Oliver

    2016-09-21

    During phase analytical investigations in the rare-earth element rich side of the ternary system cerium-gold-aluminum, the new ternary rare-earth (RE) gold aluminides with a composition of RE16AuxAl13-x (RE = La-Nd, Sm, x≤ 3.37) have been synthesized first by reactive eutectics of RE/Au with Al. Single crystals of high quality can be obtained by this method. The title compounds can be selectively prepared by annealing arc-melted beads of appropriate composition below the peritectic point of the respective system. Like prototypic La16Al13, the representatives of the solid solution RE16AuxAl13-x (RE = La-Nd, Sm; x≤ 3.37) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system (space group P6[combining macron]2m, a = 916.6-890.4 pm, c = 1122.4-1090.1 pm) with one formula unit per unit cell. Single crystal investigations revealed Au/Al mixing on three of the four crystallographic aluminum sites. These sites form an empty (Au/Al)11 barrelane analogous unit, coordinated solely by the respective rare-earth atoms. In addition one independent Al site with a fivefold capped trigonal prismatic arrangement, a so called Edshammar polyhedron, exists. Magnetic measurements of Ce16Au3Al10 revealed two antiferromagnetic transitions with Neél-temperatures of 7.7(1) and 2.7(1) K and a magnetic moment of μeff = 2.48(1) μB, Pr16Au3Al10 shows ferromagentic ordering with a Curie-temperature of 19.8(1) K and a magnetic moment of μeff = 3.58(1) μB.

  15. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly-: a joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V.; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly- (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3 y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6- in the AuxAly- clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either ``adsorbed'' onto the Al6- square bi-pyramid motif if y >= 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we

  16. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  17. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  18. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  19. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress. PMID:26140668

  20. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers

    PubMed Central

    Della Rovere, F.; Fattorini, L.; D’Angeli, S.; Veloccia, A.; Del Duca, S.; Cai, G.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Methods Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. Key Results AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. Conclusions AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they

  1. Deletion of MP/ARF5 domains III and IV reveals a requirement for Aux/IAA regulation in Arabidopsis leaf vascular patterning.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Combinatorial interactions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins through their common domains III and IV regulate auxin responses, but insight into the functions of individual proteins is still limited. As a new tool to explore this regulatory network, we generated a gain-of-function ARF genotype by eliminating domains III and IV from the functionally well-characterized ARF MONOPTEROS(MP)/ARF5. This truncated version of MP, termed MPΔ, conferred complementing MP activity, but also displayed a number of semi-dominant traits affecting auxin signaling and organ patterning. In MPΔ, the expression levels of many auxin-inducible genes, as well as rooting properties and vascular tissue abundance, were enhanced. Lateral organs were narrow, pointed and filled with parallel veins. This effect was epistatic over the vascular hypotrophy imposed by certain Aux/IAA mutations. Further, in MPΔ leaves, failure to turn off the procambium-selecting gene PIN1 led to the early establishment of oversized central procambial domains and very limited subsequent lateral growth of the leaf lamina. We conclude that MPΔ can selectively uncouple a single ARF from regulation by Aux/IAA proteins and can be used as a genetic tool to probe auxin pathways and explore leaf development. PMID:22320407

  2. [Les inégalités dans l'accès aux soins du cancer au Canada: un point de vue éthique].

    PubMed

    Purificacion, Sunshine J; French, John G; d'Agincourt-Canning, Lori

    2015-11-01

    La capacité d'offrir des soins du cancer de qualité dépend en grande partie de l'accessibilité des services à ceux qui en ont besoin. Dans l'état actuel des choses, on constate des disparités en matière d'accès aux services de cancérologie au Canada, ce qui constitue un problème sur le plan de l'éthique. Le présent article fait ressortir les points de vue éthiques et stratégiques liés à l'équité dans l'accès aux soins du cancer au Canada. S'inspirant des principes de la bioéthique, soit la bénéficience, la non-maléficience et la justice, plusieurs stratégies sont recommandées pour améliorer l'accès aux soins du cancer au pays.

  3. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  4. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  5. Performance in hippocampus- and PFC-dependent cognitive domains are not concomitantly impaired in rats exposed to 20cGy of 1GeV/n (56)Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Miller, Vania D; Hadley, Melissa M; Jewell, Jessica S; Macadat, Evangeline

    2016-08-01

    NASA is currently conducting ground based experiments to determine whether the radiation environment that astronauts will encounter on deep space missions will have an impact on their long-term health and their ability to complete the various tasks during the mission. Emerging data suggest that exposure of rodents to mission-relevant HZE radiation doses does result in the impairment of various neurocognitive processes. An essential part of mission planning is a probabilistic risk assessment process that takes into account the likely incidence and severity of a problem. To date few studies have reported the impact of space radiation in a format that is amenable to PRA, and those that have only reported data for a single cognitive process. This study has established the ability of individual male Wistar rats to conduct a hippocampus-dependent (spatial memory) task and a cortex-dependent (attentional set shifting task) 90 days after exposure to 20cGy 1GeV/n (56)Fe particles. Radiation-induced impairment of performance in one cognitive domain was not consistently associated with impaired performance in the other domain. Thus sole reliance upon a single measure of cognitive performance may substantially under-estimate the risk of cognitive impairment, and ultimately it may be necessary to establish the likelihood that mission-relevant HZE doses will impair performance in the three or four cognitive domains that NASA considers to be most critical for mission success, and build a PRA using the composite data from such studies. PMID:27662783

  6. Performance in hippocampus- and PFC-dependent cognitive domains are not concomitantly impaired in rats exposed to 20 cGy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, Richard A.; Miller, Vania D.; Hadley, Melissa M.; Jewell, Jessica S.; Macadat, Evangeline

    2016-08-01

    NASA is currently conducting ground based experiments to determine whether the radiation environment that astronauts will encounter on deep space missions will have an impact on their long-term health and their ability to complete the various tasks during the mission. Emerging data suggest that exposure of rodents to mission-relevant HZE radiation doses does result in the impairment of various neurocognitive processes. An essential part of mission planning is a probabilistic risk assessment process that takes into account the likely incidence and severity of a problem. To date few studies have reported the impact of space radiation in a format that is amenable to PRA, and those that have only reported data for a single cognitive process. This study has established the ability of individual male Wistar rats to conduct a hippocampus-dependent (spatial memory) task and a cortex-dependent (attentional set shifting task) 90 days after exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles. Radiation-induced impairment of performance in one cognitive domain was not consistently associated with impaired performance in the other domain. Thus sole reliance upon a single measure of cognitive performance may substantially under-estimate the risk of cognitive impairment, and ultimately it may be necessary to establish the likelihood that mission-relevant HZE doses will impair performance in the three or four cognitive domains that NASA considers to be most critical for mission success, and build a PRA using the composite data from such studies.

  7. Survival of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 on the surface of chicken legs or in mechanically deboned chicken meat gamma irradiated in air or vacuum at temperatures of -20 to +20 C

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, D.W.; Boyd, G. )

    1991-04-01

    Response-surface methodology was used to develop predictive equations for the response of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 on the surface of chicken legs or within mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) to the effects of {gamma} radiation doses of 0 to 3.60 kGy (100 krad = 1 kGy) at temperatures of -20 to +20 C in air or vacuum. A streptomycin-resistant mutant was used in these studies to allow accurate estimations of the surviving salmonellae in the presence of residual normal flora. This strain has been demonstrated to have no significant shift in its biological properties nor in its resistance to ionizing radiation. The response of S. typhimurium to gamma radiation was similar on both chicken legs and MDCM. The radiation was significantly more lethal to the bacterial cells at temperatures above freezing. The response-surface equations developed from the studies predict that the number of viable cells per gram of MDCM or per square centimeter of the surface of chicken legs would be reduced approximately 2.8 to 5.1 log units at 0 C by radiation doses within the range of 1.5 to 3.0 kGy. The results of the present studies are similar to those obtained previously with sterile mechanically deboned chicken meat.

  8. Couplage neutronique-thermohydraulique arthur-donjon avec les conditions aux collecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Alexandre

    First, the ARTHUR code of thermal-hydraulic encloses four initial elements, which are also initial conditions: channel outlet pressure, inlet mass flux, inlet coolant temperature and reactor geometry. The calculations using conservation laws and the modeling correlation for the CANDU-6 thermal-hydraulic phenomenon are based on the drift-flux model. It's a middle point between a simple and fast model and a complex and slow calculation. The couple ARTHUR-DONJON is a good tool since 2008. But, there is a place for improvements. For thermal-hydraulics, inlet pressure has to be added as initial condition. This will influence mass flux and coolant temperature. A jacobian method for mass flux correction will be developed and implemented to satisfy inlet and outlet pressures initial conditions. We have to use jacobians to find a relation between initials conditions and systems inputs. The jacobians is used to transform the system between state 1 and state 2. In reactor physics, IQS unit in DONJON code will be substituted by KINSOL unit for kinetics. For cross sections calculations in AFM unit, it will be corrected for a better power evolution. Thermal-hydraulics changes will involve some reactor physics changes and then, it will give a better simulation system. The results are excellent with the new ARTHUR-DONJON. We are going from 4 to 6 % of error to 0,1 % with power plant essay measurements. We are going from 0,5 second in one week calculations to 1,0 second in two or three days of calculations. Our results are not divergent with power plant essay measurements and they're now near those observed for a real nuclear reactor.

  9. Acquisition de donnees a haute resolution et faible latence dediee aux capteurs avioniques de position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaa, Zied

    The communication network and the detection mechanisms are two critical systems in a plane. Their performance has a direct impact on aircrafts. This is of particular interest for avionics designers, who have increasingly invested more and more in the development of these elements. As a part of a project in this domain, we introduce the design and the development of a smart interface for position sensors dedicated to flights (Smart Sensor Interface - SSI). This interface will serve to connect sensors of different technologies (electromagnetic, optical and MEMS) to the new communication network, AFDX. The role of this interface is to generate an appropriate excitation signal for certain types of sensors (R/LVDT), and to treat, demodulate, and digitize their output signals. The proposed interface is thus composed of a Signal Acquisition Path (SAP) and an Excitation Signal Generation (ESG). By adopting the Integrated Modular Avionics architecture (IMA), we can minimize the size of the classic interface, reduce its energy consumption and improve its reliability and its performance. The focus of our design is particularly on the Data Acquisition Path (DAP). An Architecture characterized by a high resolution (14 bits) and a low latency (1.2 ms) of this module is introduced and developed in this prestigious work. This architecture was developed after a wellconducted study of existing solutions found in literature work and a detailed analysis of the problems arise in the design and implementation of this system (DAP). The conversion of the sensor signal into a digital signal is the most important step in acquiring data, as it sets the resolution of the acquired information and generates the majority of its latency. This module can also affect the reliability and stability of the system. Among different models and architectures, the Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is preferred for this application (for better resolution). This converter is formed by an analog

  10. Algorithme d'adaptation du filtre de Kalman aux variations soudaines de bruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciu, Vintila

    This research targets the case of Kalman filtering as applied to linear time-invariant systems having unknown process noise covariance and measurement noise covariance matrices and addresses the problem represented by the incomplete a priori knowledge of these two filter initialization parameters. The goal of this research is to determine in realtime both the process covariance matrix and the noise covariance matrix in the context of adaptive Kalman filtering. The resultant filter, called evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter, is able to adapt to sudden noise variations and constitutes a hybrid solution for adaptive Kalman filtering based on metaheuristic algorithms. MATLAB/Simulink simulation using several processes and covariance matrices plus comparison with other filters was selected as validation method. The Cramer-Rae Lower Bound (CRLB) was used as performance criterion. The thesis begins with a description of the problem under consideration (the design of a Kalman filter that is able to adapt to sudden noise variations) followed by a typical application (INS-GPS integrated navigation system) and by a statistical analysis of publications related to adaptive Kalman filtering. Next, the thesis presents the current architectures of the adaptive Kalman filtering: the innovation adaptive estimator (IAE) and the multiple model adaptive estimator (MMAE). It briefly presents their formulation, their behavior, and the limit of their performances. The thesis continues with the architectural synthesis of the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter. The steps involved in the solution of the problem under consideration is also presented: an analysis of Kalman filtering and sub-optimal filtering methods, a comparison of current adaptive Kalman and sub-optimal filtering methods, the emergence of evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter as an enrichment of sub-optimal filtering with the help of biological-inspired computational intelligence methods, and the step-by-step architectural

  11. Retour aux sources: defining the structural basis of glutamate receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Dawe, G Brent; Aurousseau, Mark R; Daniels, Bryan A; Bowie, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate CNS and, as a result, their activation properties lie at the heart of much of the neuronal network activity observed in the developing and adult brain. iGluRs have also been implicated in many nervous system disorders associated with postnatal development (e.g. autism, schizophrenia), cerebral insult (e.g. stroke, epilepsy), and disorders of the ageing brain (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism). In view of this, an emphasis has been placed on understanding how iGluRs activate and desensitize in functional and structural terms. Early structural models of iGluRs suggested that the strength of the agonist response was primarily governed by the degree of closure induced in the ligand-binding domain (LBD). However, recent studies have suggested a more nuanced role for the LBD with current evidence identifying the iGluR LBD interface as a "hotspot" regulating agonist behaviour. Such ideas remain to be consolidated with recently solved structures of full-length iGluRs to account for the global changes that underlie channel activation and desensitization.

  12. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  13. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  14. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  15. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  16. LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIA 1 of maize acts as a transcriptional activator in auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA gene rootless with undetectable meristem 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; von Behrens, Inga; Zimmermann, Roman; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Only little is known about target genes of auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA-ARF module. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that maize lateral root primordia 1 (lrp1) encodes a transcriptional activator that is directly regulated by the Aux/IAA protein ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 (RUM1). Expression of lrp1 is confined to early root primordia and meristems and is auxin-inducible. Based on its primary protein structure, LRP1 is predicted to be a transcription factor. This notion is supported by exclusive LRP1 localization in the nucleus and its ability to activate downstream gene activity. Based on the observation that lrp1 transcription is completely repressed in the semi-dominant gain of function mutant rum1, it was demonstrated that the lrp1 promoter is a direct target of RUM1 proteins. Subsequently, promoter activation assays indicated that RUM1 represses the expression of a GFP reporter fused to the native promoter of lrp1. Constitutive repression of lrp1 in rum1 mutants is a consequence of the stability of mutated rum1 proteins which cannot be degraded by the proteasome and thus constitutively bind to the lrp1 promoter and repress transcription. Taken together, the repression of the transcriptional activator lrp1 by direct binding of RUM1 to its promoter, together with specific expression of lrp1 in root meristems, suggests a function in maize root development via the RUM1-dependent auxin signalling pathway. PMID:25911745

  17. Endosidin1 defines a compartment involved in endocytosis of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the auxin transporters PIN2 and AUX1.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stéphanie; Chary, S Narasimha; Drakakaki, Georgia; Li, Shundai; Yang, Zhenbiao; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R

    2008-06-17

    Although it is known that proteins are delivered to and recycled from the plasma membrane (PM) via endosomes, the nature of the compartments and pathways responsible for cargo and vesicle sorting and cellular signaling is poorly understood. To define and dissect specific recycling pathways, chemical effectors of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, especially through endosomes, would be invaluable. Thus, we identified chemicals affecting essential steps in PM/endosome trafficking, using the intensely localized PM transport at the tips of germinating pollen tubes. The basic mechanisms of this localized growth are likely similar to those of non-tip growing cells in seedlings. The compound endosidin 1 (ES1) interfered selectively with endocytosis in seedlings, providing a unique tool to dissect recycling pathways. ES1 treatment induced the rapid agglomeration of the auxin translocators PIN2 and AUX1 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 into distinct endomembrane compartments termed "endosidin bodies"; however, the markers PIN1, PIN7, and other PM proteins were unaffected. Endosidin bodies were defined by the syntaxin SYP61 and the V-ATPase subunit VHA-a1, two trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosomal proteins. Interestingly, brassinosteroid (BR)-induced gene expression was inhibited by ES1 and treated seedlings displayed a brassinolide (BL)-insensitive phenotype similar to a bri1 loss-of-function mutant. No effect was detected in auxin signaling. Thus, PIN2, AUX1, and BRI1 use interactive pathways involving an early SYP61/VHA-a1 endosomal compartment.

  18. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa

  19. Isolation of transcription factors binding auxin response elements using a yeast one-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Mei; Huang, Meijuan; Chen, Fan

    2002-04-01

    Plant hormones play an important role during higher plant embryogenesis. Auxin is central to the development of vascular tissues, formation of lateral and adventitious roots, control of apical dominance, and tropic responses. Auxin response element (AuxRE), present in the promoters of many auxin-induced genes, can confer auxin responsiveness. Using carrot somatic embryo under specific developmental phase, a cDNA expression library was constructed. Several plasmids were recombined containing the tetramer of AuxRE as a bait. After screening by a yeast one-hy-brid system, one positive clone was confirmed and characterized. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that AxRF1 protein expressed in yeast cell could bind AuxRE in vitro. It suggests that AxRF1 participates in regulation of the expression of auxin responsive gene during carrot somatic embryogenesis. PMID:18763077

  20. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described. PMID:14676360

  1. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  2. Elevated Seismic Activity Beneath the Slumbering Morne aux Diables Volcano, Northern Dominica and the Monitoring Role of the Seismic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. B.; Robertson, R. E.; Abraham, W.; Cole, P.; de Roche, T.; Edwards, S.; Higgins, M.; Johnson, M.; Joseph, E. P.; Latchman, J.; Lynch, L.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, C.; Stewart, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2009, periods of elevated seismic activity have been experienced around the flanks of Morne Aux Diables Volcano in northern Dominica. This long-dormant volcano is a complex of 7 andesitic lava domes with a central depression where a cold soufrière is evident. Prior to this activity, seismicity was very quiet except for a short period in 2000 and an intense short-lived swarm in April 2003. The most recent earthquake activity has been regularly felt by residents in villages on all flanks of the complex. In Dec 09/Jan10, scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC), based in Trinidad & Tobago, in collaboration with staff of the Office of Disaster Management (ODM) and Dominica Public Seismic Network (DPSN) improved the monitoring capacity around this volcano from 1 to 7 seismic stations. Earthquakes are determined to be volcano-tectonic in nature and located at shallow depths (<4 km) beneath the central depression. Additionally, in Jan/Feb 10 geothermal sampling was undertaken and 2 permanent GPS sites were deployed. Public information leaflets prepared by SRC scientists using a "Question & Answer" format have been distributed to concerned citizens whilst many public meetings were carried out by ODM staff. Field investigations indicate that the previous Late Pleistocene activity of Morne Aux Diables switched from Pelèan dome growth and gravitational collapse to more explosive pumice-falls and associated ignimbrites, both styles forming extensive pyroclastic fans around the central complex. The town of Portsmouth is located on one of these fans ~5 km southwest of the central depression. Sporadic, short bursts of seismic activity continue at the time of writing.

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  4. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  5. Conserved and unique features of the homeologous maize Aux/IAA proteins ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 and RUM1-like 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Marcon, Caroline; Tai, Huanhuan; von Behrens, Inga; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1) is a key regulator of lateral and seminal root formation. An ancient maize genome duplication resulted in the emergence of its homeolog rum1-like1 (rul1), which displays 92% amino acid sequence identity with RUM1. Both, RUL1 and RUM1 exhibit the canonical four domain structure of Aux/IAA proteins. Moreover, both are localized to the nucleus, are instable and have similar short half-lives of ~23min. Moreover, RUL1 and RUM1 can be stabilized by specific mutations in the five amino acid degron sequence of domain II. In addition, proteins encoded by both genes interact in vivo with auxin response factors (ARFs) such as ZmARF25 and ZmARF34 in protoplasts. Although it was demonstrated that RUL1 and RUM1 can homo and heterodimerize in vivo, rul1 expression is independent of rum1. Moreover, on average rul1 expression is ~84-fold higher than rum1 in the 12 tested tissues and developmental stages, although the relative expression levels in different root tissues are very similar. While RUM1 and RUL1 display conserved biochemical properties, yeast-two-hybrid in combination with BiFC experiments identified a RUM1-associated protein 1 (RAP1) that specifically interacts with RUM1 but not with RUL1. This suggests that RUM1 and RUL1 are at least in part interwoven into different molecular networks. PMID:26672614

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}-homeotypic aluminum silicon oxycarbide, [Al{sub 4.4}Si{sub 0.6}][O{sub 1.0}C{sub 2.0}]C

    SciTech Connect

    Kaga, Motoaki; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Hiromi; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2010-03-15

    A new quaternary layered oxycarbide, [Al{sub 4.39(5)}Si{sub 0.61(5)}]{sub S}IGMA{sub 5}[O{sub 1.00(2)}C{sub 2.00(2)}]{sub S}IGMA{sub 3}C, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The title compound was found to be hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, Z=2, and unit-cell dimensions a=0.32783(1) nm, c=2.16674(7) nm and V=0.20167(1) nm{sup 3}. The atom ratios Al:Si were determined by EDX, and the initial structural model was derived by the direct methods. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of one of the three types of Al/Si sites. The maximum-entropy methods-based pattern fitting (MPF) method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The reliability indices calculated from the MPF were R{sub wp}=3.73% (S=1.20), R{sub p}=2.94%, R{sub B}=1.04% and R{sub F}=0.81%. The crystal was an inversion twin. Each twin-related individual was isostructural with Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} (space group P6{sub 3}mc, Z=2). - Graphical abstract: A new oxycarbide discovered in the Al-Si-O-C system, Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}-homeotypic [Al{sub 4.4}Si{sub 0.6}][O{sub 1.0}C{sub 2.0}]C. The crystal is an inversion twin, and hence the structure is represented by a split-atom model. The three-dimensional electron density distributions are determined by the maximum-entropy methods-based pattern fitting, being consistent with the disordered structural model.

  8. 40 CFR 35.6270 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems. 35.6270 Section 35.6270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... § 35.6270 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Accounting system standards—(1) General. The... of the adequacy of the financial management system as described in 40 CFR 31.20(c). (2)...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6270 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. 35.6270 Section 35.6270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... § 35.6270 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Accounting system standards—(1) General. The... of the adequacy of the financial management system as described in 40 CFR 31.20(c). (2)...

  10. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  11. Transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Mukuku, Olivier; Lubala, Toni Kasole; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Ilunga, Paul Makinko; Bugeme, Marcellin; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation d'un nourrisson de 5 mois présentant une transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire. Il est né à terme sans aucun facteur de risque retrouvé dans les antécédents maternels. Le diagnostic est posé, grâce à une échocardiographie, à 5 mois après sa naissance lors de la survenue d'une cyanose et d'un malaise anoxique. Une prise en charge symptomatique a permis de stabiliser l’état du patient mais suite à l'absence d'un traitement chirurgical, il est décédé à domicile 3 semaines après sa sortie de l'hôpital. Dans les pays en développement, le diagnostic de la transposition des gros vaisseaux est souvent fait en période postnatale et son pronostic reste fatal par manque des centres médico-chirurgicaux spécialisés. PMID:24009800

  12. Growth and development, and auxin polar transport in higher plants under microgravity conditions in space: BRIC-AUX on STS-95 space experiment.

    PubMed

    Ueda, J; Miyamoto, K; Yuda, T; Hoshino, T; Fujii, S; Mukai, C; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    1999-12-01

    The principal objectives of the space experiment, BRIC-AUX on STS 95, were the integrated analysis of the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings in space and a study of the effects of microgravity conditions in space on auxin polar transport in these segments. Microgravity significantly affected the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings were the most oriented toward about 40 to 60 degrees from the vertical. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings were curved at random during space flight but coleoptiles were almost straight. Finally the growth inhibition of these seedlings in space was also observed. Roots of some pea seedlings grew toward to the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Extensibilities of cell walls of the third internode of etiolated pea epicotyls and the top region of etiolated maize coleoptiles, which were germinated and grown under microgravity conditions in space, were significantly low as compared with those grown on the ground of the earth. Activities of auxin polar transport in the second internode segments of etiolated pea seedlings and coleoptile segments of etiolated maize seedlings were significantly inhibited and promoted, respectively, under microgravity conditions in space. These results strongly suggest that auxin polar transport as well as the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on the earth.

  13. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  14. Five isolated pentagon rule isomers of higher fullerene C94 captured as chlorides and CF3 derivatives: C94(34)Cl14, C94(61)Cl20, C94(133)Cl22, C94(42)(CF3)16, and C94(43)(CF3)18.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Nadezhda B; Yang, Shangfeng; Wei, Tao; Troyanov, Sergey I

    2015-03-16

    High-temperature chlorination and trifluoromethylation of C94 isomeric mixtures followed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with the use of synchrotron radiation resulted in the structure determination of C94(34)Cl14, C94(61)Cl20, C94(133)Cl22, C94(42)(CF3)16, and C94(43)(CF3)18. Their addition patterns are stabilized by the formation of isolated C═C bonds and aromatic substructures. Four cage isomers of C94 (nos. 34, 42, 43, and 133) have been experimentally confirmed for the first time. PMID:25698345

  15. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    PubMed

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  16. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    PubMed

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:26400863

  17. Low (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe--particle radiation lead to a persistent reduction in the spatial learning ability of rats.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Davis, Leslie K; Johnson, Angela M; Keeney, Sonia; Siegel, Andrew; Sanford, Larry D; Singletary, Sylvia J; Lonart, György

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is considered to be a potential health risk in long-term space travel, and it represents a significant risk to the central nervous system (CNS). The most harmful component of GCR is the HZE [high-mass, highly charged (Z), high-energy] particles, e.g. (56)Fe. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to high doses of HZE-particle radiation induced pronounced deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rodents. Recent data suggest that glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal synaptosomes is impaired after low (60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles, which could lead to impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. To assess the effects of mission-relevant (20-60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, male Wistar rats either received sham treatment or were irradiated and tested 3 months later in the Barnes maze test. Compared to the controls, rats that received 20, 40 and 60 cGy 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles showed significant impairments in their ability to locate the escape box in the Barnes maze, which was manifested by progressively increasing escape latency times over the 3 days of testing. However, this increase was not due to a lack of motivation of the rats to escape, because the total number of head pokes (and especially incorrect head pokes) remained constant over the test period. Given that rats exposed to X rays did not exhibit spatial memory impairments until >10 Gy was delivered, the RBE for 1 GeV/u (56)Fe-particle-induced hippocampal spatial memory impairment is ∼50. These data demonstrate that mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles can result in severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent neurocognitive tasks, and the extreme sensitivity of these processes to 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles must arise due to the perturbation of multiple processes in addition to killing neuronal cells.

  18. Low (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe--particle radiation lead to a persistent reduction in the spatial learning ability of rats.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Davis, Leslie K; Johnson, Angela M; Keeney, Sonia; Siegel, Andrew; Sanford, Larry D; Singletary, Sylvia J; Lonart, György

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is considered to be a potential health risk in long-term space travel, and it represents a significant risk to the central nervous system (CNS). The most harmful component of GCR is the HZE [high-mass, highly charged (Z), high-energy] particles, e.g. (56)Fe. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to high doses of HZE-particle radiation induced pronounced deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rodents. Recent data suggest that glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal synaptosomes is impaired after low (60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles, which could lead to impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. To assess the effects of mission-relevant (20-60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, male Wistar rats either received sham treatment or were irradiated and tested 3 months later in the Barnes maze test. Compared to the controls, rats that received 20, 40 and 60 cGy 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles showed significant impairments in their ability to locate the escape box in the Barnes maze, which was manifested by progressively increasing escape latency times over the 3 days of testing. However, this increase was not due to a lack of motivation of the rats to escape, because the total number of head pokes (and especially incorrect head pokes) remained constant over the test period. Given that rats exposed to X rays did not exhibit spatial memory impairments until >10 Gy was delivered, the RBE for 1 GeV/u (56)Fe-particle-induced hippocampal spatial memory impairment is ∼50. These data demonstrate that mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles can result in severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent neurocognitive tasks, and the extreme sensitivity of these processes to 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles must arise due to the perturbation of multiple processes in addition to killing neuronal cells. PMID:22077338

  19. Electronic topological transition in AuX2 (X = In, Ga and Al) compounds at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Alka B.; Godwal, B. K.; Meenakshi, S.; Modak, P.; Rao, R. S.; Sikka, S. K.; Vijayakumar, V.; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.

    2002-11-01

    We present accurate x-ray diffraction data at high pressures for AuIn2,AuGa2 and AuAl2, obtained using a diamond anvil cell with the ELETTRA synchrotron source. The resulting P-V data obtained from the d-values were used to get the universal equation of state (UEOS), which is compared with theoretical estimates. Deviation from linearity is evident in the UEOS curves of AuIn2 and AuGa2, thus verifying that some of the observed anomalies in these systems below 5 GPa are due to electronic topological transitions.

  20. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  1. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development.

  2. Eu@Sc20C60: Magnetic Volleyballene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ma, Hong-Man; Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11274089, U1331116, 11304076 and 11547198, the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province under Grant No A2015205179, the Science Foundation of Hebei Education Award for Distinguished Young Scholars under Grant No YQ2013008, the Program for High-level Talents of Hebei Province under Grant No A201500118, and the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2011CB606401.

  3. Contribution aux etudes de signaux radar de surfaces de mer et mise au point d'un traitement rapide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousselme, Anne-Laure

    Dans le but d'utiliser un radar comme instrument de mesures oceanographiques, il apparai t necessaire de developper des techniques pour extraire les caracteristiques d'une surface de mer a partir du signal recu par le radar. La plupart des algorithmes existant considerent les images radar comme des photographies de la surface oceanique, negligeant l'effet de la vitesse de rotation du radar sur le signal, ainsi que le systeme de coordonnees polaires intrinseque de l'image radar. De plus, a cause de la loudeur des calculs, ces methodes ne peuvent fournir de resultats dans des applications en temps reel. La premiere partie de notra travail consiste a modeliser et quantifier l'effet de la distorsion du spectre oceanique provoquee par une vitesse de rotation du radar trop faible. Les resultats permettent de definir clairement les vitesses de rotation du radar pour lesquelles cette distorsion est negligeable. La deuxieme partie prospose un algorithme de traitement en temps reel qui extrait les informations caracteristiques principales de la surface de mer observee, i.e., la longueur d'onde et la direction des vagues. Cette estimation, basees sur une modelisation autoregressive offre une ouverture pour le traitement des signaux en temps reel. A travers cette approche, une succession de signaux unidimensionnels est traitee, ce qui conduit a l'elimination naturelle de la distorsion introduite dans le spectre du signal.

  4. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  5. 40 CFR 35.6270 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documentation described in 40 CFR 31.20(b)(6). (4) For pre-remedial and Core Program activities, the... of the adequacy of the financial management system as described in 40 CFR 31.20(c). (2) Allowable... 40 CFR 31.22. (3) Pre-remedial. The system need not track expenses by site. However, all...

  6. Use of the API rapid NFT system for identifying nonfermentative and fermentative marine bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Breschel, T S; Singleton, F L

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five American Type Culture Collection type strains of marine bacteria were used to evaluate the Rapid NFT system (API Analab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) for use in identifying heterotrophic marine bacteria. The 21 biochemical and assimilation tests on the Rapid NFT test strips were treated according to the manufacturer's protocol, which included use of AUX medium (provided with the Rapid NFT system) for preparing assimilation tests, and by substituting phenol red broth base (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) with and without an oil overlay for the AUX medium. A seven-digit numerical profile was obtained for each NFT test strip from each of the three procedures and matched to its corresponding number in the Rapid NFT identification codebook. Also, all biochemical and assimilation test results were analyzed with SASTAXAN and SAS/GRAPH programs (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, N.C.); similarity matrices were computed for all 35 strains. For comparison purposes, bacterial strains were grouped at a similarity level of 70%. The results indicated a low efficacy of identification for all three procedures. In addition, similarity matrix analysis showed more cohesive grouping based on results of phenol red broth base-treated strains than for the AUX medium provided by the manufacturer. However, none of the three treatments provided exclusive grouping of type strains at the genus level. Thus, the reliability of the data obtained from the NFT system and modifications thereof should be evaluated carefully when environmental isolates are characterized. PMID:1539975

  7. Evolution de la résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala de 2005 à 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ebongue, Cécile Okalla; Tsiazok, Martial Dongmo; Mefo'o, Jean Pierre Nda; Ngaba, Guy Pascal; Beyiha, Gérard; Adiogo, Dieudonné

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude vise à déterminer le profil de résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala (Cameroun) et analyser leur évolution dans le temps. Méthodes Etude rétrospective, sur une période de huit ans (2005 - 2012), portant sur l'ensemble des souches d'entérobactéries isolées chez les malades ambulatoires et hospitalisés. Les prélèvements ont été analysés au laboratoire de bactériologie de l'Hôpital Général de Douala. Résultats Les entérobactéries étaient les germes les plus fréquents sur l'ensemble des souches isolées. Nous avons noté une prédominance d’Escherichia coli (48,5%) et de Klebsiella pneumoniae (32,8%). Pendant la période d’étude, nous avons observé des taux de résistance élevés aux principales classes d'antibiotiques, et une augmentation entre 2005 et 2012 de 29,1% à 51,6% pour les céphalosporines de troisième génération, de 29,2% à 44% pour la ciprofloxacine. L'imipénème, l'amikacine et la fosfomycine étaient les molécules les plus actives avec respectivement 1,3%, 12,9% et 13,4% des souches d'entérobactéries résistantes. Conclusion L’évolution des résistances des entérobactéries aux antibiotiques est un phénomène réel dans la ville de Douala. Il expose à des difficultés de prise en charge thérapeutique des infections. Lamaitrise actuelle de ce phénomène est une véritable urgence et nécessite une implication des pouvoirs publics. Des tests spécifiques de recherche des bétalactamases à spectre élargi (BLSE) et AmpC doivent être mis en place dans nos laboratoires afin de mettre en évidence les différents phénotypes de résistances. PMID:26140070

  8. [Evaluation of common commercial systems for the identification of yeast isolates in microbiology laboratories: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Uludağ Altun, Hatice; Karatuna, Onur; Hazırolan, Gülşen; Aksu, Neriman; Adiloğlu, Ali; Akyar, Işın

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of yeast isolates have become important in recent years for not only antifungal susceptibility testing due to the species-specific clinical resistance breakpoints but also early initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. In clinical microbiology laboratories species identification of yeasts is often performed with several commercial systems based on biochemical properties and rarely according to the physiological and morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare the two common commercial systems, VITEK 2 YST ID Card (Vitek; bioMérieux, France) and API 20C AUX (API; bioMérieux, France) with conventional mycological methods. A total of 473 clinical yeast strains isolated from clinical specimens in different university and training/research hospitals and identified by Vitek system were included in the study. The isolates were re-identified with API and conventional methods including morphological identification in the Mycology Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Turkey. Candida dubliniensis MYA 583, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32268 were used as quality control strains and those standard strains were studied consecutively 10 days with both of the methods. The results of identification by Vitek and API were compared with the results of conventional methods for those 473 yeast isolates [6 genus (Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastoshizomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon), 17 species (5 common and 12 rarely isolated)]. The performances of the systems were better (Vitek: 95%; API: 96%) for the commonly detected species (C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis and C.krusei) than those for rarely detected species (Vitek: 78.4%; API: 71.6%) (p= 0.155). Misidentification or unidentification were mostly detected for C.parapsilosis (Vitek: 6/87; API: 7/87) and C.glabrata (Vitek: 9/104; API

  9. Developpement d'une plateforme de calcul d'equilibres chimiques complexes et adaptation aux problemes electrochimiques et d'equilibres contraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neron, Alex

    Avec l'arrivée de l'environnement comme enjeu mondial, le secteur de l'efficacité énergétique prend une place de plus en plus importante pour les entreprises autant au niveau économique que pour l'image de la compagnie. Par le fait même, le domaine des technologies de l'énergie est un créneau de recherche dont les projets en cours se multiplient. D'ailleurs, un des problèmes qui peut survenir fréquemment dans certaines entreprises est d'aller mesurer la composition des matériaux dans des conditions difficiles d'accès. C'est le cas par exemple de l'électrolyse de l'aluminium qui se réalise à des températures très élevées. Pour pallier à ce problème, il faut créer et valider des modèles mathématiques qui vont calculer la composition et les propriétés à l'équilibre du système chimique. Ainsi, l'objectif global du projet de recherche est de développer un outil de calcul d'équilibres chimiques complexes (plusieurs réactions et plusieurs phases) et l'adapter aux problèmes électrochimiques et d'équilibres contraints. Plus spécifiquement, la plateforme de calcul doit tenir compte de la variation de température due à un gain ou une perte en énergie du système. Elle doit aussi considérer la limitation de l'équilibre due à un taux de réaction et enfin, résoudre les problèmes d'équilibres électrochimiques. Pour y parvenir, les propriétés thermodynamiques telles que l'énergie libre de Gibbs, la fugacité et l'activité sont tout d'abord étudiées pour mieux comprendre les interactions moléculaires qui régissent les équilibres chimiques. Ensuite, un bilan énergétique est inséré à la plateforme de calcul, ce qui permet de calculer la température à laquelle le système est le plus stable en fonction d'une température initiale et d'une quantité d'énergie échangée. Puis, une contrainte cinétique est ajoutée au système afin de calculer les équilibres pseudo-stationnaires en évolution dans le temps. De plus, la

  10. Radiographie par rayons X à haute résolution de défauts topologiques en volume de structures modulées comparée aux neutrons en faisceau blanc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Palacio, J.; Hamelin, B.; Marmeggi, J. C.

    2004-11-01

    Une émission de rayons X par un générateur à haute tension (plage : 50 - 410 kV) a été développée pour être utilisée avec un diffractomètre à rayons X durs et caractériser en volume des monocristaux. Le fort flux issu d'une installation de radiologie à foyer fin avec un grand pouvoir de pénétration en profondeur autorise l'étude d'échantillons très absorbants. Quelques exemples de l'utilisation de ces propriétés pour des échantillons épais et très absorbants sont présentés ; principalement l'analyse de contraintes et la topographie X projetée 2D dans des matériaux en comparaison avec l'information par la diffraction des neutrons. La diffraction à haute énergie apparaît dans la direction transmise, les angles de Bragg sont petits et ainsi les différentes lignes de réflexions sont réparties autour du faisceau principal. La presse uni-axiale utilisée pour les expériences est optimisée effectivement avec l'absence d'un bruit de fond dû à l'usage de fentes. L'optique des rayons X durs et neutrons appliquée aux échantillons épais donne une information complémentaire dans les expériences sur l'analyse de la densité volumétrique par la diffusion des rayons X et neutrons. On l'applique à des problèmes concernant des cristaux aux structures modulées étudiées sous des charges mécaniques et thermiques.

  11. Séroprévalence et facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nkala, Isabelle Vanessa Monthe; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kamga, Hortense Gonsu; Noubom, Michel; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique réalisée de février 2012 à Juin 2012 dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Au total, 982 personnes ont été dépistées pour le VIH et les hépatites virales B et C. Les femmes représentaient 56,3% des personnes dépistées. La tranche d’âge la plus représentée était celle des 20 à 24 ans. L’âge médian était de 34,5 ans. Les prévalences du VIH, de l'AgHBs, et de l'Ac anti HCV étaient respectivement de 6,0%, 4,1%, et 0,4%. La prévalence du VIH était 2 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes que les hommes avec 8,1% contre 3,5% (p=0,01). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de 30 à 34 ans, 40 à 44 ans avec 15,0% et 11,5% (p=0,01), les personnes sans emploi avec 11,1% (p<0,001) et les personnes en union libre avec 17,9% (p=0,000). La prévalence du VIH n’était pas directement liée aux comportements et pratiques sexuels de la population de l’étude. On enregistrait une prévalence élevée de 29,3% chez les individus ayant déclaré avoir au moins une infection sexuellement transmissible (p=0,000). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de mettre en place des stratégies de prévention contre le VIH, les hépatites virales et les facteurs associés au Cameroun. PMID:26113899

  12. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  13. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  14. L'Enseignement de la phonologie d'une deuxieme langue aux adultes (Teaching the Phonology of a Second Language to Adults)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Audio-visual methods which are successful in immersion and FLES programs are not successful with adults. It is suggested that a cognitive approach to learning the sound system, which is usually systematic, would be more effective. It would also satisfy the students' intellectual curiosity. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  15. Transposition des processus membranaires biologiques aux traitements des effluents métallifères peu chargés. Conception et étude chimique d'une pompe ionique uranifère. Transport, contre-transport, couplage positif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasaine-Sadi, F.; Benhassaine, A.; Ait-Amar, H.

    1999-09-01

    An ionic pump has been devided thanks to au “liquid-liquid" extraction-reextration where the extraction compartment and the reextraction compartment are put in contact with one another through the membrane composed of an mediator diluted in the kerosene. We have applied this process to the system: uranyle nitrate, nitric acid-phosphate tributyle, kerosene-sodium carbonate. Interesting performances have been realised for diluted solutions (100 ppm). The chemicals parameters has allowed to obtain the variables giving the extraction and reextraction efficiency optimum. A chemical modelisation has allowed to identify the extraction mechanism. The classical behaviour obtained in agitated surroundings has been found again. The membrane can work thanks to the “activation" by the solute of the carrier at one interface and to the “deactivation" at the other interface, both of these mechanisms of the active transport creating a real “ionic pumping". Une pompe ionique est mise au point grâce à une ensemble “extraction-réextraction" “liquide-liquide" où le compartiment extraction et le compartiment réextraction sont mis en contact par l'intermédiaire d'une membrane contenant un transporteur dilué dans le kérosène. Ce procédé est appliqué aux ions uranyles. Des rendements intéressants sont obtenus pour des solutions diluées (100 ppm). L'étude des variables a permis de déterminer des paramètres chimiques donnant des rendements d'extraction et de réextration optimum. Le comportement symétrique des deux compartiments montre que nous avons un transport, contre-transport, couplage positif. Une modélisation chimique a permis d'identifier les mécanismes d'extraction. Le comportement classique obtenu en milieu agité est retrouvé. La pompe peut fonctionner grâce à l'activation du transporteur par le cosoluté contenu dans le compartiment d'extraction et à la désactivation à la sortie de la membrane par le cosoluté contenu dans le compartiment r

  16. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins. PMID:22393716

  17. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins.

  18. Defining binding efficiency and specificity of auxins for SCF(TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor complex formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Sundaram, Shanthy; Armitage, Lynne; Evans, John P; Hawkes, Tim; Kepinski, Stefan; Ferro, Noel; Napier, Richard M

    2014-03-21

    Structure-activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure-activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding.

  19. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  20. [The clinical views of the humanist doctor F.P. Haas (the first quarter of the XIXth century). On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the publication of F.P. Haas' book "Ma visite aux Eaux d'Alexandre en 1809 et 1810" (M., 1811)].

    PubMed

    Blokhina, N N

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of clinical principles of physician humanist F.P. Haas expounded in his book "Ma visite aux Eaux d'Alexandre en 1809 at 1810" by F.P. Haas (M., 1811). The translation of this book into the Russian language gave an idea of the clinical views of the medical profession in this country in the beginning of the XIXth century (before the Patriotic War of 1812) including relationship between doctors and their patients and medical ethics. Haas proposed a well-substantiated therapeutic strategy with the use of mineral waters taking into consideration residual assimilative capacity of the patient's organism.

  1. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  2. Slush hydrogen liquid level system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F.; Adams, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A discrete capacitance liquid level system developed is specifically for slush hydrogen, but applicable to LOX, LN2, LH2, and RP1 without modification is described. The signal processing portion of the system is compatible with conventional liquid level sensors. Compatibility with slush hydrogen was achieved by designing the sensor with adequate spacing, while retaining the electrical characteristics of conventional sensors. Tests indicate excellent stability of the system over a temperature range of -20 C to 70 C for the circuit and to cryogenic temperatures of the sensor. The sensor was tested up to 40 g's rms random vibration with no damage to the sensor. Operation with 305 m of cable between the sensor and signal processor was demonstrated. It is concluded that this design is more than adequate for most flight and ground applications.

  3. Les recommandations de prise en charge des complications métaboliques associées aux antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Josephine; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; McCrindle, Brian; Grisaru, Silviu; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération s’associent souvent à des complications métaboliques. Ces médicaments sont utilisés plus souvent pour le traitement des troubles de santé mentale chez les enfants, ce qui a requis l’élaboration de lignes directrices officielles sur la surveillance de leur innocuité et de leur efficacité. Des lignes directrices ont déjà été élaborées pour surveiller les complications métaboliques et neurologiques. Afin d’aider les praticiens qui effectuent ces interventions de surveillance, une série de recommandations thérapeutiques complémentaires a été élaborée pour les cas où l’on observe des mesures ou des résultats anormaux. OBJECTIF : Créer des recommandations probantes afin de contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques chez les enfants traités au moyen d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des publications sur les complications métaboliques des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants. Les membres du groupe consensuel ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à l’analyse bibliographique systématique et ont fait appel à un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus à l’égard de recommandations thérapeutiques. Dans la mesure du possible, ils se sont reportés aux lignes directrices existantes sur l’évaluation et le traitement des anomalies métaboliques chez les enfants. RÉSULTATS : Des recommandations probantes sont présentées pour contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques, y compris la prise de poids, l’augmentation du tour de taille, l’élévation des taux de prolactine, de cholestérol, de triglycérides et de glucose, les épreuves de fonction hépatique anormales et les études thyroïdiennes anormales. CONCLUSION : Il faut recourir à des mesures de surveillance convenables lorsqu’on prescrit

  4. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  5. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  6. Stability of permeative flows in 1 dimensionally ordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Pomeau, Y.; Guyon, E.

    1991-03-01

    Layered structures are met in dissipative systems, such as Rayleigh Bénard rolls, as well as in liquid crystalline phases (smectics and cholesterics). We present here a general description, in the framework of phase dynamics, of the stability of these structures when submitted to an external force field (flow, electric field) acting perpendicular to the roll axis for various boundary conditions. The one-dimensional equilibrium solution with fixed boundary conditions leads to an effect, discovered experimentally by Pocheau and Croquette on Rayleigh-Bérnard rolls in the presence of a transverse flow, and involving the coexistence of compressed and dilated rolls; this effect has a known counterpart in cholesterics. Using the same boundary conditions, we generalize the well known undulation instability obtained under a dilative stress to the case of the action of a transverse force both from the point of view of linear stability and in the highly nonlinear limit. The possibility of observing fractal structures is indicated. For mixed boundary conditions, it is possible to have a sustained time dependent behavior involving the nucleation of new layers as also observed in the above mentioned experiments. On rencontre des structures en couches dans des systèmes dissipatifs tels que les rouleaux convectifs de Rayleigh-Bénard et dans les cristaux liquides (smectiques et cholestériques). Nous présentons ici une description générale de la stabilité de ces structures dans le cadre du formalisme de la diffusion de phase, lorsqu'elles sont soumises à un champ de force extérieur (écoulement, champ électrique) agissant à angle droit de la direction des rouleaux, en fonction des conditions aux limites. La solution unidimensionnelle d'équilibre avec des conditions aux limites rigides pour la phase conduit à un effet découvert par Pocheau et Croquette (P.C.) dans la convection de R.B. et mettant en jeu la coexistence de zones dilatée et comprimée. Cet effet a un

  7. Prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère chez l'enfant avec des préparations locales alternatives aux F-75 et F-100: résultats et défis

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Adjahoung, Chritoph Akazong; Keugoung, Basile; Kamgaing, Nelly; Dongmo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mise en œuvre des directives de l'OMS permettrait de réduire significativement la mortalité hospitalière due à la malnutrition sévère. Cependant, elle n'est pas effective et la pénurie en aliments thérapeutiques est l'une des principales causes. L’étude décrit notre expérience sur la prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère avec des laits alternatifs aux F75 et F100 composés localement. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'un essai clinique non randomisé. La prise en charge des patients utilisait les laits composés localement et une évaluation quotidienne du gain pondéral était faite. Résultats L’étude a porté sur 41 sujets âgés de 6 à 59 mois. Au total, 73,2% avaient le kwashiorkor-marasmique, 17,0% le kwashiorkor, 9,8% le marasme et 41,5% étaient infectés par le VIH. Nous avons noté une prise progressive du poids d'environ 10 g/kg/jour vers le 7ème jour et de 15 à 20 g/kg/jour en fin d'hospitalisation. Le taux de mortalité était de 21,9% soit une réduction de 8,4% des chiffres antérieurs. Conclusion Malgré les obstacles financiers liés au coût des ingrédients, les préparations lactées alternatives aux standards F75 et F100, sont adaptables dans notre contexte. En l'absence des formules standards de l'OMS et lorsque la référence vers une structure qui en disposent n'est pas possible, les préparations locales permettraient de réhabiliter efficacement les patients. D'autres recherches pointues permettraient de tirer les ingrédients uniquement de notre environnement. Elles contribueraient ainsi à minimiser les couts des préparations et de favoriser la pérennisation des laits thérapeutiques locaux. PMID:26587175

  8. Dynamic simulations of the cryogenic system of a tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, R.; Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Poncet, J. M.; Rousset, B.

    2015-12-01

    Power generation in the next decades could be provided by thermo-nuclear fusion reactors like tokamaks. There inside, the fusion reaction takes place thanks to the generation of plasmas at hundreds of millions of degrees that must be confined magnetically with superconductive coils, cooled down to 4.4K. The plasma works cyclically and the coil system is subjected to pulsed heat load which has to be handled by the refrigerator. By smoothing the variable loads, the refrigerator capacity can be set close to the average power; optimizing investment and operational costs. Within the “Broader Approach agreement” related to ITER project, CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) is in charge of providing the cryogenic system for the Japanese tokamak (JT-60SA), that is currently under construction in Naka. The system has been designed to handle the pulsed heat loads. To prepare the acceptance tests of the cryogenic system foreseen in 2016, both dynamic modelling and experimental tests on a scaled down mock-up are of high interest for assessing pulsed load smoothing control. After explaining HELIOS (HElium Loop for hIgh lOad Smoothing) operating modes, a dynamic model is presented, with results on the pulsed heat load scenarios. All the simulations have been performed with EcosimPro® and the associated cryogenic library CRYOLIB.

  9. Utilisation de la teledetection, des SIG et de l'intelligence artificielle pour determiner le niveau de susceptibilite aux mouvements de terrain: Application dans les Andes de la Bolivie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloquin, Stephane

    1999-11-01

    The socio-economic impact of mass movements for our society is getting more and more serious. The loss of lives and economic losses are now ten times greater than they were at the beginning of the decade. In the hope of reducing these impacts, it is essential to adopt a preventive policy that will encourage mapping of mass movement susceptibility level (MMSL) in critical zones. However, this task is complex and only experts using present techniques can provide satisfactory results. To make possible the production of these maps by a larger number of individuals, we have developed an expert system called EXPERIM that uses remote sensing data and geographic information systems to facilitate the complex tasks without requiring the user to be highly competent in this field of study. This thesis presents the results obtained from a complete strategy developed for a region surrounding Cochabamba, Bolivia. The operational expert system prototype will soon be integrated within the watershed management program directed by the local executing organisation PROMIC. The knowledge acquisition and its expression in concrete terms constitute the principal axis of this research, while the results obtained are the heart of the EXPERIM expert system. These strategic steps aim to establish a knowledge base of data and rules that describe field conditions for each MMSL. We have been able to extract this information by using binary discriminant analysis of a MMSL map produced by an expert for a pilot zone called Cuenca Taquina, which is geoecologically representative of the 38 neighbouring watersheds. Using this technique, we were able to establish a sensitivity model that recreates the expert's map with a success rate of 89% and 78% when two or three MMS levels are used. Based on a detailed analysis of the susceptibility model it was evident that stability conditions are the result of the topographic, geologic and geomorphologic environments. The level of susceptibility was found to be

  10. Vers une méthode de réglage expérimentale des commandes PID floues : application aux systèmes électromécaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussion, P.; Hissel, D.

    1998-08-01

    Electrical and electromechanical systems have to satisfy to more and more constrained specifications. Therefore, non-linear control structures must be spread out. Among them, fuzzy logic control can be one interessant and performant alternative. The main handicap of this kind of stucture resides in the fact that the tuning parameters are very numerous. In this paper, we first propose an on-site tuning strategy of this set of parameters in the case of a fuzzy proportionnal-integrative controller based on the experimental designs methodology and on a limited number of pre-defined closed-loop experiments. Then, a complete set of predetermined parameters for a fuzzy proportionnal-integrative-derivative controller will be given. These parameters have been optimized on a specified benchmark according to an IAE criterion. They are calculated like the Ziegler-Nichols or Broïda methodology on conventional controllers; that is, using a single open-loop step response to obtain a model of a first-order plus delay transfert function. Validity limits for this method are provided. Les systèmes électriques ou électromécaniques doivent satisfaire à des spécifications de plus en plus contraignantes qui nécessitent la mise au point de structures de commande non linéaires. Parmi celles-ci, la commande par logique floue constitue une alternative intéressante et performante. Son principal handicap réside dans le nombre très important de paramètres à régler. Dans cet article, nous nous proposons de systématiser ces réglages dans deux cas de figure. Tout d'abord nous utiliserons la méthodologie des plans d'expérimentations pour effectuer un réglage sur site d'un contrôleur flou de type proportionnel-intégral. Ce réglage sera obtenu en ne réalisant qu'un nombre limité d'essais expérimentaux en boucle fermée avec des combinaisons prédéfinies des paramètres à régler. La combinaison optimale de ces paramètres au sens d'un critère de type IAE (Intégrale de la

  11. Thermoelectric temperature control system for the pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Averill, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A closed loop thermoelectric temperature control system is developed for stabilizing sensitive RF integrated circuits within a microwave radiometer to an accuracy of + or - 0.1 C over a range of ambient conditions from -20 C to +45 C. The dual mode (heating and cooling) control concept utilizes partial thermal isolation of the RF units from an instrument deck which is thermally controlled by thermoelectric coolers and thin film heaters. The temperature control concept is simulated with a thermal analyzer program (MITAS) which consists of 37 nodes and 61 conductors. A full scale thermal mockup is tested in the laboratory at temperatures of 0 C, 21 C, and 45 C to confirm the validity of the control concept. A flight radiometer and temperature control system is successfully flight tested on the NASA Skyvan aircraft.

  12. The influence of composition and microstructure on the HAZ toughness of duplex stainless steels at [minus]20 C

    SciTech Connect

    Lippold, J.C. ); Varol, I.; Baeslack, W.A. III )

    1994-04-01

    The toughness of two commercial duplex stainless steels, Ferralium Alloy 255 and Alloy 2205, was evaluated over a range of cooling rates representative of conditions in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). Both alloys exhibited a loss in toughness at the cooling rate extremes, 90 and 2 C/s, resulting from high ferrite content and larger prior ferrite grain size, respectively. Alloy 255 also showed a drop in toughness at an intermediate cooling rate of 50 C/s. This intermediate loss in toughness, not observed in Alloy 2205, results from the interrelationship between austenite and Cr-rich precipitate formation along ferrite grain boundaries. The precipitation mechanisms and their subsequent effect on toughness are described. The practical implications of HAZ microstructure control are also discussed.

  13. Materials Data on TeH20C6(NCl3)2 (SG:205) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Trends in US Surface Winds Over the Last Quarter of the 20C: Observations and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, E. S.; Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R.; Andersen, T. K.; Corrreia, J.; Flory, D.; Arritt, R. W.; Gutowski, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    Trends in near-surface wind speed are of interest for wind power production, land-atmosphere interactions, ocean-atmosphere interactions, agricultural applications and many other purposes. Changes in wind speed can create changes in surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and trace gases. These, in turn, can affect low- level atmospheric stability and boundary-layer depth, thereby feeding back to the ability of the boundary layer to extract momentum from the free atmosphere. Impact of climate change on surface wind speeds has received relatively little attention despite the important impact of wind speed changes on fundamental balances of heat, momentum, and water at the earth's surface. We have examined trends in near-surface wind speeds from observations and results of a regional climate model. Pryor et al. (2007) reported reductions in wind speed generally in the eastern half of the US in the latter quarter of the twentieth century. To examine whether regional climate models can capture such trends we have examined output of such a model (MM5) for the US for the period 1979-2004 produced under the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. This model was driven by reanalysis boundary conditions updated at 6-h intervals at the lateral boundaries. Preliminary results indicate that the model also reveals a general decline in wind speeds in the eastern US and a few isolated regions of wind speed decline in the western US. At almost no grid points over the continental US did the model produce wind speed increases over the latter quarter of the twentieth century. More detailed analyses of trends in seasonal and diurnal distributions are in progress.

  15. INTERACTION PATTERN OF FULLERENES (C20-C180) AND CARBON NANOTUBES WITH DIFFERENT FORMS OF DNA: A COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Sumbul; Dhasmana, Anupam; Haque, Shafiul; Mir, Snober S; Jahan, Roshan; Bano, Tasneem; Srivastava, Vandana; Khan, Saif; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the venues of exposure to nanoparticles have increased significantly owing to their increased deliberate production. In this study the interaction of fullerenes with DNA was analyzed along with various factors affecting this interaction like mol. wt. of fullerenes (C20 to C180), the form of DNA i.e., A, B and Z, and sequences of DNA, and was compared with the DNA binding of CNTs. Increase in the molecular weight of the fullerene showed increase in the binding score with A & B-form of DNA, but no regular affect was seen on binding with Z-form of DNA. Although the binding of all fullerenes was best with A form. While CNTs bind with all forms of DNA, but best scores were with B form, which were comparable with those of fullerene C80 and C84 with A form. The interaction of both fullerenes and CNTs were not affected by the sequence of DNA. The number of interacting base pairs increased from 1 base-pair to 4, as the molecular size of fullerene increases in all A & B-and Z form of DNA. Whereas CNTs interact with 5 bases in A and B form, and 3 bases in Z form. The groove where binding occurs depended on the form of DNA. Smaller (< C48) fullerenes bind in minor groove of B-DNA, and larger fullerenes bind in major groove. While in A form of DNA, fullerenes of all sizes bind in major groove. The binding was random and not size dependent in Z form of DNA. Whereas, CNTs bind to major groove of DNA in a parallel fashion in A and B form of DNA, and in minor groove attached perpendicularly in Z form.

  16. Materials Data on CdH20C4S4(NO6)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-03-28

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on CaH20C4S4(NO6)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-03-28

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  19. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  20. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAA(mDII)-GR). Repression of auxin responses in (pro)MpIAA:MpIAA(mDII)-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate

  1. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L.; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAAmDII-GR). Repression of auxin responses in proMpIAA:MpIAAmDII-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate the

  2. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAA(mDII)-GR). Repression of auxin responses in (pro)MpIAA:MpIAA(mDII)-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate

  3. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  4. Profil comparatif et évolutif des personnes infectées par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine traitées aux antirétroviraux à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Tshingani; Mukumbi, Henri; Malandala, Ghislain Lubangi Muteba; Donnen, Philippe; Wilmet–Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A trithérapie (ARV) introduite en R.D.Congo en 1996, a permis l′amélioration substantielle de la qualité de vie des PVVIH et a réduit la morbimortalité liée au sida en R.D. Congo. L'objectif de cette étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique comparatif, clinique, ainsi que l’évolution anthropométrique des PVVIH sous ARV à Kinshasa. Méthodes Etude de cohorte sur 438 PVVIH, de 18 ans et plus, suivies entre mai 2010 à 2011 à Amo Congo à Kinshasa. Une comparaison a été faite entre les patients suivis pendant un an et ceux perdus de vue. Le Chi carré de Mc Nemar et l'analyse de variance pour mesures répétées ont été appliqués pour étudier l’évolution. Résultats Près 12 mois de suivi, 11,4% de patients ont été perdus de vue. Parmi eux, on observait des proportions significativement plus élevées de personnes de niveau socioéconomique bas, d'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) bas, présentant de l'anorexie, des affections opportunistes. Les proportions de patients aux stades OMS 3 & 4 et naïfs étaient également significativement plus élevées et la durée sous ARV plus courte. Les gains moyens des paramètres anthropométriques au 12ème mois, étaient importants: de 3,6 [3,2 - 4,0] kg pour le poids, 1,8 (1,4 - 2,3) cm pour le périmètre abdominal, 0,9 (0,8 - 1,2) cm pour le périmètre brachial, 1,4 (1,2 - 1,5) kg/m2 pour l'IMC. La proportion de patients avec un IMC <18,5 kg/m2 a significativement plus baissé entre l'admission et le 12ème mois parmi les patients sans stomatite que parmi ceux avec stomatite. L'IMC moyen évoluait significativement différemment entre l'admission et le 12ème mois selon l’âge et la taille de ménage. Conclusion Les facteurs fragilisant la rétention des patients sous antirétroviraux et une évolution progressive de l’état nutritionnel ont été observés. PMID:25995784

  5. Study of locally manufactured motor vehicle batteries in stand alone home photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.

    1999-07-01

    Analysis of voltage, current, specific gravity, and temperature was performed on locally manufactured lead acid batteries operating in stand alone home photovoltaic (SAHPV) systems in the Dominican Republic. While voltage, charge/discharge current, and specific gravity of most batteries were within reasonable limits, there were indications of batteries spending an excessive time discharged and some incidents of overcharge. During charging above 1 amp, ambient temperatures were 6 to 13 C above the optimal operating temperature (25 C) and battery temperatures were 9 to 20 C above 25 C. Examination of worn out batteries from these SAHPV systems revealed that the majority had deteriorated positive plates and/or sulfation, while a smaller number showed signs of spalling. High temperature was determined to be a significant factor contributing to the premature failure of locally manufactured lead acid batteries operating in these systems.

  6. Realisation d'un detecteur de radioactivite pour un systeme microfluidique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard Baril, Frederique

    Pour etablir le comportement pharmacocinetique de nouveaux radiotraceurs en imagerie moleculaire, il est necessaire d'approfondir l'analyse realisee a partir d'une image par l'ajout d'une mesure dynamique de la radioactivite dans le sang. L'Universite de Sherbrooke developpe presentement une plateforme microfluidique d'echantillonnage et d'analyse permettant la mesure de la radioactivite du plasma en temps reel. L'objectif du present projet de maitrise etait de realiser le composant optoelectronique responsable de la detection des positrons et de l'integrer a la puce microfluidique. L'option retenue a ete l'utilisation de photodiodes PIN en silicium. Un procede de fabrication, ainsi qu'une serie de photomasques ont ete developpes afin de produire une premiere iteration de prototypes. Les detecteurs ont ete concus de maniere a optimiser leur sensibilite en fonction du type de rayonnement a detecter. En effet, la region de detection doit etre suffisamment epaisse et sensible pour absorber le maximum de particules energetiques. Egalement, il est essentiel de minimiser le courant de fuite en noirceur afin d'obtenir un photocourant directement proportionnel a l'energie des radiations incidentes. Les caracteristiques electriques obtenues avec les premiers detecteurs ont ete demontrees proches des performances de detecteurs commerciaux similaires. De plus, il a ete possible d'integrer un canal microfluidique au substrat contenant les photodiodes et d'en realiser l'encapsulation sans alterer les performances electriques initiales des detecteurs. Une courbe de l'activite radioactive du 18F a ete mesuree, celle-ci se comparant a l'activite theorique associee a ce radioisotope communement utilise en TEP. Enfin, un spectre en energie des emissions radiatives du 18F a ete mesure et compare aux performances de systemes utilisant des photodiodes commerciales. Il a ete demontre que le prototype offrait un rapport signal sur bruit similaire aux systemes bases sur des photodiodes

  7. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined

  8. A new web-based system to improve the monitoring of snow avalanche hazard in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourova, Ekaterina; Maldonado, Eric; Leroy, Jean-Baptiste; Alouani, Rachid; Eckert, Nicolas; Bonnefoy-Demongeot, Mylene; Deschatres, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Snow avalanche data in the French Alps and Pyrenees have been recorded for more than 100 years in several databases. The increasing amount of observed data required a more integrative and automated service. Here we report the comprehensive web-based Snow Avalanche Information System newly developed to this end for three important data sets: an avalanche chronicle (Enquête Permanente sur les Avalanches, EPA), an avalanche map (Carte de Localisation des Phénomènes d'Avalanche, CLPA) and a compilation of hazard and vulnerability data recorded on selected paths endangering human settlements (Sites Habités Sensibles aux Avalanches, SSA). These data sets are now integrated into a common database, enabling full interoperability between all different types of snow avalanche records: digitized geographic data, avalanche descriptive parameters, eyewitness reports, photographs, hazard and risk levels, etc. The new information system is implemented through modular components using Java-based web technologies with Spring and Hibernate frameworks. It automates the manual data entry and improves the process of information collection and sharing, enhancing user experience and data quality, and offering new outlooks to explore and exploit the huge amount of snow avalanche data available for fundamental research and more applied risk assessment.

  9. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  10. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  11. Results of a low power ice protection system test and a new method of imaging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.; Mesander, Geert A.

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a BF Goodrich De-Icing System's Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection (PIIP) system in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Characterization studies were done on shed ice particle size by changing the input pressure and cycling time of the PIIP de-icer. The shed ice particle size was quantified using a newly developed image software package. The tests were conducted on a 1.83 m (6 ft) span, 0.53 m (221 in) chord NACA 0012 airfoil operated at a 4 degree angle of attack. The IRT test conditions were a -6.7 C (20 F) glaze ice, and a -20 C (-4 F) rime ice. The ice shedding events were recorded with a high speed video system. A detailed description of the image processing package and the results generated from this analytical tool are presented.

  12. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  13. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  14. Evolution of young andesitic-dacitic magmatic systems beneath Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, T. M.; Lindsay, J. M.; Shane, P.

    2015-05-01

    The geology of Dominica, Lesser Antilles, is dominated by young (< 200 ka) andesitic-dacitic volcanic deposits. Although previous studies have mostly focused on the Plat Pays Volcanic Centre (PPVC), a volcanic complex located on the south-western tip of Dominica, evolved deposits are found across the entire island. Dominica's andesitic-dacitic volcanic rocks are characterized by wide ranges in mineral compositions and a host of disequilibrium features. Mineral-mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium constraints suggest that three separate equilibrium assemblages are associated with the development of these evolved magmas. While Rayleigh fractionation modeling indicates that these equilibrium groups may be related via fractional crystallization, enclaves with irregular boundaries and chilled margins provide evidence of open-system processes such as magma mingling. To explain the disequilibrium assemblages and textures, we propose that Dominica andesites and dacites are the result of convective self-mixing within magma reservoirs comprised of three distinct components: 1) underplating basalt, 2) basaltic-andesitic mush and 3) interstitial rhyolitic melt. A notable exception is Aux Diables, the northernmost center on the island, which has a strikingly different whole-rock geochemistry than other centers. Trace element modeling indicates that this center is influenced by lower crustal assimilation in addition to fractional crystallization. This study suggests that basaltic-andesitic mush is a necessary component in the generation of evolved magmas beneath the island of Dominica. Available ages suggest that such mush has existed beneath parts of the island for at least 200 ka.

  15. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    PubMed

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  16. Suspended matter and bottom deposits in the maroni estuarine system (French Guiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jounneau, J. M.; Pujos, M.

    The purpose of the research on the major rivers in French Guiana is identification and estimation of their contribution to estuarine and inshore continental shelf sedimentation. Results are reported of field studies on the Maroni river conducted during one rainy season and one dry season. The sands of the Maroni fluvio-estuarine system are subject to seasonal variations. During the dry season the sands were distributed in two groups on either side of the lle aux Pigeons, whereas during the rainy season, greater homogeneity was noted throughout the estuary. The sands gave evidence of a lengthy history including marine, continental and finally fluviatile stages. The play a part in sedimentation on the inner continental shelf. Fine sediments had uniform characteristics throughout the year. Mineralogic and elemental composition in the vicinity of Ile Portal indicated that they were different on either side of a limit separating the fluviatile and estuarine zones. Sediment groups were respectively autochtonal (upstream) and allochtonal (downstream), while the characteristics of the clay assemblage and elemental composition in the latter zone are evidence of an Amazon river origin. Their patterns showed evidence of a local stock that is quickly diluted by the mass of sediments derived from the Amazon river, the predominant source for the region.

  17. A Role for Auxin Redistribution in the Responses of the Root System Architecture to Phosphate Starvation in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Nacry, Philippe; Canivenc, Geneviève; Muller, Bertrand; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Van Onckelen, Harry; Rossignol, Michel; Doumas, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The changes in root system architecture (RSA) triggered by phosphate (P) deprivation were studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown for 14 d on 1 mm or 3 μm P. Two different temporal phases were observed in the response of RSA to low P. First, lateral root (LR) development was promoted between days 7 and 11 after germination, but, after day 11, all root growth parameters were negatively affected, leading to a general reduction of primary root (PR) and LR lengths and of LR density. Low P availability had contrasting effects on various stages of LR development, with a marked inhibition of primordia initiation but a strong stimulation of activation of the initiated primordia. The involvement of auxin signaling in these morphological changes was investigated in wild-type plants treated with indole-3-acetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and in axr4-1, aux1-7, and eir1-1 mutants. Most effects of low P on RSA were dramatically modified in the mutants or hormone-treated wild-type plants. This shows that auxin plays a major role in the P starvation-induced changes of root development. From these data, we hypothesize that several aspects of the RSA response to low P are triggered by local modifications of auxin concentration. A model is proposed that postulates that P starvation results in (1) an overaccumulation of auxin in the apex of the PR and in young LRs, (2) an overaccumulation of auxin or a change in sensitivity to auxin in the lateral primordia, and (3) a decrease in auxin concentration in the lateral primordia initiation zone of the PR and in old laterals. Measurements of local changes in auxin concentrations induced by low P, either by direct quantification or by biosensor expression pattern (DR5::β-glucuronidase reporter gene), are in line with these hypotheses. Furthermore, the observation that low P availability mimicked the action of auxin in promoting LR development in the alf3 mutant confirmed that P starvation stimulates primordia

  18. Nine Billion Years: Past and Future of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2013-05-01

    As the Sun is losing mass and thus gravity by radiation and solar wind, solar-planetary energy balances diminish. Since the planets are only weakly bound to the Sun, the planets have been moving away from the Sun, causing increases of orbits and orbital periods. This is modeled for selected planets from Mercury to Sedna and from the formation of the Solar system at -4.5 to +4.5 billion years (Byr/Ma). Planets were initially significantly closer to the Sun, suggesting that modeling of the formation of the solar system needs to be revisited. By +4.5Byr planets beyond Saturn will have separated from the Solar System. The presently outermost solar object, Sedna, is in the process of separation. Climate changes of Mars and Earth are modeled as a function of time. The prediction of the transition of Mars from water to ice at -3.6 Byr is in agreement with observations (-2.9 to -3.7 Byr). This provides for the first time answers to the why and when of water to ice transition on Mars. Earth temperatures are predicted to decrease by of 38, 24, and 20C between -4.5 Byr to +4.5 Byr for present temperatures of +50, 0, and -50 C, respectively. Mars: Water - Ice Transition

  19. Evaluation of the EURO-CORDEX RCMs to accurately simulate the Etesian wind system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafka, Stella; Xoplaki, Elena; Toreti, Andrea; Zanis, Prodromos; Tyrlis, Evangelos; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    The Etesians are among the most persistent regional scale wind systems in the lower troposphere that blow over the Aegean Sea during the extended summer season. ΑAn evaluation of the high spatial resolution, EURO-CORDEX Regional Climate Models (RCMs) is here presented. The study documents the performance of the individual models in representing the basic spatiotemporal pattern of the Etesian wind system for the period 1989-2004. The analysis is mainly focused on evaluating the abilities of the RCMs in simulating the surface wind over the Aegean Sea and the associated large scale atmospheric circulation. Mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP), wind speed and geopotential height at 500 hPa are used. The simulated results are validated against reanalysis datasets (20CR-v2c and ERA20-C) and daily observational measurements (12:00 UTC) from the mainland Greece and Aegean Sea. The analysis highlights the general ability of the RCMs to capture the basic features of the Etesians, but also indicates considerable deficiencies for selected metrics, regions and subperiods. Some of these deficiencies include the significant underestimation (overestimation) of the mean SLP in the northeastern part of the analysis domain in all subperiods (for May and June) when compared to 20CR-v2c (ERA20-C), the significant overestimation of the anomalous ridge over the Balkans and central Europe and the underestimation of the wind speed over the Aegean Sea. Future work will include an assessment of the Etesians for the next decades using EURO-CORDEX projections under different RCP scenarios and estimate the future potential for wind energy production.

  20. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  1. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  2. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  3. Evaluation of Power Electronic Components and Systems at Cryogenic Temperatures For Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Power electronic circuits and systems designed for deep space applications and outer planetary exploration are required to operate reliably and efficiently under extreme temperature conditions. This requirement is dictated by the fact that the operational environments associated with some of the space missions would encompass temperatures as low as -183 C. The development and utilization of electronics capable of low temperature operation would not only fulfill the advanced technology requirements, but also would contribute to improving circuit performance, increasing system efficiency, and reducing development and launch costs. These benefits are generally achieved by the improved intrinsic properties of some of the electronic materials at low temperature, reduced device losses, and the elimination of heating elements used in conventional systems at low temperatures. Power electronic circuits are widely used in space power systems in the areas of power management, conditioning, and control. In this work, the performance of certain power electronic components and systems was investigated under low temperature. These include inductors, capacitors, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) controllers, and advanced commercial DC/DC converter modules. Different properties were determined as a function of temperature in the range of 20 C to -140 C, at various current and voltages levels. The experimental procedures along with the experimental data obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  5. Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Betty

    This paper on delivery systems for preparing and training early childhood educators focuses on three main topics: (1) adequacy of delivery systems and access; (2) market influences on delivery systems; and (3) linking preparation and professional development components. Questions addressed include the following: Would the current preparation and…

  6. Heterologous expression of a membrane-spanning auxin importer: implications for functional analyses of auxin transporters.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David John; Abu Bakar, Norliza Tendot; Lawler, Karen; Dorrian, James Matthew; Haider, Ameena; Bennett, Malcolm John; Kerr, Ian Derek

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical studies of plant auxin transporters in vivo are made difficult by the presence of multiple auxin transporters and auxin-interacting proteins. Furthermore, the expression level of most such transporters in plants is likely to be too low for purification and downstream functional analysis. Heterologous expression systems should address both of these issues. We have examined a number of such systems for their efficiency in expressing AUX1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. We find that a eukaryotic system based upon infection of insect cells with recombinant baculovirus provides a high level, easily scalable expression system capable of delivering a functional assay for AUX1. Furthermore, a transient transfection system in mammalian cells enables localization of AUX1 and AUX1-mediated transport of auxin to be investigated. In contrast, we were unable to utilise P. pastoris or L. lactis expression systems to reliably express AUX1.

  7. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  8. Morphology of potassium sodium niobate based silicate glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongsiri, Ploypailin; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Sirisoonthorn, Somnuk; Pengpat, Kamonpan

    2013-11-01

    In this research, the fabrication of lead-free ferroelectric glass-ceramics from the (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 system via incorporation method was carried out. For the incorporation method, calcined KNN was added into glass batches as a heterogeneous nucleating agent. Glass-ceramics KNNs were prepared from two compositions of KNN-SiO2 with a ratio of 75 : 25 (C1) and 80 : 20 (C2) mol.%. Thermal properties resulting from DTA showed samples C1 and C2 having glass transition temperatures of 532°C and 520°C and crystallization temperatures of 645°C and 620°C, respectively. The prepared glasses were subsequently subjected to a heat treatment schedule in a temperature range of 500°C - 575°C for crystallization. XRD results showed that the KNN phase occurred in C1. The C2 glass-ceramic samples contained unidentified phases together with the KNN phase. From SEM observation, it was found that bulk crystals with an equiaxed shape of KNN phase dispersed well in all glass-ceramic matrices. Crystal sizes increased with increasing heat treatment temperatures. In C2 glass-ceramics, unidentified phases were found together with the KNN phase.

  9. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk

  10. Materials Data on Na2CuH20C12(N2O3)6 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Ab initio infrared vibrational modes for neutral and charged small fullerenes (C20, C24, C26, C28, C30 and C60).

    PubMed

    Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Vlandas, Alexis; Rio, Jeremy; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Ewels, Chris P

    2016-09-13

    We calculate the infrared (IR) absorption spectra using DFT B3LYP(6-311G) for a range of small closed-cage fullerenes, Cn, n=20, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 60, in both neutral and multiple positive and negative charge states. The results are of use, notably, for direct comparison with observed IR absorption in the interstellar medium. Frequencies fall typically into two ranges, with C-C stretch modes around 1100-1500 cm(-1) (6.7-9.1 μm) and fullerene-specific radial motion associated with under-coordinated carbon at pentagonal sites in the range 600-800 cm(-1) (12.5-16.7 μm). Notably, negatively charged fullerenes show significantly stronger absorption intensities than neutral species. The results suggest that small cage fullerenes, and notably metallic endofullerenes, may be responsible for many of the unassigned interstellar IR spectral lines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'. PMID:27501975

  12. Materials Data on CaP2H20C4(N2O3)4 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on MgP2H20C4(N2O3)4 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Modelisation numerique et validation experimentale d'un systeme de protection contre le givre par elements piezoelectriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Derek

    Le degivrage au moyen d'actuateurs piezoelectriques est considere comme une avenue prometteuse pour le developpement de systemes a faible consommation d'energie applicables aux helicopteres legers. Ce type de systeme excite des frequences de resonances d'une structure pour produire des deformations suffisantes pour rompre l'adherence de la glace. Par contre, la conception de tel systeme demeure generalement mal comprise. Ce projet de maitrise etudie l'utilisation de methodes numeriques pour assister la conception des systemes de protection contre le givre a base d'elements piezoelectriques. La methodologie retenue pour ce projet a ete de modeliser differentes structures simples et de simuler l'excitation harmonique des frequences de resonance au moyen d'actuateurs piezoelectriques. Le calcul des frequences de resonances ainsi que la simulation de leur excitation a ensuite ete validee a l'aide de montages experimentaux. La procedure a ete realisee pour une poutre en porte-a-faux et pour une plaque plane a l'aide du logiciel de calcul par elements finis, Abaqus. De plus, le modele de la plaque plane a ete utilise afin de realiser une etude parametrique portant sur le positionnement des actuateurs, l'effet de la rigidite ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la plaque. Finalement, la plaque plane a ete degivree en chambre climatique. Des cas de degivrage ont ete simules numeriquement afin d'etudier la possibilite d'utiliser un critere base sur la deformation pour predire le succes du systeme. La validation experimentale a confirme la capacite du logiciel a calculer precisement a la fois les frequences et les modes de resonance d'une structure et a simuler leur excitation par des actuateurs piezoelectriques. L'etude revele que la definition de l'amortissement dans le modele numerique est essentiel pour l'obtention de resultats precis. Les resultats de l'etude parametrique ont demontre l'importance de minimiser l'epaisseur et la rigidite afin de reduire la valeur des frequences

  15. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  16. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  17. CALUTRON SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-08-12

    A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

  18. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  19. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  20. ETUDE AU MICROSCOPE ELECTRONIQUE DES TRANSFORMATIONS NUCLEAIRES DE E. COLI K12 S ET K12 S (λ26) APRES IRRADIATION AUX RAYONS ULTRAVIOLETS ET AUX RAYONS X

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Antoinette

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear transformations induced in E. coli K12S and K12S(λ26) by ultraviolet radiations and x-rays have been studied with ultrathin sections in the electron microscope. The nucleoplasm keeps its normal aspect during "fragmentation" and during "condensation" of the nucleus into the "vesicular" form. Serial sections show that the "fragmented" nucleus consists in reality of only one very tortuous vacuole. No difference either in the shape or in the fine structure of the nucleus could be observed between the lysogenic strain and the non-lysogenic strain. A high concentration of NaCl has a "condensation" effect on the fragmented nuclei and decreases the induction rate. PMID:13745076

  1. Vie sociale I: Introduction aux droits et aux responsabilites des citoyens americains (Social Studies I: Introduction to the Rights and Responsibilities of American Citizens).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    The textbook for a social studies course on citizenship rights and responsibilities in the United States, presented entirely in French, consists of eight chapters. Each contains a preview of vocabularly and key ideas; a brief introductory text on the chapter topic; and a series of more specific texts, with illustrations, a list of questions for…

  2. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  3. Impact and Collisional Processes in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    In the past year, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to conduct impact experiments on ice at very low temperatures. We employ the method of embedding gauges within a target to measure the shock wave and material properties. This means that our data are not model dependent; we directly measure the essential parameters needed for numerical simulations of impact cratering. Since then we have developed a new method for temperature control of icy targets that ensures temperature equilibrium throughout a porous target. Graduate student, Sarah Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, is leading the work on ices and porous materials as the main thrust of her thesis research. Our previous work has focused on icy materials with no porosity, and we propose to extend our research to include porous ice and porous ice-silicate mixtures. There is little shockwave data for porous ice, and none of the data was acquired under conditions applicable to the outer solar system. The solid ice Hugoniot is only defined for initial temperatures above -20 C. Our program uniquely measures the properties of ice at temperatures directly applicable to the solar system. Previous experiments were conducted at ambient temperatures soon after removing the target from a cold environment, usually just below freezing, or in a room just below freezing. Since ice has an extremely complicated phase diagram, it is important to conduct experiments at lower temperatures to determine the true outcome of impacts in the outer solar system. This research is complementary to other programs on icy materials. Our work focuses on the inherent material properties by measuring the shock wave directly; this complements the macroscopic observations and immediately provides the parameters necessary to extend this research to the gravity regime. Our numerical simulations of impacts in porous ice under very low gravity conditions, such as found on comets, show that the final crater size and shape is very dependent on the

  4. Saturn Systems.

    PubMed

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+).

  5. Saturn Systems.

    PubMed

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+). PMID:26096724

  6. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  7. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  8. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  9. Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, D. P.; Bell, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the analysis of the administrative systems of various environmental programs related to water quality and pollution policy. A list of 70 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  10. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  11. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  12. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  13. Laser Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are employed as radiation sources in high resolution infrared spectroscopy to determine spectral characteristics of gaseous compounds. With other laser systems, they are produced by Spectra-Physics, and used to monitor chemical processes, monitor production of quantity halogen lamps, etc. The Laser Analytics Division of Spectra-Physics credits the system's reliability to a program funded by Langley in the 1970s. Company no longer U.S.-owned. 5/22/97

  14. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasishchev, Denis; Bixler, David

    2009-04-01

    Chaos theory is a current topic in physics research and is of great scientific and applied interest. Chaotic systems include weather patterns, genetic evolution and free market economics. Modeling chaotic phenomena using electronic circuits is a convenient way to analyze nonlinear systems. We have built various types of circuits and examined the conditions under which chaos occurs. Chua's circuit and analog computing circuits (ones that directly model systems of differential equations) were in the spotlight during the fall semester. An R-C phase space diagram for the Chua's circuit was constructed and the phase transitions were examined. Different analog computing circuits were built and the resulting attractors, attractor phases, and bifurcations were recorded. A mechanical system, the two block train model, is the current focus of study. The goal is to examine attractors produced by a mechanical system, a computer simulation, and a corresponding circuit in order to prove that the same experimental results can be obtained from different sources. This way if a mechanical system is too complicated to build, it can be substituted by a suitable circuit.

  16. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  17. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  18. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  19. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  20. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods. PMID:21701196

  1. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    approche, dite de tomographie variationnelle, propose de reconstruire l'etat en restreignant l'espace de recherche a une classe variationnelle plutot qu'a l'immense espace des etats possibles. Un etat variationnel etant decrit par un petit nombre de parametres, un petit nombre d'experiences peut suffire a identifier les parametres variationnels de l'etat experimental. Nous montrons que c'est le cas pour deux classes variationnelles tres utilisees, les etats a produits matriciels (MPS) et l'ansatz pour intrication multi-echelle (MERA). Memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D. Une memoire quantique auto-correctrice est un systeme physique preservant de l'information quantique durant une duree de temps macroscopique. Il serait done l'equivalent quantique d'un disque dur ou d'une memoire flash equipant les ordinateurs actuels. Disposer d'un tel dispositif serait d'un grand interet pour l'informatique quantique. Une memoire quantique auto-correctrice est initialisee en preparant un etat fondamental, c'est-a-dire un etat stationnaire de plus basse energie. Afin de stocker de l'information quantique, il faut plusieurs etats fondamentaux distincts, chacun correspondant a une valeur differente de la memoire. Plus precisement, l'espace fondamental doit etre degenere. Dans cette these, on s'interesse a des systemes de particules disposees sur un reseau bidimensionnel (2D), telles les pieces sur un echiquier, qui sont plus faciles a realiser que les systemes 3D. Nous identifions deux criteres pour l'auto-correction: - La memoire quantique doit etre stable face aux perturbations provenant de l'environnement, par exemple l'application d'un champ magnetique externe. Ceci nous amene a considerer les systemes topologiques 2D dont les degres de liberte sont intrinsequement robustes aux perturbations locales de l'environnement. - La memoire quantique doit etre robuste face a un environnement thermique. Il faut s'assurer que les excitations thermiques n'amenent pas deux etats fondamentaux

  2. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  3. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    PubMed

    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-02-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.

  4. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  5. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  6. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  7. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  8. System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  9. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  10. Irrigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  11. STAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, James E.

    The STAR System is a developmental guidance approach to be used with elementary school children in the 5th or 6th grades. Two basic purposes underlie STAR: to increase learning potential and to enhance personal growth and development. STAR refers to 4 basic skills: sensory, thinking, adapting, and revising. Major components of the 4 skills are:…

  12. Bioconversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The production of higher valued products from biomass is the focus of this reference and planning guide for those who deal with the demands of energy recovery. International experts explain the processes and potentials for genetic engineering to bioenergy systems, utilizing biomass lignin and producing chemicals from biomass using wet oxidation. They present studies of possible liquid fuel production in developing countries as well as information on new research and development such as an aquatic biomass growth system integrated with an anaerobic digestion system for producing fuel gas. Several chapters describe the use of forage crops as chemical feedstocks, production of chemicals from microalgae, and the technology and economics of chemicals from wood. CONTENTS: Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass: a Role for GeneSplicing Technology. Lactic Acid Production by Pure and Mixed Bacterial Cultures. Conversion of Lignin to Useful Chemical Products. Chemicals from Microalgae. Forage Crops as Chemical Feedstocks. Biomass Conversion into Chemicals Using Wet Oxidation. Technology and Economics of Chemicals from Wood. An Integrated Anaerobic Digestion System for the Production of Energy and Livestock Fleed Based on Aquatic Biomass Production on Sand Using Seawater Spray. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass in the Developing Countries--an Agricultural and Economic Perspective, Part I--Introduction and Background. Part II--the Tropical Environment and the Availability of Suitable Land. Part III--Agricultural Properties of Energy Crops. Part IV--Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Options and Summary and Conclusions. Index.

  13. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  14. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  15. Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Advanced Process Systems designed a portable purge unit for NASA use. The unit is designed to protect flight and ground crews from toxic fumes and to provide a post-landing controlled environment for sensitive electronic equipment. Although the work has future spinoff potential, it has also led to a research and development program in conjunction with several universities.

  16. Systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Charts and accompanying text are presented that provide a brief synopsis of the contracted efforts for FY-92 in assessing nuclear thermal propulsion requirements, concepts, and associated issues. The objective of the effort is to provide NASA LeRC with assistance in space nuclear propulsion system requirements management and public acceptance planning.

  17. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  18. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  19. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  20. [Systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schinke, Susanne; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a challenging and heterogeneous disease due to the involvement of multiple organs and the high impact on morbidity and quality of life. Lung fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cardiac manifestations are main causes of systemic sclerosis-related deaths. In addition, patients suffer from a various range of co-morbidities such as malnutrition, depression, osteoporosis, malignancies, which are increased in these patients and have to be identified and treated. Early assessment of organ damage is a key to therapeutic success. The discovery of pathogenic autoantibodies combined with increased evidence of effective immunosuppressive and vasoactive treatment strategies are major developments in the therapy of the disease. At present, several clinical studies are ongoing and some of the biological therapies are promising.

  1. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  2. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  3. Tychonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  5. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  6. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  7. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  8. Copernican System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

  9. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-07-01

    The idea that there are multiple memory systems can be traced to early philosophical considerations and introspection. However, the early experimental work considered memory a unitary phenomenon and focused on finding the mechanism upon which memory is based. A full reconciliation of debates about that mechanism, and a coincidental rediscovery of the idea of multiple memory systems, emerged from studies in the cognitive neuroscience of memory. This research has identified three major forms of memory that have distinct operating principles and are supported by different brain systems. These include: (1) a cortical-hippocampal circuit that mediates declarative memory, our capacity to recollect facts and events; (2) procedural memory subsystems involving a cortical-striatal circuit that mediates habit formation and a brainstem-cerebellar circuit that mediates sensorimotor adaptations; and (3) a circuit involving subcortical and cortical pathways through the amygdala that mediates the attachment of affective status and emotional responses to previously neutral stimuli. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  11. Videobasierte Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  12. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  13. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  14. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  15. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  16. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (Inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  17. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  18. Gastrointestinal system

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

  19. Une classe aux dimensions de l'Everest! (A Class as Vast as Everest!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Helene; des Rosiers, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In a mountaineering role-playing project in Quebec schools, participating students, in groups of five, must cooperate and use the different skills acquired across the whole curriculum to overcome difficulties and attain success. The students plan a simulated mountain-climbing expedition, solve problems, and cope with various crises. (TD)

  20. Les accidents aux AVK: étude rétrospective à propos de 30 cas

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Aissaoui, Younés; Quamouss, Youssef; Sedikki, Rachid; Taj, Nourredine; Salim Alaoui, Jaafar; Zoubir, Mohamed; Boughanem, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Les accidents hémorragiques sous AVK (antivitamines K) sont la première cause d’hospitalisation iatrogène. Le but de cette étude est de ressortir les caractéristiques des patients présentant des accidents hémorragiques graves sous AVK et de mettre le point sur la prise en charge. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 30 malades, réalisée au service de réanimation de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 59, 6 avec un sexe ratio de 1,5 (18 femmes et 12 femmes). On note dans notre série le terrain multi-taré des patients sous AVK avec plusieurs antécédents en cause. La fibrillation auriculaire était la principale indication recensée. Plus que la moitié ne bénéficiaient pas d’une bonne surveillance biologique à base d’INR (international normalized ratio). Le saignement d’origine gastro-intestinal était le plus fréquent. La conduite était différente en fonction des cas mais axée sur l’arrêt des AVK, l’administration de vit K, la transfusion de culots globulaires et plasma frais congelé. Plus du quart des patients admis sont décédés. L’index de Landefeld s’est avéré utile, il permet de classer les patients selon le risque prédictif de saignement (élevé moyen ou faible), ce qui concordait avec les résultats de notre étude. Son importance est d’ autant plus qu’il est facile à mesurer et à appliquer par le médecin en ambulatoire et permet de définir les patients nécessitant une surveillance accrue. La polymédication et les antécédents de saignement digestif sont apparus comme facteur de risque de saignement sous AVK. La prévention de la survenue de ces accidents est le pilier de la prise en charge, d’où l’importance de l’information et de l’éducation des différents intervenants dans cette complication iatrogène potentiellement mortelle. PMID:22514758

  1. Guide to International Studies at Canadian Universities = Guide pour les etudes internationales aux universites Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Pari, Ed.

    Included in this guide is a list of 65 Canadian universities and colleges offering programs in international and Native studies. Programs encompass area studies, international development, international relations, international business, international law, international agriculture, and international and comparative education. Also included are…

  2. Pratique d'apprentissage en ligne aux etudes superieures (Online Learning for Higher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Online learning requires new approaches to teaching and learning. At the University of Montreal, 28 graduate students in education and adult students specializing in educational technology attended an experimental distance education course. Students identified advantages and disadvantages of online learning/teaching and reflected on how the course…

  3. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menaa, Mohamed

    The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration frequencies for different filling ratios are obtained and compared with existing experimental and theoretical results. The dynamic behavior for different shell geometries, filling ratios and boundary conditions with different radius to thickness ratios is summarized. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for analyzing the dynamic behavior of aerospace structures at less computational cost than other commercial FEM software. In this study, aeroelastic analysis of a spherical shell subjected to the external supersonic airflow is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of linear spherical shell theory and the classic finite element method. In this hybrid method, the nodal displacements are found from the exact solution of shell governing equations rather than approximated by polynomial functions. Linearized first-order potential (piston) theory with the curvature correction term is coupled with the structural model to account for pressure loading. Linear mass, stiffness and damping matrices are found using the hybrid finite element formulation. Aeroelastic equations are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different boundary conditions, geometries, flow parameters and radius to thickness ratios. Results show that the spherical shell loses its stability through coupled-mode flutter. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures.

  4. Education et Developpement. Une Approche aux Interventions d'Education en Milieux Defavorises. MEQ, Mars 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This document is a commentary on a report by the Quebec Ministry of Education on the problem of educating the disadvantaged. One basic criticism of the report is that it is not enough to decry the failure of the schools and propose a strategy of compensatory education to solve the problem of disadvantagement. It is necessary to realize that the…

  5. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  6. Enseigner aux eleves doues et talentueux (Teaching Students Who Are Gifted and Talented).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This guide is intended to help schools and classroom teachers in Alberta provide successful school experiences for gifted and talented students. Section 1 focuses on program administration, including Alberta legislation, policy, and regulations; district administration of programs; and school administration of programs. Section 2 identifies an…

  7. Analyse numerique de la microplasticite aux joints de grains dans les polycristaux metalliques CFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriamisandratra, Mamiandrianina

    La rupture par fatigue concerne aujourd’hui encore beaucoup de pièces métalliques soumises en service à un chargement répétitif. À l’échelle de la microstructure, les joints de grains sont connus pour jouer un rôle important dans la tenue en fatigue du matériau grâce au durcissement qu’ils confèrent. Cependant les joints de grains eux-mêmes ou la zone à leur proximité ont souvent été identifiés comme lieux d’amorçage de fissures de fatigue, particulièrement dans le cas des métaux cubiques à faces centrées (CFC). Dans le but de caractériser le comportement micromécanique à proximité de différents types de joint de grain, le comportement à l’interface en traction monotone uniaxiale a été modélisé par la méthode des éléments finis et une loi de plasticité cristalline a été utilisée. De plus, quelques configurations cristallographiques bicristallines ont alors été simulées et leur comportement a été analysé sous un chargement de traction axiale monotone. Le cadre de validité de la modélisation a été restreint à celui des petites déformations (<5%). Quatre critères importants dictant le comportement mécanique cristallin ont été identifiés. Il s’agit de la rigidité élastique, du facteur de Schmid des deux systèmes de glissement les plus favorables, et enfin du ratio entre ces deux plus forts facteurs de Schmid traduisant la propension au glissement simple ou multiple. Des simulations de traction sur des monocristaux ont ainsi permis de comprendre l’influence propre de chaque critère sur le comportement macroscopique (contraintes et déformations) et microscopique (glissements cristallins). Les calculs bicristallins ont ensuite mis en évidence l’activation particulière de certains systèmes de glissement à priori non favorables au niveau du joint de grain. Ce phénomène a été associé avec la nécessité d’assurer la compatibilité mécanique de déformation de part et d’autre de l’interface. Le profil de la déformation dans le sens longitudinal de l’éprouvette a montré une baisse systématique de déformation au niveau du joint et dont l’intensité augmente avec la désorientation angulaire entre les deux grains. L’hétérogénéité de la déformation en chaque section de l’éprouvette est quant à elle surtout liée au caractère fortement anisotrope de la plasticité et s’avère plus prononcée lorsque le mode de déformation est assuré par un glissement simple. Enfin, un cas bicristallin qui présentait une compatibilité microscopique des traces de glissement dans le plan du joint de grain a été étudié. Cependant, aucune corrélation avec le profil de glissement n’a été relevée, une cause macroscopique étant plus vraisemblablement à l’origine du profil observé. Mots-clés: joints de grains, localisation, plasticité cristalline, éléments finis, bicristal.

  8. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  9. A new, high current output, galvanic (sacrificial) anode, electrochemical rehabilitation system for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, K.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes 1995 through 1998 laboratory, outdoor exposure facility, and field data on the subject concrete rehab system. The system shows promise as a means of providing cathodic protection to the reinforcing, as a chloride removal process, as a re-alkalization process, and/or as a lithium injection procedure to minimize alkali-aggregate reactions in the concrete. Unique characteristics of the system include: (1) Surrounding each galvanic anode with a highly corrosive liquid which maintains it (the anode) at peak output voltage throughout its life; and (2) Placing an ionic transfer layer between the anode and the concrete surface that is high volume, low resistivity and deliquescent (i.e. pulls water vapor out of the air at relative humidities of 35% or higher). The ionic transfer layer typically consists of sponge, felt or sand loaded with calcium chloride (and/or other chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, potassium acetate, and lithium-salts). In some cases it also contains a wetting agent and is encapsulated (fully or partially) in vapor permeable, but water impermeable materials. The ionic transfer layer will not freeze at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C ({minus}5 F), and provides sufficient space for all anode corrosion products, thus preventing undesirable stresses on the concrete, the anode assembly and any cosmetic covering.

  10. Evaluation of commercially prepared transport systems for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bullock, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro studies indicated that commercially prepared transport systems containing Amies, Stuart's, and Cary-Blair media worked equally well in sustaining the viability of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, which causes furunculosis. The bacterium remained viable without significant increase or decrease in cell numbers for as long as 48 h of incubation at 18-20??C in Stuart's transport medium; consequently, obtaining mucus samples in such tubes were comparable to on-site detection of A. salmonicida by dilution plate counts on Coomassie Brilliant Blue agar. In three different assays of 100 samples of mucus from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infected subclinically with A. salmonicida, dilution counts conducted on-site proved more reliable for detecting the pathogen than obtaining the samples in the transport system. In the on-site assays, dilution counts detected the pathogen in 34, 41, and 22 samples, whereas this was accomplished in only 15, 15, and 3 of the respective samples when the transport system was used. In an additional experiment, Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus sustaining a frank epizootic of furunculosis were sampled similarly. Here, too, dilution counts were more predictive of the prevalence of A. salmonicida and detected the pathogen in 46 mucus samples; in comparison, only 6 samples collected by using the transport system were positive. We also observed that the transport system supported the growth of the normal mucus bacterial flora. Particularly predominant among these were motile aeromonads and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In studies of mixed culture growth, two representatives of both of the latter genera of bacteria outgrew A. salmonicida - in some cases, to the total exclusion of the pathogen itself.

  11. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  12. Systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; van Vliet, Erwin; Jaworska, Joanna; Bonilla, Leo; Skinner, Nigel; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The need for a more mechanistic understanding of the ways in which chemicals modulate biological pathways is urgent if we are to identify and better assess safety issues relating to a wide range of substances developed by the pharmaceutical, chemical, agri-bio, and cosmetic industries. Omics technologies provide a valuable opportunity to refine existing methods and provide information for so-called integrated testing strategies via the creation of signatures of toxicity. By mapping these signatures to underlying pathways of toxicity, some of which have been identified by toxicologists over the last few decades, and bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity. PMID:22562485

  13. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  14. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  15. A test system to quantify inoculum in runoff from Phytophthora ramorum-infected plant roots.

    PubMed

    Shishkoff, Nina

    2011-12-01

    Foliar hosts of Phytophthora ramorum are often susceptible to root infection but the epidemiological significance of such infections is unknown. A standardized test system was developed to quantify inoculum in runoff from root-infected Viburnum tinus ?Spring Bouquet? or Rhododendron ?Cunningham's White? cuttings. Cuttings of both species gave off a maximum amount of inoculum 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation. The greatest amount of inoculum was recovered from Viburnum roots that were 48 to 70 days old at the time of inoculation, or roots incubated at 15 to 20?C rather than 25?C. Inoculum in runoff from inoculated Viburnum roots was similar for four different isolates of P. ramorum representing both the NA1 and EU1 lineages. When Rhododendron cuttings were inoculated with P. ramorum, P. citricola, or P. cactorum, inoculum of all three pathogens was recovered from runoff, with the highest amount recovered from plants inoculated with P. citricola, followed by the other two. Compared with the other two pathogens, P. ramorum colonized root tissue to a smaller extent. The epidemiology of root infection by P. ramorum is important in itself but the assay might lend itself for use in risk analysis for root infection of other plant species and evaluation of control measures, and also shed light on other root-infecting Phytophthora spp.

  16. FLIR, NVG and HMS/D systems for helicopter operation: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, H. D. V.

    1985-12-01

    In the last decade, electro-optical systems have been used successfully in military and civil applications. They extend the scope of operation of ground vehicles, helicopters and fixed wing aircraft from daytime into nighttime, with a 24 hour readiness covering even bad weather conditions. The visual aids fall into two physical categories: the image intensifiers, which amplify reflected residual light in the near infrared and the thermal imager, which detect the thermal radiation of all bodies mainly in the 8 to 12 micrometer atmospheric window for bodies with T approx. 20 C. During the last five years, the investigator has carried out helicopter flight trials at night using examples of all these visionic aids (FLIR, LLLTV, NVG, HMS/D and Direct View Optics) for piloting and observation tasks. The detection, recognition and identification range of nine different FLIR were tested in ground and laboratory tests. The evaluation of an optical sensor platform location in the helicopter nose-, roof- and mast-mounted versions, the comparison of thermal and intensifier images and the NVG compatible cockpit were topics of the tests. The optical sensors are described with their limitations and some results of the trials are given, with regard to the pilot's stress situation and eye safety.

  17. The terminal Eocene event - Formation of a ring system around the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of a ring system about the earth by particles and debris related to the North American strewn tektite field is responsible for the terminal Eocene event of 34 million years ago, in which severe climatic changes accompanied by widespread biological extinctions occurred. Botanical data is cited which implies a 20-C decrease in winter temperature with no change in summer temperature, and evidence of the correlation of the North American tektite fall, which is estimated to have a total mass of 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th tons, with the disappearance of five of the most abundant species of radiolaria is presented. The possible connection between the tektites and climatic change is argued to result from the screening of sunlight by an equatorial ring of trapped particles of extraterrestrial origin in geocentric orbit which would cut off sunlight only in the winter months. Such a ring, located at a distance of between 1.5 and 2.5 earth radii (the Roche limit) is estimated to have a lifetime of a few million years.

  18. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  19. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  20. Systems approach to space plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Richard; Walker, Simon

    The application of nonlinear system identification methodology was used to review complex space plasma systems. It is shown how the nonlinear system identification approach can lead to a comprehensive description of dynamical processes in developed space plasma turbulences. It is also explained how nonlinear system identification can access the analytical approach to complex dynamical systems such as the magnetosphere.

  1. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  2. Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    The chloroethenes, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are among the most common contaminants detected in groundwater systems. As recently as 1980, the consensus was that chloroethene compounds were not significantly biodegradable in groundwater. Consequently, efforts to remediate chloroethene-contaminated groundwater were limited to largely unsuccessful pump-and-treat attempts. Subsequent investigation revealed that under reducing conditions, aquifer microorganisms can reductively dechlorinate PCE and TCE to the less chlorinated daughter products dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Although recent laboratory studies conducted with halorespiring microorganisms suggest that complete reduction to ethene is possible, in the majority of groundwater systems reductive dechlorination apparently stops at DCE or VC. However, recent investigations conducted with aquifer and stream-bed sediments have demonstrated that microbial oxidation of these reduced daughter products can be significant under anaerobic redox conditions. The combination of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE under anaerobic conditions followed by anaerobic microbial oxidation of DCE and VC provides a possible microbial pathway for complete degradation of chloroethene contaminants in groundwater systems. Résumé Les chloroéthanes, tétrachloroéthane (PCE) et trichloroéthane (TCE) sont parmi les polluants les plus communs trouvés dans les aquifères. Depuis les années 1980, on considère que les chloroéthanes ne sont pas significativement biodégradables dans les aquifères. Par conséquent, les efforts pour dépolluer les nappes contaminées par des chloroéthanes se sont limités à des tentatives de pompage-traitement globalement sans succès. Des travaux ultérieurs ont montré que dans des conditions réductrices, des micro-organismes présents dans les aquifères peuvent, par réduction, dégrader les PCE et TCE en composés moins chlorés, comme le dichlor

  3. System safety education focused on system management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  4. Future Weather Patterns in New Zealand using Synoptic Climatology: Kidson Types and a Simple Synoptic Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S.; McDonald, A. J.; Renwick, J.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding climate change and variability at a regional level is a significant challenge for the current generation of global climate models. In particular, circulation patterns at the synoptic scale need to be well resolved. The ability of synoptic climatology to translate complex climate information into a simple format is one advantage of this technique, as this allows easier communication, thereby aiding policy/decision makers. The goal of this study is to explore and understand regional climate variability over New Zealand, by determining if weather patterns are changing, using synoptic classification schemes applied to reanalyses and IPCC AR4 data. We apply the synoptic classification system described in Kidson (2000) to identify changes in the "Kidson types". The frequency of the present day synoptic scale features (the 12 Kidson Types) are first derived using reanalysis data sets (NCEP/NCAR and ERA40), and are compared against the frequency of types derived using IPCC AR4 GCM simulations (20c3m, A1B and A2 emission scenarios) over New Zealand (domain of latitude 25° S-55° S and longitude 160° E-175° W). Initial results show that the GCMs 20c3m runs echo the reanalysis data and reinforce the results of previous studies. Results from the NCAR CCSM3.0 GCM surprisingly show no significant future change in annual type frequency, under the A1B & A2 emission scenarios. Investigation has revealed that the annual type frequency derived using the Kidson methodology appears to be relatively insensitive to the changes observed in the domain. In particular, a sensitivity study in which the geographical domain was shifted in the meridional direction displayed limited variations in some of the type frequencies observed until the shift was of the order of 10 degrees in latitude (equivalent to the same shift of the jet position relative to New Zealand). While there is no significant variation in the annual type frequency, there may be some seasonal variation. Inter

  5. [Evaluation of Vitek 2 for the identification of Candida yeasts].

    PubMed

    Ochiuzzi, María E; Cataldi, Silvana; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of Vitek 2 YST cards (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) for the identification of yeasts of the genus Candida. A total of 168 isolates were analyzed and the results were compared to those of the API 20 C AUX (24%) o API ID 32 C (76%) kits (bioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France). Each isolate was grown in chromogenic agar and in corn meal agar (Oxoid, UK) to observe its micromorphology. C. albicans and C. dublininesis were identified by additional biochemical and molecular tests. The agreement observed was 98.3%. Only three isolates were incorrectly identified by Vitek 2: one strain of C .tropicalis and one strain of C. krusei were identified as C. parapsilosis by YST while one strain of C. krusei was identified with low discrimination. The average time for obtaining results was 18.25 h. Vitek 2 is a simple, safe and useful system for the identification of significant Candida species.

  6. Candida dubliniensis at a cancer center.

    PubMed

    Sebti, A; Kiehn, T E; Perlin, D; Chaturvedi, V; Wong, M; Doney, A; Park, S; Sepkowitz, K A

    2001-04-01

    Candida dubliniensis, a germ tube-positive yeast first described and identified as a cause of oral candidiasis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Europe in 1995, has an expanding clinical and geographic distribution that appears to be similar to that of the other germ tube-positive yeast, Candida albicans. This study determined the frequency, clinical spectrum, drug susceptibility profile, and suitable methods for identification of this emerging pathogen at a cancer center in 1998 and 1999. Twenty-two isolates were recovered from 16 patients with solid-organ or hematologic malignancies or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Two patients with cancer had invasive infection, and 14 were colonized with fungus or had superficial fungal infection. All isolates produced germ tubes and chlamydospores at 37 degrees C, did not grow at 45 degrees C, and gave negative reactions with d-xylose and alpha-methyl-d-glucoside in the API 20 C AUX and ID 32 C yeast identification systems. Phenotypic identification was confirmed by molecular beacon probe technology. All isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole.

  7. [Evaluation of Vitek 2 for the identification of Candida yeasts].

    PubMed

    Ochiuzzi, María E; Cataldi, Silvana; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of Vitek 2 YST cards (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) for the identification of yeasts of the genus Candida. A total of 168 isolates were analyzed and the results were compared to those of the API 20 C AUX (24%) o API ID 32 C (76%) kits (bioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France). Each isolate was grown in chromogenic agar and in corn meal agar (Oxoid, UK) to observe its micromorphology. C. albicans and C. dublininesis were identified by additional biochemical and molecular tests. The agreement observed was 98.3%. Only three isolates were incorrectly identified by Vitek 2: one strain of C .tropicalis and one strain of C. krusei were identified as C. parapsilosis by YST while one strain of C. krusei was identified with low discrimination. The average time for obtaining results was 18.25 h. Vitek 2 is a simple, safe and useful system for the identification of significant Candida species. PMID:25011593

  8. Distinguishing Systemic from Systematic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alison A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the difference between systemic and systematic as they relate to school reform and instructional design. Highlights include a history of systems theory; systems engineering; instructional systems design; systemic versus reductionist thinking; social systems; and systemic change in education, including power relationships. (LRW)

  9. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  10. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  11. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  12. Systems Engineering Management Education in Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahiro

    Engineers with system architecture design and project management abilities are required in the field of embedded system development. In university, however, educations are mainly focused on computer science and programming; systems engineering and project management education have been disregard. We implemented educational curriculum of systems engineering and project management in embedded system for graduate program. In this paper the course design, execution and evaluation are described.

  13. Systems design of long-life systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  14. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system.

  15. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  16. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  17. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  18. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  19. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  20. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  1. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  2. [X-33 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  3. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  4. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  5. Calogero-Moser Systems and Hitchin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtubise, J. C.; Markman, E.

    We exhibit the elliptic Calogero-Moser system as a Hitchin system of G-principal Higgs pairs. The group G, though naturally associated to any root system, is not semi-simple. We then interpret the Lax pairs with spectral parameter of d'Hoker and Phong [dP1] and Bordner, Corrigan and Sasaki [BCS1] in terms of equivariant embeddings of the Hitchin system of G into that of GL(N).

  6. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  7. High energy density sodium-ion capacitors through co-intercalation mechanism in diglyme-based electrolyte system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pengxian; Han, Xiaoqi; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixue; Cao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Gunglei

    2015-11-01

    A novel sodium-ion capacitor (NIC) was assembled using graphitic mesocarbon microbead anode and activated carbon cathode in diglyme-based electrolyte. Charge/discharge tests indicate that sodium ions can reversibly co-intercalated with diglyme solvent into graphite anode and show good rate performance. The energy densities of the NICs are as high as 93.5 and 86.5 Wh kg-1 at 573 and 2832 W kg-1 (equal to 4 C and 50 C) in the voltage window at 1-4 V, respectively. By optimizing the voltage ranges, the capacity retention of the NIC at 20 C is 98.3% even after 3000 cycles. Such superior electrochemical performance should be attributed to the reversible intercalated/deintercalated reaction of sodium ions and the formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds in diglyme-based electrolyte. The present work pioneers new realms of hybrid energy storage system with high energy density, high power density and long cycle life.

  8. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  9. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  10. Tethered Satellite System control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, Donald D.; Mowery, David K.; Bodley, Carl S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the control aspects of the Tethered Satellite System mission. The deployer controls system uses length-error and tension-error feedback to control in-plane libration, length, and length rate. The satellite's reaction control system is used to augment tether tension, control rates and attitude about the tether axis, and to damp in-plane and out-of-plane libration. The orbiter's reaction control system is also used to control in-plane and out-of-plane libration. Results of simulations are presented for the flight portion of the Tethered Satellite System mission.

  11. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  12. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  13. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  14. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  15. Lighting system with thermal management system

    SciTech Connect

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  16. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  17. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  18. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  19. What Are Expert Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  20. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... new system inserted at any time during your menstrual cycle. If you have chosen to use a different ... of your intrauterine system and you have regular menstrual cycles, you should have the system removed during the ...

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  2. Alternative Videodisc Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Ted

    1981-01-01

    Discusses consumer and industrial videodisc systems for information storage including cost, technology utilized, formats, and features. Reflective and transmissive laser optical systems are described, as well as the grooved and grooveless mechanical systems. Tables containing product data are included. (JJD)

  3. Immune System Involvement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... swollen and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  4. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  5. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  6. The Trinity System

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Billy Joe; Vigil, Benny Manuel

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  7. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  8. Performance Measurement Analysis System

    1989-06-01

    The PMAS4.0 (Performance Measurement Analysis System) is a user-oriented system designed to track the cost and schedule performance of Department of Energy (DOE) major projects (MPs) and major system acquisitions (MSAs) reporting under DOE Order 5700.4A, Project Management System. PMAS4.0 provides for the analysis of performance measurement data produced from management control systems complying with the Federal Government''s Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria.

  9. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  10. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  11. Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

  12. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  13. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  14. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  15. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  16. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  17. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  18. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  19. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  20. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  1. Approaches to optimal aquifer management and intelligent control in a multiresolutional decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Shlomo; Meystel, Alexander M.

    2005-03-01

    Despite remarkable new developments in stochastic hydrology and adaptations of advanced methods from operations research, stochastic control, and artificial intelligence, solutions of complex real-world problems in hydrogeology have been quite limited. The main reason is the ultimate reliance on first-principle models that lead to complex, distributed-parameter partial differential equations (PDE) on a given scale. While the addition of uncertainty, and hence, stochasticity or randomness has increased insight and highlighted important relationships between uncertainty, reliability, risk, and their effect on the cost function, it has also (a) introduced additional complexity that results in prohibitive computer power even for just a single uncertain/random parameter; and (b) led to the recognition in our inability to assess the full uncertainty even when including all uncertain parameters. A paradigm shift is introduced: an adaptation of new methods of intelligent control that will relax the dependency on rigid, computer-intensive, stochastic PDE, and will shift the emphasis to a goal-oriented, flexible, adaptive, multiresolutional decision support system (MRDS) with strong unsupervised learning (oriented towards anticipation rather than prediction) and highly efficient optimization capability, which could provide the needed solutions of real-world aquifer management problems. The article highlights the links between past developments and future optimization/planning/control of hydrogeologic systems. Malgré de remarquables nouveaux développements en hydrologie stochastique ainsi que de remarquables adaptations de méthodes avancées pour les opérations de recherche, le contrôle stochastique, et l'intelligence artificielle, solutions pour les problèmes complexes en hydrogéologie sont restées assez limitées. La principale raison est l'ultime confiance en les modèles qui conduisent à des équations partielles complexes aux paramètres distribués (PDE) à une

  2. Approaches to optimal aquifer management and intelligent control in a multiresolutional decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Shlomo; Meystel, Alexander M.

    2005-03-01

    Despite remarkable new developments in stochastic hydrology and adaptations of advanced methods from operations research, stochastic control, and artificial intelligence, solutions of complex real-world problems in hydrogeology have been quite limited. The main reason is the ultimate reliance on first-principle models that lead to complex, distributed-parameter partial differential equations (PDE) on a given scale. While the addition of uncertainty, and hence, stochasticity or randomness has increased insight and highlighted important relationships between uncertainty, reliability, risk, and their effect on the cost function, it has also (a) introduced additional complexity that results in prohibitive computer power even for just a single uncertain/random parameter; and (b) led to the recognition in our inability to assess the full uncertainty even when including all uncertain parameters. A paradigm shift is introduced: an adaptation of new methods of intelligent control that will relax the dependency on rigid, computer-intensive, stochastic PDE, and will shift the emphasis to a goal-oriented, flexible, adaptive, multiresolutional decision support system (MRDS) with strong unsupervised learning (oriented towards anticipation rather than prediction) and highly efficient optimization capability, which could provide the needed solutions of real-world aquifer management problems. The article highlights the links between past developments and future optimization/planning/control of hydrogeologic systems. Malgré de remarquables nouveaux développements en hydrologie stochastique ainsi que de remarquables adaptations de méthodes avancées pour les opérations de recherche, le contrôle stochastique, et l'intelligence artificielle, solutions pour les problèmes complexes en hydrogéologie sont restées assez limitées. La principale raison est l'ultime confiance en les modèles qui conduisent à des équations partielles complexes aux paramètres distribués (PDE) à une

  3. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  4. Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodolski, John

    Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

  5. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  6. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  7. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  8. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  9. Computer Center: CIBE Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crovello, Theodore J.

    1982-01-01

    Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

  10. Coaches as System Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

  11. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  12. Identification of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial on the use of model identification techniques for the identification of propulsion system models. These models are important for control design, simulation, parameter estimation, and fault detection. Propulsion system identification is defined in the context of the classical description of identification as a four step process that is unique because of special considerations of data and error sources. Propulsion system models are described along with the dependence of system operation on the environment. Propulsion system simulation approaches are discussed as well as approaches to propulsion system identification with examples for both air breathing and rocket systems.

  13. On generalized Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  14. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  16. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  17. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  18. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  19. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) was established by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a capability for performing hardware-directed activities to support multiple in-space nuclear reactor concepts by using a non-nuclear test methodology. This includes fabrication and testing at both the module/component level and near prototypic reactor configurations. The EFF-TF is currently supporting an effort to develop an affordable fission surface power (AFSP) system that could be deployed on the Lunar surface. The AFSP system is presently based on a pumped liquid metal-cooled (Sodium-Potassium eutectic, NaK-78) reactor design. This design was derived from the only fission system that the United States has deployed for space operation, the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) 10A reactor, which was launched in 1965. Two prototypical components recently tested at MSFC were a pair of Stirling power conversion units that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, and an annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that uses travelling electromagnetic fields to pump the liquid metal coolant through the reactor loop. First ever tests were conducted at MSFC to determine baseline performance of a pair of 1 kW Stirling convertors using NaK as the hot side working fluid. A special test rig was designed and constructed and testing was conducted inside a vacuum chamber at MSFC. This test rig delivered pumped NaK for the hot end temperature to the Stirlings and water as the working fluid on the cold end temperature. These test were conducted through a hot end temperature range between 400 to 550C in increments of 50 C and a cold end temperature range from 30 to 70 C in 20 C increments. Piston amplitudes were varied from 6 to 1 1mm in .5 mm increments. A maximum of 2240 Watts electric was produced at the design point of 550 hot end, 40 C cold end with a piston amplitude of 10.5mm. This power level was reached at a gross thermal

  20. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  1. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  2. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  3. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  4. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  5. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  6. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  7. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework.

  8. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework. PMID:3689299

  9. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  10. Performance Assessment of Baseline Cells for the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2012-01-01

    The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) Program High Efficiency Space Power Systems (HESPS) Project, formerly the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project is tasked with developing advanced lithium-ion cells for future NASA Exploration missions. Under this project, components under development via various in-house and contracted efforts are delivered to Saft America for scale-up and integration into cells. Progress toward meeting project goals will be measured by comparing the performance to these cells with cells of a similar format with Saft s state-of-the-art aerospace chemistry. This report discusses the results of testing performed on the first set of baseline cells delivered by Saft to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This build is a cylindrical "DD" geometry with a 10 Ah nameplate capacity. Testing is being performed to establish baseline cell performance at conditions relevant to ETDD HESPS Battery Key Performance Parameter (KPP) goals including various temperatures, rates, and cycle life conditions. Data obtained from these cells will serve as a performance baseline for future cell builds containing optimized ETDD HESPSdeveloped materials. A test plan for these cells was developed to measure cell performance against the high energy cell KPP goals. The goal for cell-level specific energy of the high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 discharge rate and 0 C. The cells should operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with 80 percent capacity retention. Baseline DD cells delivered 152 Wh/kg at 20 C. This number decreased to 143.9 Wh/kg with a 0 C discharge. This report provides performance data and summarizes results of the testing performed on the DD cells.

  11. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  12. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  13. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  14. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  15. Alkaline etch system qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Pemberton, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the data from this qualification activity, the Atotech etch system, even with minimum characterization, was capable of etching production printed circuit products as good as those from the Chemcut system. Further characterization of the Atotech system will improve its etching capability. In addition to the improved etch quality expected from further characterization, the Atotech etch system has additional features that help reduce waste and provide for better consistency in the etching process. The programmable logic controller and computer will allow operators to operate the system manually or from pre-established recipes. The evidence and capabilities of the Atotech system made it as good as or better than the Chemcut system for etching WR products. The Printed Wiring Board Engineering Department recommended that the Atotech system be released for production. In December 1995, the Atotech system was formerly qualified for production.

  16. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  17. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  19. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  20. Flash evaporator systems test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  1. Programmable telemetry test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadiana, J. M.

    A portable programmable telemetry test system was designed to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The test system accurately simulates any missile in the current Navy inventory, and provides test and calibration signals to verify telemetry systems. The total test system weighs just over 15 lbs and occupies less than 1 cubic foot. Internal batteries allow testing or calibration of RF front ends out on weather decks. The modulation section consists of an FM/PAM/PCM simulator and simple control circuitry, and is programmable via an Intel 2715 EPROM, the frame format memory. A second EPROM provides a wave-form library.

  2. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  3. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  4. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  5. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  6. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  7. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  8. Verification of Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pullum, Laura L; Cui, Xiaohui; Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Christopher; Buskens, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

  9. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  10. Power system interface and umbilical system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    System requirements and basic design criteria were defined for berthing or docking a payload to the 25 kW power module which will provide electrical power and attitude control, cooling, data transfer, and communication services to free-flying and Orbiter sortie payloads. The selected umbilical system concept consists of four assemblies and command and display equipment to be installed at the Orbiter payload specialist station: (1) a movable platen assembly which is attached to the power system with EVA operable devices; (2) a slave platen assembly which is attached to the payload with EVA operable devices; (3) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed in the power system; and (4) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed on the payload. Operating modes and sequences are described.

  11. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  12. Designing Chaotic Systems by Piecewise Affine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tiantian; Li, Qingdu; Yang, Xiao-Song

    Based on mathematical analysis, this paper provides a methodology to ensure the existence of homoclinic orbits in a class of three-dimensional piecewise affine systems. In addition, two chaotic generators are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  13. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  14. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  15. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  16. Pollen Tube Growth Regulation by Free Anions Depends on the Interaction between the Anion Channel SLAH3 and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases CPK2 and CPK20[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gutermuth, Timo; Lassig, Roman; Portes, Maria-Teresa; Maierhofer, Tobias; Romeis, Tina; Borst, Jan-Willem; Hedrich, Rainer; Feijó, José A.; Konrad, Kai R.

    2013-01-01

    Apical growth in pollen tubes (PTs) is associated with the presence of tip-focused ion gradients and fluxes, implying polar localization or regulation of the underlying transporters. The molecular identity and regulation of anion transporters in PTs is unknown. Here we report a negative gradient of cytosolic anion concentration focused on the tip, in negative correlation with the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. We hypothesized that a possible link between these two ions is based on the presence of Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs). We characterized anion channels and CPK transcripts in PTs and analyzed their localization. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tagging of a homolog of SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED1 (SLAH3:YFP) was widespread along PTs, but, in accordance with the anion efflux, CPK2/CPK20/CPK17/CPK34:YFP fluorescence was strictly localized at the tip plasma membrane. Expression of SLAH3 with either CPK2 or CPK20 (but not CPK17/CPK34) in Xenopus laevis oocytes elicited S-type anion channel currents. Interaction of SLAH3 with CPK2/CPK20 (but not CPK17/CPK34) was confirmed by Förster-resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime microscopy in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and bimolecular fluorescence complementation in living PTs. Compared with wild-type PTs, slah3-1 and slah3-2 as well as cpk2-1 cpk20-2 PTs had reduced anion currents. Double mutant cpk2-1 cpk20-2 and slah3-1 PTs had reduced extracellular anion fluxes at the tip. Our studies provide evidence for a Ca2+-dependent CPK2/CPK20 regulation of the anion channel SLAH3 to regulate PT growth. PMID:24280384

  17. School System Empires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Michael

    1972-01-01

    Although most educational systems are resistant to change, there are some features of the community, of the teachers, of government, and of the system that enable one to predict the likelihood of an innovation being accepted and implemented. (AL)

  18. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... can't be prevented, you can help your child's immune system stay stronger and fight illnesses by ...

  19. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  20. Instructional Systems: Which One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, A. Maughan

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the mystical aura attached to the notion of a systems approach to instruction, briefly reviews some of the instructional systems which have been advanced, and suggests a method for successful implementation of the process. (LS)

  1. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  2. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  3. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  4. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  5. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  6. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  7. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  8. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  12. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  13. Secondary power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

  14. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  15. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  16. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  17. Advanced dive monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Sternberger, W I; Goemmer, S A

    1999-01-01

    The US Navy supports deep diving operations with a variety of mixed-gas life support systems. A systems engineering study was conducted for the Naval Experimental Dive Unit (Panama City, FL) to develop a concept design for an advanced dive monitoring system. The monitoring system is intended primarily to enhance diver safety and secondarily to support diving medicine research. Distinct monitoring categories of diver physiology, life support system, and environment are integrated in the monitoring system. A system concept is proposed that accommodates real-time and quantitative measurements, noninvasive physiological monitoring, and a flexible and expandable implementation architecture. Human factors and ergonomic design considerations have been emphasized to assure that there is no impact on the diver's primary mission. The Navy has accepted the resultant system requirements and the basic design concept. A number of monitoring components have been implemented and successfully support deep diving operations.

  18. JT-60 Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T.

    2002-09-15

    The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

  19. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  20. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  1. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  2. Paradigms for Abstracting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Galvez, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of abstracting systems focuses on the paradigm concept and identifies and explains four paradigms: communicational, or information theory; physical, including information retrieval; cognitive, including information processing and artificial intelligence; and systemic, including quality management. Emphasizes multidimensionality and…

  3. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  4. Biomedical recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    System collects medical data directly from patients and permanently records and displays several parameters - electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, heart rate, respiration rate, auscultatory blood pressure, leg circumference changes, body temperature, and time. Components and operation of the system are described.

  5. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Cancer.gov

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  6. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  7. Optical discriminator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    System includes lightweight, inexpensive movie camera to record simultaneously views from three different angles on same filmstrip. This is noncritical system as it is adaptable to many applications requiring similar, but diverse, viewing areas.

  8. Validation of multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewiorek, D. P.; Segall, Z.; Kong, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments that can be used to validate fault free performance of multiprocessor systems in aerospace systems integrating flight controls and avionics are discussed. Engineering prototypes for two fault tolerant multiprocessors are tested.

  9. Versados (operating system)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Versados is a multitasking operation system designed to meet the requirements of the real-time, online control system environment as well as to support the multiuser software-hardware engineering effort required to develop microprocessor based systems. Versados serves as a major software building block for real-time applications which use the Motorola MC68000 microprocessor and Versamodule board products. It is a modular, multilayered operating system.

  10. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  11. Space shuttle revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air revitalization system is discussed. The sequential steps in loop closure are examined and a schematic outline of the regenerative air revitalization system is presented. Carbon dioxide reduction subsystem concepts are compared. Schemes are drawn for: static feedwater electrolysis cell, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell, air revitalization system, nitrogen generation reactions, nitrogen subsystem staging, vapor compression distillation subsystem, thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, catalytic distillation water reclamation subsystem, and space shuttle solid waste management system.

  12. Goddard Ground System Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

  13. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.

  14. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  15. Space power systems technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulman, George A.

    1994-01-01

    Reported here is a series of studies which examine several potential catalysts and electrodes for some fuel cell systems, some materials for space applications, and mathematical modeling and performance predictions for some solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers. The fuel cell systems have a potential for terrestrial applications in addition to solar energy conversion in space applications. Catalysts and electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cell systems and for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell and electrolyzer systems were examined.

  16. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  17. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  18. What is Systems Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology is increasingly popular, but to many biologists it remains unclear what this new discipline actually encompasses. This brief personal perspective starts by outlining the asthetic qualities that motivate systems biologists, discusses which activities do not belong to the core of systems biology, and finally explores the crucial link with synthetic biology. It concludes by attempting to define systems biology as the research endeavor that aims at providing the scientific foundation for successful synthetic biology. PMID:21423352

  19. Visual Alert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A visual alert system resulted from circuitry developed by Applied Cybernetics Systems for Langley as part of a space related telemetry system. James Campman, Applied Cybernetics president, left the company and founded Grace Industries, Inc. to manufacture security devices based on the Langley technology. His visual alert system combines visual and audible alerts for hearing impaired people. The company also manufactures an arson detection device called the electronic nose, and is currently researching additional applications of the NASA technology.

  20. Astromag data system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roos, Darrell; Cheng, Chieh-San; Newsome, Penny; Nath, Nitya

    1989-01-01

    A feasible, top-level data system is defined that could accomplish and support the Astromag Data System functions and interfaces necessary to support the scientific objectives of Astromag. This data system must also be able to function in the environment of the Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) and other anticipated NASA elements.

  1. Medical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  2. Microelectronics bioinstrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Microelectronic bioinstrumentation systems to be employed in the Cardiovascular Deconditioning Program were developed. Implantable telemetry systems for long-term monitoring of animals on earth were designed to collect physiological data necessary for the understanding of the mechanisms of cardiovascular deconditioning. In-flight instrumentation systems, microelectronic instruments, and RF powering techniques for other life science experiments in the NASA program were studied.

  3. Geostar's system architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepkowski, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    Geostar is currently constructing a radiodetermination satellite system to provide position fixes and vehicle surveillance services, and has proposed a digital land mobile satellite service to provide data, facsimile and digitized voice services to low cost mobile users. The different system architectures for these two systems, are reviewed.

  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KESSLER, WILLIAM J.

    DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…

  5. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  6. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2016-07-12

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  8. System integration report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Korein, J. D.; Meyer, C.; Manoochehri, K.; Rovins, J.; Beale, J.; Barr, B.

    1985-01-01

    Several areas that arise from the system integration issue were examined. Intersystem analysis is discussed as it relates to software development, shared data bases and interfaces between TEMPUS and PLAID, shaded graphics rendering systems, object design (BUILD), the TEMPUS animation system, anthropometric lab integration, ongoing TEMPUS support and maintenance, and the impact of UNIX and local workstations on the OSDS environment.

  9. Arkansas Technology Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan; Parette, Howard P., Jr.

    The Arkansas Technology Information System (ARTIS) was developed to fill a significant void in existing systems of technical support to Arkansans with disabilities by creating and maintaining a consumer-responsive statewide system of data storage and retrieval regarding assistive technology and services. ARTIS goals also include establishment of a…

  10. NPOx Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.; Demmer, R.; Argyle, M.; Ancho, M.; Hai-Pao, J.

    2002-02-25

    The nitric acid/potassium permanganate/oxalic acid (NPOx) Phase II system is being prepared for remote operation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Several tests have been conducted to prepare the system for remote operation. This system performs very well with high decontamination efficiencies and very low quantities of waste generated during decontamination.

  11. Jupiter System Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, Dave; Prockter, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the scientific philosophy that is guiding the planning behind the Jupiter System Observer (JSO). The JSO would be a long-term platform for studying Jupiter and the complete Jovian system. The goal is to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes of planetary systems, their formation and evolution.

  12. Optimum Cassegrain baffle systems.

    PubMed

    Hales, W L

    1992-09-01

    Formulas are developed for the precise calculation of optimum stray-light baffles for Cassegrain optical systems, including systems having extreme optical curvatures such as those in infrared missile guidance systems. Minimum diffraction and maximum optical efficiency are the primary considerations.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  14. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  15. Contracting for Telecommunications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brautigam, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    Reasons for changing telephone systems at colleges and universities and the preparation and evaluation of requests for proposals (RFP) are discussed. The negotiation and monitoring of the contract are also addressed. It is noted that contracting for a new telecommunications system is extremely complex. Reasons for changing systems include cost…

  16. Unified Science - System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Barbara S.

    The goals of this curriculum, developed as a summer course for the Young Scholars Program at The Ohio State University-Columbus, are as follows: (1) enable students to develop an understanding of the concept of a system; (2) help students gain an appreciation of the value of systems; (3) develop skills in working with systems; (4) expand skills in…

  17. System Documentation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

    The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

  18. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  19. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  20. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.