Science.gov

Sample records for 20th world computer

  1. Changes in world ocean nitrate availability through the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamykowski, Daniel; Zentara, Sara-Joan

    2005-09-01

    Conceptual models linking climate change with fluctuations in fish population abundances are based on how cyclic patterns in air-sea interactions influence pelagic food web dynamics. The effect of changing mixed layer dynamics on phytoplankton light and nutrient exposure is a prominent focal point in the overall mechanism. The Extended Reconstruction (ER) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) version one (ERSSTv1) and version two (ERSSTv2) monthly time series from 1854 to 2003, interpreted with the aid of a historically based global Nitrate Depletion Temperature (NDT) climatology, provide a qualitative tool for examining relative temporal and spatial patterns in nitrate availability in normal salinity areas of the world ocean. After an analysis of local NDT variability at four time series stations demonstrated temporal stability compared to SST, [SST-NDT] as a Nitrate Availability Index (NAI) was calculated for April (boreal spring or austral fall) and October (boreal fall and austral spring) for the whole ERSSTv1 data set and for selected years of the ERSSTv2 data set using the global NDT climatology. The more negative the NAI difference, the greater the expected surface nitrate. The more positive the NAI difference, the greater the intensity of temperature stratification between the surface and the nitracline and thus the less likely that nitrate mixed to the surface. The records from April and October both showed that decreased nitrate availability, defined by both smaller negative NAI differences and larger positive NAI differences, generally though not universally occurred throughout the 20th century in association with global warming. The greatest decreases in nitrate availability occurred in two warming events in the time periods 1909-1937 and 1977-present in the Northern Hemisphere and 1926-1937 and 1950-1990 in the Southern Hemisphere. Different areas of the world ocean were affected in each warming event. Prominent exceptions in the ERSSTv1 analysis where 20th

  2. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    PubMed

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to

  3. Long 19th Century? Long 20th? Retooling that Last Chunk of World History Periodization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2009-01-01

    As in any historical endeavor, periodization is an attempt to manage change, and present it coherently, by noting points where key breaks in framework occur. In world history, periodization has come to convey, particularly, shifts in the pattern of interactions and contacts among many, though not always all, major societies. In this article, the…

  4. Life on Other Worlds: The 20th- Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2001-06-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

  5. 1988 Annual Summer Computer Simulation Conference, 20th, Seattle, WA, July 25-28, 1988, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, C.C.; Holmes, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The conference presents papers on simulation methods; computer systems; credibility and validation; simulation verification of computer performance; radar and communications systems simulation; physical, chemical, and engineering sciences; and parallel processing and concurrent simulation. Consideration is also given to biomedical simulation, energy and environmental sciences, training and research simulators, intelligent simulation environments, and simulation of discrete systems. Other topics include space and transportation systems, missile and aircraft systems simulation, and SDI.

  6. PREFACE: 20th International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groep, D. L.; Bonacorsi, D.

    2014-06-01

    In this age and time, capturing 'state of the art' of computing in a conference proceedings gets to be increasingly hard. It is quite common too for the submitted abstracts to refer to studies yet to be done - and the time span between abstract submission and the actual conference is often less than six months. By the time the proceedings appear in journal form, a similar period after its closing session, some of the work is over a year old, by which time new ideas will have been formed and the deployment of current ones progressed - at times beyond recognition. The preface is continued in the pdf.

  7. 20th Century Reanalysis Project Ensemble Gateway: 56 Estimates of World Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and Wind, 1871-2010

    DOE Data Explorer

    This site provides data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project, offering temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind predictions in 200 km sections all around the earth from 1871 to 2010, every 6 hours, based on historical data. The ensemble mean and standard deviation for each value were calculated over a set of 56 simulations. Data for each of the 56 ensemble members are included here. The dataset consists of files in netCDF 4 format that are available for download from the National Energy Research. The goal of the 20th Century Reanalysis Project is to use a Kalman filter-based technique to produce a global trophospheric circulation dataset at four-times-daily resolution back to 1871. The only dataset available for the early 20th century consists of error-ridden hand-drawn analyses of the mean sea level pressure field over the Northern Hemisphere. Modern data assimilation systems have the potential to improve upon these maps, but prior to 1948, few digitized upper-air sounding observations are available for such a reanalysis. The global tropospheric circulation dataset will provide an important validation check on the climate models used to make 21st century climate projections....[copied from http://portal.nersc.gov/project/20C_Reanalysis/

  8. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20(th) century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  9. 20th Century variability of Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation: Planetary wave influences on world ocean surface phosphate utilization and synchrony of small pelagic fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamykowski, Daniel

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), part of the global Thermohaline Circulation (THC), is variable. In the present analysis, an Atlantic Dipole Phosphate Utilization (ADPU) index, related to the existing Atlantic Dipole Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (ADSA) index, is used to represent 20th century changes in AMOC strength that are applied to global ecosystem variability. ADPU index cycles set the timing for the calculation of six 2° latitude-longitude resolution world ocean maps depicting higher surface phosphate utilization (SPU) in some regions when AMOC is weaker and in other regions when AMOC is stronger. The average of these six maps yields a summary map with a pattern of alternating latitudinal SPU regions differentiated by AMOC strength that exhibits relationships with ocean bathymetry and wind-driven currents through a consideration of the THC deep and shallow limbs. The latitudinal pattern of SPU regions exhibits conceptual associations with sardine (S) and anchovy (A) population ranges off Japan (J), California (C), Peru (P) and South Africa (B). These sardine and anchovy populations have exhibited apparently synchronous fluctuations on decadal scales through at least part of the 20th century that is summarized in a Regime Indicator Series (RIS=(JS+CS+PS+BA)-(JA+CA+PA+BS)) index. In the present analysis based on Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) catch data, a revised Regime Indicator Series index formulation (RIS3=(JS+CA+PS+BA)-(JA+CS+PA+BS)), in which CS and CA catches reverse positions, is defined. AMOC variability represented in ADPU is significantly correlated with the RIS3 index (no lag but a significant range of 14 years) and four of eight small pelagic fisheries (JS, PS, BA, and JA). The post-1950 RIS3 index is significantly correlated with seven of eight small pelagic fisheries but not CS. When the regional small pelagic fisheries are considered as normalized species differences (S-A), ADPU has significant positive

  10. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  11. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  12. Stockpile Stewardship's 20th Anniversary

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried; Gottemoeller, Rose; Reis, Victor H.; McMillan, Charles; Rohlfing, Joan; Hurricane, Omar; Hagengruber, Roger; Taylor, John

    2015-10-22

    A short oral history of the NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program, produced in association with the 20th anniversary of the program. It features Siegfried Hecker, Rose Gottemoeller, Victor Reis, Charles McMillan, Joan Rohlfing, Omar Hurricane, Roger Hagengruber, and John Taylor.

  13. Stockpile Stewardship's 20th Anniversary

    ScienceCinema

    Hecker, Siegfried; Gottemoeller, Rose; Reis, Victor H.; McMillan, Charles; Rohlfing, Joan; Hurricane, Omar; Hagengruber, Roger; Taylor, John

    2016-07-12

    A short oral history of the NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program, produced in association with the 20th anniversary of the program. It features Siegfried Hecker, Rose Gottemoeller, Victor Reis, Charles McMillan, Joan Rohlfing, Omar Hurricane, Roger Hagengruber, and John Taylor.

  14. Symposium on the Interface: Computing Science and Statistics (20th). Theme: Computationally Intensive Methods in Statistics Held in Reston, Virginia on April 20-23, 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-20

    University of California at Los Angles, Computer Science Department. Shafer[1976], A Mathematical Theory of Evidence, Princeton University Press...both distributions. I Recent Progress in Algorithms and Architectures for Time Series Analysis George Cybenko Department of Computer Science Tufts...limitations. 57 I I AN Li ASYMPTOTICALLY OPTIMAL KERNEL ESTIMATE I Luc DevroyI School of Computer Science McGill University I ABSTRACT Let f,.i be

  15. World's Most Powerful Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Cray 2 supercomputer, the fastest computer in the world, at ARC is detailed. The Cray 2 can perform 250 million calculations per second and has 10 times the memory of any other computer. Ames researchers are shown creating computer simulations of aircraft airflow, waterflow around a submarine, and fuel flow inside of the Space Shuttle's engines. The video also details the Cray 2's use in calculating airflow around the Shuttle and its external rockets during liftoff for the first time and in the development of the National Aero Space Plane.

  16. Virtual Worlds in Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a…

  17. The Computing World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    to modern computers. In the 1840s Augusta Ada, the Countess of Lovelace, translated and wrote several scientific papers regarding Charles P...Babbage’s ideas on an analytical engine problem solving machine. 3 Babbage , "the father of computers," developed ways to store results via memory devices. Ada...simple arithmetic calculating machines to small complex and powerful integrated circuit computers. Jacquard, Babbage and Lovelace set the computer

  18. The 20th International Congress of Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P A

    1997-09-01

    Over 4,000 participants from all over the world attended the 20th International Congress of Chemotherapy (ICC) between 29th June-3rd July, 1997, in Sydney. Anti-infective and cancer chemotherapy were discussed in a wide context, with presentations being made on new products, compounds in development and current clinical approaches. Inevitably in a congress of this size, there were many sessions running concurrently (usually nine), with several simultaneous poster sessions as well. A common theme currently at many chemotherapy congresses is the growth of resistance to existing agents, and the ICC was no exception. Resistance to Gram-positive cocci is a particular problem, and many sessions were devoted to this subject. This report attempts to highlight just some of the aspects of antibacterial chemotherapy presented at the meeting. New fluoroquinolones formed a major topic that attracted a number of poster sessions and symposia, continuing a trend seen in recent years. The streptogramins offer an alternative approach to combating Gram-positive infections, and a symposium was devoted to these compounds.

  19. School Libraries in a Diverse World: Providing the Personal Touch. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (20th, Everett, Washington, July 22-27, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    This report of proceedings contains 28 papers that were presented at an international conference on school librarianship. The papers are: (1) "Multi-Ethnic Materials for Children and Young Adults in a Changing World" (Spencer G. Shaw); (2) "Eating Computers" (Dean Marney); (3) "Literature, Reading and the School Library…

  20. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was…

  1. Great Universalist of the 20TH Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershtein, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Landau, was at the same time a great universalist who made fundamental contributions in diverse areas of physics: quantum mechanics, solid state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transition theory, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), low-temperature physics, fluid dynamics, atomic collision theory, theory of chemical reactions, and other disciplines.

  2. Antimatter and 20th century science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article 'Antihydrogen on Tap’ on page 229. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of information for teachers to feel informed about the topic when in the classroom. Antimatter is the perfect example of 20th century science incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity, and showing progression from a theoretical idea to mass production within the space of 100 years. The final section is about using the idea of antihydrogen in the classroom.

  3. 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, on May 7-9, 1986, is documented herein. During the 3 days, 23 technical papers were presented by experts from the United States and Western Europe. A panel discussion by an International group of experts on future directions In mechanisms was also presented; this discussion, however, is not documented herein. The technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, thermal/mechanical/hydraulic actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and computerized mechanisms synthesis.

  4. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Edwin D

    2006-01-01

    Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. Not classified as true pandemics are 3 notable epidemics: a pseudopandemic in 1947 with low death rates, an epidemic in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and an abortive epidemic of swine influenza in 1976 that was feared to have pandemic potential. Major influenza epidemics show no predictable periodicity or pattern, and all differ from one another. Evidence suggests that true pandemics with changes in hemagglutinin subtypes arise from genetic reassortment with animal influenza A viruses.

  5. [The 20th century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor].

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity.

  6. A personal retrospective on the second half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Nicholas Leibovic, K

    2013-06-01

    During the Second World War scientists and engineers were involved as never before in all technical phases of the war effort. It included intelligence, logistics and large scale automated computation. Much of this required team work which led to the adoption of interdisciplinary perspectives and found expression after the war in new fields of enquiry such as cybernetics, biophysics and artificial intelligence. While Europe was recovering from its devastation, the United States entered an unprecedented age of prosperity beginning in the 1940s and 50s. The political and budgetary environment was favorable for scientific research and it was felt in Europe as well as the U.S.A. I discuss some of these conditions and the figures associated with the work that became the foundation for advances throughout the second half of the 20th century and conclude with a few observations on quantitative neuroscience and the problem of representation.

  7. Administratium: A 20th-Anniversary Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2009-01-01

    experience. I wrote an article that was published in the May 2005 issue and I extended the "Administratium" story to include newly discovered chemical properties. At the 20th anniversary of its publication, I feel it is important to clear up any question about the authorship in the magazine that first published the story.

  8. Jaguar: The World?s Most Powerful Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, Arthur S Buddy; Rogers, James H; Kendall, Ricky A; Kothe, Douglas B; Shipman, Galen M

    2009-01-01

    The Cray XT system at ORNL is the world s most powerful computer with several applications exceeding one-petaflops performance. This paper describes the architecture of Jaguar with combined XT4 and XT5 nodes along with an external Lustre file system and external login nodes. We also present some early results from Jaguar.

  9. The Gifts of the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    This article describes critical events that have shaped gifted education, including: intelligence testing, the concept of intelligence, the construct of creativity, greater understanding of brain functions, the work of John Dewey, Jerome Bruner, and Leta Hollingworth, school reform, world change, and the shift from identification to meeting…

  10. Is classical mechanics a prerequisite for learning physics of the 20th century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walwema, Godfrey B.; French, Debbie A.; Verley, Jim D.; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-11-01

    Physics of the 20th century has contributed significantly to modern technology, and yet many physics students are never availed the opportunity to study it as part of the curriculum. One of the possible reasons why it is not taught in high school and introductory physics courses could be because curriculum designers believe that students need a solid background in classical mechanics and calculus in order to study physics of the 20th century such as the photoelectric effect, special and general relativity, the uncertainty principle, etc. This presumption may not be justifiable or valid. The authors of this paper contend that teaching physics of the 20th century aids students in relating physics to modern technology and the real world, making studying physics exciting. In this study, the authors correlated scores for matched questions in the Mechanics Baseline Test and a physics of the 20th century test in order to examine the trend of the scores. The participants included undergraduate students attending an introductory algebra-based physics course with no intention of taking physics at a higher level. The analysis of the scores showed no significant correlation for any of the matched pairs of questions. The purpose of this article is to recommend that even without a solid background in classical mechanics, teachers can introduce physics of the 20th century to their students for increased interest.

  11. Giddens and late modernity: analysing 20th century life.

    PubMed

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    The final paper of our series on principal figures in sociology examines the work of Anthony Giddens, a British sociologist who is still working. Major components of his analysis of late 20th century life are discussed.

  12. Laptop Computers for Third World Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The nonprofit organization One Laptop per Child (OLPC) has a mission that is easy to articulate but very challenging to achieve: Provide laptop computers to the almost 2 billion children who live in parts of the world where poverty and the lack of a structured educational system deprive them of an adequate education. To further complicate the…

  13. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated

  14. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  15. CLIMATE CHANGE: The Causes of 20th Century Warming.

    PubMed

    Zwiers, F W; Weaver, A J

    2000-12-15

    Global air surface temperatures increased by about 0.6 degrees C during the 20th century, but as Zwiers and Weaver discuss in their Perspective, the warming was not continuous. Two distinct periods of warming, from 1910 to 1945 and since 1976, were separated by a period of very gradual cooling. The authors highlight the work by Stott et al., who have performed the most comprehensive simulation of 20th century climate to date. The agreement between observed and simulated temperature variations strongly suggests that forcing from anthropogenic activities, moderated by variations in solar and volcanic forcing, has been the main driver of climate change during the past century.

  16. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, Markus

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (NSM20). The Meeting was held in Tampere on August 25 through August 27, 2003, hosted by the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT). NSM20 provided a truly international forum for the discussion of the state-of-the-art semiconductor physics, technology, and industry in Scandinavia, and highlighted selected results achieved elsewhere in the world. While the earlier meetings the first held in the 1960's and since then every other year on rotating basis in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden focused on silicon technologies, the Tampere Meeting was concerned more than ever with optoelectronics, which has become an unexpectedly strong field of research and industry in Northern Europe. An excellent array of keynote speakers provided the audience with the latest developments in all the main fields of the Meeting and together with other speakers fostered new ideas that have the potential for further advancement of these strategic sciences and technologies. There were over 100 registered participants, presenting a total of 100 scientific contributions. From these contributions 62 manuscripts were accepted for publication in the Proceedings, representing all the key areas of the Meeting. There was the largest number of industrial sponsors of any Nordic Semiconductor Meeting, which was a remarkable thing in the current world economic cycle. In fact, the organization of NSM20 would not have been possible without the support from ORC, IEEE Finland Section, Institute of Physics of TUT, Chroma Technology Corp. (USA), Coherent Tutcore Oy (Finland), Europractice c/o YOLE Development (France), EV Group GmbH (Austria), Instrumentti Mattila Oy (Finland), FAB Support Ab (Sweden), Keithley Instruments Inc. (UK), Modulight Inc. (Finland), Nokia Oyj (Finland), Oxford Instruments GmbH (Germany), Oy SV Vacuumservice Ab (Finland), Scandinavian Airlines Systems

  17. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  18. Marl Prairie Vegetation Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted geochronologic and pollen analyses from sediment cores collected in solution holes within marl prairies of Big Cypress National Preserve to reconstruct vegetation patterns of the last few centuries and evaluate the stability and longevity of marl prairies within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Based on radiocarbon dating and pollen biostratigraphy, these cores contain sediments deposited during the last ~300 years and provide evidence for plant community composition before and after 20th century water management practices altered flow patterns throughout the Everglades. Pollen evidence indicates that pre-20th century vegetation at the sites consisted of sawgrass marshes in a peat-accumulating environment; these assemblages indicate moderate hydroperiods and water depths, comparable to those in modern sawgrass marshes of Everglades National Park. During the 20th century, vegetation changed to grass-dominated marl prairies, and calcitic sediments were deposited, indicating shortening of hydroperiods and occurrence of extended dry periods at the site. These data suggest that the presence of marl prairies at these sites is a 20th century phenomenon, resulting from hydrologic changes associated with water management practices.

  19. The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul; Flowers, Betty S.; Tothero, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the "The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century," a newly unveiled website jointly created by the Learning Technology Center of The University of Texas at Austin and The National Archives' 12 presidential libraries. This web-based resource provides access to the continually growing store of digitized assets from…

  20. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  1. Personal reminiscences of ophthalmology giants of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Tasman, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper records personal reminiscences of seven 20th century ophthalmologists who each in his own way metaphorically split the atom and, thereby, changed ophthalmology forever. In addition to their major contributions, they each shared some very desirable traits. They were gentlemen who were devoted to their families and their families to them.

  2. The 20th Century: Past and Future. IHE Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This monograph looks back at the 20th century, seeking to learn about the present by learning from the past. One challenge to institutions of higher learning today is the denial of the intellectual and cultural heritage of the university as a time and place to study and learn, as a community of scholars and scientists, and as a place where…

  3. Solar Eclipse May 20th as Seen by Hinode

    NASA Video Gallery

    An annular solar eclipse took place in the late hours of May 20th, into the 21st, 2012, and was visible from the ground in southern China, Japan, and the western United States. Hinode is in a low-E...

  4. A Historical Perspective on Early 20th-Century Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers, educators, psychologists, sociologists, and other social planning professionals have been concerned about the children of immigrants for over a century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, social policies and practices toward immigrant families were based on negative assumptions about immigrant culture that characterized…

  5. Head Start Celebrates 20th Anniversary and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfredo; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this serial publication highlight the past, present, and possible future of Project Head Start and celebrate the project's 20th birthday. "Head Start: Today and Yesterday" (Alfred Flores) emphasizes the goals of Head Start. "Why Head Start Is a Winner" (Mary Tom Riley and Jamie Tucker) reports the results of…

  6. Changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusen, Arthur; van Beek, Rens; Bouwman, Lex; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic world-wide changes occurred during the 20th century in both nutrient delivery and in-stream retention. In this paper, we use a combined nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Global nutrient delivery almost doubled due to expanding agriculture and increasing wastewater discharge. Nutrient retention also increased by a factor of two as a result of the rapidly growing number of dams and reservoirs. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers. River export to coastal seas increased during the 20th century from 19 to 37 Tg yr-1 of N and 2 to 4 Tg yr-1 of P. There are important differences in riverine N:P export ratios in various parts of the world resulting from the interplay of multiple processes and economic activities in different river basins. Increasing nutrient loading of freshwater systems is a threat to water quality. Furthermore, the global river export increase in the molar N:P ratio during recent decades may affect the ecology within both the river basins and the coastal system. This ratio change may be driven by the recent stagnation of P fertilizer use in most industrialized countries, in comparison to the ever increasing N fertilizer use.

  7. MECHANICS OF THE LUNG IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in respiratory mechanics occurred primarily in the latter half of the 20th century, and this is when much of our current understanding was secured. The earliest and ancient investigations involving respiratory physiology and mechanics were often done in conjunction with other scientific activities and often lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements. This situation changed rapidly in the 20th century, and this relatively recent history of lung mechanics has been greatly influenced by critical technological advances and applications, which have made quantitative experimental testing of ideas possible. From the spirometer of Hutchinson, to the pneumotachograph of Fleisch, to the measurement of esophageal pressure, to the use of the Wilhelmy balance by Clements, to the unassuming strain gauges for measuring pressure and rapid paper and electronic chart recorders, these enabling devices have generated numerous quantitative experimental studies with greatly increased physiologic understanding and validation of mechanistic theories of lung function in health and disease. PMID:23733695

  8. [Development of international health in 20th century].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Khoshnood, B

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the historical evolution of the concept and activities that have come under the rubric of international health during its modern "formative" years in the 20th century. The analysis seeks to illuminate the changing objectives and key players, the achievements and failures, and the challenges that lie ahead. The emphasis is placed on its institutional component, particularly as it relates to the countries of the American continents.

  9. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Wendy

    2016-05-06

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.

  10. How probable was the 20th century global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Markonis, Yannis

    2016-04-01

    The increase of global mean temperature during the 20th century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is very plausible due to the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, climate model projections suggest that the global mean temperature will further rise during the 21st century. While the vast majority of scientists have endorsed IPCC's conclusions, not a few individual scientists, have expressed a disagreement regarding the validity of climate model projections. In this study, the answer to a fundamental question is sought. That is, how probable was the global warming of the 20th century considering only recorded and reconstructed global mean temperatures values, and assuming that the global mean temperature is a stationary stochastic process. In order to answer this question, a stationary stochastic model is set that incorporates (a) the observed autocorrelation structure of the global mean temperature, (b) past observations of global mean temperature and (c) global, regional and site-specific reconstructions of global mean temperature changes during the last two millennia. Based on an intense Monte Carlo simulation, the probability of a global mean temperature trend with equal or greater slope than the observed one in the 20th century is presented.

  11. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    Construction of Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. As distinct from the contemporaneous development with private funding of major observatories in the western United States, DAO was (and remains) funded by the federal government. Canada's initial foray into `big science', creation of DAO during the First World War was driven by Canada's desire to contribute significantly to the international rise of observational astrophysics enabled by photographic spectroscopy. In 2009 the Observatory was designated a National Historic Site. DAO's varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue in the 21st century, with particularly strong ties to Maunakea.

  12. The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2014-09-01

    Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America.

  13. Computers in the World of College English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannheimer, Charlotte

    This sabbatical report surveys some computer software presently being developed, already in use, and/or available, and describes computer use in several Massachusetts colleges. A general introduction to computers, word processors, artificial intelligence, and computer assisted instruction is provided, as well as a discussion of what computers can…

  14. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2004-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  15. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  16. The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R. Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of “mood” words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more “emotional” than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language. PMID:23527080

  17. 20th JANNAF Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Inzar, Jeanette M. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 20th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS), 38th Combustion Subcommittee (CS), 26th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 21 Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee meeting. The meeting was held 8-12 April 2002 at the Bayside Inn at The Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort and Eglin Air Force Base, Destin, Florida. Topics covered include: insensitive munitions and hazard classification testing of solid rocket motors and other munitions; vulnerability of gun propellants to impact stimuli; thermal decomposition and cookoff properties of energetic materials; burn-to-violent reaction phenomena in energetic materials; and shock-to-detonation properties of solid propellants and energetic materials.

  18. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  19. Healing after disasters in early-20th-century Texas.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2008-01-01

    This historical study analyzes 2 disasters in Texas in the early 20th century: the 1937 school explosion in New London and the 1947 Texas City ship explosion. Disaster narratives and commemoration activities are examined as means of healing and restoration after a catastrophic event. Specifically, this article discusses contextual factors of time and place, Coastal and East Texas between 1937 and 1947, and shows how these factors shaped the ways in which people made sense of their disaster experiences. This included not only the influence of geography but also economics, social position, racial characterizations, and religious beliefs. The article also considers conflicting and biased factors that can occur regarding time and place and how these factors influenced narrative constructions.

  20. Marriage in the 20th century: A feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Rampage, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    A defining feature of the 20th century in Western civilization was a profound change in the roles women play in both private and public life. The field of couple therapy was influenced by that change and, to a limited extent, participated in it. I will argue that the field has avoided fully embracing the principles of feminism that generated the social changes in gender and marital roles, settling instead for a more token acknowledgment that gender means something, without wanting to specify what that something is. In responding to the other articles in this issue, I make the case that the connection between gender and power in marriage needs to be more fully integrated, in the theory, research, and treatment of couples.

  1. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-09-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. The new version, by the authors, is shown in Fig. 2. It was designed in such a way that it can be built relatively easily. Sliders that rest on a rotating helical rail move up and down in approximate simple harmonic motion. When the helix is at rest, the tops of the sliders form a good approximation to a sine wave. In the original, the sliders are double-ended knitting needles, and the handle was taken from an earlier piece of apparatus.

  2. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  3. Global economic impacts of climate variability and change during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Francisco; Tol, Richard S J; Botzen, Wouter J W

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of the global economic impacts of observed climate change during the 20th century obtained by applying five impact functions of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) are separated into their main natural and anthropogenic components. The estimates of the costs that can be attributed to natural variability factors and to the anthropogenic intervention with the climate system in general tend to show that: 1) during the first half of the century, the amplitude of the impacts associated with natural variability is considerably larger than that produced by anthropogenic factors and the effects of natural variability fluctuated between being negative and positive. These non-monotonic impacts are mostly determined by the low-frequency variability and the persistence of the climate system; 2) IAMs do not agree on the sign (nor on the magnitude) of the impacts of anthropogenic forcing but indicate that they steadily grew over the first part of the century, rapidly accelerated since the mid 1970's, and decelerated during the first decade of the 21st century. This deceleration is accentuated by the existence of interaction effects between natural variability and natural and anthropogenic forcing. The economic impacts of anthropogenic forcing range in the tenths of percentage of the world GDP by the end of the 20th century; 3) the impacts of natural forcing are about one order of magnitude lower than those associated with anthropogenic forcing and are dominated by the solar forcing; 4) the interaction effects between natural and anthropogenic factors can importantly modulate how impacts actually occur, at least for moderate increases in external forcing. Human activities became dominant drivers of the estimated economic impacts at the end of the 20th century, producing larger impacts than those of low-frequency natural variability. Some of the uses and limitations of IAMs are discussed.

  4. Role of tropospheric ozone increases in 20th-century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Lacis, Andrew; Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto; Aguilar, Elliot

    2006-04-01

    Human activities have increased tropospheric ozone, contributing to 20th-century warming. Using the spatial and temporal distribution of precursor emissions, we simulated tropospheric ozone from 1890 to 1990 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) chemistry model. Archived three-dimensional ozone fields were then used in transient GISS climate model simulations. This enables more realistic evaluation of the impact of tropospheric ozone increases than prior simulations using an interpolation between preindustrial and present-day ozone. We find that tropospheric ozone contributed to the greater 20th-century warming in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics compared with the tropics and in the tropics compared with the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. Additionally, ozone increased more rapidly during the latter half of the century than the former, causing more rapid warming during that time. This is especially apparent in the tropics and is consistent with observations, which do not show similar behavior in the extratropics. Other climate forcings do not substantially accelerate warming rates in the tropics relative to other regions. This suggests that accelerated tropospheric ozone increases related to industrialization in the developing world have contributed to the accelerated tropical warming. During boreal summer, tropospheric ozone causes enhanced warming (>0.5°C) over polluted northern continental regions. Finally, the Arctic climate response to tropospheric ozone increases is large during fall, winter, and spring when ozone's lifetime is comparatively long and pollution transported from midlatitudes is abundant. The model indicates that tropospheric ozone could have contributed about 0.3°C annual average and about 0.4°C-0.5°C during winter and spring to the 20th-century Arctic warming. Pollution controls could thus substantially reduce the rapid rate of Arctic warming.

  5. Global economic impacts of climate variability and change during the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Francisco; Tol, Richard S. J.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of the global economic impacts of observed climate change during the 20th century obtained by applying five impact functions of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) are separated into their main natural and anthropogenic components. The estimates of the costs that can be attributed to natural variability factors and to the anthropogenic intervention with the climate system in general tend to show that: 1) during the first half of the century, the amplitude of the impacts associated with natural variability is considerably larger than that produced by anthropogenic factors and the effects of natural variability fluctuated between being negative and positive. These non-monotonic impacts are mostly determined by the low-frequency variability and the persistence of the climate system; 2) IAMs do not agree on the sign (nor on the magnitude) of the impacts of anthropogenic forcing but indicate that they steadily grew over the first part of the century, rapidly accelerated since the mid 1970's, and decelerated during the first decade of the 21st century. This deceleration is accentuated by the existence of interaction effects between natural variability and natural and anthropogenic forcing. The economic impacts of anthropogenic forcing range in the tenths of percentage of the world GDP by the end of the 20th century; 3) the impacts of natural forcing are about one order of magnitude lower than those associated with anthropogenic forcing and are dominated by the solar forcing; 4) the interaction effects between natural and anthropogenic factors can importantly modulate how impacts actually occur, at least for moderate increases in external forcing. Human activities became dominant drivers of the estimated economic impacts at the end of the 20th century, producing larger impacts than those of low-frequency natural variability. Some of the uses and limitations of IAMs are discussed. PMID:28212384

  6. Population evolution in 20th-century Easter Island: endogamy and admixture.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; García-Moro, C; Moral, P; González-Martín, A

    2000-04-01

    We studied the 20th-century evolution of the Rapanui population of Easter Island, the most geographically isolated in the world, to analyze the current process of admixture. Using parochial birth records, we determined origin of the birth parents based on their surnames. The origin of parents reveals two stages of population evolution: endogamy, due to the isolation of the island, but with a strong rejection of isonymous marriages; and admixture, beginning in 1965 with the opening of the island to the rest of the world. We used Lasker's coefficient (Lasker's Ri) and the Shannon-Weaver coefficient of diversity (H) to characterize both stages. The gene flow evaluated from admixture has increased significantly since 1965. Births from exogamous unions represented 3.5% of total births from 1937 to 1965. increased to 43.2% between 1966 and 1980, and constituted 50.8% of all births between 1981 and 1996.

  7. The Different World of Television and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1982-01-01

    The impact of television on mass culture and of computer technology on research in the social sciences and humanities is discussed. Questions are raised concerning the quality of research based on information available from computers. It is suggested that "a super-abundance of information is no substitute for wisdom." (PP)

  8. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  9. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  10. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers.

  11. Health in Barbados in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Walrond, E R

    2001-09-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Barbados was described as the most unhealthy place in the British Empire; at the end of the century, it is considered amongst the healthiest of developing countries. At the start of the century the statistics were harsh; for example, there was an infant mortality rate of 400 per 1000 live births. It is now between 10 and 15 per 1000 live births. In the last two-thirds of the century, there was a series of ongoing revolutions in Education, Public Health and Hospital Services that affected the health status favourably. The revolution in education was enhanced by the provision of University education starting with Medicine at Mona, Jamaica. Training of doctors expanded to Barbados in 1967 and has been an essential ingredient in the medical care revolution of the last third of the century. In 1953, the first Public Health Centre was opened and Barbados can now boast the most modern public health and primary care facilities. However, modern lifestyles are associated with an epidemic of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major problem. Health in the 21st century will need to look at lifestyles--the effects of the internal combustion engine, the availability of tools of violence, the lure of 'illegal drugs', personal relationships and gender as well as the driving forces behind the associated lifestyles.

  12. The 20th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2014-06-01

    The 20th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 24 to 26, 2013, in National Harbor, Maryland. This event is held annually for the purpose of convening a diverse group of leading experimental and clinical researchers from academia, industry, and government to present and discuss critical and emerging topics relevant to prostate cancer (PCa) biology, and the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PCa patients, with a focus on results that will lend to treatments for the most life-threatening stages of this disease. The themes that were highlighted at this year's event included: (i) mechanisms of PCa initiation and progression: cellular origins, neurons and neuroendocrine PCa, long non-coding RNAs, epigenetics, tumor cell metabolism, tumor-immune interactions, and novel molecular mechanisms; (ii) advancements in precision medicine strategies and predictive biomarkers of progression, survival, and drug sensitivities, including the analysis of circulating tumor cells and cell-free tumor DNA-new methods for liquid biopsies; (iii) new treatments including epigenomic therapy and immunotherapy, discovery of new treatment targets, and defining and targeting mechanisms of resistance to androgen-axis therapeutics; and (iv) new experimental and clinical epidemiology methods and techniques, including PCa population studies using patho-epidemiology.

  13. Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerten, Dieter; Rost, Stefanie; von Bloh, Werner; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    A global vegetation and hydrology model (LPJmL) was applied to quantify the contributions of changing precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 content, land use and irrigation to worldwide trends in 20th century river discharge (Q). Consistently with observations, Q decreased in parts of Africa, central/southern Asia and south-eastern Europe, and increased especially in parts of North America and western Asia. Based on the CRU TS2.1 climatology, total global Q rose over 1901-2002 (trend, 30.8 km3 a-2, equaling 7.7%), due primarily to increasing precipitation (individual effect, +24.7 km3 a-2). Global warming (-3.1), rising CO2 (+4.4), land cover changes (+5.9) and irrigation (-1.1) also had discernible effects. However, sign and magnitude of trends exhibited pronounced decadal variability and differed among precipitation forcing datasets. Since recent trends in these and other drivers of Q are mainly anthropogenic, we conclude that humans exert an increasing influence on the global water cycle.

  14. DIMMING OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-12-10

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  15. The Astronomical Journal in the Early 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gino, M. C.; Wise, G.

    2004-05-01

    The Astronomical Journal (AJ), one of the longest running scientific journals in the United States, was edited in Albany, New York between 1909 and 1941. That Albany sojourn, occurring just as astronomy was maturing into a scientific profession, provides insight into the evolution of scientific journals and the science behind them. Those journals grew from the personal property of one or a few individuals into the voice of a professional community. Upon taking over the AJ in 1909, its new editor, Dudley Observatory director Lewis Boss, polled that U.S. astronomical community on the advisability of continuing the journal, which had been founded in 1849 by Benjamin Apthorp Gould. The answer he received provides insight into how portions of the astronomical community defined their field, and the policies he subsequently followed illuminate the realities of the role of journal publication in early 20th century astronomy. The correspondence between Boss and members of the astronomical community upon which this research is primarily based is from the Records of the Astronomical Journal spanning the years of 1897 - 1941. These records, which include correspondence, mailing lists, journals, memorandums, proofs, financial records, manuscripts and ledgers, are part of the Dudley Observatory Institutional Archives that have been maintained as the historical collection of the Observatory.

  16. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  17. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  18. Sellar Region Surgery in Croatia in the First Half of 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović Ferenčić, Stella; Gnjidić, Živko

    2006-01-01

    We reconstructed the historical development of surgical approaches to the pituitary gland, which were used in Croatia in the first half of the 20th century, on the basis of earliest clinical case reports and descriptions of initial surgical attempts. The first published case report on surgical treatment of acromegaly was described, as well as the review of 11 patients with pituitary disease admitted to the Ophthalmology Clinic in Zagreb in the period 1925-1927. The earliest 5 reports on pituitary surgery dating from 1925 were analyzed to reveal the circumstances that led to the development of transsphenoidal approach as a method of choice in Croatia, when this technique was becoming obsolete in other parts of the world. Frequent modifications of surgical approaches to sellar region have been shown a suitable historical-medical model for analysis of changes in surgical trends. PMID:16625698

  19. 20th Century Northern hemisphere jet stream variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmecheri, S.; Babst, F.; Trouet, V.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The latitudinal position of the Northern hemisphere Jet stream (NHJ) modulates both long term climate trends and the occurrence and frequency of extreme weather events. Precipitation anomalies in particular are associated with NHJ variability and the resulting floods/droughts can have considerable societal and economic impacts. Therefore a better understanding of NHJs role in regional climate is essential in assessing the natural and socio-economic impacts of projected future change in NHJ features. We developed a new climatology of the 300 hPa NHJ based on its seasonally explicit latitudinal position. We used the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 (20CR) data at monthly resolution from 1930-2012 to define the latitudinal position of NHJ as the latitude with the greatest 300 hPa scalar wind speed (m s-1). From these data, we identified four seasons with coherent NHJ patterns (January-February, April-May, July-August, and October-November) and detected longitudinal sectors (total of 15 sectors for all the seasons) where the seasonal jet shows strong spatial coherence. We examined the influence of seasonal NHJ position on the geographical distribution of precipitation and temperature patterns for all sectors. Furthermore, we compared NHJ positions to atmospheric circulation indices at inter-annual and multi-decadal time scales. We found a significant relationship between the NHJ position and the North Atlantic and Arctic oscillations for all seasons and across the majority of longitudinal sectors. In addition to this, our NHJ data set supports a connection with ocean-atmosphere interactions over the northern Pacific Ocean on various time scales: we found significant correlations between the North Pacific Jet and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for all seasons and with El Niño Southern Oscillation for the winter season. Our results emphasize the importance of the seasonal and spatial characteristics of NHJ, as well as climate teleconnections, when considering regional

  20. The Enigma of 20th century sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th

  1. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (<1700 m3/capita/yr or ratio >0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (<1000 m3/capita/yr) has risen considerably, from 2% (29 million people) in 1900, up to 19% (1.2 billion people) in 2005. Geographically these concern mainly northern African regions, the Middle East, Pakistan and parts of India and Northern China. The region of

  2. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  3. Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Dagmar A; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David C; Esper, Jan; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Löffler, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    We analyze interannual to multi-decadal growth variations of 555 oak trees from Central-West Germany. A network of 13 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and 33 sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies is compared with gridded temperature, precipitation, cloud-cover, vapor pressure and drought (i.e., Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) fluctuations. A hierarchic cluster analysis identifies three groups for each oak species differentiated by ecologic settings. When high precipitation is primarily a characteristic for one Q. robur and one Q. petraea cluster, the other clusters are more differentiated by prevailing temperature conditions. Correlation analysis with precipitation and vapor pressure reveals statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) correlations for June (r = 0.51) and annual (r = 0.43) means. Growth of both species at dry sites correlates strongly with PDSI (r = 0.39, P < or = 0.05), and weakly with temperature and cloud-cover. In natural stands, Q. robur responds more strongly to water depletion than Q. petraea. Twenty-one-year moving correlations show positive significant growth response to both PDSI and precipitation throughout the 20th century, except for the 1940s - an anomalously warm decade during which all oak sites are characterized by an increased growth and an enhanced association with vapor pressure and temperature. We suggest that the wider oak rings that are exhibited during this period may be indicative of a nonlinear or threshold-induced growth response to drought and vapor pressure, and run counter to the general response of oak to drought and precipitation that normally would result in suppressed growth in a warmer and drier environment. As the wide rings are formed during the severe drought period of the 20th century, a complex model seems to be required to fully explain the widespread oak growth. Our results indicate uncertainty in estimates of future growth trends of Central European oak forests in a warming and

  4. A Reassessment of 20th Century Global Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Kopp, R. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic change in the 20th century is directly and indirectly observable in multiple aspects of the climate system. Some of these changes, such as global mean surface temperature, are widely studied and understood, while others, such as global mean sea-level change (GMSL), remain uncertain. Until the mid-1990s, with the advent of satellite altimeter observations of a significant percentage of the global ocean, point observations of global sea-level change through tide gauges were the primary means of monitoring the changing height of the sea surface relative to the sea floor. Traditionally, there have been two approaches for estimating GMSL from these temporally and spatially sparse tide gauge records. The first approach uses such records to obtain a global mean value by computing and summing representative regional averages through time (e.g., Jevrejeva et al., GRL, 2008). The second approach uses the dominant spatial patterns of sea surface heights from 20 years of satellite altimetry data to interpolate between tide gauge records to reconstruct global sea level over the century (e.g., Church and White, Surv. Geophys., 2011). However, the GMSL estimates obtained using these two methods differ by ~0.5 mm/yr from the mean global rate achieved by summing the data- and model-derived estimates of the underlying contributions (e.g., thermal expansion, mass flux from land ice, etc.) (IPCC, 2014). Here we describe a third approach that estimates GMSL using two probabilistic approaches based on fingerprinting the underlying source contributions from the spatiotemporal patterns of sea-level change captured by the tide gauge records (Hay et al., Nature, 2015). Our revised GMSL rate estimate of 1.2 ± 0.2 mm/yr over 1901-1990 closes the sea-level budget and maintains a good fit with the tide gauge record over the 20th century.

  5. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH WITH EMPIRE BUILDING (CENTER RIGHT), WOODWARD BUILDING (CENTER), JOHN HAND BUILDING (TOP LEFT), BROWN MARX BUILDING (BOTTOM LEFT), THE FOUR BUILDINGS THAT COMPRISE THIS NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  7. Historiography for Educational Leadership in Mathematics: Content Analysis of a 1904 K-8 Mathematics Series and the Early 20th Century Context of Its Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Math education is as important today as it was 100 years ago when the early 20th century was transforming from the old world into an era of factories, airplanes, atomic energy, and medical breakthroughs. Educational leaders of the era were wrestling with how long children should stay in school, meeting the diverse needs of an influx of immigrants,…

  8. American Women and the Military in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.

    This document presents lesson plans and related materials for teaching about the role of women in the U.S. military from World War I to Desert Storm (the Gulf War). The lesson includes a table showing the number of women who took part in Desert Storm broken down by branch of service. Another chart shows the number of women who served in the…

  9. Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2006-01-01

    Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are…

  10. Small-world networks in neuronal populations: a computational perspective.

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Gelsomino, Giuliana; Van Duin, Pieter; Nencini, Sara; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of the brain in terms of integrated neural networks may offer insights on the reciprocal relation between structure and information processing. Even with inherent technical limits, many studies acknowledge neuron spatial arrangements and communication modes as key factors. In this perspective, we investigated the functional organization of neuronal networks by explicitly assuming a specific functional topology, the small-world network. We developed two different computational approaches. Firstly, we asked whether neuronal populations actually express small-world properties during a definite task, such as a learning task. For this purpose we developed the Inductive Conceptual Network (ICN), which is a hierarchical bio-inspired spiking network, capable of learning invariant patterns by using variable-order Markov models implemented in its nodes. As a result, we actually observed small-world topologies during learning in the ICN. Speculating that the expression of small-world networks is not solely related to learning tasks, we then built a de facto network assuming that the information processing in the brain may occur through functional small-world topologies. In this de facto network, synchronous spikes reflected functional small-world network dependencies. In order to verify the consistency of the assumption, we tested the null-hypothesis by replacing the small-world networks with random networks. As a result, only small world networks exhibited functional biomimetic characteristics such as timing and rate codes, conventional coding strategies and neuronal avalanches, which are cascades of bursting activities with a power-law distribution. Our results suggest that small-world functional configurations are liable to underpin brain information processing at neuronal level.

  11. Climate Change in the 20th and 21st Centuries

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, Warren

    2006-04-19

    The NCAR Community Climate System Model and Parallel Climate Model have produced one the largest data sets for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its fourth Assessment. There will be some discussion of what is in state-of-art climate models. As a result of this and other climate assessments, most of the climate research science community now believes that mankind is changing the earth's system and that global warming is taking place. The changes are not only reflected in terms of means but also extremes. The new IPCC research findings will be presented along with future computational challenges. It is expected that in the future there will be a need for both terascale and petascale computing, which will allow for higher resolution climate models that have embedded hurricanes and smaller scale weather features as well as viable biogeochemical cycles. Because of concerns of burning fossil fuels there will be special emphasis on better estimates of the Earth's carbon cycle, which is a special concern for the DOE. In order to perform future climate change simulations, the computational methods will necessarily undergo a reexamination. Finally, at the end of talk there will be a discussion of how climate model studies can aid in future policy options, some of which will address 'geoengineering' the climate system.

  12. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru. PMID:24001096

  13. Conceptual Developments of 20th Century Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tian Yu

    1998-06-01

    This volume provides a broad synthesis of conceptual developments of twentieth century field theories, from the general theory of relativity to quantum field theory and gauge theory. The book traces the foundations and evolution of these theories within a historio-critical context. Theoretical physicists and students of theoretical physics will find this a valuable account of the foundational problems of their discipline that will help them understand the internal logic and dynamics of theoretical physics. It will also provide professional historians and philosophers of science, particularly philosophers of physics, with a conceptual basis for further historical, cultural and sociological analysis of the theories discussed. Finally, the scientifically qualified general reader will find in this book a deeper analysis of contemporary conceptions of the physical world than can be found in popular accounts of the subject.

  14. Conceptual Developments of 20th Century Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tian Yu

    1997-02-01

    This volume provides a broad synthesis of conceptual developments of twentieth century field theories, from the general theory of relativity to quantum field theory and gauge theory. The book traces the foundations and evolution of these theories within a historio-critical context. Theoretical physicists and students of theoretical physics will find this a valuable account of the foundational problems of their discipline that will help them understand the internal logic and dynamics of theoretical physics. It will also provide professional historians and philosophers of science, particularly philosophers of physics, with a conceptual basis for further historical, cultural and sociological analysis of the theories discussed. Finally, the scientifically qualified general reader will find in this book a deeper analysis of contemporary conceptions of the physical world than can be found in popular accounts of the subject.

  15. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  16. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  17. A history of leprosy in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2011-11-01

    From ancient time leprosy has been regarded as a terrifying, stigmatized disease; nevertheless, its cause remained unidentified up to the late 19th century. For centuries numerous leprosy victims worldwide suffered from its morbidity and were socially isolated. The afflicted individuals were segregated because they were considered 'unclean' and had to live in leper colonies, generally under very poor conditions. Physicians believed that leprosy was an incurable, highly contagious, and hereditary disease. In 1873 the Norwegian physician, Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), ended the myth of leprosy and discovered its causative agent, known as Mycobacterium leprae. Hansen's discovery was a great triumph in the fight against leprosy. In the 1930's, the first effective antileprosy drug, dapsone, was introduced and in the early 1980's multi-drug therapy was popularized because of high efficacy in resistant cases. Here, we have presented a brief look at the history of leprosy in the world with special focus on the historical account of leprosy in Iran, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  18. Measles epidemics of variable lethality in the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis; Hu, Zheng; Waller, Michael; Lee, Seung-eun; Terfa, Daniel; Howard, Alan; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Brundage, John F

    2014-02-15

    Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the Polynesian island of Rotuma (in 1911), in Boer War concentration camps (in 1900-1902), and in US Army mobilization camps during the First World War (in 1917-1918). Records classified measles deaths by date and clinical causes; by demographic characteristics, family relationships (for Rotuma islanders and Boer camp internees), and prior residences; and by camp (for Boer internees and US Army recruits). During the Rotuman and Boer War epidemics, measles-related mortality rates were high (up to 40%); however, mortality rates differed more than 10-fold across camps/districts, even though conditions were similar. During measles epidemics, most deaths among camp internees/military recruits were due to secondary bacterial pneumonias; in contrast, most deaths among Rotuman islanders were due to gastrointestinal complications. The clinical expressions, courses, and outcomes of measles during first-contact epidemics differ from those during camp epidemics. The degree of isolation from respiratory pathogens other than measles may significantly determine measles-related mortality risk.

  19. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain) since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866-2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant) increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the World, especially

  20. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-07-01

    Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain) since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866-2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant) increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially

  1. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  2. 3. Copy of early 20th century photograph of Assembly Bldg., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Copy of early 20th century photograph of Assembly Bldg., interior. Photograph owned by: The Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 2. Copy of early 20th Century photograph showing interior of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of early 20th Century photograph showing interior of Assembly Bldg. Photograph owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION (EAST FACADE) LOOKING NORTH ALONG 20TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION (EAST FACADE) LOOKING NORTH ALONG 20TH STREET FROM THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF FOURTH AVENUE NORTH. - Gibson Sheet Metal Works & Western Rope & Fittings, Incorporated, Twentieth Street at Fourth Avenue North, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 1. Copy of early 20th Century lithograph looking north showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of early 20th Century lithograph looking north showing aerial view of company. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto- aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd, Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 2. Copy of early 20th century photograph showing Euclid Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of early 20th century photograph showing Euclid Avenue facade, looking norh. Photograph owned by H.D. Koblitz. - F. B. Stearns Company, Euclid & Lakeview Avenues, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 174. Photocopied July 1978. (LGK) EARLY 20TH CENTURY VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. Photocopied July 1978. (LGK) EARLY 20TH CENTURY VIEW OF QUINCY SMELTER WITH QUINCY HILL IN THE BACKGROUND, AS SEEN FROM HOUGHTON, ACROSS PORTAGE LAKE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  8. 15. Early 20th century view (from southeast) of the Gault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Early 20th century view (from southeast) of the Gault Bridge. Source: Searles Library, Nevada City, California. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  9. The Destiny of an Eastern Observatory Follows the Dramatic One of this Part of Europe During the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    Founded at the dawn of the 20th century (1908), the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest had an evolution that followed the destiny of its country. After about half a century along which it lives the usual life of any European institution for research and education, it leaves the education after the World War II, becoming an institute of the Academy. A short period of progress is followed by an unprecedented, total isolation, even from the neighbouring countries. The fall of the communist system in the last decade of the 20th century brings new endeavours, but also a hard competition with the worldwide astronomy. What is important is that in each situation the Romanian astronomers have found the interior resources to resist and to keep the national astronomy competitive, at least as regards some of its fields. Moreover, by setting the South-Eastern Branch of the European Astronomical Society, it wishes to contribute to the finding of local solutions, with the goal of increasing the level of astronomy in countries that face the same problems, the same difficulties.

  10. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  11. Astronomers to Mark 20th Anniversary of the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    On August 23, scientists will mark the 20th anniversary of the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA), the most powerful, flexible and widely-used radio telescope in the world. "Twenty years ago, the VLA brought dramatic new observing capabilities to the world's astronomers, and today there is hardly a branch of astronomy that has not been profoundly impacted by the prolific research output of this radio telescope," said Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The anniversary will be marked in a ceremony at NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM. The keynote speaker for this ceremony will be U.S. Senator Pete V. Domenici, R-NM. Also speaking will be Dr. Rita Colwell, NSF Director; Dr. Anneila Sargent, president-elect of the American Astronomical Society; Vanden Bout; Dr. Riccardo Giacconi, president of Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI); Dr. Paul Martin, chairman of the AUI board of trustees; and Dr. Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA operations. "More than 2,200 researchers from hundreds of institutions around the world have used the VLA for more than 10,000 observing projects," said Vanden Bout. "Research conducted at the VLA has had a major impact across the entire breadth of astronomy, from nearby objects such as the Sun and planets of our own Solar System, to forming galaxies and quasars billions of light-years away in the farthest reaches of the Universe," Vanden Bout added. Major discoveries made by the VLA have ranged from the surprising detection of water ice on Mercury, the nearest planet to the Sun, to the first detection of radio emission from a Gamma Ray Burster in 1997. The VLA also discovered the first "Einstein Ring" gravitational lens in 1987, and the first "microquasar" within our own Milky Way Galaxy in 1994. Over the past two decades, the VLA also has made major contributions to our understanding of active regions on the Sun, the physics of superfast "cosmic jets" of material

  12. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  13. Limits on efficient computation in the physical world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaronson, Scott Joel

    More than a speculative technology, quantum computing seems to challenge our most basic intuitions about how the physical world should behave. In this thesis I show that, while some intuitions from classical computer science must be jettisoned in the light of modern physics, many others emerge nearly unscathed; and I use powerful tools from computational complexity theory to help determine which are which. In the first part of the thesis, I attack the common belief that quantum computing resembles classical exponential parallelism, by showing that quantum computers would face serious limitations on a wider range of problems than was previously known. In particular, any quantum algorithm that solves the collision problem---that of deciding whether a sequence of n integers is one-to-one or two-to-one---must query the sequence O (n1/5) times. This resolves a question that was open for years; previously no lower bound better than constant was known. A corollary is that there is no "black-box" quantum algorithm to break cryptographic hash functions or solve the Graph Isomorphism problem in polynomial time. I also show that relative to an oracle, quantum computers could not solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time, even with the help of nonuniform "quantum advice states"; and that any quantum algorithm needs O (2n/4/n) queries to find a local minimum of a black-box function on the n-dimensional hypercube. Surprisingly, the latter result also leads to new classical lower bounds for the local search problem. Finally, I give new lower bounds on quantum one-way communication complexity, and on the quantum query complexity of total Boolean functions and recursive Fourier sampling. The second part of the thesis studies the relationship of the quantum computing model to physical reality. I first examine the arguments of Leonid Levin, Stephen Wolfram, and others who believe quantum computing to be fundamentally impossible. I find their arguments unconvincing without a "Sure

  14. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2016-11-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  15. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2017-03-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  16. The evolution of casualty evacuation in the British Army in the 20th century (Part 2)--1918 to 1945.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C M

    2002-09-01

    This is the second in a series of papers that examine the evolution of the military casualty evacuation chain during the 20th century. The Spanish Civil War demonstrated to the world the revolutionary tactic of 'Blitzkrieg' developed by the Germans. This and the experience of the British Expeditionary Force in 1940 emphasised the need for mobility in forward medical units. The campaign in the Western Desert led to the creation of a number of new units such as the Field Surgical Unit and the Field Transfusion Unit which were introduced across the British Army as a result of the findings of the Hartgill Committee. The aeroplane transformed the evacuation chain from CCSs to base hospitals and beyond.

  17. The wings of Daedalus: The convergence of myth and technology in 20th century culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowitt, Mark E.; Kaplan, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, age-old human fantasies of leaving the Earth and touching the stars have been fulfilled by advances in space science and technology, whose roots are threaded through our history. Current advances are so explosive that the fundamental orientation of Western culture is being radically altered.

  18. Continuous Improvement: Building for the Future. Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, a comprehensive overview of Hawaii's public schools for school year 2008-09. This report contains essential progress indicators and measures, as well as highlights and comparisons of core educational data presented in a concise and user-friendly format. Appended are: (1) Glossary; (2)…

  19. Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

  20. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  1. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  2. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  3. 2. Photocopy of early 20th century drawing, looking south from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of early 20th century drawing, looking south from the air. Drawing owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 1. Photocopy of early 20th century rendering showing aerial veiw, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of early 20th century rendering showing aerial veiw, looking south. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  6. Cultivating Swedishness? Examples of Imagined Kinship during the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Different representations of "Swedishness," as expressions of altered kinds of imagined kinship in the Swedish educational system during the first half of the 20th century, are discussed. It is argued that even though the curriculum changed, from a more religious one focusing on fostering loyalty and moral commitment to "God, the…

  7. Blackness and Whiteness as Historical Forces in the 20th Century United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greason, Walter

    2009-01-01

    At the core of the epistemology of black identity in the 20th century United States is the assertion that freedom is a human right, not a privilege to be earned. By the late 19th century, an ideology of racial uplift had emerged that revolved around four concepts--compassion, service, education, and a commitment to social and economic justice for…

  8. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 20TH symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 20th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 76th Annual Meeting in Lexington, KY in March 2010. The principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spec...

  9. Visual Preferences of Young School Children for Paintings from the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuscevic, Dubravka; Kardum, Goran; Brajcic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of young school children in the visual preferences of paintings from the 20th century. The study was conducted at 4 elementary schools around Split, Croatia. A total of 200 children participated in the study, of which 87 were girls and 113 were boys aged 6-10 years. Visual preference testing…

  10. 1. Photocpy of early 20th century photograph, looking east, of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocpy of early 20th century photograph, looking east, of east facade of assembly building on Euclid Ave. Photo owned by the Cleveland Public Library. - Ford Motor Company, Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant, Euclid Avenue & East 116th Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 2. Photocopy of early 20th century photo, showing the Euclid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of early 20th century photo, showing the Euclid Avenue facade of the branch assembly building. Photograph owned by the Cleveland Public Library. - Ford Motor Company, Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant, Euclid Avenue & East 116th Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (20th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 11-14, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    This volume comprises the papers presented at the 1998 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council. This PTC'98 gathering focused on "Coping with Convergence." These 20th anniversary conference proceedings present at least one contribution on 59 countries and territories. The 120 papers in this volume are arranged…

  13. Translating Music Intelligibly: Musical Paraphrase in the Long 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosz, Jeremy White

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the practice of musical paraphrase in the long 20th century. Musical paraphrase is defined as the adaptation, alteration, or embellishment of musical material, often borrowed from another source. My project is built around a single guiding question: If a composer borrows music from another source and alters it for…

  14. VIEW OF LARGE COMPANY HOUSE, CA. 1904, ON 20TH STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LARGE COMPANY HOUSE, CA. 1904, ON 20TH STREET BETWEEN CAMBRIA AND SOMERSET AVENUES LOOKING NORTHEAST. (See WINDBER, TOWN OF, HAER No. PA-322, for historical and descriptive data.) - Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, House, 510 Twentieth Street, Windber, Somerset County, PA

  15. Exploring 20th Century History through Photographs: Integrating Multiple Disciplines through Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Karen; Hoffman, Mala

    1994-01-01

    Students at Hunter College Elementary School chose 10 events in the 20th century, 1 per decade, and completed research, art, and writing projects that would represent their viewpoint on each of the events. Students made collages containing photographs and headlines relating to their selected events and wrote autobiographical statements connecting…

  16. From Card Catalogues to WebPACs: Celebrating Cataloguing in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper provides an overview of cataloging in the 20th century. Highlights include: (1) issues in 1901, including the emerging cooperative cataloging system and the work of Charles Ammi Cutter; (2) the 1908 code, i.e., "Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries," published in British and American editions; (3) the Vatican rules, a code…

  17. The 20th Century evolution of energy budgets and meridional transports in two AMIP-like experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The 20th century evolution and spatial patterns of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA), atmospheric, and surface energy budgets (EB) are investigated in this work. These are computed as the balance between the radiative and heat fluxes at the TOA and at the surface. Total, atmospheric and oceanic meridional energy transports are computed from the EBs. Two AMIP-like ensemble simulations are considered: Integrated Forecast System (IFS) simulations of the ERA-20CM experiment, and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either Sea-Surface Temperatures (SST) and Sea-Ice Cover (SIC) or aerosol concentrations to climatological values. The recent decades estimates of the EB are in reasonable agreement in the two models, while they are not for what concerns the global scale evolution. Particularly, in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at Top of Atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. The impact of aerosols, as evidenced by the sensitivity experiments with ECHAM5-HAM, is seen to set up an inter-hemispheric gradient in the TOA and surface budget after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total poleward transport in the Northern Hemisphere and decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. This feature is not found in ERA-20CM. SST variations do not seem to induce long-term variations in the patterns of TOA budget and related total meridional transport. Nevertheless most of the surface and atmospheric budget and transport inter-annual variability is attributable to the evolution of SST, and much more agreement is observed among the two models in this respect. Reference: Lembo V, Doris F, Martin W, and Lionello P (2015) Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the 20th Century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments, Clim. Dyn., subm.

  18. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Natalie; Kloster, Silvia; Engelstaedter, S.; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Mukhopadhyay, S.; McConnell, J. R.; Albani, S.; Doney, Scott C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Curran, M. A. J.; Flanner, Mark G.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Mayewski, P. A.; Neff, Jason; Rothenberg, D.; Thomas, E.; Thornton, Peter E; Zender, Charlie S.

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  19. gLExec: gluing grid computing to the Unix world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groep, D.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.

    2008-07-01

    The majority of compute resources in todays scientific grids are based on Unix and Unix-like operating systems. In this world, user and user-group management are based around the concepts of a numeric 'user ID' and 'group ID' that are local to the resource. In contrast, grid concepts of user and group management are centered around globally assigned identifiers and VO membership, structures that are independent of any specific resource. At the fabric boundary, these 'grid identities' have to be translated to Unix user IDs. New job submission methodologies, such as job-execution web services, community-deployed local schedulers, and the late binding of user jobs in a grid-wide overlay network of 'pilot jobs', push this fabric boundary ever further down into the resource. gLExec, a light-weight (and thereby auditable) credential mapping and authorization system, addresses these issues. It can be run both on fabric boundary, as part of an execution web service, and on the worker node in a late-binding scenario. In this contribution we describe the rationale for gLExec, how it interacts with the site authorization and credential mapping frameworks such as LCAS, LCMAPS and GUMS, and how it can be used to improve site control and traceability in a pilot-job system.

  20. Attributing the increase in Northern Hemisphere hot summers since the late 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Shiogama, Hideo; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide

    2014-07-01

    Anomalously high summertime temperatures have occurred with increasing frequency since the late 20th century. It is not clear why hot summers are becoming more frequent despite the recent slowdown in the rise in global surface air temperature. To examine factors affecting the historical variation in the frequency of hot summers over the Northern Hemisphere (NH), we conducted three sets of ensemble simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model. The model accurately reproduced interannual variation and long-term increase in the occurrence of hot summers. Decadal variabilities in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans accounted for 43 ± 27% of the recent increase over the NH middle latitudes. In addition, direct influence of anthropogenic forcing also contributes to increasing the frequency since the late 20th century. The results suggest that the heat extremes can become more frequent in the coming decade even with the persistent slowdown in the global-mean surface warming.

  1. Infant feeding and professional advice in the first half of the 20th century in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pechlivani, Fani; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to assess the role that health professional and State policies played in shaping breastfeeding practices and attitudes in Greece during the first half of the 20th century. Original texts were used; including those concerned with breastfeeding traditions, health professionals' attitudes to breastfeeding, infant feeding patterns, partial breastfeeding, artificial feeding and State policies for the promotion of breastfeeding. Content analysis was used and breastfeeding rates were considered. In the first two decades of the 20th century, most Greek women breastfed their children, as advised by other experienced women. In the succeeding decades, health professionals and policy makers wrote books and articles praising breastfeeding albeit stressing the nursing mothers' ignorance of sanitary measures. Many health professionals were influenced by trends in developed countries and advocated novel infant feeding practices. Consequently, full breastfeeding was not promoted.

  2. Borehole Temperatures and a Baseline for 20th-Century Global Warming Estimates

    PubMed

    Harris; Chapman

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorological archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological Network, yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6° ± 0.1°C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region.

  3. Ahead of its time? Reflecting on New Zealand's Pharmac following its 20th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Robin

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand's Pharmaceutical Management Agency (Pharmac) was created in 1993. Unusual in international terms, Pharmac's objective is to work within a fixed budget while ensuring the New Zealand public receives an adequate range of government-subsidised medicines. Following its 20th anniversary, this article reflects on Pharmac's development and role within the New Zealand health system, various changes over time to the agency's scope and activities, its performance and its present challenges.

  4. History of the Women's Health Movement in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Nichols, F H

    2000-01-01

    The Women's Health Movement (WHM) emerged during the 1960s and the 1970s with the primary goal to improve health care for all women. Despite setbacks in the area of reproductive rights during the 1980s, the WHM made significant gains in women's health at the federal policy level during the 1980s and 1990s. The WHM became a powerful political force. The achievements of the movement in improving women's health during the 20th century were numerous and significant.

  5. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  6. The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession.

  7. Responses of Multi-Aged Music Students to Mid-20th-Century Art Music: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation replicates previous research into K-12 students' responses to mid-20th-century art music. The study extends that research to include undergraduates and graduates as well as an additional group of graduate students who had taken a 20th-century music class. Children's responses showed remarkable consistency and indicated that…

  8. How unusual is the 20th century within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khider, D.; Stott, L. D.; Saikku, R.; Partin, J. W.; Jackson, C. S.; Hammond, D. E.; Newton, A.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 150 years, global temperatures have increased by 0.6°C. It has been suggested that this increase in temperature, especially since 1980, has been unprecedented over the past millennium. In order to put the current warming trend into context, various efforts are underway to reconstruct the longer pre-instrumental history of climate variability. Here, we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) for the Common Era by combining five high-resolution records of Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca from different locations within the Indonesian Seas. The much broader spatial coverage and enhanced temporal resolution of this composite record allows us to assess whether the observed 20th century warming and the rate of 20th century temperature change within IPWP have been unprecedented in the past two millennia. The novelty of this study is in our approach to uncertainty quantification, which entails Monte-Carlo simulations that simultaneously take into account both age model and proxy uncertainties. First, we used a Monte-Carlo process (n=10,000) to generate possible age models for each sedimentary record used in the composite. This Monte-Carlo approach takes into consideration the analytical uncertainty in the 14C and 210Pb measurements used for chronology, the uncertainty in the calibration curve and the reservoir age, and the subjective nature of the interpolation scheme. Second, we take into consideration two sources of error in the SST estimates: the analytical uncertainty for the Mg/Ca results, which was assumed to be normally distributed and independent from sample to sample, and the uncertainty in the calibration equation, which was assumed to be dependent (i.e. each Monte-Carlo record is converted using a solution of the calibration equation). To do so, we use a Bayesian approach to enumerate possible solutions of the calibration equation. Finally, we binned the resulting SSTs into 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year non

  9. A Hard Look at the World of Educational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, David

    1982-01-01

    Addresses various issues in educational computing, suggesting that the real crisis facing schools is not a software shortage but a hardware crunch accompanied by misconceptions about how computers can help children learn. (Author/JN)

  10. Transportation for the Mind: Computers in the World of 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lane

    1984-01-01

    Discusses developments in computer technology--touch screen controls, the joystick, the mouse, voice synthesis, and speech recognition--which are making computers more acceptable to and usable by the general public. Also discusses applications in the appliance, automobile, health, and robotics fields which are making computers ever more important…

  11. Welcome to the World of Computers. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 20, San Antonio, TX.

    This manual was developed to help adult education teachers teach their students about computers as part of other courses in English, mathematics, social studies, or in a computer literacy course. Much of the manual has been written so that instruction can be given with or without the use of a computer. Although the manual is designed for use by…

  12. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty

  13. 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Aref

    2000-08-27

    The 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000, was held in Chicago, IL, from August 27 - September 2, 2000. It was 32 years since the last of these congresses had been held in USA. A record number of researchers in the mechanical engineering sciences attended and presented their work. The Congress provided an opportunity for the US mechanics community to act as international hosts. Several universities, professional societies, private foundations and individuals, and Federal agencies provided financial support for the Congress.

  14. Long-term natural variability and 20th century climate change.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kyle L; Sugihara, George; Tsonis, Anastasios A

    2009-09-22

    Global mean temperature at the Earth's surface responds both to externally imposed forcings, such as those arising from anthropogenic greenhouse gases, as well as to natural modes of variability internal to the climate system. Variability associated with these latter processes, generally referred to as natural long-term climate variability, arises primarily from changes in oceanic circulation. Here we present a technique that objectively identifies the component of inter-decadal global mean surface temperature attributable to natural long-term climate variability. Removal of that hidden variability from the actual observed global mean surface temperature record delineates the externally forced climate signal, which is monotonic, accelerating warming during the 20th century.

  15. One hundred years ago. Nursing education at the dawn of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Fondiller, S H

    1999-01-01

    The late 19th and early 20th centuries ushered in a number of significant events that helped advance the nursing profession in its early development. Nursing leaders began to show interest in the reform movements under way, such as woman's suffrage, settlement houses, and labor activities. They knew that nurses were not alone in their struggle to improve the health of the public. Philanthropic groups abounded, working for social betterment as well as for changes needed in overcrowded tenements, food inspection, and information to the nation about healthy living (1). In addition, serious concerns surfaced in the profession relating to the proliferation of training schools and reforms required in the educational system.

  16. [Famous doctors who stayed on the Croatian coast at the turn of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Petar; Lesin, Mladen; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Ivanisević, Milan

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century many famous persons stayed on the Croatian coast mostly because of touristic and health reasons, than because of natural beauties, scientific or political reasons. Most often they came from Austro-Hungary, Germany or Russia but also from our homelands. Among them were also many famous doctors, some known worldwide. The most distinguished were the surgeon Theodor Billroth, the bacteriologist and a Nobel prize winner Robert Koch, the pathologist Rudolf Virchow, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. They left a deep impression and a big benefit at the area they stayed in.

  17. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  18. Application of computational aero-acoustics to real world problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.

    1996-01-01

    The application of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) to real problems is discussed in relation to the analysis performed with the aim of assessing the application of the various techniques. It is considered that the applications are limited by the inability of the computational resources to resolve the large range of scales involved in high Reynolds number flows. Possible simplifications are discussed. It is considered that problems remain to be solved in relation to the efficient use of the power of parallel computers and in the development of turbulent modeling schemes. The goal of CAA is stated as being the implementation of acoustic design studies on a computer terminal with reasonable run times.

  19. WIRELESS Computing in Schools: Reach Out and Touch the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Linda; Teschner, Randy

    Many elementary and secondary schools tie with local colleges and universities and use modems to access the computing power available at these higher education facilities. To help alleviate the financial burden of long-distance phone charges, work had begun to use the airways instead of phone lines for computer communication. An interest in…

  20. An HCI Approach to Computing in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardi, Sarita; Krolikowski, Pamela; Marshall, Taneshia; Bruckman, Amy

    2008-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a six-week course to teach Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to high school students. Our goal was to explore the potential of HCI in motivating students to pursue future studies in related computing fields. Participants in our course learned to make connections between the types of technology they use in their…

  1. Atmospheric response to orbital forcing and 20th century sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantsis, Damianos F.

    This study investigates modes of atmospheric variability in response to changes in Earth's orbit and changes in 20th century sea surface temperatures (SST). The orbital forcing is manifested by a change in obliquity and precession, and changes the distribution of the top-of-atmosphere insolation. A smaller obliquity reduces the annual insolation that the poles receive and increases the annual insolation in the tropics. As the meridional insolation gradient increases, the zonal mean atmospheric-ocean circulation increases. The resulting climate also has a reduced global mean temperature due to the effect of climate feedbacks. This cooling can be attributed to a reduced lapse rate, increased cloud fraction, reduced water vapor in the atmosphere, and an increase in the surface albedo. A change in the precession, as the perihelion shifts from the winter to the summer solstice, causes a strengthening as well as an expansion of the N. Pacific summer subtropical anticyclone. This anticyclonic anomaly can be attributed to the weakening of the baroclinic activity, but also represents the circulation response to remote and local diabatic heating. The remote diabatic heating is associated with monsoonal activity in the SE Asia and North Africa. Regarding the 20th century SST forcing, it is represented by a multidecadal variability in the inter-hemispheric SST difference. This change in the SST causes a latitudinal shift in the ascending branch of the Hadley cell and precipitation in the tropics, as well as an increase in the atmospheric meridional heat transport from the warmer to the colder hemisphere.

  2. [TCM societies in Shanghai during the first half of the 20(th) century].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Lin; Lu, Ming; Chen, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Yang, Zhi-Qing

    2012-03-01

    In the first half of the 20(th) century, with the introduction of western academic thought and the assemblage of TCM doctors of different factions, the variety of cultures provided an ideological and academic background for TCM societies in Shanghai in modern times. Under the pressure of banning and exclusion, protective measures taken by the TCM circles promoted the establishment of TCM societies. The establishment and development of TCM societies in Shanghai in modern times included four stages - the embryonic stage (1903 - 1911), the development stage (1912 - 1926), the struggling stage (1927 - 1937) and the recovery stage (1938 - 1949). Aiming at academic studies, TCM societies in the early time could be divided into a national society and local societies and both were composed of scholars with the same academic viewpoints. Societies in the later stages aimed at maintaining status and fighting for rights. Activities held by these societies included starting publications, compiling textbooks, publishing, establishing hospitals and schools, prevention and control of infectious disease and innovation of TCM dosage forms. In the first half of the 20(th) century, the influence of TCM societies helped Shanghai become the TCM center in modern times.

  3. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W; Fletcher, Jason M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-06-14

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated.

  4. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W.; Fletcher, Jason M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Domingue, Benjamin W.

    2016-01-01

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype–fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated. PMID:27247411

  5. Evaluation of CMIP5 20th century climate simulations for the Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Mote, Philip W.

    2013-10-01

    temperature and precipitation data from 41 global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were compared to observations for the 20th century, with a focus on the United States Pacific Northwest (PNW) and surrounding region. A suite of statistics, or metrics, was calculated, that included correlation and variance of mean seasonal spatial patterns, amplitude of seasonal cycle, diurnal temperature range, annual- to decadal-scale variance, long-term persistence, and regional teleconnections to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Performance, or credibility, was assessed based on the GCMs' abilities to reproduce the observed metrics. GCMs were ranked in their credibility using two methods. The first simply treated all metrics equally. The second method considered two properties of the metrics: (1) redundancy of information (dependence) among metrics, and (2) confidence in the reliability of an individual metric for accurately ranking models. Confidence was related to how robust the estimate of the metric was to ensemble size, given that for most of the models only a small number of ensemble members (i.e., realizations of the 20th century) were available. A cursory comparison with 24 CMIP3 models revealed few differences between the two generations of models with respect to the statistics analyzed.

  6. The climate velocity of the contiguous United States during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Abatzoglou, John; Swanson, Alan K; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Mynsberge, Alison R; Holden, Zachary A; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Rapid climate change has the potential to affect economic, social, and biological systems. A concern for species conservation is whether or not the rate of on-going climate change will exceed the rate at which species can adapt or move to suitable environments. Here we assess the climate velocity (both climate displacement rate and direction) for minimum temperature, actual evapotranspiration, and climatic water deficit (deficit) over the contiguous US during the 20th century (1916-2005). Vectors for these variables demonstrate a complex mosaic of patterns that vary spatially and temporally and are dependent on the spatial resolution of input climate data. Velocities for variables that characterize the climatic water balance were similar in magnitude to that derived from temperature, but frequently differed in direction resulting in the divergence of climate vectors through time. Our results strain expectations of poleward and upslope migration over the past century due to warming. Instead, they suggest that a more full understanding of changes in multiple climatic factors, in addition to temperature, may help explain unexpected or conflicting observational evidence of climate-driven species range shifts during the 20th century.

  7. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease.

  8. Summer low flows in New England during the 20th Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, G.A.; Dudley, R.W.; Huntington, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    High springtime river flows came earlier by one to two weeks in large parts of northern New England during the 20th Century. In this study it was hypothesized that late spring/early summer recessional flows and late summer/early fall low flows could also be occurring earlier. This could result in a longer period of low flow recession and a decrease in the magnitude of low flows. To test this hypothesis, variations over time in the magnitude and timing of low flows were analyzed. To help understand the relation between low flows and climatic variables in New England, low flows were correlated with air temperatures and precipitation. Analysis of data from 23 rural, unregulated rivers across New England indicated little evidence of consistent changes in the timing or magnitude of late summer/early fall low flows during the 20th Century. The interannual variability in the timing and magnitude of the low flows in northern New England was explained much more by the interannual variability in precipitation than by the interannual variability of air temperatures. The highest correlation between the magnitude of the low flows and air temperatures was with May through November temperatures (r = -0.37, p = 0.0017), while the highest correlation with precipitation was with July through August precipitation (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001). (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

  9. Spitsbergen landscape under 20th century climate change: Sørkapp Land.

    PubMed

    Ziaja, Wieslaw

    2004-08-01

    A reaction of the European Arctic landscape to a climate change on the scale of a typical middle-sized region is outlined. A wide scope of the methods was used, first of all field mapping and observations. Glaciers are important in the Sørkapp Land landscape because they cover the majority of its territory and undergo quick recessions as a result of the 20th century warming. Glacial recession influence intensively: relief with Quaternary deposits, waters, animals, vegetation and soils. The most important landscape changes in the 20th century are: uplift of the equilibrium line altitude on glaciers by 100-200 m; large glacial recession in both surface and volume; significant decrease of the land area due to recession of tidewater glaciers; lengthening of the coastline, and especially of glacial cliffs; development of the land water network; start of the plant succession in areas abandoned by glaciers. No isostatic uplift has taken place in Sørkapp Land since the Little Ice Age.

  10. Urban residential refuse composition and generation rates for the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Daniel C

    2002-11-15

    Examination of historical data shows that 3.5 x 10(8) tonnes (t) of residential refuse was discarded in New York City (NYC) during the 20th century. Maximum and minimum rates of per capita mass discard of residential refuse during this time are reported in 1940 (940 kg per capita yr(-1)) and 1961, 1963 (320 kg per capita yr(-1)), respectively. Since 1980, per capita residential refuse discard rates have been steady and comparatively low (430 kg per capita yr(-1) +/- 2.5%). Fuel ash accounted for approximately 34% of residential refuse in NYC during the century. A decline of refuse bulk density (as collected) from approximately 500 to 200 kg m(-3) and an increase in refuse organic matter content from 20% to 80% (by mass) is reported between 1920 and 1990 and is due largely to mass fraction reductions forfuel ash and increases for paper and plastic. Approximately 4.9 x 10(8) t of refuse was disposed in NYC during the 20th century (including commercial and residential refuse), representing a total pool of about 8.0 x 10(7) t of organic carbon (as C) that has entered city landfills and incinerators.

  11. Politics and naturalism in the 20th century psychology of Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-11-01

    Alfred Binet is internationally recognized as the "father" of the first intelligence test as well as the most faithful French representative of laboratory experimentalism. A historical analysis of his work is therefore necessary to get to a thorough comprehension of 20th century psychology. The present article, starting from Binet's intellectual path and from the suggestions of the previous historical literature, aims at providing fresh insights into Binet's work by trying to capture the intersections between Binet, his naturalistic culture and the political context in which he worked in the early 20th century, when he actively tried to apply experimental psychology to the pedagogical area. In fact, it is possible to underline, with reference to those years, an evident turn towards applications in Binet's psychological production. The article reconstructs the political and institutional background of Binet's research and shows how the naturalism and experimentalism he promoted were complementary to the solidarist conceptions that were particularly prevalent among those who supported his work during the Third Republic.

  12. Extreme precipitation in the Polish Carpathians in the 20th century in the context of last 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Extreme weather phenomena together with their exceptional course and intensity have always been dangerous for people. In the historical documents such phenomena were marked as basic disasters. First notes about weather phenomena were made in Polish lands in the 10th century. Most information concerns floods caused by intensive rains. Using the data base created within the Millennium project, extreme precipitation cases exceeding 100 mm were analysed. In each case, the intensive precipitation was followed by a summer flood in the Polish Carpathians in the Upper Vistula River basin. Data from the period of instrumental measurements in the 20th century were studied in detail by the analysis of the frequency of occurrence and the spatial and temporal distribution. The results were referred to last 500 years. The information obtained gives approximate image of extreme precipitation in the historical times in Polish lands. All available multi-proxy data were used. Newspapers' notes concerning described phenomena from 1848-1850 published in Kraków were used to complete and verify the quality of data from the early instrumental period and also to complete the data from the period of the Second World War.

  13. Carbon profile of the managed forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S

    2014-08-19

    Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's managed forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams carbon (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest carbon increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest carbon stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores carbon, so long as those forests are managed sustainably.

  14. Fighting the 'microbe of sporting mania': Australian science and Antarctic exploration in the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Peder

    2004-09-01

    The 'Heroic Age' of Antarctic exploration, which occurred during the first 15 years of the 20th century, captured headlines around the world. Australia was no exception, especially as Australian scientists played important roles in several expeditions. Through participation in the British Antarctic Expedition of 1907-1909, two Australian scientists - T.W. Edgeworth David (1858-1934) and Douglas Mawson (1882-1958) - became genuine national heroes, mainly through being members of the first party to reach the South Magnetic Pole area. At a superficial level, the vehicle of Antarctic exploration placed science at the forefront of public awareness, fulfilling David's ambition for greater recognition of science and scientists, especially considering the high level of public interest in sport. However, although David and Mawson gave Antarctic exploration a scientific veneer, simply through their status as scientists, the public viewed them as heroes because they had endured great hardships and conquered a point on the map in the name of science and the Empire.

  15. Connecting the virtual world of computers to the real world of medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Glen, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    Drug discovery involves the simultaneous optimization of chemical and biological properties, usually in a single small molecule, which modulates one of nature's most complex systems: the balance between human health and disease. The increased use of computer-aided methods is having a significant impact on all aspects of the drug-discovery and development process and with improved methods and ever faster computers, computer-aided molecular design will be ever more central to the discovery process.

  16. Conference Abstracts: Fourth Annual World Conference on Computers in Education-Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are abstracts from volume two of the World Conference on Computers in Education, 1985. Four topics are: (1) cognitive and visual style; (2) computer graphics and descriptive geometry; (3) LOGO and educational research; and (4) algorithms, programing, and computer literacy. (JM)

  17. Programs=data=first-class citizens in a computational world.

    PubMed

    Jones, Neil D; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2012-07-28

    From a programming perspective, Alan Turing's epochal 1936 paper on computable functions introduced several new concepts, including what is today known as self-interpreters and programs as data, and invented a great many now-common programming techniques. We begin by reviewing Turing's contribution from a programming perspective; and then systematize and mention some of the many ways that later developments in models of computation (MOCs) have interacted with computability theory and programming language research. Next, we describe the 'blob' MOC: a recent stored-program computational model without pointers. In the blob model, programs are truly first-class citizens, capable of being automatically compiled, or interpreted, or executed directly. Further, the blob model appears closer to being physically realizable than earlier computation models. In part, this is due to strong finiteness owing to early binding in the program; and a strong adjacency property: the active instruction is always adjacent to the piece of data on which it operates. The model is Turing complete in a strong sense: a universal interpretation algorithm exists that is able to run any program in a natural way and without arcane data encodings. Next, some of the best known among the numerous existing MOCs are described, and we develop a list of traits an 'ideal' MOC should possess from our perspective. We make no attempt to consider all models put forth since Turing's 1936 paper, and the selection of models covered concerns only models with discrete, atomic computation steps. The next step is to classify the selected models by qualitative rather than quantitative features. Finally, we describe how the blob model differs from an 'ideal' MOC, and identify some natural next steps to achieve such a model.

  18. Flood Hazard Trends in the Mekong River during the 20th century due to monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Jose; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Flood trends were investigated in four stations of the lower Mekong River. Two types of changes were accounted for: trend in the mean and trend in the variance of the time series. A trend in the mean implies that the average flood events changed with time. A trend in variance implies that the frequency of low and high magnitude floods changed with time (Merz et al., 2012). Results showed that average flood events decreased during the 20th century. However, due to an increase in variance, the frequency of high magnitude floods increased towards the end of the 20th century (Delgado et al., 2010). This increase could not be detected by usual trend tests like Mann Kendall test or the ordinary least squares regression. The results agree with Katz and Brown (1992), who showed that variance changes are more important that changes in mean, when it comes to flood frequency trends. To investigate possible causes for the detected changes in flood variance, we looked at several large scale atmospheric circulation patterns cited in the literature. The Western Pacific monsoon index (Wang, 2001) showed the greatest resemblance with the flood data. A test of step change in variance was conducted which revealed a coinciding step change in variance between annual maximum discharge and the Western Pacific monsoon. A statistical model where monsoon variance forces flood frequency in the 20th century was tested. The results were statistically significant. This has the advantadge of by-passing the use of precipitation, which in this region is collected in a rather sparse network. Concerning climate change projections, a dynamic index like the Western Pacific monsoon index is better simulated by climate models than tropical precipitation (Wang, 2004, Douville et al. 2005). Another important result is the attribution of the detected changes. The Mekong River basin is located in a transition zone between the Indian and the Pacific oceans. Our results showed that the interannual variability

  19. War of Ontology Worlds: Mathematics, Computer Code, or Esperanto?

    PubMed Central

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Evans, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of structured knowledge representations—ontologies and terminologies—has become standard in biomedicine. Definitions of ontologies vary widely, as do the values and philosophies that underlie them. In seeking to make these views explicit, we conducted and summarized interviews with a dozen leading ontologists. Their views clustered into three broad perspectives that we summarize as mathematics, computer code, and Esperanto. Ontology as mathematics puts the ultimate premium on rigor and logic, symmetry and consistency of representation across scientific subfields, and the inclusion of only established, non-contradictory knowledge. Ontology as computer code focuses on utility and cultivates diversity, fitting ontologies to their purpose. Like computer languages C++, Prolog, and HTML, the code perspective holds that diverse applications warrant custom designed ontologies. Ontology as Esperanto focuses on facilitating cross-disciplinary communication, knowledge cross-referencing, and computation across datasets from diverse communities. We show how these views align with classical divides in science and suggest how a synthesis of their concerns could strengthen the next generation of biomedical ontologies. PMID:21980276

  20. Welcome to the World of Computers. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 20, San Antonio, TX.

    A continuation of an earlier manual, this guide was written to help adult education teachers and their students to go beyond the information of part 1 and learn more about the uses of computers. Although this manual is directed more toward teachers and administrators than toward students, activities for students are provided. As in part 1, some of…

  1. Security Meets Real-World Computing. Building Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Terence K.

    2005-01-01

    The author of this column describes several instances in which secure data on computers were compromised. In each of these instances, a different route was involved in gaining access to the secure data--one by office-based theft, one by hacking, and one by burglary. Is is proposed that the most difficult factor to guarantee in the protection of…

  2. Teaching World History With Computers: Why Do I Do It and What's Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sara W.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies reasons for using computers to teach world history. Discusses how instructors can acquire and use digital classroom resources. Describes how to develop and use online courses and course Web pages. (PAL)

  3. CyanoBase: a large-scale update on its 20th anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Takatomo; Narikawa, Rei; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Satoru; Kanesaki, Yu; Kobayashi, Koichi; Nomata, Jiro; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Mai; Ehira, Shigeki; Suzuki, Eiji; Awai, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2017-01-01

    The first ever cyanobacterial genome sequence was determined two decades ago and CyanoBase (http://genome.microbedb.jp/cyanobase), the first database for cyanobacteria was simultaneously developed to allow this genomic information to be used more efficiently. Since then, CyanoBase has constantly been extended and has received several updates. Here, we describe a new large-scale update of the database, which coincides with its 20th anniversary. We have expanded the number of cyanobacterial genomic sequences from 39 to 376 species, which consists of 86 complete and 290 draft genomes. We have also optimized the user interface for large genomic data to include the use of semantic web technologies and JBrowse and have extended community-based reannotation resources through the re-annotation of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by the cyanobacterial research community. These updates have markedly improved CyanoBase, providing cyanobacterial genome annotations as references for cyanobacterial research. PMID:27899668

  4. A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist's view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.

    2013-11-01

    This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the "High CO2 Ocean" by then well underway as the trajectory along the IPCC scenario pathways continues. By mid-century the massive role of the ocean in absorbing fossil fuel CO2 was known to specialists, but not appreciated by the greater scientific community. By the end of the century the trade-offs between the beneficial role of the ocean in absorbing some 90% of all heat created, and the accumulation of some 50% of all fossil fuel CO2 emitted, and the impacts on marine life were becoming more clear. This paper documents the evolution of knowledge throughout this period.

  5. A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist's view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the "High CO2 Ocean" by then well underway as the trajectory along the IPCC scenario pathways continues. By mid-century the massive role of the ocean in absorbing fossil fuel CO2 was known to specialists, but not appreciated by the greater scientific community. By the end of the century the trade-offs between the beneficial role of the ocean in absorbing some 90% of all heat created, and the accumulation of some 50% of all fossil fuel CO2 emitted, and the impacts on marine life were becoming clear. This paper documents the evolution of knowledge throughout this period.

  6. Distinct causes for two principal U.S. droughts of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, Martin; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Eischeid, Jon

    2009-10-01

    Diagnosis of observational and climate model data reveals that the two major U.S. droughts of the 20th Century had distinct causes. Drought severity over the Southern Plains during 1946-1956 is very likely attributable to remote influences of global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The Southern Plains and adjacent Southwest are regions particularly sensitive to SST variability, and strong La Niña events that occurred during 1946-1956 exposed that region's drought vulnerability. Drought severity over the Northern Plains during 1932-1939 was likely triggered instead by random atmospheric variability. The Northern Plains lies within a region of comparatively low sensitivity to SST variability, and that region's drought exhibited little sensitivity to SST conditions during the Dust Bowl period. Our results indicate that the southern portions of the Great Plains lie within an epicenter of potentially skillful drought predictions for which an ocean observing system is also a vital drought early warning system.

  7. New achievements in human cell toxicology: the 20th annual workshop on in vitro toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kolman, Ada

    2003-01-01

    The 20th Annual Workshop on In Vitro Toxicology (Oxford, UK, September 22-24, 2002) was convened as part of a European meeting entitled Human Cell Culture 2002. The meeting was arranged by the Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology (SSCT), the European Tissue Culture Society and the British Prostate Group. Two sessions, which are summarised in this report, were devoted to in vitro toxicology: Human Cell Toxicology and The SSCT Free Paper Session. Outstanding experts in the field of toxicology outlined contemporary approaches in toxicity testing in their lectures. Short oral presentations demonstrated a variety of in vitro model systems and methodologies, which can be useful for investigating human toxicity, as well as for studies on mechanisms of toxicity.

  8. Magnetic fields greater than 10 to the 20th power gauss. [in astrophysical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Schramm, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Zaumen (1976) found that spontaneous pair production in a uniform magnetic field should be a feasible process for field strengths at least of the order of 10 to the 20th power gauss. This note points out that a magnetic field of this order of magnitude is most unlikely to occur in realistic astrophysical situations because of the large dynamical and quantum-mechanical effects such a field would produce. It is suggested that Zaumen's calculation would probably have little bearing on the suspected evolution of astrophysical systems since other processes (either dynamical or quantum-mechanical) apparently limit the field strength before such high magnetic fields would be reached. An upper limit of about 10 to the 16th power gauss is obtained by considering the isotropy of the 3-K blackbody radiation, the formation of collapsed objects in very high magnetic fields, and magnetic bremsstrahlung processes in quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2009-02-01

    The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as increased incidence of stroke and heart attack, although the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Cancer inducing air pollutants remain a concern, but in addition more recently there has been a rising interest in the presence of neurotoxins and endocrine disrupting substances in the environment.

  10. CHANGES in SKIN TANNING ATTITUDES Fashion Articles and Advertisements in the Early 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jo M.; Ghaferi, Jessica M.; Cummins, Deborah L.; Mamelak, Adam J.; Schmults, Chrys D.; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V.; Stein, David

    2009-01-01

    Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the early 20th century, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period. PMID:19846688

  11. Migration trends in British rural areas from the 18th to the 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C G; Turnbull, J

    1996-09-01

    "Longitudinal residential histories are used to examine the extent to which three rural areas in Britain had distinctive migration histories from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Migration flows into and out of the regions are used to examine the extent to which the regions were integrated into the British migration system, and the relative importance of rural to urban migration is assessed.... Analysis reveals a high degree of short-distance mobility within regions and emphasises the dominance of London in longer-distance migration.... It is also suggested that the role of towns in the migration system has previously been overemphasised, with much migration taking place between small settlements and some movement from large cities to smaller towns and villages.... The analysis challenges some accepted notions about migration in the past, and contributes to the debate about the extent to which British regions became part of a national economic and social system from the 18th century."

  12. Changes in skin tanning attitudes. Fashion articles and advertisements in the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jo M; Ghaferi, Jessica M; Cummins, Deborah L; Mamelak, Adam J; Schmults, Chrys D; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V; Stein, David; Liégeois, Nanette J

    2009-12-01

    Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the early 20th century, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period.

  13. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kloster, Silvia; Mahowald, Natalie; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Levis, Sam; Lawrence, Peter J.; Feddema, Johan J.; Oleson, Keith; Lawrence, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN) and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005). We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997 2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000 2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

  14. Global reconstructed daily surge levels from the 20th Century Reanalysis (1871-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Méndez, Fernando J.; Medina, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Studying the effect of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients on the sea level variation (storm surge) is a key issue in understanding the recent climate change effect on the dynamical state of the ocean. The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time, scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. A recent global surge database developed by AVISO (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction) fulfilled the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent, since it only includes the last two decades (1992-2014). In this work, we use the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 (20CR), which spans the years 1871 to 2010, to statistically reconstruct daily maximum surge levels at a global scale. A multivariate linear regression model is fitted between daily mean ERA-interim sea level pressure fields and daily maximum surge levels from DAC. Following, the statistical model is used to reconstruct daily surges using mean sea level pressure fields from 20CR. The verification of the statistical model shows good agreements between DAC levels and the reconstructed surge levels from the 20CR. The validation of the reconstructed surge with tide gauges, distributed throughout the domain, shows good accuracy both in terms of high correlations and small errors. A time series comparison is also depicted at specific tide gauges for the beginning of the 20th century, showing a high concordance. Therefore, this work provides to the scientific community, a daily database of maximum surge levels; which correspond to an extension of the DAC database, from 1871 to 2010. This database can be used to improve the knowledge on historical storm surge conditions, allowing the study of their temporal and spatial variability.

  15. Sub-daily extreme events distribution and changes in Northeastern Brazil in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, R.; Allasia, D.; Tassi, R.; Bayer, D. M.

    2015-06-01

    The regional analysis of extreme hydrological events is connected with the availability of a dense network of rainfall data that is absent or inaccessible in Brazil, especially for sub-daily information. In engineering, extreme events rainfall information is represented by intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships which are the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering for planning and design. Even if the sub-daily information that is included in the relationships is not available, the extreme rainfall information rest in the fundamentals of the IDF. This paper analyzes spatial distribution and track changes in sub-daily precipitation over Northeastern (NE) Brazil. Precipitation was estimated from IDF relationships information in Brazil based in rainfall measured from 1920's to 1950's (but still used in engineering projects) and information from the last half of the 20th century obtained from several IDFs gathered from municipalities' manuals, local symposia and books in many cases not easily obtainable. Results showed an intensification of extreme events in recent years, especially in shorter duration rainfall (less than 12 h). Hourly rainfall is bigger in almost all the Brazilian region, but especially in littoral and Northern portion, however, 12 and 24 h rainfall exhibit increases in the North, but, lower values in the Southern half of the region in concordance with flood changes reported by Milly et al. (2005). Analyzing the ratio between 1 and 24 h rainfall is possible to confirm its increase in all the region, with up to 35% in some areas. These results were able to show insight of sub-daily extreme events changes during 20th century in NE Brazil were previous reports were not found. The results also alerts for the necessity of engineering projects review, as outdated information is still being used for design purposes.

  16. EDITORIAL: The 20th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-20 The 20th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian; Ecke, Wolfgang; Jones, Julian; Tatam, Ralph; Willsch, Reinhardt

    2010-09-01

    Welcome to our special issue on fibre optic sensors. Fibre optic sensors were first suggested in the patent literature in the mid 1960s as an innovative means for making measurements. This proposed a surface finish measurement tool with high precision and resulted in an instrument that remains available today. Much has happened since, with significant innovation in the techniques through which light propagating whilst guided in a fibre can be unambiguously, repeatedly and predictably modulated in response to an external phenomenon. The technique offers not only the precision mentioned earlier but also inherent electromagnetic immunity, the capability to sense at long distances, light weight, small size and a multiplicity of network architectures, all of which can be interrogated from a single point. Even so, fibre sensors is a niche technology, attractive only when its very special features offer substantial user benefit. There are, however, many such niches exemplified in the electrical power supply industry, in gyroscopes for navigational instruments, in hydrophones and geophones. Then there are the distributed sensing architectures that enable useful measurements of pressure, strain and temperature fields affecting the optical properties of the fibre itself to map these parameter fields as a function of position along lengths of fibre to many tens of kilometres. The fibre sensing concept spawned its own research community, and the international conference on Optical Fibre Sensors first appeared in 1983 in London then emerged into a series travelling from Europe to the Americas and into the Asia-Pacific region. The 20th in the series took place in Edinburgh at the end of 2009 and this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents extended versions of some of the papers that first appeared at the conference. The science and technology of fibre sensing have evolved significantly over the history of the conference, drawing on developments in optical

  17. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  18. High GUD Incidence in the Early 20th Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, João Dinis; Müller, Viktor; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2010-01-01

    The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the human host (e.g., unsafe injections), none of which provide a coherent explanation for the timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880–1940) for major SIV transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have been genital ulcer disease (GUD), resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4–43%), largely exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions, concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with incidences 1.5–2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20th century. We surveyed ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in early 20th century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1 group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20th century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence. Low circumcision rates

  19. Learning with Artificial Worlds: Computer-Based Modelling in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellar, Harvey, Ed.; And Others

    With the advent of the British National Curriculum, computer-based modeling has become an integral part of the school curriculum. This book is about modeling in education and providing children with computer tools to create and explore representations of the world. Members of the London Mental Models Group contributed their research: (1)…

  20. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  1. Nelson's wound: treatment of spinal cord injury in 19th and early 20th century military conflicts.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, William C; Sloffer, Chris

    2004-01-15

    During the first half of the 19th century, warfare did not provide a background for a systematic analysis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Medical officers participating in the Peninsular and Crimean Wars emphasized the dismal prognosis of this injury, although authors of sketchy civil reports persuaded a few surgeons to operate on closed fractures. The American Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion was the first text to provide summary of results in 642 cases of gunshot wounds of the spine. The low incidence of this injury (0.26%) and the high mortality rate (55%) discouraged the use of surgery in these cases. Improvements in diagnoses and the introduction of x-ray studies in the latter half of the century enabled Sir G. H. Makins, during the Boer War, to recommend delayed intervention to remove bone or bullet fragments in incomplete injuries. The civil experiences of Elsberg and Frazier in the early 20th century promoted a meticulous approach to treatments, whereas efficient transport of injured soldiers during World War I increased the numbers of survivors. Open large wounds or cerebrospinal fluid leakage, signs of cord compression in recovering patients, delayed clinical deterioration, or intractable pain required surgical exploration. Wartime recommendations for urological and skin care prevented sepsis, and burgeoning pension systems provided specialized longterm rehabilitation. By the Armistice, the effective surgical treatment and postoperative care that had developed through decades of interaction between civil and military medicine helped reduce incidences of morbidity and dispel the hopelessness surrounding the combatant with an SCI.

  2. Multivariate geographic clustering on the world`s first zero price/performance parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.; Hargrove, W.W.; Schultz, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The authors present an application of multivariate non-hierarchical statistical clustering to geographic environmental data from the 48 conterminous US in order to produce maps of regions of ecological similarity, called ecoregions. These maps represent more realistic and finer scale regionalizations than those generated by the traditional technique: an expert with a marker pen. Nine input variables thought to affect the growth of vegetation are clustered at a resolution of one square kilometer. These data represent over 7.7 million map cells in a 9-dimensional data space. Denied the funding for the construction of a Beowulf-style cluster of new PCs on which to perform this analysis, the authors built a 126-node cluster out of surplus PCs--primarily Intel 486 CPUs with a host of different motherboards and connected via 10 Mb/s ethernet--obtained at no cost from federal facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The authors describe the construction of this unique and heterogeneous cluster. Running RedHat Linux with the GNU compiles and both PVM and MPI, this cluster, aptly named the Stone SouperComputer, is the first parallel computer with a price/performance ratio of zero. After developing a serial version of the iterative statistical clustering algorithm, the authors developed a parallel version of the algorithm which uses the MPI message passing routines. The parallel algorithm uses a classical master/slave organization, performs dynamic load balancing for reasonable performance on heterogeneous clusters, and saves intermediate results for easy restarting in case of hardware failure. In addition to being run on the Stone SouperComputer, the parallel algorithm was tested on other parallel platforms without code modification. Finally, the results of the geographic clustering are presented.

  3. Modeling behavior dynamics using computational psychometrics within virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Cipresso, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In case of fire in a building, how will people behave in the crowd? The behavior of each individual affects the behavior of others and, conversely, each one behaves considering the crowd as a whole and the individual others. In this article, I propose a three-step method to explore a brand new way to study behavior dynamics. The first step relies on the creation of specific situations with standard techniques (such as mental imagery, text, video, and audio) and an advanced technique [Virtual Reality (VR)] to manipulate experimental settings. The second step concerns the measurement of behavior in one, two, or many individuals focusing on parameters extractions to provide information about the behavior dynamics. Finally, the third step, which uses the parameters collected and measured in the previous two steps in order to simulate possible scenarios to forecast through computational models, understand, and explain behavior dynamics at the social level. An experimental study was also included to demonstrate the three-step method and a possible scenario. PMID:26594193

  4. Modeling behavior dynamics using computational psychometrics within virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Cipresso, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In case of fire in a building, how will people behave in the crowd? The behavior of each individual affects the behavior of others and, conversely, each one behaves considering the crowd as a whole and the individual others. In this article, I propose a three-step method to explore a brand new way to study behavior dynamics. The first step relies on the creation of specific situations with standard techniques (such as mental imagery, text, video, and audio) and an advanced technique [Virtual Reality (VR)] to manipulate experimental settings. The second step concerns the measurement of behavior in one, two, or many individuals focusing on parameters extractions to provide information about the behavior dynamics. Finally, the third step, which uses the parameters collected and measured in the previous two steps in order to simulate possible scenarios to forecast through computational models, understand, and explain behavior dynamics at the social level. An experimental study was also included to demonstrate the three-step method and a possible scenario.

  5. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  6. Reorganization of the flood-prone atmospheric patterns at the onset of the 20th century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Bruno; Vogel, Hendrik; Anselmetti, Flavio

    2015-04-01

    studied regions. Comparing all the flood reconstructions over the last 250 years aims at tracking these atmospheric pathways and their possible changes over time. Strong similarities in flood frequency are observed from 1750 to 1900 for the western part (Cévennes, Southern French Alps), while no convincing correlation appears between the other records. Around 1900, a drastic change appears with strong similarities between records of the eastern part (Southern Alps, SE French Alps and NW Italian Alps). In particular, the flood frequency largely increased in the Cévennes during the first part of the 20th century, while this period is one of the most 'quiet' in all other records. Hence, these results suggest a reorganization of the flood-prone atmospheric patterns at the onset of the 20th century.

  7. Impacts of irrigation on 20th century temperature in the northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rezaul; Foster, Stuart A.; Keeling, Travis; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Carlson, Christy; Leeper, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    Land use change can modify root zone moisture distribution, energy partitioning and subsequently, near surface energy balance. Various modeling studies provided evidence of these changes. For example, land use change from natural grass land to irrigated land use would significantly increase and decrease latent and sensible energy flux, respectively. This type of long-term modification of energy balance would in turn change near surface temperatures. The Great Plains of North America experienced significant overturning of land from natural grass land to irrigated land use during the 20th century. This study provides assessment on the changes in the historical near surface temperature records in Nebraska, USA. Long-term mean monthly maximum, minimum, and monthly mean air temperature data from 5 irrigated and 5 non-irrigated sites were analyzed. Length and homogeneity of time series and stability of stations were primary determinants in selection of these stations. The time series include Cooperative Weather Observation Network (COOP) and Historical Climate Network (HCN) data sets. Pairwise comparisons of temperatures between irrigated and non-irrigated locations for pre- and post-1945, -1950, and -1955 periods were completed for both data sets. These breakdowns of time series helped to identify periods of widespread land use change. Results show notably cooler temperatures over irrigated areas. For example, mean maximum growing season temperature at irrigated Alliance was 0.64 °C and 1.65 °C cooler compared to non-irrigated Halsey during pre- and post-1945 period, respectively. Hence, there was a 1.01 °C cooling during post-1945 years. Moreover, there has been a greater cooling during the second half of 20th century. The bootstrap re-sampling method was applied and trend analyses were completed for further verification of results. These assessments largely show a decreasing trend in mean maximum growing season temperatures over irrigated areas. To further verify

  8. Numerical simulation of global temperature change during the 20th century with the IAP/LASG GOALS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yufu; Shi, Guangyu; Yu, Yongqiang

    2004-04-01

    The IAP/LASG GOALS coupled model is used to simulate the climate change during the 20th century using historical greenhouse gases concentrations, the mass mixing ratio of sulfate aerosols simulated by a CTM model, and reconstruction of solar variability spanning the period 1900 to 1997. Four simulations, including a control simulation and three forcing simulations, are conducted. Comparison with the observational record for the period indicates that the three forcing experiments simulate reasonable temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature change. The global warming during the 20th century is caused mainly by increasing greenhouse gas concentration especially since the late 1980s; sulfate aerosols offset a portion of the global warming and the reduction of global temperature is up to about 0.11°C over the century; additionally, the effect of solar variability is not negligible in the simulation of climate change over the 20th century.

  9. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles.

  10. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed.

  11. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.

    PubMed

    Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  12. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  13. Solar radiation measurements from coordinated radiosonde flights during the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Williams, Paul; Nicoll, Keri

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation sensors can be carried on standard weather balloon packages and provide additional information about the atmosphere's vertical structure beyond the traditional thermodynamic measurements [1]. An interesting set of circumstances for such sensors occurs during a solar eclipse, which provides a rapidly changing solar radiation environment within the duration of a typical free balloon flight. Coordinating several launches of solar radiation measuring radiosondes brings a good likelihood of at least one being above any cloud during the maximum eclipse, allowing solar eclipse radiation measurements for comparison with theory. For the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44N, 0.94W), Lerwick (60.15N, 1.13W) and Reykjavik (64.13N, 21.90W), straddling the path of the eclipse. All three balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. These approaches, which are essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. [1] K.A. Nicoll and R.G. Harrison, Balloon-borne disposable radiometer Rev Sci Instrum 83, 025111 (2012) doi: 10.1063/1.3685252

  14. Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriendos, M.; Coeur, D.; Lang, M.; Llasat, M. C.; Naulet, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Barrera, A.

    Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods) were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600-1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300-1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

  15. Comparative analysis of spatial and seasonal variability: Austrian precipitation during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, Christoph; Penlap, Edouard K.; Haas, Patrick; Formayer, Herbert

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to demonstrate the usability of objective methods to study the variability of precipitation and hence to contribute to a better understanding of spatial and seasonal variability of Austria's precipitation climate during the 20th century.This will be achieved by regionalizing the intra-annual variability of seasonal precipitation distributions during three non-overlapping 33 year samples (1901-33, 1934-66, 1967-99). Monthly precipitation totals were extracted at 31 Austrian stations from a homogenized long-term climate dataset provided by the Austrian weather service. Three statistical techniques, namely cluster analysis (CLA), rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOFs) and an unsupervised learning procedure of artificial neural networks (ANNs), were utilized to find homogeneous precipitation regions.The results of summer (June, July, August (JJA)) and winter (December, January, February (DJF)) seasons are presented. The resulting homogeneous precipitation regions depend on season, period and method in this order. Hence, differences introduced by using different methods are small compared with those inferred by investigating different episodes and especially with those related to the seasons.During winter, three homogeneous precipitation regions are found, independent from the period considered. These regions can be assigned to different airflows dominating Austria's climate and triggering precipitation events during the cold season. The situation during summer is more complicated. Thus, at least four clusters are necessary to record the circumstances, which are caused by spatially inhomogeneous convective events such as thunderstorms.

  16. Reappraisal of the 20th-century version of amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masayuki; Nakamura, Masahiko

    2003-12-05

    In this article, we advocate the radical revision of the 20th-century version of amino acid metabolism as follows. (1) Classic studies on the incorporation of [15N]ammonia into glutamate, once considered to be an epoch-making event, are not distinctive proof of the ability of animals to utilize ammonia for the synthesis of alpha-amino nitrogen. (2) Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase has been implicated to function as a glutamate-synthesizing enzyme albeit lack of convincing proof. This enzyme, in combination with aminotransferases, is now known to play an exclusive role in the metabolic removal of amino nitrogen and energy production from excess amino acids. (3) Dr. William C Rose's "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" are, of course, essential in cellular metabolism; the nutritional nonessentiality is related to their carbon skeletons, many of which are intermediates of glycolysis or the TCA cycle. Obviously, the prime importance of amino acid nutrition should be the means of obtaining amino nitrogen. (4) Because there is no evidence of the presence of any glutamate-synthesizing enzymes in mammalian tissues, animals must depend on plants and microorganisms for preformed alpha-amino nitrogen. This is analogous to the case of carbohydrates. (5) In contrast, individual essential amino acids, similar to vitamins and essential fatty acids, should be considered important nutrients that must be included regularly in sufficient amounts in the diet.

  17. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  18. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well.

  19. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  20. Spectral solar variations during the eclipse of March 20th, 2015 at two European sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, Julian; Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Doppler, Lionel; Tagirov, Rinat; Shapiro, Alexander I.

    2017-02-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on March 20th, 2015. The longest duration of totality was 2 minutes and 47 seconds off the coast of the Faroe Islands. It was visible in Europe and the only populated places from which the totality could be seen were the Faroe Islands and Svalbard. We report here on solar radiation measurements with various filter and spectral radiometers performed at Davos, Switzerland (46.8N, 9.8E) where the eclipse obscuration and magnitude were 66.9% and 0.729 respectively and Lindenberg, Germany (52.2N, 14.1E), (73% and 0.778). For the case of the 73% obscuration, spectral differences (between 380 nm to 865 nm) of 8% have been calculated from direct irradiance measurements and model calculations. In this work, using spectral measurements from different sensors, we also investigated possible factors that could cause spectral variations on the measured solar irradiance, such as the centre-to-limb variations (CLV) of the solar brightness that strongly depend on wavelengths. Finally, the observed decrease in total column ozone measured with Brewer spectrophotometrers during the eclipse could be partially explained by the spectral changes of the solar spectrum due to the CLV.

  1. Historical documents on epilepsy: From antiquity through the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Vassilyadi, Photios; Fehlert, Julia; Hagel, Christian

    2017-02-26

    Historical documents dating back almost 4500years have alluded to the condition of epilepsy, describing signs and symptoms that are well-known today. Epilepsy was thought to be a mystical disorder by almost all Ancient cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Iranians and Chinese. Hippocrates was the first to de-mystify the condition of epilepsy, providing a more scientific approach to the condition. As the signs and symptoms of epilepsy occurred without an obvious cause, the idea stood that it was a mystical phenomenon of divine punishment. This portrayal persisted through the early centuries of the common era, including the Middle Ages. It was not until the 16th and 17th century that Paracelsus, le Pois and Sylvius started to investigate internal causes for epilepsy. By the beginning of the 18th century, the general opinion on epilepsy was that it was an idiopathic disease residing in the brain and other inner organs. This resulted in Tissot writing the first modern book on epilepsy. Research continued in the 19th century with Jackson describing different types of seizures and many researchers showing interest in electroencephalography (EEG). The 20th century saw more detailed research being done on epilepsy and EEG, in addition to the establishment of many epilepsy-associated medical societies. The goal of this historical documentation is to provide an overview of the most important milestones in the history of epilepsy.

  2. [Evolution of surgical education through the 20th Century into the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    An abridged overview of the development of surgery and early surgical education, training and practice is presented, beginning in colonial America in the 18th century, extending throughout the 19th century, evolving rapidly during the 20th century, and progressing into the first decade of the 21st century. The metamorphosis and transformation of surgery training programs in the United States are described and discussed, together with some of the most relevant rationale and justifications for the many changes introduced, established, mandated and in progress. The current accreditation requirements, oversight, and governance of general surgery training programs; the incorporation of multiple technical and technological advances into general surgical practice; the addition of required training modules and systems to the programs; and their secondary implications, consequences, and impact upon the programs, are presented. These include financial and other resource impediments, the 80-h work week implications and constraints, the technological explosion, the demands of the required expanded general surgical curriculum and operative case experience, the continued erosion of general surgery by surgical and medical specialists, the increasing workload coupled with decreasing reimbursement for surgeons and their services; and the challenges and difficulties of amalgamating all of these confounding or conflicting factors into an effective and viable general surgery program. Finally, some of the personal insights, opinions, experiences, and philosophy of the author are incorporated into the narrative.

  3. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  4. René leriche and the development of 20th century surgery

    PubMed Central

    IONCIOAIA, BOGDAN; BUD, IOAN TEODOR; MURESAN, MIRCEA

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879–1955) was a 20th century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche’s death. Although Dr. Leriche’s legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Antonin Poncet, his friendship and association with Alexis Carrel and William Halsted have contributed to René Leriche’s development as a surgeon, researcher and thinker. Following the footsteps of his mentors, he produced outstanding clinical and academic work which had earned him a good reputation among his students and colleagues. Surgeons such as Jean Kunlin, Jao Cid dos Santos, Michael DeBakey, René Fontaine and others came to study and learn from him. These future generations of surgeons would themselves bring much contribution to the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases and medicine in general. René Leriche pioneered medicine with his research and ideas. His assiduous work of teaching, research and clinical practice made his influence last to our present. PMID:27004042

  5. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ~2-4oC in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ~2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (~800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.

  6. Cancer survival in England and Wales at the end of the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Rachet, B; Woods, L M; Mitry, E; Riga, M; Cooper, N; Quinn, M J; Steward, J; Brenner, H; Estève, J; Sullivan, R; Coleman, M P

    2008-01-01

    Survival has risen steadily since the 1970s for most cancers in adults in England and Wales, but persistent inequalities exist between those living in affluent and deprived areas. These differences are not seen for children. For many of the common adult cancers, these inequalities in survival (the ‘deprivation gap') became more marked in the 1990s. This volume presents extended analyses of survival for adults diagnosed during the 14 years 1986–1999 and followed up to 2001, including trends in overall survival in England and Wales and trends in the deprivation gap in survival. The analyses include individual tumour data for 2.2 million cancer patients. This article outlines the structure of the supplement – an article for each of the 20 most common cancers in adults, followed by an expert commentary from one of the leading UK clinicians specialising in malignancies of that organ or system. The available data, quality control and methods of analysis are described here, rather than repeated in each of the 20 articles. We open the discussion between clinicians and epidemiologists on how to interpret the observed trends and inequalities in cancer survival, and we highlight some of the most important contrasts in these very different points of view. Survival improved substantially for adult cancer patients in England and Wales up to the end of the 20th century. Although socioeconomic inequalities in survival are remarkably persistent, the overall patterns suggest that these inequalities are largely avoidable. PMID:18813248

  7. Lake sedimentary DNA accurately records 20(th) Century introductions of exotic conifers in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Per; Edwards, Mary E; Gielly, Ludovic; Langdon, Catherine T; Croudace, Ian W; Merkel, Marie Kristine Føreid; Fonville, Thierry; Alsos, Inger Greve

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) has recently emerged as a new proxy for reconstructing past vegetation, but its taphonomy, source area and representation biases need better assessment. We investigated how sedDNA in recent sediments of two small Scottish lakes reflects a major vegetation change, using well-documented 20(th) Century plantations of exotic conifers as an experimental system. We used next-generation sequencing to barcode sedDNA retrieved from subrecent lake sediments. For comparison, pollen was analysed from the same samples. The sedDNA record contains 73 taxa (mainly genus or species), all but one of which are present in the study area. Pollen and sedDNA shared 35% of taxa, which partly reflects a difference in source area. More aquatic taxa were recorded in sedDNA, whereas taxa assumed to be of regional rather than local origin were recorded only as pollen. The chronology of the sediments and planting records are well aligned, and sedDNA of exotic conifers appears in high quantities with the establishment of plantations around the lakes. SedDNA recorded other changes in local vegetation that accompanied afforestation. There were no signs of DNA leaching in the sediments or DNA originating from pollen.

  8. Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.

    PubMed

    Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.

  9. Quantifying the quiet epidemic: Diagnosing dementia in late 20(th)-century Britain.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    During the late 20(th) century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that 'reliable modes of diagnosis' were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated 'top priority'. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts.

  10. Water-quality trends in New England rivers during the 20th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Keith W.; Campbell, Jean P.; Jaworski, Norbert A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality data from the Merrimack, Blackstone, and Connecticut Rivers in New England during parts of the 20th century were examined for trends in concentrations of sulfate, chloride, residue upon evaporation, nitrate, and total phosphorus. The concentrations of all five of these constituents show statistically significant trends during the century. Annual concentrations of sulfate and total phosphorus decreased during the second half of the century, whereas annual concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and residues increased throughout the century. In the Merrimack River, annual chloride concentrations increased by an order of magnitude. Annual nitrate concentrations also increased by an order of magnitude in the Merrimack and Connecticut Rivers. These changes in the water quality probably are related to changing human activities. Most notable is the relation between increasing use of road de-icing salts and chloride concentrations in rivers. In addition, changes in concentrations of nitrate and phosphorus probably are related to agricultural use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. For all the water-quality constituents assessed, concentrations were greatest in the Blackstone River. The Blackstone River Basin is smaller and more highly urbanized than the other basins studied. Data-collection programs that span multiple decades can provide valuable insight on the effects of changing human population and societal activities on the water quality of rivers. This study was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  11. 20th century ethane variability from polar firn air and implications for the methane budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, K. M.; Battle, M. O.; Montzka, S. A.; Tang, Q.; Prather, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they impact both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, while methane alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and wastewater. Here we use measurements in firn air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane during the 20th century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980’s when the trend reverses, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. This variability is primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels that peaked in the 1960’s and 1970’s at 14-16 Tg/y and dropped to 8-10 Tg/y before the end of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is likely related to changes in light hydrocarbon recovery during petroleum production and use. The ethane-based emission history implies that the decline in the fossil-fuel source of methane may have started prior to the 1980’s and that the magnitude of the decline is larger than previous estimates.

  12. The Evolution of the Surgical Treatment of Sports Injuries in the 20th Century: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Konstantinos, Markatos; Georgios, Karaoglanis; Konstantinos, Saropoulos; Georgios, Tzagkarakis

    2016-10-01

    Sports injuries have been a major issue in medicine, surgery, and especially in orthopedics since the classical antiquity era. The 20th century, with its progress and innovations, changed the general concept of treating these injuries forever. The purpose of this review is to show how innovations in surgery in the 20th century changed the rationale of treating sports injuries. In this historical review, we present innovations concerning fracture treatment, spine injury treatment, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction related to sports injuries. In addition, we present and record those surgical techniques and the pioneer surgeons who first used them.

  13. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  14. Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter

  15. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  16. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA.

  17. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  18. A Comparison of Variable Total and Ultraviolet Solar Irradiance Inputs to 20 th Century Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, P. V.

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of spaceborne radiometry has shown that the total solar irradiance variation over the past two activity cycles was approximately proportional to the weighted difference between areas of dark spots and bright faculae and enhanced network. Empirical models of ultraviolet irradiance variation indicate that its behavior is dominated by changes in area of the bright component alone, whose photometric contrast increases at shorter wavelength.This difference in time behavior of total and UV irradiances could help to discriminate between their relative importance in forcing of global warming. Our recent digitization of archival Ca K images from Mt Wilson and NSO provides the first direct measurement of variations in area of the bright component, extending between 1915 and 1999 (previous models have relied on the sunspot number or other proxies to estimate the bright - component contribution). We use these more direct measurements to derive the time behavior of solar total and UV irradiance variation, over this period .We find that they are significantly different;the total irradiance variation accounts for over 80 percent of the variance in global temperature during this period, while the ultraviolet irradiance variation accounts for only about 20 percent. The amplitude of total irradiance variation in our model is smaller than required to influence global warming,in current climate models.Also, the impact of sulfate aerosol variations on the extended cooling between the 1940's and 1970's must be better understood before the significance of correlations between 20 th century global warming, and any solar activity index can be properly assessed. Despite these caveats, the lower correlation we find between global temperature and UV,compared to total, irradiance requires consideration in the search for physical mechanisms linking solar activity and climate. This work was supported in part under NASA grant NAG5-7607 to CRI, Inc., and NAG5-10998 to the Applied Physics

  19. 20th century precipitation changes in the Sahel region: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Baumgartner, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 20th century has seen an enormous growth in population and industrialization. These changes are accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. We present a preliminary analysis of these global simulation data for the Sahel region (land within 20W / 35E / 10N / 20N). The annual cycle as well as the overall temporal evolution of precipitation in the Sahel according to CRU (Climate Research Unit, UK) is captured well by the model simulations: two comparatively wet phases in the 1930s and 1950s, a more or less continuous decline thereafter, and a renewed increase in precipitation since the 1980s. This decline / renewed incline since the 1950s is, however, about twice as strong in the CRU data than in the model data. The sensitivity studies reveal SSTs as a prominent factor for the time evolution of precipitation, while the atmosphere only effect of aerosols plays a minor role for the modeled precipitation. The observation based prescribed SSTs may, however, encapsulate and aerosol effect already.

  20. The 20th-century development and expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Senn, D.B.; DiMarco, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Since systematic measurements of Louisiana continental-shelf waters were initiated in 1985, hypoxia (oxygen content <2 mg L-1) has increased considerably in an area termed the dead zone. Monitoring and modeling studies have concluded that the expansion of the Louisiana shelf dead zone is related to increased anthropogenically derived nutrient delivery from the Mississippi River drainage basin, physical and hydrographical changes of the Louisiana Shelf, and possibly coastal erosion of wetlands in southern Louisiana. In order to track the development and expansion of seasonal low-oxygen conditions on the Louisiana shelf prior to 1985, we used a specific low-oxygen foraminiferal faunal proxy, the PEB index, which has been shown statistically to represent the modern Louisiana hypoxia zone. We constructed a network of 13 PEB records with excess 210Pb-derived chronologies to establish the development of low-oxygen and hypoxic conditions over a large portion of the modern dead zone for the last 100 years. The PEB index record indicates that areas of low-oxygen bottom water began to appear in the early 1910s in isolated hotspots near the Mississippi Delta and rapidly expanded across the entire Louisiana shelf beginning in the 1950s. Since ???1950, the percentage of PEB species has steadily increased over a large portion of the modern dead zone. By 1960, subsurface low-oxygen conditions were occurring seasonally over a large part of the geographic area now known as the dead zone. The long-term trends in the PEB index are consistent with the 20th-century observational and proxy data for low oxygen and hypoxia. ?? 2009 US Government.

  1. Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-15

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  2. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  3. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  4. DIGEST MATERIALS FOR IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY. VOLUME 4, 20TH CENTURY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, JUNE

    PREPARED AS PART OF "PROJECT IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY," THIS VOLUME CONTAINS CURRICULAR MATERIALS REPRESENTING THE 20TH CENTURY PERIOD. A MUSICAL HISTORY OF THE PERIOD IS GIVEN, AS WELL AS HISTORIES OF THE COMPOSERS AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL COMPOSITIONS. THE MATERIALS ARE PREPARED FOR 3 DEGREES OF TECHNICAL…

  5. Gender, Identity, Missions, and Empire: Letters from Christian Teachers in China in the Early 20th and 21st Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Mary Shepard

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a historically-informed comparative study that juxtaposes the lives of three missionary educators in China in the early 20th century with three Christian educators in China today. Data sources included hundreds of letters from the women written in China to their families and friends over several decades and…

  6. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  7. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to…

  8. Beyond the Standard Measures: Physical Education's Impact on the Dialogue about Obesity in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrynn, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    As numerous Homans' lecturers have attested, Amy Morris Homans was a significant and visionary leader who set the foundation for women's physical education for the first half of the 20th century. Her reign at the Boston Normal School for Gymnastics (BNSG) was ironclad, and through the BNSG she controlled her student's lives, including their…

  9. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  10. Discursive Discrimination against the "Deaf-Mute"/"Deaf" and the Importance of Categorization in 20th Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreus, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This article sheds light on issues concerning discrimination in the history of deaf people in Sweden in the 20th century. With the help of a specific typology of concepts for analysing discrimination exercised through the use of language, it is shown how the categorization of the hearing impaired has changed over time and how, in this process of…

  11. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    PubMed

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them.

  12. On 20th Anniversary of Effort, EPA Gives Charles River a B+ and Publishes Live Water Quality Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has given a grade of B+ for water quality in the Charles River during 2014. The grade reflects the slight drop in water quality, encouraging more work to be done. This is the 20th year EPA has issued a Charles River Report Card.

  13. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  14. 20th International Conference for Students and Young Scientists: Modern Techniques and Technologies (MTT'2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    The active involvement of young researchers in scientific processes and the acquisition of scientific experience by gifted youth currently have a great value for the development of science. One of the research activities of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, aimed at the preparing and formation of the next generation of scientists, is the International Conference of Students and Young Scientists ''Modern Techniques and Technologies'', which was held in 2014 for the twentieth time. Great experience in the organization of scientific events has been acquired through years of carrying the conference. There are all the necessary resources for this: a team of organizers - employees of Tomsk Polytechnic University, premises provided with modern office equipment and equipment for demonstration, and leading scientists - professors of TPU, as well as the status of the university as a leading research university in Russia. This way the conference is able to attract world leading scientists for the collaboration. For the previous years the conference proved itself as a major scientific event at international level, which attracts more than 600 students and young scientists from Russia, CIS and other countries. The conference provides oral plenary and section reports. The conference is organized around lectures, where leading Russian and foreign scientists deliver plenary presentations to young audiences. An important indicator of this scientific event is the magnitude of the coverage of scientific fields: energy, heat and power, instrument making, engineering, systems and devices for medical purposes, electromechanics, material science, computer science and control in technical systems, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, physical methods in science and technology, control and quality management, design and technology of artistic materials processing. The main issues considered by young researchers at the conference were related to the analysis of contemporary

  15. Rationales for Teaching World Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, C. Victor

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that since the middle of the 20th century the inclusion of world musics in music education programs has become increasingly important. Presents three rationales for teaching world music in the United States. Discusses two assumptions and implications for music educators regarding world music. (CFR)

  16. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  17. An Apprenticeship-Based Multimedia Courseware for Computer Graphics Studies Provided on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabo, Amnon; Guzdial, Mark; Stasko, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cognitive apprenticeship, an educational practice that focuses on students actively engaged in activities with a variety of supports, or scaffolding. Presents a model of scaffolding that was implemented in courseware for learning computer graphics on the World Wide Web. An evaluation on the use of the courseware at Georgia Institute of…

  18. Design Principles for "Thriving in Our Digital World": A High School Computer Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Beth, Bradley; Lin, Calvin; Russell, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    "Thriving in Our Digital World" is a technology-enhanced dual enrollment course introducing high school students to computer science through project- and problem-based learning. This article describes the evolution of the course and five lessons learned during the design, development, implementation, and iteration of the course from its…

  19. Surface solar radiation and hydrological cycle in 20th century China: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The world, and China in particular, has seen a tremendous population growth and industrialization in the 20th century. These changes were accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. Here we analyze these simulation data with particular focus on surface solar radiation, temperature, and the hydrological cycle in China. Physical mechanisms able to explain the results will be discussed. We generally find the strongest effects in the east of the country, where urbanization and industrialization is strongest and emissions increased most. The decrease of surface solar radiation (SSR) under clear sky conditions reaches up to around -8 W / m2 per decade from 1950 to 1990. Comparable values are found for all sky conditions. Dimming ceases in the second half of the 1990s, when we even see a renewed increase in SSR in some regions. Overall, these findings are in line with observation based estimates. Modeled surface temperatures reflect the decrease in SSR but carry also a substantial SST signature. After remaining roughly constant from 1870 to 1900, we find modeled surface temperatures to increase by about 1 degree Celsius till 1950, then decrease again by -0.2 to -1.2 degree Celsius till 1990, before a renewed increase sets in. Precipitation decreases in our model results from 1950 to 2000 by up to 10% or 150 mm per year

  20. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and

  1. 20th Century Russian ice variability: results from a new digital dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Barry, R. G.; Fetterer, F.

    2007-12-01

    As the Arctic sea ice pack retreats to record-breaking minimum extents, it is increasingly important to be able to set these changes in a longer-term context. Here, we present a recently digitized set of sea ice charts provided by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St Petersburg, Russia. The earliest chart dates back to July 1933 making the AARI ice charts perhaps the longest-lived systematic sea ice record in existance. Converting the ice charts to equal area scaleable Earth (EASE) grid format, we compare the sea ice concentrations reported in the AARI ice charts with those from two other datasets: the National Ice Center (NIC) gridded sea ice charts; and the Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) dataset. Where the data overlap spatially and temporally, we are able to identify long term and seasonal differences between the datasets. By identifying the underlying causes of these differences, we present the basis for assimilating the concentration data with the view of creating an optimal hybrid sea ice data set for the Arctic. We also present an analysis of sea ice and air temperature variability in the Russian Arctic, derived from the AARI ice charts and meteorological station data, respectively. These results reveal three distinct periods of variability: a period of warm winters and decreasing summer and fall sea ice extent (period A), followed by a cool period of stable or slightly increasing extent (period B) before a period of year-round warm temperatures and ice loss (period C). In magnitude and seasonality, the warming and ice loss during period C are more significant that those during period A. However, the Russian Arctic ice pack did not fully recover during period B, suggesting that the early 20th Century warming during period A may have preconditioned the Arctic for greater change in recent decades. At the end of period B, there is a rapid expansion of both first year and multi year ice extent, which may also

  2. Rumours about the Po Valley earthquakes of 20th and 29th May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Camassi, Romano; Nostro, Concetta

    2013-04-01

    The history of rumours is as old as human history. Even in remote antiquity, rumours, gossip and hoax were always in circulation - in good or bad faith - to influence human affairs. Today with the development of mass media, rise of the internet and social networks, rumours are ubiquitous. The earthquakes, because of their characteristics of strong emotional impact and unpredictability, are among the natural events that more cause the birth and the spread of rumours. For this reason earthquakes that occurred in the Po valley the 20th and 29th May 2012 generated and still continue to generate a wide variety of rumours regarding issues related to the earthquake, its effects, the possible causes, future predictions. For this reason, as occurred during the L'Aquila earthquake sequence in 2009, following the events of May 2012 in Emilia Romagna was created a complex initiative training and information that at various stages between May and September 2012, involved population, partly present in the camp, and then the school staff of the municipalities affected by the earthquake. This experience has been organized and managed by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), the Emilia Romagna region in collaboration with the Network of University Laboratories for Earthquake Engineering (RELUIS), the Health Service Emilia Romagna Regional and voluntary organizations of civil protection in the area. Within this initiative, in the period June-September 2012 were collected and catalogued over 240 rumours. In this work rumours of the Po Valley are studied in their specific characteristics and strategies and methods to fight them are also discussed. This work of collection and discussion of the rumours was particularly important to promote good communication strategies and to fight the spreading of the rumours. Only in this way it was possible to create a full intervention able to supporting both the local institutions and

  3. The Uncertainty in 20th Century Carbon Budget due to Land Use Change Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, V. K.; Boer, G. J.

    2009-05-01

    The uncertainty in 20th century carbon budget due to land use change (LUC) emissions is assessed using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) first generation Earth System Model (CanESM1). CanESM1 is based on CCCma third generation coupled general circulation model and includes terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle components. LUC emissions are modelled interactively on the basis of specified changes in land cover that determine the amount of deforestation as well as the corresponding albedo changes at the land surface. Eight fully coupled climate-carbon cycle simulations are performed using different reconstructions of the 1850-2000 land cover that are based on historical data sets of increase in cropland and pasture area. The reconstructions of 1850-2000 land cover are based on two approaches: in the linear approach the changes in fractional coverage of natural plant functional types (PFTs) are in proportion to changes in cropland and/or pasture area and in the rule-based approach the natural PFTs are deforested in a specified order. These simulations allow to estimate implied LUC emissions, the contribution of increase in cropland versus pasture area on LUC emissions, the uncertainty associated with using different historical data sets of crop area as well as the manner in which the historical land cover is reconstructed. The amount of deforested biomass for the 1850-2000 period ranges from 63 Pg C for the case where only increase in cropland area is taken into account following the rule-based approach to 145 Pg C where increases in cropland and pasture area are both taken into account following the linear approach. In absence of historical LUC the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is about 20 ppm below the observation-based value of ~370 ppm in the year 2000. Inclusion of increase in pasture area although increases the amount of deforested biomass it does not change the atmospheric CO2 substantially because pastures also sequester CO2

  4. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  5. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, John C. H.; Wehner, Michael F.

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  6. Computer and World Wide Web accessibility by visually disabled patients: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Michael F; Cole, Roy G; Gupta, Suhit; Kaiser, Gail E; Starren, Justin B

    2005-01-01

    Rapid advances in information technology have dramatically transformed the world during the past several decades. Access to computers and the World Wide Web is increasingly required for education and employment, as well as for many activities of daily living. Although these changes have improved society in many respects, they present an obstacle for visually disabled patients who may have significant difficulty processing the visual cues presented by modern graphical user interfaces. This article reviews the specific barriers to computer and Web access faced by visually disabled patients, describes clinical evaluation methods, summarizes traditional low vision methods as well as newer assistive computer technologies for universal accessibility, and discusses emerging technologies and future directions in this area.

  7. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    PubMed

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  8. Evaluation of CMIP5 20th century simulations for North American climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Maloney, E. D.; Mariotti, A.; Kinter, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) provides an unprecedented set of model results for improved understanding of climate processes and feedbacks, anthropogenic impacts and potential future changes. In particular, evaluations of the model historical simulations are crucial for assessing model fidelity and are a necessary prerequisite for instilling confidence in their future projections. This study synthesizes results from the NOAA CMIP5 Task Force on 20th century model evaluations for the climate of North America and related climate processes. We evaluate the models for a range of features at spatial scales from continental to regional and for a variety of time scales from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal variability and teleconnections with North American climate. In general the models capture the main features of North American climate including seasonal precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature. The hydrological cycle is also reasonably well simulated for the main characteristics of atmospheric moisture convergence and seasonality of the surface water budget but the latter is subject to the biases in precipitation. The spatial distribution of growing season length and number of frost days are generally well simulated, with biases highest in western regions. The frequency of hydroclimate extreme events is not well represented by the models. The skill of the models in representing climatologies of regional processes, such as the Great Plains low-level jet, the North American monsoon and cool season North Atlantic extra-tropical cyclones, is variable and can often be attributed to model resolution. In terms of climate variability, the multi-model ensemble does reasonably well at reproducing observed variability in several aspects, but does less well at capturing observed teleconnections. For intra-seasonal variability, almost half of the models examined can reproduce observed variability in the eastern Pacific and most models

  9. Europe experienced a "warming hole" in autumn in the second half of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahynova, M.; Pokorna, L.; Huth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global warming has not been ubiquitous - there might be seasons, regions, and time periods with clearly discernible zero or downward air temperature trends. Regions that are not warming or are even cooling - also known as "warming holes" - have been previously detected mainly in autumn in the second half of the 20th century in large parts of North America as well as in central and eastern Europe. In this study we use daily maximum and minimum temperature (TX and TN, respectively) and daily temperature range (DTR) at 136 stations from the ECA&D database in Europe and the Mediterranean in the period 1961-2000 to precisely locate their seasonal and sub-seasonal trends in space and within the course of the year, and to assess the effect of circulation changes on these observed trends. Linear trends are calculated for moving "seasons" of differing lengths (10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days), each shifted by one day. Thus we obtain 365 values of "moving trends" for each station and each variant of season length. The day-to-day variability of these trends is greatest for short "seasons" of 10 and 20 days. Trends of the 90-day seasons are the most stable throughout the year and also bear the lowest trend magnitudes. Cluster analysis of the annual course of "moving trends" reveals relatively well-defined regions with similar trend behavior. Over most of Europe, the observed warming is greatest in winter, and the highest trend magnitudes are reached by TN in eastern Europe. Two regions stand out of this general picture: in Iceland and the Mediterranean, winter shows almost no trends, while in summer we see a pronounced warming. Significant autumn cooling centered on mid-November was found in eastern and southeastern Europe for both TX and TN; in many other regions trends are close to zero in the same period. Other clearly non-warming (or even cooling) periods occur in western and central Europe in April and June. Trends of DTR are largely inconclusive and no general picture

  10. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  11. The little death: Rigoni-Stern and the problem of sex and cancer in 20th-century biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Natalie B

    2015-06-01

    Approaches to the organization and conduct of cancer research changed dramatically throughout the 20th century. Despite marked differences between the epidemiological approaches of the first half of the century and molecular techniques that gained dominance in the 1980s, prominent 20th-century researchers investigating the link between sexual activity and anogenital cancers continuously invoked the same 1842 treatise by Italian surgeon Domenico Rigoni-Stern, who is said to originate the problem of establishing a causal link between sex and cancer. In this article, I investigate 20th-century references to Rigoni-Stern as a case of a broader phenomenon: scientists situating their work through narratives of venerated ancestors, or originators. By explaining shifting versions of originator narratives in light of their authors' cultural context and research practices, we can reimagine as meaningful cultural symbols the references that previous scholars have treated as specious rhetorical maneuvers. In this case, references to Rigoni-Stern provide an interpretive anchor for American scientists to construct continuity between their work and a diverse historical legacy of cancer research.

  12. Scientific computation of big data in real-world clinical research.

    PubMed

    Li, Guozheng; Zuo, Xuewen; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    The advent of the big data era creates both opportunities and challenges for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study describes the origin, concept, connotation, and value of studies regarding the scientific computation of TCM. It also discusses the integration of science, technology, and medicine under the guidance of the paradigm of real-world, clinical scientific research. TCM clinical diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge were traditionally limited to literature and sensation levels; however, primary methods are used to convert them into statistics, such as the methods of feature subset optimizing, multi-label learning, and complex networks based on complexity, intelligence, data, and computing sciences. Furthermore, these methods are applied in the modeling and analysis of the various complex relationships in individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in decision-making related to such diagnosis and treatment. Thus, these methods strongly support the real-world clinical research paradigm of TCM.

  13. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    The length of the vegetation period (VP) plays a central role for the interannual variation of carbon fixation of terrestrial ecosystems. Observational data analysis has indicated that the length of the VP has increased in the last decades in the northern latitudes mainly due to an advancement of bud burst (BB). This phenomenon has been widely discussed in the context of Global Warming because phenology is correlated to temperatures. Analyzing the patterns of spring phenology over the last century in Southern Germany provided two main findings: - The strong advancement of spring phases especially in the decade before 1999 is not a singular event in the course of the 20th century. Similar trends were also observed in earlier decades. Distinct periods of varying trend behavior for important spring phases could be distinguished. - Marked differences in trend behavior between the early and late spring phases were detected. Early spring phases changed as regards the magnitude of their negative trends from strong negative trends between 1931 and 1948 to moderate negative trends between 1948 and 1984 and back to strong negative trends between 1984 and 1999. Late spring phases showed a different behavior. Negative trends between 1931 and 1948 are followed by marked positive trends between 1948 and 1984 and then strong negative trends between 1984 and 1999. This marked difference in trend development between early and late spring phases was also found all over Germany for the two periods 1951 to 1984 and 1984 to 1999. The dominating influence of temperature on spring phenology and its modifying effect on autumn phenology was confirmed in this thesis. However, - temperature functions determining spring phenology were not significantly correlated with a global annual CO2 signal which was taken as a proxy for a Global Warming pattern. - an index for large scale regional circulation patterns (NAO index) could only to a small part explain the observed phenological variability in

  14. College Admission in a Contested Marketplace: The 20th Century and a New Logic for Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ezekiel

    2011-01-01

    The premise of this work is simple: the history of college admission since World War II is a consumer history. The way in which this history unfolds is far more complex. College admission is a contested good. It is simultaneously a consumable good (students purchase a college education for personal and familial reasons) and a social good (various…

  15. Soil erosion: 20th century equations with 21st century data?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dust Bowl of the 1930's focused the attention of the US on soil erosion and land conservation. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was the result of this effort and has remained one of the most widely used equations for soil erosion prediction world-wide. This empirical relationship has been...

  16. Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    1993-01-01

    Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

  17. Social Work's Legacy of Peace: Echoes from the Early 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Maura

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on Jane Addams and Emily Greene Balch, who played instrumental roles in opposing World War I. Notes that both women formed organizations, some of which continue to play central roles in social work profession today. Describes their activities in Women's Peace Party, and their accomplishments at 1915 Women's International Peace Conference…

  18. Between Citizens and the State: The Politics of American Higher Education in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loss, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    This book tracks the dramatic outcomes of the federal government's growing involvement in higher education between World War I and the 1970s, and the conservative backlash against that involvement from the 1980s onward. Using cutting-edge analysis, Christopher Loss recovers higher education's central importance to the larger social and political…

  19. A Study of Future Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The book suggests models of new world organizations that will be necessary to achieve the elimination of global poverty, injustice, war, and environmental imbalance by the end of the 20th century. The book was developed by the World Order Models Project (WOMP), an international group of researchers and scholars established in 1968 to explore…

  20. Computer Fiction: ``A Logic Named Joe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, David; Swedin, Eric

    The bulk of Science Fiction (SF) has not predicted the most influential computer technologies of the late 20th century. This paper begins with an exception entitled “A Logic Named Joe” and its accurate description of the contemporary environment of PCs and the World Wide Web. It then proposes the possible historical and cultural value of SF in techno-scientific development - more specifically computer development - in both the U.S. and Finland, and argues that social science approaches to understanding technoscience should take SF into account when describing those communities of practice.

  1. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schweber, Silvan

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  2. A 20th century forecast of 21st century healthcare trends.

    PubMed

    Naisbitt, J

    2000-02-01

    John Naisbitt, preeminent social forecaster and author of Megatrends, the New York Times 1982 number-one bestseller, has been accurately describing the future for the past three decades. This June, Naisbitt will share some his world view with individuals attending HFMA's Annual National Institute in Orlando, Florida, where he will give the opening keynote address. On December 31, 1999, while most of the world waited for the Y2K horizon to spread across the globe, Naisbitt spoke with Healthcare Financial Management about the future, particularly with respect to some of the subjects he tackles in his most recent book, HIGH TECH.high touch. Specifically, does technology free us from the constraints of the physical world, or does it tie us down to machines? Does it save time in our day-to-day lives or merely create a void we feel compelled to fill with even more tasks and responsibilities? How does it affect the delivery of health care? And with recent developments in genetic engineering now raising the possibility of a future that will someday be free of birth defects, disabilities, and disease, what then will be natural, what will be artificial, and what will it truly mean to be human?

  3. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 4. Wars from 1904 through 1940. Part 2. Wars of the 20th Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    0363 June 1983 C.VOLUME IV PartN Two: Wars of the 20th Century Vol. IV: Wars fram 1904- 1940 S-! 01stributlom limited to U.S3 goa’t. ageoligs only...Engagements 38 The ManchuriRn Incident, 1938-1939, and the Russo-Finnish War, 1939- 1940 Tables and Matrices 41 Narratives of Engagements 47 World War I...Volums II-VI, as follow: Votlm II: 1600-1800 Volum III: 1505-1900 Volim IV: 1904- 1940 6VbIkml V: 1939-194S Volum VI: 1939-1973 I * 7’ tilt, MEAGNffS

  4. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

  5. Consistent QBO-dependent effect of geomagnetic activity on the Northern Annular Mode during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliniemi, Ville; Asikainen, Timo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-04-01

    Several earlier studies have shown that geomagnetic activity (GA), as a proxy for energetic particle precipitation into the atmosphere, affects the winter-time Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which is the dominant circulation pattern in the northern hemisphere during winter. It has also been found that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the relationship between GA and NAM. However, some of the earlier studies on this QBO modulation have been mutually conflicting, with some studies suggesting a stronger positive relation in the easterly phase of the QBO, while other studies suggest a stronger positive relation in the westerly phase of the QBO. Here we study the QBO-GA-NAM relationship using a QBO reconstruction covering the whole 20th century. We find that the QBO modulation of the GA-NAM relation is temporally variable, which explains the earlier, seemingly differing results. Positive GA-NAM relation is found to be valid in the easterly QBO phase at 30 hPa during the whole 20th century. We also find that the QBO at 30 hPa represents the Holton-Tan relation for the surface circulation better than QBO at 50 hPa, and that the Holton-Tan relation is only observed during early/mid winter, while an anti-Holton-Tan relation is found in the late winter for strong geomagnetic activity. These results emphasize the variable but systematic response of NAM to energetic particle precipitation during the entire 20th century, and underline the importance of considering the preconditioning of the atmosphere when studying the solar-related effects upon climate.

  6. The 20th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: building a generation of robotists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Kosinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 20 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  7. Extension of the SIM Hydrometeorological Reanalysis Over the Entire 20th Century by Combination of Observations and Statistical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minvielle, M.; Céron, J.; Page, C.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system is a combination of three different components: an atmospheric analysis system (SAFRAN) providing the atmospheric forcing for a land surface model (ISBA) that computes surface water and energy budgets and a hydrological model (MODCOU) that provides river flows and level of several aquifers. The variables generated by the SIM chain constitute the SIM reanalysis and the current version only covers the 1958-2012 period. However, long climate datasets are required for evaluation and verification of climate hindcasts/forecasts and to isolate the contribution of natural decadal variability from that of anthropogenic forcing to climate variations. The aim of this work is to extend of the fine-mesh SIM reanalysis to the entire 20th century, especially focusing on temperature and rainfall over France, but also soil wetness and river flows. This extension will first allow a detailed investigation of the influence of decadal variability on France at very fine spatial scales and will provide crucial information for climate model evaluation. Before 1958, the density of available observations from Météo-France necessary to force SAFRAN (rainfall, snow, wind, temperature, humidity, cloudiness) is much lower than today, and not sufficient to produce a correct SIM reanalysis. That's why is has been decided to use the available atmospheric observations over the past decades combined to a statistical downscaling algorithm to overcome the lack of observations. The DSCLIM software package implemented by the CERFACS and using a weather typing based statistical methodology will be used as statistical downscaling method to reconstruct the atmospheric variables necessary to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological component. The first stage of this work was to estimate and compare the bias and strengths of the two approaches in their ability to reconstruct the past decades. In this sense, SIM hydro-meteorological experiments were performed for some recent

  8. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare.

  9. Jeewanu, or the 'particles of life'. The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research.

    PubMed

    Grote, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized 'Jeewanu', or 'particle of life'. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called 'coacervate theory' of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  10. Effects of 20th Century Warming and Climate Variability on Flood Risk in the Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    Flood risk in the western U.S., although frequently assumed for design purposes to be static, is in reality a function of non-stationary regional climate and climate variability. During the 20th century, the western U.S. has warmed at a rate of about 1 degree C per century overall, and changes in cool season precipitation variability are also evident after about 1975. Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model and a long term driving data set from 1916-2003, we examine the implications of these 20th century changes in climate on natural flooding regimes in the West. We find that changes in flood risk that accompany large scale warming are a complex function of mid-winter temperature regimes, which are related to seasonal changes in antecedent snowpack and contributing basin area during storms that cause flooding. In strongly snowmelt dominant river basins, simulated flood risk in most cases has declined with 20th century warming, because of reductions in peak spring snowpack. For river basins near the freezing level in mid-winter the effects of warming on flood risk vary widely and increases or decreases in flood risks can occur in response to warming depending on the relative importance of changes in effective basin area and antecedent snow conditions that are coincident with storms. Relatively warm basins close to the Pacific Coast tend to show increased flood risk, while somewhat colder inland areas tend to show decreased flood risk overall. Flood risk in rain-dominant basins, although affected by small systematic changes in soil moisture, is largely stationary in response to warming. Changes in cool season precipitation variability (increased variance, autocorrelation, and regional synchronicity) since about 1975 are shown to increase flood risk over much of the western U.S., however it is currently unclear whether these precipitation changes are systematic in nature (e.g. related to warming) or whether this is simply one mode of

  11. [The conceptual revolutions about nature as imposed by 20th century physics].

    PubMed

    González de Posada, D Francisco

    2002-01-01

    A catalogue is offered of the thirteen conceptual--and observational--revolutions which took place in twentieth century Physics, those which should be considered the most revelant for their significance in the scientific and philosophical thought about Nature as established along that century. The are organized in the three areas where they were originated: Relativity, Quantum Physics and Cosmology. Several of these conceptual revolutions appeared in Physics explicitly, while the rest only happened to arise in a latent way. The ones and the others are remarked in this contribution with philosophical expressions and through the world horizon, a perspective which opens in a general manner each revolution to the whole of the scientific and philosophical of the past century.

  12. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  13. Energy use of U.S. consumer electronics at the end of the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Karen; Meier, Alan

    2000-08-31

    The major consumer electronics in U.S. homes accounted for over 10 percent of U.S. residential electricity consumption, which is comparable to the electricity consumed by refrigerators or lighting. We attribute 3.6 percent to video products, 3.3 percent to home office equipment, and 1.8 percent to audio products. Televisions use more energy than any other single product category, but computer energy use now ranks second and is likely to continue growing. In all, consumer electronics consumed 110 THw in the U.S. in 1999, over 60 percent of which was consumed while the products were not in use.

  14. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    PubMed

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  15. Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Light, Erin M.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Hall, Roland I.; Eichel, Kaleigh; Jasechko, Scott; White, Jerry; Fishback, LeeAnn; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrological fate of shallow tundra lakes and ponds under conditions of continued warming remains uncertain, but has important implications for wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycling. Observations of unprecedented pond desiccation, in particular, signify catastrophic loss of aquatic habitat in some Arctic locations. Shallow tundra ponds are a ubiquitous feature in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), a region that has undergone intense warming over the past ˜50 years. But it remains unknown how hydrological processes in these ponds have responded. Here, we use cellulose-inferred pond water oxygen isotope records from sediment cores, informed by monitoring of modern pond water isotope compositions during the 2009 and 2010 ice-free seasons, to reconstruct hydrological conditions of four shallow tundra ponds in the western HBL over the past three centuries. Following an interval of relative hydrological stability during the early part of the records, results reveal widely differing hydrological responses to 20th century climate change among the study sites, which is largely dependent on hydrological connectivity of the basins within their respective surrounding peatlands. These findings suggest the 20th century has been characterized by an increasingly dynamic landscape that has variably influenced surface water balance - a factor that is likely to play a key role in determining the future water balance of ponds in this region.

  16. The global tuberculosis situation. Progress and problems in the 20th century, prospects for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Cegielski, J Peter; Chin, Daniel P; Espinal, Marcos A; Frieden, Thomas R; Rodriquez Cruz, Rodolfo; Talbot, Elizabeth A; Weil, Diana E C; Zaleskis, Richard; Raviglione, Mario C

    2002-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been identified in prehistoric remains of humans. Despite references to TB by Hippocrates and Galen, humankind had limited understanding of and few tools to defend itself against TB until the later 19th century. Subsequently, landmark advances in the 20th century provided the means to control and prevent this disease. At the same time, epidemiological developments and fundamental problems related to human behavior, socioeconomic conditions, and political circumstances continue to thwart efforts to diminish the burden of suffering and death caused by TB. This article reviewed some of these issues including the global failure of TB control in the late 20th century, the worldwide emergence of drug-resistant TB, the extensive spread of HIV infection and its impact on TB incidence; and changing health care and political environments. The obstacles to TB control remain and will remain challenges in the coming years. Still, recent developments in immunology, biochemistry, and molecular biology suggest that new knowledge and tools are just around the corner. These will enhance the ability to conquer this microbe by the end of the current century.

  17. A time-series analysis of the 20th century climate simulations produced for the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-García, Carlos; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970's. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies.

  18. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Changes in the African American female profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, Shaul; Turley, Patrick K

    2004-04-01

    This study evaluated changes in the profiles of African American women presented in fashion magazines during the 20th century. Twenty-six variables were measured on a total of 119 profile photographs collected from various fashion magazines published in the 1940s through the 1990s. The photographs were divided into 6 groups corresponding to the decade in which they were published. A 1-way analysis of variance was performed, and between-group differences were examined with a Tukey multiple comparison procedure. Significant between-group differences (P <.01) were found for anteroposterior lip position, nasolabial angle, and interlabial angle, with increased fullness and more anteriorly positioned lips in the more recent decades. No significant differences were found for the frontonasal angle, the nasal tip angle, and the relationship of the chin to the upper face (total facial angle). Esthetic standards for the African-American female profile changed during the 20th century and, similar to the standards for the white profile, show a trend toward fuller and more anteriorly positioned lips.

  20. [The Rockefeller Foundation, the Carlsberg Foundation and Danish medical biology in the interwar years. Effects on research and education throughout the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L

    1999-01-01

    Three large scientific institutes were built in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1928 and 1938 supported by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York. The three institutes were: the Rockefeller Institute of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej, the Biological Institute of the Carlsberg Foundation, and the Institute of Human Genetics, both on Tagensvej (The Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen participated in the financing of the two first ones.) In the same period the Rockefeller Foundation supported the construction of a cyclotron at Niels Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics. These institutes in Copenhagen sent many co-workers both to the Rockefeller University in New York and to other places in the world for further education supported by stipends from the Rockefeller Foundation. The scientific nucleus around which these activities crystallized included: the physiologist (and Nobel Prize winner) Aug. Krogh, the physicist (and Nobel Prize winner) Niels Bohr, the chemist S.P.L. Sorensen, the geneticist W. Johannsen, the plant physiologist Peter Boysen Jensen, and the cell culturist Albert Fischer. The international co-operation between the two foundations began early in the 20th century and it can be traced in Danish medical/biological science through the rest of that century.

  1. Suicide and political regime in New South Wales and Australia during the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Page, A; Morrell, S; Taylor, R

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: Australia has had a two party parliamentary political system for most of the period since its Federation in 1901, dominated either by a social democratic (Labor) or a conservative ideological perspective. This paper investigates whether such political differences at Federal and State levels have influenced suicide rates in the state of New South Wales (NSW) for the period 1901–1998. Design: Federal government type, NSW State government type, and combinations of both Federal and NSW State government type were examined. Poisson regression models were stratified by sex and controlled for the effects of age, annual change in gross domestic product, sedative availability, drought, and both world wars. Results: When both Federal and NSW State governments were conservative the relative risk of suicide for NSW men was 1.17 (p<0.001) and for women 1.40 (p<0.001) compared with both governments being Labor (1.00). A statistically significant linear trend (p<0.001) in suicide risk was evident across the continuum of Federal/State government combinations, from both Labor (lowest), to mixed (intermediate), to both conservative (highest). Conclusion: Significantly higher suicide risk was associated with conservative government tenures compared with social democratic incumbents. Results are discussed in terms of the differences underpinning conservative and social democratic government programme ideology, and their relevance to Durkheim's theories of suicide, social regulation, and integration. PMID:12239203

  2. From Modern Push-Button Hospital-beds to 20th Century Mechatronic Beds: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present the different aspects of modern high complexity electric beds of the period 1940 until 2000 exclusively. The chronology of the product has been strictly divided into three big stages: electric and semi-electric beds (until the 90’s), mechatronic beds (90’s until 2000) and, mechatronic intelligent beds of the last 15 years. The latter are not considered in this work due to the extension for its analysis. The justification for classifying the product is presented under the concepts of medical, assistive and mobility devices. Relevant aspects of common immobility problems of the different types of patients for which the beds are mainly addressed are shown in detail. The basic functioning of the patient’s movement generator and the implementation of actuators, together with IT programs, specific accessories and connectivity means and network-communication shown in this work, were those that gave origin to current mechatronic beds. We present the historical evolution of high complexity electric beds by illustrating cases extracted from a meticulous time line, based on patents, inventions and publications in newspapers and magazines of the world. The criteria adopted to evaluate the innovation were: characteristics of controls; accessories (mattresses, lighting, siderails, etc.), aesthetic and morphologic properties and outstanding functionalities.

  3. A legacy in 20th-century medicine: Robert Allan Phillips and the taming of cholera.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Stephen J

    2002-09-15

    The legacy of Captain Robert Allan Phillips (1906-1976) was to establish effective, evidence-based rehydration methods for the treatment of cholera. As a Navy Lieutenant at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (New York, New York) during World War II, Phillips developed a field method for the rapid assessment of fluid loss in wounded servicemen. After the war, he championed the establishment of United States Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU)-3 (Cairo; 1946) and NAMRU-2 (Taipei; 1955), serving at the helm of both units. Phillips embarked on cholera studies during the 1947 Egyptian cholera epidemic and brought them to maturity at NAMRU-2 (1958-1965), elucidating the pathophysiologic derangements induced by cholera and developing highly efficacious methods of intravenous rehydration. His conception of a simpler cholera treatment was realized in the late 1960s with the development of glucose-based oral rehydration therapy, a monumental breakthrough to which many other investigators made vital contributions. Today, these simple advances have been integrated into everyday medical practice across the globe, saving millions of lives annually.

  4. Spider World: A Robot Language for Learning to Program. Assessing the Cognitive Consequences of Computer Environments for Learning (ACCCEL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbey, John; Linn, Marcia

    Spider World is an interactive program designed to help individuals with no previous computer experience to learn the fundamentals of programming. The program emphasizes cognitive tasks which are central to programming and provides significant problem-solving opportunities. In Spider World, the user commands a hypothetical robot (called the…

  5. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  6. Global hydrological drought analysis for the second part of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huijgevoort, M. H. J.; Hazenberg, P.; van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is a natural hazard that occurs all over the world and can have large economic, social, and environmental impacts. Large-scale models, Global Hydrological Models (GHMs) and Land Surface Models (LSMs), have been developed over the last decades to simulate the global and continental terrestrial water cycle. It is not clear whether these models provide suitable data for the analysis of hydrological extremes on a global scale, e.g. drought. Therefore, in this study, a multi-model analysis has been carried out to evaluate if a suite of these models can reproduce major drought events. Time series of monthly total runoff from five LSMs and five GHMs (0.5° x 0.5°) have been used to focus on hydrological drought. They were run with identical forcing (WATCH forcing data) within the framework of the EC-FP6 project WATCH for the period 1963-2001. A new drought identification tool that combines the variable threshold level method and the consecutive dry period method was used to characterize drought events in the ensemble median of the ten global models. After the temporal drought identification per cell, a clustering method was applied to determine the spatial extent of drought events and exclude small spatial events. From the ensemble median, the temporal development of area in drought for the globe and various subregions was investigated. The results show that known major drought events in all continents were identified. From the time series of drought occurrence, several severe drought events were selected, which were studied in the spatial domain. Duration and spatial extent of these events can substantially differ with documented studies. Considering the individual models especially the spatial extent of major drought events differed, however all models did capture them. In general, the modelled runoff shows a fast response to rainfall, which leads to deviations from observed drought events in slowly responding systems. By taking the multi-model ensemble median

  7. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  8. Multi-season climate synchronized forest fires throughout the 20th century, northern Rockies, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Penelope; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Gibson, Carly E

    2008-03-01

    We inferred climate drivers of 20th-century years with regionally synchronous forest fires in the U.S. northern Rockies. We derived annual fire extent from an existing fire atlas that includes 5038 fire polygons recorded from 12,070,086 ha, or 71% of the forested land in Idaho and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The 11 regional-fire years, those exceeding the 90th percentile in annual fire extent from 1900 to 2003 (>102,314 ha or approximately 1% of the fire atlas recording area), were concentrated early and late in the century (six from 1900 to 1934 and five from 1988 to 2003). During both periods, regional-fire years were ones when warm springs were followed by warm, dry summers and also when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) was positive. Spring snowpack was likely reduced during warm springs and when PDO was positive, resulting in longer fire seasons. Regional-fire years did not vary with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or with climate in antecedent years. The long mid-20th century period lacking regional-fire years (1935-1987) had generally cool springs, generally negative PDO, and a lack of extremely dry summers; also, this was a period of active fire suppression. The climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire that we inferred are congruent with those of previous centuries in this region, suggesting a strong influence of spring and summer climate on fire activity throughout the 20th century despite major land-use change and fire suppression efforts. The relatively cool, moist climate during the mid-century gap in regional-fire years likely contributed to the success of fire suppression during that period. In every regional-fire year, fires burned across a range of vegetation types. Given our results and the projections for warmer springs and continued warm, dry summers, forests of the U.S. northern Rockies are likely to experience synchronous, large fires in the future.

  9. The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF

  10. The Program for climate Model diagnosis and Intercomparison: 20-th anniversary Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Gerald L; Bader, David C; Riches, Michael; Bamzai, Anjuli; Joseph, Renu

    2011-01-05

    Twenty years ago, W. Lawrence (Larry) Gates approached the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (now the Office of Science) with a plan to coordinate the comparison and documentation of climate model differences. This effort would help improve our understanding of climate change through a systematic approach to model intercomparison. Early attempts at comparing results showed a surprisingly large range in control climate from such parameters as cloud cover, precipitation, and even atmospheric temperature. The DOE agreed to fund the effort at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in part because of the existing computing environment and because of a preexisting atmospheric science group that contained a wide variety of expertise. The project was named the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), and it has changed the international landscape of climate modeling over the past 20 years. In spring 2009 the DOE hosted a 1-day symposium to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of PCMDI and to honor its founder, Larry Gates. Through their personal experiences, the morning presenters painted an image of climate science in the 1970s and 1980s, that generated early support from the international community for model intercomparison, thereby bringing PCMDI into existence. Four talks covered Gates's early contributions to climate research at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), the RAND Corporation, and Oregon State University through the founding of PCMDI to coordinate the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). The speakers were, in order of presentation, Warren Washington [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)], Kelly Redmond (Western Regional Climate Center), George Boer (Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis), and Lennart Bengtsson [University of Reading, former director of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)]. The afternoon session emphasized

  11. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  12. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  13. Evaluating 20th century warming trends with modern Porites corals from the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Zinke, J.; Dullo, W.-C.; Cahyarini, S. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that instrumental records of sea surface temperature (SST) are unreliable prior to 1965 due to changes in the measurement procedures. Thompson et al. (2008) identified an artificial cool bias of up to 0.3˚ C in global mean SSTs between 1945 and the mid-1960s. Geochemical parameters in skeletons of massive corals can be used to infer past changes in climate on seasonal to centennial time scales. The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is a widely used tool for deriving high-resolution proxy records of past sea surface temperatures. Application of the Sr/Ca paleothermometer relies on the assumption that coral Sr/Ca varies predictably with temperature and that seawater Sr/Ca is invariant on millennial timescales due to the long residence time of Sr and Ca in the ocean. In contrast, the oxygen isotope ratios (^18O) of coral aragonite vary in response to temperature and changes in the ^18O of seawater, the latter depending on the freshwater balance. Thus, coral ^18O may be used as a record of past sea surface temperatures only at sites were ^18O seawater variations are negligible. SST in the western tropical Indian Ocean closely follows global mean temperature trends (Funk et al., 2008). Here we present a set of Porites coral Sr/Ca and/or oxygen isotope records from the tropical Indian Ocean covering the past 120-336 years (Seychelles, Chagos Archipelago). We computed a composite sea surface temperature record for the Western Indian Ocean using ^18O (Seychelles) and Sr/Ca (Chagos). This record clearly follows instrumental SST trends in the Western tropical Indian Ocean, except in the 1945-1965 interval, were instrumental SST data show a pronounced cooling not evident in the coral proxy index (the linear correlation coefficient between the coral index and instrumental SST is r=0.86 if we omit the most problematic time period from 1945 to 1960). However, the coral index follows the global land surface air temperature trend, which is free of systematic

  14. Borders, laborers, and racialized medicalization Mexican immigration and US public health practices in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Molina, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    Throughout the 20th century, US public health and immigration policies intersected with and informed one another in the country's response to Mexican immigration. Three historical episodes illustrate how perceived racial differences influenced disease diagnosis: a 1916 typhus outbreak, the midcentury Bracero Program, and medical deportations that are taking place today. Disease, or just the threat of it, marked Mexicans as foreign, just as much as phenotype, native language, accent, or clothing. A focus on race rendered other factors and structures, such as poor working conditions or structural inequalities in health care, invisible. This attitude had long-term effects on immigration policy, as well as on how Mexicans were received in the United States.

  15. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  16. The history of ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ as a mental disorder in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of conceptualizations of female sexual problems, and ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ in particular, throughout the 20th century, especially in relation to psychiatry and mental illness. Recent findings In the past 15 years, there has been an increase in both medical and public discourse about ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’. I discuss a variety of literature sources dealing with female sexual problems, where these are understood variously as problems of developmental psychopathology, as technical phenomena to be resolved through education, or as medical problems to be addressed pharmaceutically. Summary The stigma of mental illness shapes much recent discussion of female sexual problems, as does the legacy of the postwar critique of psychodynamic psychiatry. PMID:20802336

  17. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes multidecadal fluctuations depending on the intensity of ENSO. During the period 1925–1955, subdued ENSO activities weakened the relationship. However, a similar weakening has occurred since the late 1970s despite the strong ENSO. We demonstrate that this recent weakening is induced by climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result highlights a rare situation in which climate change signals emerge against an opposing property of interannual variability, underscoring the robustness of the recent climate change. PMID:23784087

  18. Antagonism and accommodation: interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, A M; Gardner, M

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the course of the 20th century, many observers have noted important tensions and antipathies between public health and medicine. At the same time, reformers have often called for better engagement and collaboration between the 2 fields. This article examines the history of the relationship between medicine and public health to examine how they developed as separate and often conflicting professions. The historical character of this relationship can be understood only in the context of institutional developments in professional education, the rise of the biomedical model of disease, and the epidemiologic transition from infectious disease to the predominance of systemic chronic diseases. Many problems in the contemporary burden of disease pose opportunities for effective collaborations between population-based and clinical interventions. A stronger alliance between public health and medicine through accommodation to a reductionist biomedicine, however, threatens to subvert public health's historical commitment to understanding and addressing the social roots of disease. PMID:10800418

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome at the turn of the 20th century. An unexpected explanation of the Kallikak family.

    PubMed

    Karp, R J; Qazi, Q H; Moller, K A; Angelo, W A; Davis, J M

    1995-01-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, studies of a family known in the literature as the Kallikaks were used to document the hereditary nature of mental retardation, poverty, and antisocial behavior. This family was said to authenticate eugenic theory, which states that heritable characteristics carried by individuals on "independent unit characters are unalterable determinants of behavior and performance. A review of the original Kallikak data, however, suggests that in utero exposure to alcohol rather than heredity contributed significantly to the transgenerational learning failure seen throughout the Kallikak pedigree. However, eugenic theory was so thoroughly accepted that the promotion and acceptance of "hereditary feeblemindedness" as the principal cause of the developmental problems in the affected offspring smothered the research efforts on in utero effects of alcohol until long after the eugenic concepts were abandoned later in the century.

  20. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  1. Louis Nico Marie Duysens (March 15, 1921-September 8, 2015): a leading biophysicist of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Pulles, M P J

    2016-06-01

    Louis Nico Marie (L. N. M.) Duijsens (Duysens) was one of the giants in the biophysics of photosynthesis. His PhD thesis "Transfer of Excitation Energy in Photosynthesis" (Duysens, 1952) is a classic; he introduced light-induced absorption difference spectroscopy to photosynthesis research and proved the existence of reaction centers, introducing advanced methods from physics to understand biological processes. Further, it is his 1959-1961 seminal work, with Jan Amesz, that provided evidence for the existence of the series scheme for the two light reactions in oxygenic photosynthesis. In one word, he was one of the master biophysicists of the 20th century-who provided direct measurements on many key intermediates, and made us understand the intricacies of photosynthesis with a simplicity that no one else ever did. We present here our personal perspective of the scientist that Lou Duysens was. For an earlier perspective, see van Grondelle and van Gorkom (Photosynth Res 120: 3-7, 2014).

  2. Infectious Diseases in Transplantation--Report of the 20th Nantes Actualités Transplantation Meeting.

    PubMed

    Haspot, Fabienne; Halary, Franck Albert

    2015-12-01

    The 20th Nantes Actualités Transplantation (NAT) meeting was held on June 11, 2015, and June 12, 2015. This year, the local organizing committee selected an update on infectious diseases in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With an attendance of close to 170 clinicians, researchers, students, engineers, technicians, invited speakers, and guests from North and South America, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, and France, the meeting was well attended. Invited speakers' expertise covered basic as well as translational microbiology, immunology, transplantation, and intensive care medicine. This report identifies a number of advances presented during the meeting in the care and management of infectious diseases in transplantation and immunocompromised patients. New antiviral immune responses and their modulation by pathogens in addition to novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies, cell therapies, and genomic analysis were discussed.

  3. Reproduction in cold water: paradigm changes in the 20th century and a role for cidaroid sea urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, John S.; Lockhart, Susanne J.

    2004-07-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, powerful ideas about the biology of marine animals in cold waters (polar and deep sea) were in early stages of development. (1) General similarities between some Arctic and Antarctic species suggested a past or present continuity between the poles, possibly through tropical submergence. (2) The discovery of subantarctic species brooding their offspring suggested that supposedly harsh polar conditions select against species with pelagic, dispersive larvae. (3) The linkage between seasonal temperature changes and seasonal reproduction suggested that where temperatures were constant, as in polar and deep seas, reproduction would be aseasonal or continuous throughout the year. (4) Recognition of the phenomenon of metabolic temperature adaptation suggested that animals living in cold water should exhibit rates of physiological processes similar to rates in warmer environments. Observations and experiments throughout the first half of the 20th century generally supported and reinforced these ideas. During the second half of the 20th century, however, the generality of these paradigms broke down. Detailed analyses of fuller data indicated that Arctic, Antarctic, and deep-sea faunas are not the same and probably have different phylogenies reflecting different vicariant histories. Moreover, many species in these habitats have pelagic larvae, they generally spawn seasonally, and their physiological processes (respiration, gametogenesis, development, feeding, growth) are slow, showing little evidence of the expected temperature adaptation. Nevertheless, entering the 21st century, we are challenged by important exceptions that do support many of the earlier ideas. Bipolarity in some groups does indicate relict distributions, and other groups show equatorial submergence. Moreover, major species-rich clades in the Antarctic (unlike the Arctic) do brood their young. Most species with pelagic larvae produce non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larvae

  4. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. An Assessment of IPCC 20th Century Climate Simulations Using the 15-year Sea Level Record from Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuliette, E.; Nerem, S.; Jakub, T.

    2006-07-01

    Recen tly, multiple ensemble climate simulations h ave been produced for th e forthco ming Fourth A ssessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). N early two dozen coupled ocean- atmo sphere models have contr ibuted output for a variety of climate scen arios. One scenar io, the climate of the 20th century exper imen t (20C3 M), produces model output that can be comp ared to th e long record of sea level provided by altimetry . Generally , the output from the 20C3M runs is used to initialize simulations of future climate scenar ios. Hence, v alidation of the 20 C3 M experiment resu lts is crucial to the goals of th e IPCC. We present compar isons of global mean sea level (G MSL) , global mean steric sea level change, and regional patterns of sea lev el chang e from these models to r esults from altimetry, tide gauge measurements, and reconstructions.

  6. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20(th) Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    PubMed

    Hermalin, Albert I; Lowry, Deborah S

    2012-08-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908-1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20(th) century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument.

  7. [The delayed emergence of the printing chronograph in French observatories (late 19th - early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jérôme; Soulu, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Western observatories became scientific factories from the mid-19th century. Astrometry symbolized the transition to an industrious economy of scientific practices. The printing chronograph, which reduced the personal equations of the observers, was, first in the United States, then in England, the symbolic instrument of this transformation. In France, the initiatives of the astronomer Liais were prototypical. In the practices of the Hendaye Observatory, and thanks to the abbé Verschaffel, the printing chronograph made its definitive entry in French observatories at the beginning of the 20th century. Excessive centralization of French astronomy, the authoritarianism of Urbain Le Verrier, the director of the Paris Observatory, and the poor market for scientific instruments explain why the printing chronograph took root, belatedly, in France.

  8. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    PubMed Central

    Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

  9. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  10. Borders, Laborers, and Racialized Medicalization Mexican Immigration and US Public Health Practices in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, US public health and immigration policies intersected with and informed one another in the country's response to Mexican immigration. Three historical episodes illustrate how perceived racial differences influenced disease diagnosis: a 1916 typhus outbreak, the midcentury Bracero Program, and medical deportations that are taking place today. Disease, or just the threat of it, marked Mexicans as foreign, just as much as phenotype, native language, accent, or clothing. A focus on race rendered other factors and structures, such as poor working conditions or structural inequalities in health care, invisible. This attitude had long-term effects on immigration policy, as well as on how Mexicans were received in the United States. PMID:21493932

  11. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  12. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  13. Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), a forerunner of the 20th century research on sleep and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Morgese, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to reconstruct the elements of continuity and/or discontinuity in Sante De Sanctis' (1862-1935) contributions in the scientific understanding of sleep and dreaming as compared to the scientific research of his time. An Italian psychologist and psychiatrist, De Sanctis, in his work conducted between the 19th and 20th centuries, has framed the study of dreams using multi-methodology. In addition, De Sanctis experimentally established the correspondence between the deep and desynchronization phases of sleep with respect to dreaming. In this context, De Sanctis' subjects described the periodicity of sleep and consciousness, influencing the explanations of the themes that modern sleep research has, after decades, systematically studied. We demonstrate that De Sanctis' work has been underestimated, and in our opinion, deserves to be reconsidered as a source of the psychophysiological explanation of dreams and sleep. Finally, we present a graphical representation of De Sanctis' psycho- and neurophysiological model of dreaming.

  14. [Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin American in the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marta de

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

  15. ["Podmoskovie"--health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation celebrates the 20th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Bondar', I V; Minaev, D Iu; Nasretdinov, I N; Petukhov, A E

    2014-12-01

    The article is dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the Federal government health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation (FGI "Health resort "Podmoskovie" of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation). In this health resort were developed treatment programs for patients with abnormalities of the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems; methods of ultrasonic, laser and magnetic therapy, atmospheric hypoxic, herbal medicine, speleotherapy are employed. Widely used natural healing factors of Ruza district of the Moscow region such as climate therapy, treatment with mineral water group of X type of Smolensk from own wells and balneo-mudtherapy. Over the past 20 years 70 000 patients received an appropriate treatment in this health resort.

  16. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  17. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  18. A Novel Remote Sensing Approach for Determining 20th Century Multi-Decadal Glacial Change Across the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. E.; Mills, J. P.; Fox, A. J.; Clarke, L. E.; King, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is a mountain glacier system comprised of over 400 glaciers, and is an important contributor to historical and future sea level rise. Assessment and monitoring of AP glaciers is crucial for understanding sensitivity to climate change. However, whilst retreat of glacier fronts and the behaviour of individual glaciers has been extensively documented, wide-area assessment of AP glacier mass change is lacking. This research addresses this by unlocking a unique historical archive of aerial imagery through a remote sensing approach. This is enabling quantitative, wide-area assessment of glacier change across the AP. Understanding AP change over the 20th Century is vital for modelling future changes. However, satellite measurements span only a few decades, and to-date there has been no means of quantifying change over longer periods. However, this research presents a novel methodology to extract 3D measurements from an archive of > 30,000 aerial images dating back to the 1940s. This overcomes the requirement for ground control by employing an automated registration technique. Control is derived from digital elevations models (DEMs) generated from present-day ASTER satellite imagery. Through least squares surface matching, DEMs extracted from archival imagery are registered to scale-stable ASTER DEMs to determine relative change. This minimises offsets between the two DEMs, allowing robust determination of elevation changes. The spatial pattern of 20thC change is being assessed at 50 benchmark glaciers distributed across the AP, for periods of up to 65 years. In complement, a temporally refined assessment is being undertaken at 10 glaciers with multiple epochs of aerial imagery. Results to-date indicate a general trend of surface lowering, most notably over frontal regions. Spatial and temporal patterns of change will be used to investigate the drivers of AP change and establish a suite of benchmark glaciers for future monitoring.

  19. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  20. Ice core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Drews, Reinhard; Sheldon, Simon G.; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of surface mass balance (SMB). Coastal areas of Antarctica have relatively high and variable SMB, but are under-represented in records spanning more than 100 years. Here we present SMB reconstruction from a 120 m-long ice core drilled in 2012 on the Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles and continuous electrical conductivity measurements. The base of the ice core is dated to AD 1759 ± 16, providing a climate proxy for the past ˜ 250 years. The core's annual layer thickness history is combined with its gravimetric density profile to reconstruct the site's SMB history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean SMB for the core's entire history is 0.47 ± 0.02 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1. The time series of reconstructed annual SMB shows high variability, but a general increase beginning in the 20th century. This increase is particularly marked during the last 50 years (1962-2011), which yields mean SMB of 0.61 ± 0.01 m w.e. a-1. This trend is compared with other reported SMB data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Output of the fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) suggests that, although atmospheric circulation is the main factor influencing SMB, variability in sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover in the precipitation source region also explain part of the variability in SMB. Local snow redistribution can also influence interannual variability but is unlikely to influence long-term trends significantly. This is the first record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica to show an increase in SMB beginning in the early 20th century and particularly marked during the last 50 years.

  1. Data generation and data visualization using different platform computers in the World Wide Web environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1997-04-01

    At the IST and SPIE 96 conference, the author reported a successful cooperative visualization case study that involved using an internet web-browser for data dissemination and data visualization applications between the US and Japanese offices. This cooperative visualization effort using computers and the web-browser has been evaluated, and it has pointed the way to the current research involving the use of the World Wide Web environment for real-time simulation and interactive visualization. Since the spring of 1996, the author has been using Fujitsu's new multi-processor supercomputer VPP300 for fast numerical model simulations and data generations. Meanwhile, the web technology has been advancing very quickly, and it now provides many tools and methods for the scientific visualization. In the summer of 1996, the author began to work on a prototype for a real-time supercomputing interactive visualization system based on the available World Wide Web browser tools and a Fujitsu visualization software known as VisLink. The intranet version of this system was completed in December of 1997. Design issues and a case study of the prototype will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Multistep greedy algorithm identifies community structure in real-world and computer-generated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2008-08-01

    We have recently introduced a multistep extension of the greedy algorithm for modularity optimization. The extension is based on the idea that merging l pairs of communities (l>1) at each iteration prevents premature condensation into few large communities. Here, an empirical formula is presented for the choice of the step width l that generates partitions with (close to) optimal modularity for 17 real-world and 1100 computer-generated networks. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the communities of two real-world networks (the metabolic network of the bacterium E. coli and the graph of coappearing words in the titles of papers coauthored by Martin Karplus) provides evidence that the partition obtained by the multistep greedy algorithm is superior to the one generated by the original greedy algorithm not only with respect to modularity, but also according to objective criteria. In other words, the multistep extension of the greedy algorithm reduces the danger of getting trapped in local optima of modularity and generates more reasonable partitions.

  3. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009) Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    This special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 20th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2009), which was held in Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009. The MME workshop series started in 1989 in Twente and was the first European event created in the field of micro machining technology for developing micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. Over the last two decades the MEMS community has grown considerably, and the MME workshops have sustained this progress through annual meetings all around Europe: Twente (The Netherlands, 1989), Berlin (Germany, 1990), Leuven (Belgium, 1992), Neuchatel (Switzerland, 1993), Pisa (Italy, 1994), Copenhagen (Denmark, 1995), Barcelona (Spain, 1996), Southampton (United Kingdom, 1997), Ulvik (Norway, 1998), Gif-sur-Yvette (France, 1999), Uppsala (Sweden, 2000), Cork (Ireland, 2001), Sinaia (Romania, 2002), Delft (The Netherlands, 2003), Leuven (Belgium, 2004), Goteborg (Sweden, 2005), Southampton (United Kingdom, 2006), Guimaraes (Portugal, 2007) and Aachen (Germany, 2008). For twenty years, MME conferences have provided an excellent opportunity to bring together many, predominantly European, scientists and engineers to present and discuss the latest developments in this field. For the 20th anniversary of the MicroMechanics Europe Workshop, 115 papers from 23 countries were submitted. Selected contributions were presented during four poster sessions, including short oral presentations. A very interesting feature of the MME workshops is their ability to promote young researchers. Six invited speakers from research centres and industry also gave an overview on advanced technological, characterization and simulation tools. The two day workshop was attended by 185 delegates from 22 countries all over Europe, and from Japan, Taiwan, USA and Mexico. On behalf of the MME 2009 Program Committee, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all authors of

  4. Kharlamova, N. F. Climate Changes over the 20th and 21st Centuries in the Upper Basin of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers (Altai Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovna, K. N., II

    2015-12-01

    The Russian climate is more sensitive to global warming than the climate in many other parts of the world. According to the Second Climate Change National Assessment, since the mid-1970s, the average temperature has been rising with rate of 0.43 ° C / 10 years, which is more than two times higher than the rate of global warming. In the Altai region, the rate of temperature change is higher than the average for Russia with an annual surface air temperature increase equal to 1.8°C the 20th century. The maximum value of this increase the past 50 years (1963-2013) was found in the intermountain basins of Altai (+ 2.6°C) mainly due to the winter and spring warming with changes in the summer season being considerably smaller. This warming is accompanied with negative tendencies in annual precipitation over the entire Altai Krai. The mountain ranges of Altai are called the "water tower" of Northern Eurasia. The northward flow of numerous rivers streaming down from these ranges in the Basin of the Ob and the Irtysh Rivers is formed by melting of Altai glaciers and snowfields. Since the middle of the 19th century the largest glaciers in the Altai have retreated by 1.5-2 km and the thickness of their tails decreased by 50-70 m. The reduction of mountain glaciers poses a threat of depletion of water flow to major agricultural regions downstream affecting human activity and even the drinking water availability. Permafrost in the Altai Mountains is actively degraded (thawing), which represents a danger for infrastructure (first of all for roads and pipelines) and increases risk of catastrophic events (landslides, mudflows). Continued warming could contribute to a significant reduction of water resources, biodiversity and other negative processes in the region.The reported study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Baseline Research (project No. 15-45-04450).

  5. Source parameters of the major historical earthquakes in the Tien-Shan region from the late 19th to the early 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, Galina; Krüger, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The Tien-Shan is one of the largest mountain belts in the world. Its deformation is dominated by intermontane basins bounded by active thrust and reverse faulting. The Tien-Shan mountain belt is characterized by a very high rate of seismicity along its margins as well as within the Tien-Shan interior. The study area of the here presented work, the western part of the Tien-Shan region, is currently seismically active with small and moderate sized earthquakes. However, at the end of 19th beginning of 20th century, this region was struck by a remarkable series of large magnitude (M>7) earthquakes, two of them reached magnitude 8. These large earthquakes occurred before the global digital seismic network was installed and therefore were recorded only by analog seismic instruments. The processing of the analog is complicated especially due to the digitization of the records - a very time-consuming and delicate part. Therefore a special set of techniques is developed and modern methods are adapted for the digitized instrumental data analysis. Here presented study evaluates the impact of large magnitude M>7.0 earthquakes, in the Tien-Shan region, on the overall regional tectonics. It also investigates the accuracy of previously estimated source parameters for those earthquakes, which were mainly based on macroseismic observations, and re-estimate them based on the instrumental data. Ten strongest and most interesting historical earthquakes in Tien-Shan region are analyzed with in presented work. With the developed techniques, the source parameters of these major earthquakes are determined and their impact on the regional tectonics was investigated. The large magnitudes of the earthquakes are confirmed by instrumental data. The focal mechanisms of these earthquakes were determined providing evidence for responsible faults or fault systems.

  6. Systematic recover of long high-resolution rainfall time series recorded by pluviographs during the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Deidda, Roberto; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Piga, Enrico; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    During most of the 20th century, precipitation has been continuously measured by means of the so-called "pluviographs", i.e. rain gauges including a mechanical apparatus for continuously recording the depth of water from precipitation on specific strip charts, usually on a weekly basis. The signal recorded on such strips was visually examined by trained personnel on a regular basis, in order to extract the daily precipitation totals and the maximum precipitation intensities over short periods (from a few minutes to hours). The rest of the high-resolution information contained in the signal was usually not extracted, except for specific cases. A systematic recovering of the entire information at high temporal resolution contained in these precipitation signals would provide a fundamental database to improve the characterization of historical rainfall climatology during the previous century. The Department of Land Engineering of the University of Cagliari has recently developed and tested an automatic software, based on image analysis techniques, which is able to acquire the scanned images of the pluviograph strip charts, to automatically digitise the signal and to produce a digital database of continuous precipitation records at the highest possible temporal resolution, i.e. 5 to 10 minutes. Along with that, a significant amount of daily precipitation totals from the late 19th and the 20th century, either elaborated from pluviograph strip charts or simply derived from bucket rain gauges, still exists in paper form, but it has never been digitalized. Within a project partly-funded by the Operational Programme of the European Union "Italia-Francia Marittimo", the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia and the University of Cagliari will recover both the high-resolution rainfall signals and the older time series of daily totals recorded by a large number of pluviographs belonging to the historical monitoring networks of the island of Sardinia. Such data

  7. The State of the World's Children, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    Profiling the lives of children around the world at the end of the 20th century, this report calls on the international community to undertake the urgent actions necessary to realize the rights of every child. Part 1 of the report summarizes the progress made over the last decade in meeting the goals established at the 1990 World Summit for…

  8. Using the computer-driven VR environment to promote experiences of natural world immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Lisa A.

    2013-03-01

    In December, 2011, over 800 people experienced the exhibit, <1>:"der"//pattern for a virtual environment, created for the fully immersive CAVETM at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This exhibition took my nature-based photographic work and reinterpreted it for virtual reality (VR).Varied responses such as: "It's like a moment of joy," or "I had to see it twice," or "I'm still thinking about it weeks later" were common. Although an implied goal of my 2D artwork is to create a connection that makes viewers more aware of what it means to be a part of the natural world, these six VR environments opened up an unexpected area of inquiry that my 2D work has not. Even as the experience was mediated by machines, there was a softening at the interface between technology and human sensibility. Somehow, for some people, through the unlikely auspices of a computer-driven environment, the project spoke to a human essence that they connected with in a way that went beyond all expectations and felt completely out of my hands. Other interesting behaviors were noted: in some scenarios some spoke of intense anxiety, acrophobia, claustrophobia-even fear of death when the scene took them underground. These environments were believable enough to cause extreme responses and disorientation for some people; were fun, pleasant and wonder-filled for most; and were liberating, poetic and meditative for many others. The exhibition seemed to promote imaginative skills, creativity, emotional insight, and environmental sensitivity. It also revealed the CAVETM to be a powerful tool that can encourage uniquely productive experiences. Quite by accident, I watched as these nature-based environments revealed and articulated an essential relationship between the human spirit and the physical world. The CAVETM is certainly not a natural space, but there is clear potential to explore virtual environments as a path to better and deeper connections between people and nature. We've long associated

  9. B. F. Skinner and Technology's Nation: Technocracy, Social Engineering, and the Good Life in 20th-Century America.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2017-04-13

    Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed and promoted a technology of behavior as the basis for widespread social reform over much of his career. In 1948, he published his behaviorally engineered vision of the good life in his utopian novel Walden Two (Skinner, 1948). Skinner's efforts were part of a much larger social engineering tradition that received one of its fullest expressions in the Technocracy Movement of the 1930s. Fifteen years before Skinner's Walden Two, at the height of the Technocracy Movement's public visibility in the United States, technocrat Harold Loeb (1933/1996) published his utopia, Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like. In this article, I place the socially engineered visions of the good life promoted by the Technocracy Movement and by Skinner on an intellectual and ideological continuum to amplify and explore American attitudes toward psychology, technology, and social engineering during the middle decades of the 20th century. I argue that responses to both reveal the possibilities and limits of the social engineering enterprise, and suggest that historians of technology might consider how the history of psychology and other psy-disciplines can deepen conceptualizations of the relationships among the psychological, the social, and the technological in this period. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Sumant; Guan, Bin; Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

    2011-08-01

    The Great Plains of North America are susceptible to multi-year droughts, such as the 1930s ‘Dust Bowl’. The droughts have been linked to SST variability in the Pacific and Atlantic basins. This observationally rooted analysis shows the SST influence in multi-year droughts and wet episodes over the Great Plains to be significantly more extensive than previously indicated. The remarkable statistical reconstruction of the major hydroclimate episodes attests to the extent of the SST influence in nature, and facilitated evaluation of the basin contributions. We find the Atlantic SSTs to be especially influential in forcing multi-year droughts; often, more than the Pacific ones. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), in particular, contributed the most in two of the four reconstructed episodes (Dust Bowl Spring, 1980s fall wetness), accounting for almost half the precipitation signal in each case. The AMO influence on continental precipitation was provided circulation context from analysis of NOAA's 20th Century Atmospheric Reanalysis. A hypothesis for how the AMO atmospheric circulation anomalies are generated from AMO SSTs is proposed to advance discussion of the influence pathways of the mid-to-high latitude SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that the La Nina-US Drought paradigm, operative on interannual time scales, has been conferred excessive relevance on decadal time scales in the recent literature.

  11. The association between net primary productivity and rainfall in CMIP5 20th and 21st century simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; Knox, R. G.; Taylor, P.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests fix large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into biomass via net primary productivity (NPP). In this study we use the NPP-MAR (mean annual rainfall) relationship observed in tropical forests to evaluate the performance (20th century) and predictions (21st century) of tropical NPP from ten Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) Earth System Models (ESMs). Most of the CMIP5 models showed an increase in NPP concurrent with an increase in rainfall and a decrease in surface solar radiation. Models that better represented the NPP-MAR pattern did not better represent the climate, and vice versa. By the end of the 21st century the models that best reproduced the observed NPP-MAR relationship projected an increases in NPP between ~2% (RCP 4.5) and ~19% (RCP 8.5) relative to current observations (11.88±5 MgC ha-1 yr-1, 327 field sites) and increases of ~9% and ~25% relative to historical simulations (2005). By separating the effects of climate forcing and CO2 fertilization models showed that maximum productivity is likely occurring during the current climate, but this signal is masked by increases in NPP due to CO2 fertilization. Further studies addressing the individual and simultaneous effect of other climate variables on NPP are needed.

  12. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-05

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints.

  13. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  14. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  15. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    PubMed

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-02-25

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers.

  16. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return.

  17. Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    PubMed

    Ostler, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.

  18. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Demographic amplification of climate change experienced by the contiguous United States population during the 20(th) century.

    PubMed

    Samson, Jason; Berteaux, Dominique; McGill, Brian J; Humphries, Murray M

    2012-01-01

    Better understanding of the changing relationship between human populations and climate is a global research priority. The 20(th) century in the contiguous United States offers a particularly well-documented example of human demographic expansion during a period of radical socioeconomic and environmental change. One would expect that as human society has been transformed by technology, we would become increasingly decoupled from climate and more dependent on social infrastructure. Here we use spatially-explicit models to evaluate climatic, socio-economic and biophysical correlates of demographic change in the contiguous United States between 1900 and 2000. Climate-correlated variation in population growth has caused the U.S. population to shift its realized climate niche from cool, seasonal climates to warm, aseasonal climates. As a result, the average annual temperature experienced by U.S. citizens between 1920 and 2000 has increased by more than 1.5°C and the temperature seasonality has decreased by 1.1°C during a century when climate change accounted for only a 0.24°C increase in average annual temperature and a 0.15°C decrease in temperature seasonality. Thus, despite advancing technology, climate-correlated demographics continue to be a major feature of contemporary U.S. society. Unfortunately, these demographic patterns are contributing to a substantial warming of the climate niche during a period of rapid environmental warming, making an already bad situation worse.

  20. Late 20th Century benthic foraminiferal distribution in Central San Francisco Bay, California: Influence of the Trochammina hadai invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Samples collected from 1965 onward were also compared with those from 1998 to investigate how the distribution of benthic foraminifera in Central Bay has changed over the latter half of the 20th Century, particularly in response to the invasion by Trochammina hadai. In 1998, T. hadai was recovered at 46 of 55 sites in Central Bay, comprising from 0.3 to 97% (mean = 23%) of the foraminiferal fauna. With the species’ affiliation for shallow environments, it is not unexpected that it dominated the fauna of the Shallow Subtidal Biofacies (68-97%, mean = 77%) and was also a significant component of the Intermediate Subtidal Biofacies (7-51%, averaging 28%). In the deeper waters west of Alcatraz Island, the abundance of T. hadai was significantly less (mean = 8%), most likely reflecting allochthonous specimens that were the result of post-mortem transport. A cluster analysis clearly distinguishes pre- and post-invasion biofacies, illustrating how dominant T. hadai has become in Central Bay.

  1. Fighting for Anatomy. Overview regarding two prestigious Romanian anatomists of the 20th century: Victor Papilian and Grigore T. Popa.

    PubMed

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    During many centuries, the progress of Anatomy was based on the perseverant and laborious activities done by anatomists. Their work can be considered as a fight for Anatomy. A particular problem arouse when this fight is excessively done and it limits the ability to correctly analyze the contribution made by other scientists in the same domain. This situation was identified at different personalities who lived in the same time and were involved in the same fundamental field of research. If, theoretically, the similarities between scientists should get them closer, in order to have a better communication, the antagonisms can lead them to rivalry. Our paper exemplifies a historical case in which the personages are Victor Papilian (1888-1956) and Grigore T. Popa (1892-1948). The resemblances between these two famous Romanian anatomists from the first half of the 20th century induced an evident scientific rivalry. Papilian and Popa brought a significant contribution in anatomy. Each of them was very much appreciated by his students. It is interesting that both of them had achievements in literature. We present the reasons of their disagreement and its consequences. Paradoxically, not the contrasts, but the resemblances between their strong characters produced a sort of animosity between them. This attitude diminished in time and their successors - Ioan Albu from the Cluj Faculty of Medicine and Ion Iancu from the Jassy Faculty of Medicine - had a long lasting and successful cooperation.

  2. ["W. Bölsche's precious book". Freud and German evolutionism in the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Amouroux, Rémy

    2004-01-01

    Wilhelm Bölsche (1861-1939) is the author of a poetic history of the evolution of love entitled Das Liebesleben in der Natur (1898-1903). This work, inspired by the writings of biologist Ernst Haeckel, was greatly successful in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Freud kept a copy of the three volumes in his London library and cites the text in his lectures on an Introduction to psychoanalysis. Bölsche develops an Entwicklungsgeschichte (history of evolution) of the distinguishing sexuality of several types of love (oral, anal and urinary). In addition, he describes the "zoological reactionary" homosexual and ties this sexual behaviour to the history of the development of anal sexuality. This paper will address an excerpt on this topic from Bölsche's text that has been translated for the occasion. The task at hand is to prepare the ground for a study of German evolutionism, both popular and scientific, and its ties to psychoanalysis.

  3. "Winged sponges": houseflies as carriers of typhoid fever in 19th- and early 20th-century military camps.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2006-01-01

    Typhoid fever was the scourge of 19th- and early 20th-century armies. During the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Anglo-Boer War (1899- 1902), typhoid killed more soldiers than enemy bullets. Walter Reed and his coworkers investigated the cause of the typhoid epidemics in the U.S. Army camps and concluded that, next to human contact, the housefly (Musca domestica) was the most active agent in the spread of the disease. British medical officers in South Africa, facing even worse typhoid epidemics, reached the same conclusion. The experiences of the American and British armies finally convinced the medical profession and public health authorities that these insects conveyed typhoid. The housefly was now seen as a health menace. Military and civilian sanitarians waged fly-eradication campaigns that prevented the housefly's access to breeding places (especially human excrement), and that protected food and drink from contamination. Currently, M. domestica is recognized as the mechanical vector of a wide variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. Fly control is still an important public health measure in the 21st century, especially in developing countries.

  4. Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

    Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

  5. Effect of hemostasis and electrosurgery on the development and evolution of brain tumor surgery in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Vender, John R; Miller, Jason; Rekito, Andy; McDonnell, Dennis E

    2005-04-15

    Hemostatic options available to the surgeon in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were limited. The surgical ligature was limited in value to the neurological surgeon because of the unique structural composition of brain tissue as well as the approaches and operating angles used in this type of surgery. In this manuscript the authors review the options available and the evolution of surgical hemostatic techniques and electrosurgery in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the impact of these methods on the surgical management of tumors of the brain and its coverings.

  6. The Phylogeographic History of the New World Screwworm Fly, Inferred by Approximate Bayesian Computation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect pest phylogeography might be shaped both by biogeographic events and by human influence. Here, we conducted an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to investigate the phylogeography of the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, with the aim of understanding its population history and its order and time of divergence. Our ABC analysis supports that populations spread from North to South in the Americas, in at least two different moments. The first split occurred between the North/Central American and South American populations in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (15,300-19,000 YBP). The second split occurred between the North and South Amazonian populations in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene eras (9,100-11,000 YBP). The species also experienced population expansion. Phylogenetic analysis likewise suggests this north to south colonization and Maxent models suggest an increase in the number of suitable areas in South America from the past to present. We found that the phylogeographic patterns observed in C. hominivorax cannot be explained only by climatic oscillations and can be connected to host population histories. Interestingly we found these patterns are very coincident with general patterns of ancient human movements in the Americas, suggesting that humans might have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution and population structure of this insect pest. This work presents the first hypothesis test regarding the processes that shaped the current phylogeographic structure of C. hominivorax and represents an alternate perspective on investigating the problem of insect pests. PMID:24098436

  7. The phylogeographic history of the new world screwworm fly, inferred by approximate bayesian computation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fresia, Pablo; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Lyra, Mariana L

    2013-01-01

    Insect pest phylogeography might be shaped both by biogeographic events and by human influence. Here, we conducted an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to investigate the phylogeography of the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, with the aim of understanding its population history and its order and time of divergence. Our ABC analysis supports that populations spread from North to South in the Americas, in at least two different moments. The first split occurred between the North/Central American and South American populations in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (15,300-19,000 YBP). The second split occurred between the North and South Amazonian populations in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene eras (9,100-11,000 YBP). The species also experienced population expansion. Phylogenetic analysis likewise suggests this north to south colonization and Maxent models suggest an increase in the number of suitable areas in South America from the past to present. We found that the phylogeographic patterns observed in C. hominivorax cannot be explained only by climatic oscillations and can be connected to host population histories. Interestingly we found these patterns are very coincident with general patterns of ancient human movements in the Americas, suggesting that humans might have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution and population structure of this insect pest. This work presents the first hypothesis test regarding the processes that shaped the current phylogeographic structure of C. hominivorax and represents an alternate perspective on investigating the problem of insect pests.

  8. [Operating rooms during the second half of the 20th century and its change with surgical advances].

    PubMed

    Steimle, Raoul H

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of new specialities after the World War, the number of OP rooms increases. They became gathered on the basement of buildings near the central sterilisation. To enter the OP room, everyone passes through the dressing "sas". "Slippers", uniforms, gloves and many supplies are now for single-use. Electrified operating tables with their own accessories became very useful. Air conditioning is appreciated too in our countries. The operating microscope for ORL, ophthalmology and neurosurgery is used by every one. In cardiology the coronary revascularisation being common stuff, cardiac transplantation (1967) and open-heart surgery received special attention. Vascular surgeons are dedicated to arteritiden, implants, and aortic aneurysms. Urology is focused on renal transplants (since 1959), and more recently on lithotrity and coelioscopic prostatectomy. The coeliosurgery conquered the abdominal pathology and the endoscopic techniques became current. In neurosurgery, stereotaxy to treat parkinson's disease is not used so often since Levodopa exists. But it is still useful to implant brain-stimulating electrodes for refractory parkinson's cases, some other dyskinesias, mental troubles or epilepsies. The neuronavigation brought new possibilities. At century's end, ambulatory surgery reduces surgical costs. Bigger and multidisciplinary theatres are now preferred. The open-heart surgery assisted by computer and robotics is evolving. Finally, we recall OP room accidents, which are not directly dealing with the operation.

  9. Utilization of Computer Technology in the Third World: An Evaluation of Computer Operations at the University of Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.

    This report of the results of an evaluation of computer operations at the University of Honduras (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras) begins by discussing the problem--i.e., poor utilization of the campus mainframe computer--and listing the hardware and software available in the computer center. Data collection methods are summarized,…

  10. The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability

  11. Computational Scientific Inquiry with Virtual Worlds and Agent-Based Models: New Ways of Doing Science to Learn Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Richards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose computational scientific inquiry (CSI) as an innovative model for learning important scientific knowledge and new practices for "doing" science. This approach involves the use of a "game-like" virtual world for students to experience virtual biological fieldwork in conjunction with using an agent-based…

  12. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Valerie; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charlie

    2015-06-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  13. Climate in the Late 20th and 21st Centuries over the Northern Eurasia: RCM and CMIP3 Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Govorkova, V. A.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The study is focused on future changes in climate extremes over the northern Eurasia. The changes in the extreme indices for the mid 21st century relative to the late 20th century have been inferred from CMIP3 daily temperature and precipitation output. It has been found that modeling temperature extremes are in reasonable agreement with reanalysis. Future projections for the extremes in Northern Eurasia are prone to large uncertainties arising primarily from intermodel differences. The uncertainties for «warm» extremes are larger than for «cold» extremes not only due to greater model-to-model differences but also due to slower warming of the former. In the warm season the models project drier climate conditions over some regions of the northern Eurasia, longer droughts, fewer number of wet days and increased heavy precipitation intensity. The AOGCM simulated changes in the extremes lack credibility due to low spatio-temporal resolution of current global models. There is a pressing need to further investigate the impact related aspects of regional climate changes over the northern Eurasia using sufficiently large ensembles of RCM simulations at 10-50 km resolution. Currently, the most dramatic warming in Eurasia is expected to occur in the regions for which a very limited number of single RCM simulations exists (e.g., central and eastern Russia). The MGO RCM has been developed at 50 and 25 km resolutions for three domains: Western Russia, Siberia, and Europe. The regional climate change simulation has been performed and analysis of daily temperature variability and fire danger conditions has been carried out.

  14. 19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 μm resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (<2 μm) analysis using X-ray defraction. Elements associated with siliciclastic sediment increase in relative abundance during wet years when significant river runoff events (floods) occurred. The relative proportions of these elements differ between flood events, possibly reflecting differences in temporal and/or spatial rainfall patterns that vary the response of each river catchment draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of

  15. Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

  16. 20th century human pressures drive reductions in deepwater oxygen leading to losses of benthic methane-based food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Simon; Millet, Laurent; Verneaux, Valérie; Lami, Andrea; David, Etienne; Murgia, Laurie; Parent, Claire; Musazzi, Simona; Gauthier, Emilie; Bichet, Vincent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater lakes play a key role in the global carbon cycle as sinks (organic carbon sequestration) and sources (greenhouse gas emissions). Understanding the carbon cycle response to environmental changes is becoming a crucial challenge in the context of global warming and the preponderance of human pressures. We reconstructed the long-term (1500 years) evolution of trophic functioning of the benthic food web, based on methanotrophic ancient DNA and chironomid isotope analyses). In addition, human land use is also reconstructed in three different lakes (eastern France, Jura Mountains). Our findings confirm that the benthic food web can be highly dependent on methane-derived carbon (up to 50% of the chironomid biomass) and reveal that the activation of this process can correspond to a natural functioning or be a consequence of anthropic perturbation. The studied lakes also showed a similar temporal evolution over the last century with the disappearance of the profundal aquatic insects (Chironomidae, Diptera), considered as keystone for the whole lake food web (e.g., coupling benthic-pelagic), inducing a potential collapse in the transfer of methane to top consumers. This functional state, also called the dead zone expansion, was caused by the change in human land-use occurring at the beginning of the 20th century. The strong modification of agro-pastoral practices (e.g., fertilization practices, intensive grazing, and sewage effluent) modified the influx of nutrients (by diffuse and/or point-source inputs) and induced a significant increase in the trophic status and organic matter sedimentation to reach unprecedented values. Further studies should be planned to assess dead zone expansion and, according to the regime shift theory, to provide environmental tipping points for sustainable resource management.

  17. Modeling Regional Climate Responses to 17th-20th Century Land Use Change over the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, J. R.; Hostetler, S. W.; Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Thompson, R.; Sundquist, E. T.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regional climate change is the combined response to global and regional radiative forcing, circulation and interactions between the atmosphere and Earth surface. A potentially key component of regional climate change derives from natural and human-caused land use and land-use change (LULC) and related atmosphere-surface feedbacks. In the first step of disentangling and quantifying the effect of LULC over the southeastern United States, we conducted a series of simulations with the RegCM4 regional climate model which includes the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) surface physics package. Land use and vegetation types determine the specified values of a number of biophysical and physical parameters in BATS such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and rooting depth. We ran four simulations in which we specified BATS land use types derived from harmonized reconstructions for 1650, 1850, 1920 and Landsat-based observations for 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008). The simulations were run over a model domain comprising a 20 km × 20 km horizontal grid and 23 atmospheric levels for the period 1990-2000. The boundary conditions for the simulations were derived from the NCAR-NCEP Reanalysis and the NOAA Optimum Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature global data sets. Depending on the time periods considered, the simulations indicate regionally coherent patterns of April-September changes in surface radiation, warming and cooling of up to 2 °C or more, substantial changes in soil moisture and atmospheric humidity associated with conversion of native vegetation to agriculture and agriculture back to forest, draining of wetlands and marshes, and urbanization. Extensive draining of wetlands in the lower Mississippi Valley during the 20th century induced a robust feedback with the atmosphere which suppressed convective summertime precipitation. Our joint analysis of LULC classes and the model simulations suggests a need to be able to disaggregate land use to a

  18. The 20th century whole-basin trophic history of an inter-drumlin lake in an agricultural catchment.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Philip; Rippey, Brian; Anderson, N John

    2002-10-07

    Eight 1-m sediment cores were extracted from across the basin of Friary Lough, a 5.4-ha eutrophic lake in a wholly grassland agricultural catchment in Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland. Sedimentary TP, diatom inferred TP, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, loss-on-ignition (LOI), dry weight and density were determined in the core profiles. Core dating and correlation gave a 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am chronology from 1906 to 1995 and enabled a whole-basin estimate of chemical and sediment accumulation rate over the 20th Century. The major changes for all parameters occurred after c. 1946. Sediment accumulation rate was most influenced by organic matter accumulations, probably of planktonic origin, and increasing after c. 1946. Inorganic sediment accumulation rate was found to be largely unchanging through the century at 10 t km(-2) yr(-1) when expressed as catchment exports. All chemical accumulation rate changes occurred after c. 1946. Total phosphorus accumulation rate, however, was found to be the only chemical to be increasing throughout the epilimnion and hypolimnion areas of the sedimentary basin at an average of 22.5 mg m(-2) yr(-1) between 1946 and 1995. The other chemical parameters showed increasing accumulation rates after c. 1946 in the epilimnion part of the basin only. Interpreted in terms of whole-basin sedimentation and catchment export processes over time, it is suggested that diffuse TP inputs are independent of sediment inputs. This corresponds to hydrochemical models that suggest soluble P as the primary fraction that is lost from grassland catchments. The increase in sedimentary TP accumulation rate, and DI-TP concentration, are also explained with regard to current models that suggest increases in runoff P concentrations from elevated soil P concentrations. Increases in eplimnion chemical and sediment accumulation rate after c. 1946 may be due to local erosion that has limited impact on lake basin sedimentation.

  19. Early 20th-century research at the interfaces of genetics, development, and evolution: reflections on progress and dead ends.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb's reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt's anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright's combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb's program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly successful and indispensible for higher level investigations, even though evolutionary change and properties of biological systems up to now cannot be fully explained on the molecular level alone. Goldschmidt has been appraised as pioneer of physiological and developmental genetics and of a new evolutionary synthesis which transcended neo-Darwinism. However, this study concludes that his anti-reductionist attempts to integrate genetics, development and evolution have to be regarded as failures or dead ends. His grand speculations were based on the one hand on concepts and experimental systems that were too vague in order to stimulate further research, and on the other on experiments which in their core parts turned out not to be reproducible. In contrast, Sewall Wright, apart from being one of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1930s, opened up new paths of testable quantitative developmental genetic investigations. He placed his research within a framework of logical reasoning, which resulted in the farsighted speculation that examinations of biological systems should be related to the regulation of hierarchical genetic subsystems, possibly providing a mechanism for development and evolution. I argue that his suggestion of basing the study of systems on clearly defined properties of the components has proved superior to

  20. Multi-annual modes in the 20th century temperature variability in reanalyses and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Heikki; Seitola, Teija; Silén, Johan; Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-11-01

    A performance expectation is that Earth system models simulate well the climate mean state and the climate variability. To test this expectation, we decompose two 20th century reanalysis data sets and 12 CMIP5 model simulations for the years 1901-2005 of the monthly mean near-surface air temperature using randomised multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA). Due to the relatively short time span, we concentrate on the representation of multi-annual variability which the RMSSA method effectively captures as separate and mutually orthogonal spatio-temporal components. This decomposition is a unique way to separate statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations from one another in high-dimensional data sets.The main results are as follows. First, the total spectra for the two reanalysis data sets are remarkably similar in all timescales, except that the spectral power in ERA-20C is systematically slightly higher than in 20CR. Apart from the slow components related to multi-decadal periodicities, ENSO oscillations with approximately 3.5- and 5-year periods are the most prominent forms of variability in both reanalyses. In 20CR, these are relatively slightly more pronounced than in ERA-20C. Since about the 1970s, the amplitudes of the 3.5- and 5-year oscillations have increased, presumably due to some combination of forced climate change, intrinsic low-frequency climate variability, or change in global observing network. Second, none of the 12 coupled climate models closely reproduce all aspects of the reanalysis spectra, although some models represent many aspects well. For instance, the GFDL-ESM2M model has two nicely separated ENSO periods although they are relatively too prominent as compared with the reanalyses. There is an extensive Supplement and YouTube videos to illustrate the multi-annual variability of the data sets.

  1. Spanish flu and early 20th-century expansion of a coronary heart disease-prone subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Azambuja, Maria Inês Reinert

    2004-01-01

    According to Stephen Jay Gould, "we have a strong preference for seeing trends as entities moving somewhere." However, trends may instead be the product of relative expansions and contractions of different subpopulations constituting the system. Variation in attributes of coronary heart disease cases during the decline in coronary heart disease mortality suggests a change in the primary source-subpopulation of cases over time. It is proposed that an early 20th-century expansion of a coronary heart disease-prone subpopulation, characterized by high serum-cholesterol phenotype and high case-fatality--which contributed to most of the coronary heart disease cases and deaths during the 1960s--may have been a late result of the 1918 influenza pandemic. The same unusual immune response to infection that in 1918 killed preferentially men, whites, and those born from 1880 to 1900 (20-40 years old) may have "primed" survivors of those birth cohorts to late coronary heart disease mortality. Ecologic evidence in favor of a birth cohort and geographic association between both epidemics is presented. Cross-reactive auto-immune response upon reinfection could explain the excess coronary heart disease deaths reported during influenza epidemics from the late 1920s onward. Mimicry between the viral hemagglutinin and the apolipoprotein B or the low-density lipoprotein receptor could be the link between infection and hypercholesterolemia. The extinction of those birth cohorts would result in a relative increase in cases coming from a 2nd subpopulation, which was characterized by insulin resistance and chronic expression of low-grade inflammation markers and was comparatively less vulnerable to die acutely from coronary heart disease.

  2. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  3. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

  4. P values are only an index to evidence: 20th- vs. 21st-century statistical science.

    PubMed

    Burnham, K P; Anderson, D R

    2014-03-01

    Early statistical methods focused on pre-data probability statements (i.e., data as random variables) such as P values; these are not really inferences nor are P values evidential. Statistical science clung to these principles throughout much of the 20th century as a wide variety of methods were developed for special cases. Looking back, it is clear that the underlying paradigm (i.e., testing and P values) was weak. As Kuhn (1970) suggests, new paradigms have taken the place of earlier ones: this is a goal of good science. New methods have been developed and older methods extended and these allow proper measures of strength of evidence and multimodel inference. It is time to move forward with sound theory and practice for the difficult practical problems that lie ahead. Given data the useful foundation shifts to post-data probability statements such as model probabilities (Akaike weights) or related quantities such as odds ratios and likelihood intervals. These new methods allow formal inference from multiple models in the a prior set. These quantities are properly evidential. The past century was aimed at finding the "best" model and making inferences from it. The goal in the 21st century is to base inference on all the models weighted by their model probabilities (model averaging). Estimates of precision can include model selection uncertainty leading to variances conditional on the model set. The 21st century will be about the quantification of information, proper measures of evidence, and multi-model inference. Nelder (1999:261) concludes, "The most important task before us in developing statistical science is to demolish the P-value culture, which has taken root to a frightening extent in many areas of both pure and applied science and technology".

  5. Exponential decline of aftershocks of the M7.9 1868 great Kau earthquake, Hawaii, through the 20th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, F.W.; Wright, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes going back to the 1820s is based on missionary diaries, newspaper accounts, and instrumental records and spans the great M7.9 Kau earthquake of April 1868 and its aftershock sequence. The earthquake record since 1868 defines a smooth curve complete to M5.2 of the declining rate into the 21st century, after five short volcanic swarms are removed. A single aftershock curve fits the earthquake record, even with numerous M6 and 7 main shocks and eruptions. The timing of some moderate earthquakes may be controlled by magmatic stresses, but their overall long-term rate reflects one of aftershocks of the Kau earthquake. The 1868 earthquake is, therefore, the largest and most controlling stress event in the 19th and 20th centuries. We fit both the modified Omori (power law) and stretched exponential (SE) functions to the earthquakes. We found that the modified Omori law is a good fit to the M ??? 5.2 earthquake rate for the first 10 years or so and the more rapidly declining SE function fits better thereafter, as supported by three statistical tests. The switch to exponential decay suggests that a possible change in aftershock physics may occur from rate and state fault friction, with no change in the stress rate, to viscoelastic stress relaxation. The 61-year exponential decay constant is at the upper end of the range of geodetic relaxation times seen after other global earthquakes. Modeling deformation in Hawaii is beyond the scope of this paper, but a simple interpretation of the decay suggests an effective viscosity of 1019 to 1020 Pa s pertains in the volcanic spreading of Hawaii's flanks. The rapid decline in earthquake rate poses questions for seismic hazard estimates in an area that is cited as one of the most hazardous in the United States.

  6. The 20th century transitions in basic and extreme monsoon rainfall indices in India: Comparison of the ETCCDI indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Panigrahi, P.; Mohanty, S.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sethi, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    The mean and extreme matrices of the monsoon rainfall in India not only play an important role in depicting the global monsoon climate, but also their spatiotemporal patterns influence the socio-economic profile of a major proportion of the country's huge population. Given the reported conflicting trends at the global and national scales, the present study investigates the 20th century (1901-2004) changes in monsoon rainfall of India, particularly focusing the indices developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) to facilitate a global comparison. Result of this comprehensive analysis, which includes the response of fifteen indices over two study periods (i.e., 1901-1940 and 1961-2004), indicates clear signals of change with respect to the period and region of study and the choice of the ETCCDI indices. While wet day frequency, low-to-moderate events and consecutive wet days (CWD) exhibit a prominent transition from a pre-1940 wetting to a post-1960 drying tendency over a large part of the central-north India (CNI), both the wet and dry extremes have occurred in a spatially less consistent manner during the recent decades. For consecutive dry days (CDD), the reported less clear global signals could be related to the timescale of analysis, as our sub-seasonal scale results display consistent changes compared to that of the seasonal and annual scales. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) provides clear indications of a post-1960 non-stationarity, showing changes in the mean as well as variance. Based on the partial Mann-Kendall test (PMK), some of the identified rainfall trends during 1961-2004 are found to be influenced more by the tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures than the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. These results have important implications for formulating the water resource management strategy, particularly over the drying central and northern parts of the country.

  7. Reconciling past changes in Earth’s rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk’s enigma

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth’s rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth’s rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth’s rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth’s rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  8. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  9. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  10. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  11. Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

  12. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings and Papers of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (20th, Monticello, New York, March 29-31, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document includes proceedings, abstracts, and papers of the 20th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 29-31, 2006 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University.…

  13. "More than Measurable Human Products": Catholic Educators' Responses to the Educational Measurement Movement in the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    During the first half of the 20th century, Catholic educators in the United States used theological arguments both to resist and embrace the progressive educational reform effort of educational measurement. The significant expansion of Catholic schooling and the increased number of students attending them, along with increased state oversight, led…

  14. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Addenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    This booklet is an addendum to the conference proceedings of the 20th annual meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20). It contains three reactions to the research forum: (1) "Mathematizing: The 'Real' Need for Representational Fluency" (R. Lesh); (2) "Mathematics Teacher Development: An Alternative…

  15. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (20th, Chicago, Illinois, October 19-21, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are presented in three parts. The four papers in part 1, "Issues in 20th Century American Education", discuss the women graduates of Oberlin College, 1836-1860, the Americanization of art museums, the business community's response to government's support of the labor movement, and the response of liberalism…

  16. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part II: Selecting Papers Covering the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 17 papers in this collection all deal with 20th-century journalism, journalists, and mass media. The papers and their authors are: "Building One's Own Gallows: The Trade Publications' Reaction to a Federal Shield Law, 1972-1974" (Karla Gower); "The Useful Ogre: Sweden's Use and Views of American Television, 1956-62" (Ulf…

  17. Affordances and Constraints in Social Studies Curriculum-Making: The Case of "Jewish Social Studies" in the Early 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This document-based historical study explores the nature of the Jewish social studies curriculum in American Jewish schools in the early 20th century (c.1910-1940), a period of significant growth and reform in the modern American Jewish education enterprise. "Jewish social studies" refers to school programs in which Jewish history, Jewish…

  18. Nostalgic for What? The Epidemic of Images of the Mid 20th Century Classroom in American Media Culture and What it Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2005-01-01

    Within this paper the author examines the current nostalgia for a never-present past through critical analysis of images of the mid 20th century American classroom in media culture. The author uses theories of nostalgia and the history of the photographic image to trouble the numerous equity issues surrounding the unchallenged canonization of the…

  19. Physics World turns 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-10-01

    Welcome to this special issue marking our 20th birthday Physics World first appeared in October 1988 as the successor to - for those who remember it - Physics Bulletin. Since then, Physics World has grown in importance and stature, and, without wishing to blow our own trumpet too much, it is now one of the best specialist science magazines around. Its success is largely due to the talented teams of staff who have worked for the magazine over the last two decades - in particular founding editor Philip Campbell and his successor Peter Rodgers - and to the editorial independence given to us by our publishers, the Institute of Physics.

  20. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    erection. The concepts from animal experimentations in Europe in the 19th century significantly contributed to the current understanding of penile erection. van Driel MF. Physiology of penile erection—a brief history of the scientific understanding up till the eighties of the 20th century. Sex Med 2015;3:343–351. PMID:26797073

  1. Continuity and Change in Geography's Contribution to Citizenship Education in England in the 19th and 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Wong Yuk; Marsden, W. E.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the relationship between geography and citizenship education has been used to include geography in the British curriculum. Describes how early geography instruction was linked to imperial strategies of the government. Discusses how geography education changed through the World War I, World War II, and post-war periods. (CFR)

  2. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow

  3. 20th century global warming favoured enhanced intensity of extreme torrential events - a proglacial sediment record in NW French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Legaz, A.; Allignol, F.; Enters, D.; Revillon, S.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few yeas, considerable climate changes have been observed at high elevation areas of the European Alps. Additionally, one of the main results of high resolution climate modelling is a trend towards both dryer summer conditions and enhanced risk of extreme floods. This should have particularly dramatic consequences in alpine areas. Indeed, the development of tourism during the 20th century in the Alps and the rise of population density resulted in an increasing potential risk from natural hazards. Among them, torrential floods are some of the most common and widespread ones. They cause both loss of human life and high damage to property and infrastructure and are particularly destructive in mountain areas. For example, in August 2005, an unusual meteorological situation resulted in a series of catastrophic floods in most regions of the European Alps and particularly in the catchment of the Vorz river, downstream of proglacial Lac Blanc (2170 m a.s.l., Belledonne range, NW French Alps). We studied a series of sediment cores from Lac Blanc, spanning the last ca. 250 years. Through a coupled high resolution sedimentological and geochemical approach we documented about 100 flood deposits and measured their thickness. The age of each deposit has been assessed by radiochemical dating and the recognition of historically-known events - major earthquakes and historical atmospheric lead deposition. Furthermore, a detailed study of regional and local historical archives was conducted allowing us to relate the recognised flood deposits to the ones reported by local population. We hence obtained a flood calendar from 1740 to 2005 with the respective intensity of each event assessed by the thickness of the associated deposit. The flood frequency shows an important and punctual increase at the early end of the Little Ice Age (1830 - 1860) as a response to the beginning warming period, which was emphasized by the synchronous local glacier retreat. On the other hand

  4. The Neoarchaean surficial sulphur cycle: An alternative hypothesis based on analogies with 20th-century atmospheric lead.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, M; Whitehouse, M J; Kamber, B S

    2017-05-01

    We revisit the S-isotope systematics of sedimentary pyrite in a shaly limestone from the ca. 2.52 Ga Gamohaan Formation, Upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Transvaal, South Africa. The analysed rock is interpreted to have been deposited in a water depth of ca. 50-100 m, in a restricted sub-basin on a drowning platform. A previous study discovered that the pyrites define a nonzero intercept δ(34) SV-CDT -Δ(33) S data array. The present study carried out further quadruple S-isotope analyses of pyrite, confirming and expanding the linear δ(34) SV-CDT -Δ(33) S array with an δ(34) S zero intercept at ∆(33) S ca. +5. This was previously interpreted to indicate mixing of unrelated S-sources in the sediment environment, involving a combination of recycled sulphur from sulphides that had originally formed by sulphate-reducing bacteria, along with elemental sulphur. Here, we advance an alternative explanation based on the recognition that the Archaean seawater sulphate concentration was likely very low, implying that the Archaean ocean could have been poorly mixed with respect to sulphur. Thus, modern oceanic sulphur systematics provide limited insight into the Archaean sulphur cycle. Instead, we propose that the 20th-century atmospheric lead event may be a useful analogue. Similar to industrial lead, the main oceanic input of Archaean sulphur was through atmospheric raindown, with individual giant point sources capable of temporally dominating atmospheric input. Local atmospheric S-isotope signals, of no global significance, could thus have been transmitted into the localised sediment record. Thus, the nonzero intercept δ(34) SV-CDT -Δ(33) S data array may alternatively represent a very localised S-isotope signature in the Neoarchaean surface environment. Fallout from local volcanic eruptions could imprint recycled MIF-S signals into pyrite of restricted depositional environments, thereby avoiding attenuation of the signal in the subdued, averaged global open ocean

  5. GPS observations of the ionospheric F2-layer behavior during the 20th November 2003 geomagnetic storm over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Luo, O. F.; Park, P.

    2008-12-01

    The ionospheric F2-layer peak density (NmF2) and its height (hmF2) are of great influence on the shape of the ionospheric electron density profile Ne (h) and may be indicative of other physical processes within the ionosphere, especially those due to geomagnetic storms. Such parameters are often estimated using models such as the semiempirical international reference ionosphere (IRI) models or are measured using moderately priced to expensive instrumentation, such as ionosondes or incoherent scatter radars. Global positioning system (GPS) observations have become a powerful tool for mapping high-resolution ionospheric structures, which can be used to study the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms. In this paper, we describe how 3-D ionospheric electron density profiles were produced from data of the dense permanent Korean GPS network using the tomography reconstruction technique. These profiles are verified by independent ionosonde data. The responses of GPS-derived parameters at the ionospheric F2-layer to the 20th November 2003 geomagnetic storm over South Korea are investigated. A fairly large increase in the electron density at the F2-layer peak (the NmF2) (positive storm) has been observed during this storm, which is accompanied by a significant uplift in the height of the F2 layer peak (the hmF2). This is confirmed by independent ionosonde observations. We suggest that the F2-layer peak height uplift and NmF2 increase are mainly associated with a strong eastward electric field, and are not associated with the increase of the O/N2 ratio obtained from the GUVI instruments aboard the TIMED satellite. It is also inferred that the increase in NmF2 is not caused by the changes in neutral composition, but is related to other nonchemical effects, such as dynamical changes of vertical ion motions induced by winds and E × B drifts, tides and waves in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region, which can be dynamically coupled upward to generate ionospheric

  6. Proglacial sediment supply and channel evolution of the Arveyron of the Mer de Glace since the early 20th c.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Johan; Astrade, Laurent; Ravanel, Ludovic; Ployon, Estelle

    2015-04-01

    The Arveyron of the Mer de Glace is the emissary of the most famous and largest French glacier. The latter has dramatically shrunk since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), such as every alpine glacier: the front has registered a retreat of 2.7 km since 1820 and a recent modelling showed a likely decrease of an extra km by 2040. The Arveyron and its surroundings are deeply impacted by the retreat. Then, dynamics of proglacial streams and of lateral moraines have been studied at different time and space scales through various methods: airborne and terrestrial Lidar DEM comparisons, mapping from orthophotos, 2D and 3D monoplotting to quantify past events from old terrestrial pictures, etc. By coupling studies on moraines and on stream morphology we wanted to better understand the influence of glacier retreat on sediment supply and transport downstream. Results show the evolution of the stream sediment sources linked to the glacier retreat. Before the middle of the 20th century, till was the main sediment source and was released by major flood events such as GLOFs. Now, geomorphic activity is especially important on the right lateral moraine into the recently deglaciated hanging valley of the Mer de Glace but also in the moraine flanks of the current glacier tongue (many landslides occurred during the Summer 2014). The recent glacier retreat has also formed sediments sinks such as two proglacial lakes which are progressively filling. These lakes work as big sediment traps until they will disappear (around 2017). Fluvial dynamics of the Arveyron depends on the connectivity with potential sediments sources. This is why we crossed upstream studies with the channel evolution on its fan. Arveyron channel has got narrower and incised for at least a century. Such evolution should mean a decreasing sediment yield, but anthropic factors play also an important role on stream morphology. The main anthorpic impact is the complex subglacial harnessing of the Mer de Glace. The

  7. Bridging the Two Worlds: A Universal Interface between Enzymatic and DNA Computing Systems.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Shay; Gerasimova, Yulia V; Guz, Nataliia; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-05-26

    Molecular computing based on enzymes or nucleic acids has attracted a great deal of attention due to the perspectives of controlling living systems in the way we control electronic computers. Enzyme-based computational systems can respond to a great variety of small molecule inputs. They have the advantage of signal amplification and highly specific recognition. DNA computing systems are most often controlled by oligonucleotide inputs/outputs and are capable of sophisticated computing as well as controlling gene expressions. Here, we developed an interface that enables communication of otherwise incompatible nucleic-acid and enzyme-computational systems. The enzymatic system processes small molecules as inputs and produces NADH as an output. The NADH output triggers electrochemical release of an oligonucleotide, which is accepted by a DNA computational system as an input. This interface is universal because the enzymatic and DNA computing systems are independent of each other in composition and complexity.

  8. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    PubMed

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  9. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  10. Computing Science and Statistics: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Interface: Computationally Intensive Methods in Statistics (20th) Held in Fairfax, Virginia on April 20-23, 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-15

    function in (i) is nonnegative. have a limiting joint norma distrL ution with means The solution is two-fold: first is the evaluation of zero, variances one...alpha = 05 level of significance. Covariates While the models discussed above included apa = .0 lee"fsgiiac. Cvrae only one covariate, one can imagine

  11. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  12. A Comparison of 20th Century and Holocene Historical Lake Areas and Implications for Reconstruction of Holocene Moisture Balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, C. P.; Ferreira, M.; Shuman, B.; Ito, E.

    2005-12-01

    for a subset of the lakes included in the historical aerial photo analysis. Interpretation of the GPR profiles reveals that the apparent frequency of erosional events increased towards the west, mimicking the behavior of modern drought response. However, unlike the modern drought response, we detect some large magnitude lake area changes throughout Minnesota during the Holocene. The preservation of well defined packages of lake strata appears to increase eastward, with thicker units between unconformities, but we find low elevation unconformities throughout the state. Taken together, we observe that an east-west gradient of lake area variability has remained in place throughout the Holocene, even if the magnitude of some water level changes was much larger in the past than during the 20th century. The influence of basin morphometry on the clarity of the lake level signal is, however, significant and records are commonly complicated by the evolution of the sedimentary basins from more complex, in some cases multi-basinal forms, to less complex flat-bottom forms.

  13. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  14. Visible signs of illness from the 14th to the 20th century: systematic review of portraits

    PubMed Central

    Als, C; Stüssi, Y; Boschung, U; Tröhler, U; Wäber, J H

    2002-01-01

    way in which people were reproduced. People depicted are possibly not representative of the general Bernese population as they constituted a socioeconomically advantaged group. What is already know on this topicReviews of individual portraits from the past have found clinical signs of illness that have led to discussions of underlying diseasesGoitre probably affected in excess of 80% of the population of the canton of Berne up to the beginning of the 20th centuryWhat this study addsIn a large series of portraits from the Bernese region, goitre and other diseases are under-representedFindings of age dependent overweight (a survival advantage in times of potential famine) were probably more realisticLikely explanations for this include idealisation depending on sex and age, artistic skills, fashion, and sociocultural significance of illnessA decline in depicted signs of illness from the 19th century may indicate progress of preventive medicine and hygiene PMID:12493682

  15. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  16. [Eugenics and Discrimination in Colombia: the Role of Medicine and Psychiatry in Immigration Policy at the Beginning of the 20th Century].

    PubMed

    Moog, Jaime Carrizosa

    2014-03-01

    With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century.

  17. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Nadyozhina, E. D.; Pavlova, T. V.; Molkentin, E. K.; Semioshina, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  18. Intrinsic low-frequency variability in ice sheets, glaciers and ocean dynamics and its relation to the observed 20th century sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Richter, Kristin; Marzeion, Ben; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The observed 20th century sea level rise represents one of the major consequences of anthropogenic climate change. However, superimposed on any anthropogenic trend there are also considerable decadal to centennial signals linked to intrinsic natural variability in the climate system. Here, we systematically analyze the contributions from 18 major glacier regions, the Greenland ice sheet, and ocean dynamics to the observed 20th century sea level rise and provide evidence for significant long-term correlations in each individual component. This intrinsic low frequency variability enhances previous estimates of the causal uncertainties of observed trends (based on the assumption that natural variations do not persist longer than a few years) in sea level by an average factor of 2.3. Gravitational effects and ocean dynamics further lead to regionally varying imprints of low frequency variability. In the Arctic, for instance, the causal uncertainties are even up to 8 times larger than previously thought. This result is consistent with recent findings that beside the anthropogenic signature, a non-negligible fraction of the observed 20th sea level rise still represents a response to pre-industrial natural climate variations such as the Little Ice Age.

  19. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

    2010-07-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

  20. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities

  1. World Population Ageing, 1950-2050.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    Population aging was one of the most distinctive events of the 20th century and will remain important throughout the 21st century. Initially, a phenomenon of more developed countries, the process has recently become apparent in much of the developing world as well. The shift in age structure associated with population aging has a profound impact…

  2. Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

  3. The World through Glass: Developing Novel Methods with Wearable Computing for Urban Videographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Mark; Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Google Glass was deployed in an Urban Studies field course to gather videographic data for team-based student research projects. We evaluate the potential for wearable computing technology such as Glass, in combination with other mobile computing devices, to enhance reflexive research skills, and videography in particular, during field research.…

  4. Polyhedral Sculpture: The Path from Computational Artifact to Real-World Mathematical Object.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael; Nishioka, Ann

    Mathematics educators often despair at math's austere, "abstract" reputation. This paper describes recent work in developing an application named "HyperGami," which is designed to integrate both the abstract and"real-world" aspects of mathematics by allowing children to design and construct polyhedral models and…

  5. The Tragedy of Logos: Networked Computer Classrooms and Contact with Strange Discourse Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Scott R.

    According to author David Roochnik, the "tragedy of logos" refers to the condition of having a "logos" (meaning a view of the rational structure of the world) and colliding with its limits and limitations. The tragedy of logos arises when some event or experience shows that things are otherwise, because tragedy entails the…

  6. The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models

  7. 20/20 vision. To celebrate our 20th anniversary, Health Facilities Management explores emerging industry trends.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Amy

    2008-10-01

    In the past 20 years, hospital design has evolved from institutional to evidence-based and patient-centered, medical and information technologies have advanced at unprecedented rates, infection control and security concerns have become more pronounced and environmental issues have broadened hospitals' healing mission to include the facility's impact on the community and the world at large.

  8. Online Information 96. Proceedings of the International Online Information Meeting (20th, London, England, UK, December 3-5, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitt, David I., Ed.; Jeapes, Ben, Ed.

    This proceedings volume contains 68 papers. Subjects addressed include: access to information; the future of information managers/librarians; intelligent agents; changing roles of library users; disintermediation; Internet review sites; World Wide Web (WWW) search engines; Java; online searching; future of online education; integrated information…

  9. How Gender Shaped Science and Education: A History of Nutritional Sciences in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Rima D.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies view the world as composed of two distinct and complementary spheres: the female (domestic) sphere and the male (public) sphere. Because science was part of the male sphere, women were inhibited from pursuing a career in scientific research. However, the more limited female sphere often found within university departments of home…

  10. Banded vegetation-dune development during the Medieval Warm Period and 20th century, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the advent of systematic high-resolution satellite photography, striking geometric shapes of banded vegetation several km2 in size, but not apparent from the ground, have been documented for many areas of the arid and semiarid world. Banded vegetation, in which dense perennial vegetation altern...

  11. Medical computing over the World Wide Web: use of forms and CGI scripts for constructing medical algorithm Web pages.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J; Jarvis, B A; Ruskin, K J; Engel, T P

    1997-01-01

    The development of the World Wide Web has led to an explosion of educational and clinical resources available via the Internet with minimal effort or special training. However, most of these Web pages contain only static information; few offer dynamic information shaped around clinical or laboratory test findings. In this report we show how this goal can be achieved with the design and construction of Medical Algorithm Web Pages (MAWP). Specifically, using Internet technologies known as forms and CGI scripts we demonstrate how one can implement medical algorithms remotely over the Internet's World Wide Web. To use a MAWP, one enters the URL for the site and then enters information according to the instructions presented there, usually by entering numbers and other information into fields displayed on screen. When all the data is entered, the user clicks on the SUBMIT icon, resulting in a new Web page being constructed "on-the-fly" containing diagnostic calculations and other information pertinent to the patient's clinical management. Four sample applications are presented in detail to illustrate the concept of a Medical Algorithm Web page: Computation of the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference using the alveolar gas equation; Computation of renal creatinine clearance; drug infusion calculation (micrograms/kilogram/minute); Computation of the renal failure index.

  12. Use of a virtual world computer environment for international distance education: lessons from a pilot project using Second Life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs), in which participants navigate as avatars through three-dimensional, computer-generated, realistic-looking environments, are emerging as important new technologies for distance health education. However, there is relatively little documented experience using VWs for international healthcare training. The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) conducted a VW training for healthcare professionals enrolled in a GFMER training course. This paper describes the development, delivery, and results of a pilot project undertaken to explore the potential of VWs as an environment for distance healthcare education for an international audience that has generally limited access to conventionally delivered education. PMID:24555833

  13. A Future of Reversals: Dyslexic Talents in a World of Computer Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes that those traits which handicap visually oriented dyslexics in a verbally oriented educational system may confer advantages in new fields which rely on visual methods of analysis, especially those in computer applications. It is suggested that such traits also characterized Albert Einstein, Michael Faraday, James Maxwell, and…

  14. Computer Assisted Comprehension of Distant Worlds: Understanding Hunger Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a computer program called RiskMap. Explains that after completing an assignment on rural economics and hunger dynamics in Africa, students showed an increased level of understanding and felt that using RiskMap was helpful in learning the material. Includes references. (DAJ)

  15. The future of voice-processing technology in the world of computers and communications.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y

    1995-01-01

    This talk, which was the keynote address of the NAS Colloquium on Human-Machine Communication by Voice, discusses the past, present, and future of human-machine communications, especially speech recognition and speech synthesis. Progress in these technologies is reviewed in the context of the general progress in computer and communications technologies. PMID:7479726

  16. The future of voice-processing technology in the world of computers and communications.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y

    1995-10-24

    This talk, which was the keynote address of the NAS Colloquium on Human-Machine Communication by Voice, discusses the past, present, and future of human-machine communications, especially speech recognition and speech synthesis. Progress in these technologies is reviewed in the context of the general progress in computer and communications technologies.

  17. Taking Interpersonal Communication out of the Classroom into the World of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Vernon W.

    The emergence of the information society introduces the academic community to the most significant revolution since the invention of the printing press. The growing use of computers can lead to a depreciation of self-worth. Since the machine can handle complex logical applications with considerably more speed and accuracy than most people, many…

  18. Computational rationality: A converging paradigm for intelligence in brains, minds, and machines.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Samuel J; Horvitz, Eric J; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2015-07-17

    After growing up together, and mostly growing apart in the second half of the 20th century, the fields of artificial intelligence (AI), cognitive science, and neuroscience are reconverging on a shared view of the computational foundations of intelligence that promotes valuable cross-disciplinary exchanges on questions, methods, and results. We chart advances over the past several decades that address challenges of perception and action under uncertainty through the lens of computation. Advances include the development of representations and inferential procedures for large-scale probabilistic inference and machinery for enabling reflection and decisions about tradeoffs in effort, precision, and timeliness of computations. These tools are deployed toward the goal of computational rationality: identifying decisions with highest expected utility, while taking into consideration the costs of computation in complex real-world problems in which most relevant calculations can only be approximated. We highlight key concepts with examples that show the potential for interchange between computer science, cognitive science, and neuroscience.

  19. Leaders in Cardiovascular Medicine. Eugene Braunwald MD: an icon of the 20th century still going strong.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene; Nicholls, Mark

    2015-06-07

    Considered one of the pre-eminent cardiologists of our time, Dr Eugene Braunwald, MD, has extended knowledge of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease. Having published hundreds of papers and medical articles, with his textbook Braunwald’s Heart Disease cited worldwide, Dr Braunwald has received numerous honours and awards. Born in Austria in 1929, his family emigrated to the USA during World War II and after his studies he began a long, successful and hugely-influential career as a cardiologist. Now well into his 80s, he still practices medicine and continues to contribute to the field of cardiology.

  20. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  1. Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems?

    PubMed

    Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research.

  2. The world problem: on the computability of the topology of 4-manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanMeter, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Topological classification of the 4-manifolds bridges computation theory and physics. A proof of the undecidability of the homeomorphy problem for 4-manifolds is outlined here in a clarifying way. It is shown that an arbitrary Turing machine with an arbitrary input can be encoded into the topology of a 4-manifold, such that the 4-manifold is homeomorphic to a certain other 4-manifold if and only if the corresponding Turing machine halts on the associated input. Physical implications are briefly discussed.

  3. Abrupt and severe 20th Century changes in the fire regimes of southeastern Australia: Evidence from a 3000 year multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Mooney, Scott; Allen, Kathryn; Willersdorf, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Fire is the dominant natural disturbance in southeastern Australia. For millennia it has been the driving force shaping terrestrial ecosystems in the region -- simultaneously killing vegetation and initiating regeneration across whole landscapes. Fire regimes across the region are driven by several factors including climate, vegetation, and ignition sources. Humans have been a significant contributing factor to past and present fire regimes. Prior to European settlement in the late 1700s, Aboriginal Australians used frequent, low-intensity fires to manage vegetation across much of the landscape. European settlement led to the displacement of Aboriginal communities and a shift to active fire suppression and control. This changing approach to fire management is widely believed to have initiated a fundamental shift towards extreme, high-intensity fire events as fuel loads increased. In addition, during the 20th Century prolonged periods of warm, dry conditions have occurred with greater frequency and intensity. The relative importance of climate and fire management practices on contemporary fire regimes is vigorously debated in Australia and is directly relevant to land management policies and their implementation. To put the current fire regime into historical context, we used a multi-proxy approach combining palaeo-charcoal and tree-ring analyses to assess how fire regimes have changed over the last 3000 years in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia. We found almost no evidence of high-intensity fires in the 3000 years that preceded the 20th Century. However, in the mid-20th Century there is a sudden and dramatic increase in the presence of charcoal and the pulsed establishment of trees across the landscape, suggesting a recent shift from low-intensity fires with minimal charcoal signatures to moderate- to high-intensity fires with substantial charcoal inputs. Importantly, the tree-ring data demonstrate that most of these fires were not stand

  4. Sensitivity of isoprene emissions from the terrestrial biosphere to 20th century changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate, and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LathièRe, J.; Hewitt, C. N.; Beerling, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    We describe the development and analysis of a global model based on Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) (Guenther et al., 2006) for estimating isoprene emissions from terrestrial vegetation. The sensitivity of calculated isoprene emissions to descriptors including leaf age, soil moisture, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and regional variability of emission factors is analyzed. The validity of the results is evaluated by comparison with compilations of published field-based canopy-scale observations. Calculated isoprene emissions reproduce above-canopy flux measurements and the site-to-site variability across a wide range of latitudes, with the model explaining 60% of the variance. Although the model underestimates isoprene emissions, especially in northern latitude localities, this disagreement is significantly corrected when regional variability of emission factors for particular plant functional types is considered (r2 = 0.78). At the global scale, we estimate a terrestrial biosphere isoprene flux of 413 TgC yr-1 using the present-day climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and vegetation distribution, and this compares with other published estimates from global modeling studies of 402 to 660 TgC yr-1. The validated model was used to calculate changes in isoprene emissions in response to atmospheric CO2 increase, climate change, and land use change during the 20th century (1901-2002). Changes in all of these factors are found to impact significantly on isoprene emissions over the course of the 20th century. Between 1901 and 2002, we estimate that at the global scale, climate change was responsible for a 7% increase in isoprene emissions, and rising atmospheric CO2 caused a 21% reduction. However, by the end of the 20th century (2002), anthropogenic cropland expansion has the largest impact reducing isoprene emissions by 15%. Overall, these factors combined to cause a 24% decrease in global isoprene emissions during the 20th century. It

  5. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  6. An evaluation of 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States as simulated by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David E. Rupp,

    2016-05-05

    The 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States and surrounding areas as simulated by global climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated. A suite of statistics that characterize various aspects of the regional climate was calculated from both model simulations and observation-based datasets. CMIP5 global climate models were ranked by their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Differences in the performance of the models between regions of the United States (the Southeastern and Northwestern United States) warrant a regional-scale assessment of CMIP5 models.

  7. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  8. Mapping the refugee’s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  9. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-02

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan.

  10. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories.

  11. The Battle for Leyte Gulf. October 1944. Strategical and Tactical Analysis. Volume III. Operations from 0000 October 20th (D-day) until 1042 October 23rd

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-01-01

    IN PERIODS OF RAPIDLY CHANGING TECHNOLOGY CGMMANDERS FREQUETY MEET CONDITIONS WITH WHICH THEY HAVE HAD NO PREVIOUS EXPRLIENCE AND TO WHICH PREWAR AND...Mnblle Force ( Mobli Force DesOpOrd ko. 62), Detaled Action lReyort haiLn Force, S.HO No. I1 (erarý;ion , oke, obe•’ 20(th - 24.h, 194.4 ýiDC...UNDERSTANDING SOMETHING OF THE CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE W•AF’ONS ANT) TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICES EMPLOYED BY THEIR SISTER SERVICES, AS WELL AS BY

  12. Becoming a Citizen of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Karen

    2004-01-01

    W.E.B. Du Bois, one of the leading intellectuals of the 20th century, was unwavering in his commitment to the equality of the colored peoples of the world. All intellectual giant and a life-long agitator, Du Bois devoted his life to ensuring that the majority of the people in the world, "those of color," would break the shackles of colonialism and…

  13. Community as client: environmental issues in the real world. A SimCity computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Bareford, C G

    2001-01-01

    The ability to think critically has become a crucial part of professional practice and education. SimCity, a popular computer simulation game, provides an opportunity to practice community assessment and interventions using a systems approach. SimCity is an interactive computer simulation game in which the player takes an active part in community planning. SimCity is supported on either a Windows 95/98 or a Macintosh platform and is available on CD-ROM at retail stores or at www.simcity.com. Students complete a tutorial and then apply a selected scenario in SimCity. Scenarios consist of hypothetical communities that have varying types and degrees of environmental problems, e.g., traffic, crime, nuclear meltdown, flooding, fire, and earthquakes. In problem solving with the simulated scenarios, students (a) identify systems and subsystems within the community that are critical factors impacting the environmental health of the community, (b) create changes in the systems and subsystems in an effort to solve the environmental health problem, and (c) evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based on the game score, demographic and fiscal data, and amount of community support. Because the consequences of planned intervention are part of the simulation, nursing students are able to develop critical-thinking skills. The simulation provides essential content in community planning in an interesting and interactive format.

  14. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-12-21

    This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions.

  15. The anatomical mummies of Mombello: detection of cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine in the hair of psychiatric patients of the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Fels, Helena; Carli, Alberto; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The Mombello Psychiatric Hospital in Limbiate, near Milan, replaced the old Senavra Hospital as the Psychiatric Hospital for the Province of Milan in the 19th century. During the early 20th century, bodies of several Mombello patients were dissected and preserved by Giuseppe Paravicini, an anatomist who operated within the asylum. The aim of the present study was to examine and memorialize this important assemblage. To this end, we were allowed to sample the head hair of six such preparations for toxicological analysis. By means of high performance liquid chromatography, cocaine and its main metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were detected in two out of six hair samples. The concentrations for cocaine were 0.151 and 0.09ng/mg and for benzoylecgonine 0.103 and 0.147ng/mg, respectively. Given that cocaine was a commonly used medicine, beginning in the mid-19th century and persisting into the 20th century, it is not surprising that some patients may have ingested this drug. In addition to the detection of cocaine, these analyses also provided evidence of nicotine and caffeine intake.

  16. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  17. Computed tomographic evidence of atherosclerosis in the mummified remains of humans from around the world.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido P; Cox, Samantha L; Frohlich, Bruno; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Frohlich, Thomas C; King, Samantha I; Miyamoto, Michael I; Monge, Janet M; Valladolid, Clide M; El-Halim Nur El-Din, Abd; Narula, Jagat; Thompson, Adam M; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2014-06-01

    Although atherosclerosis is widely thought to be a disease of modernity, computed tomographic evidence of atherosclerosis has been found in the bodies of a large number of mummies. This article reviews the findings of atherosclerotic calcifications in the remains of ancient people-humans who lived across a very wide span of human history and over most of the inhabited globe. These people had a wide range of diets and lifestyles and traditional modern risk factors do not thoroughly explain the presence and easy detectability of this disease. Nontraditional risk factors such as the inhalation of cooking fire smoke and chronic infection or inflammation might have been important atherogenic factors in ancient times. Study of the genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis in ancient people may offer insights into this common modern disease.

  18. Modelling skin disease: lessons from the worlds of mathematics, physics and computer science.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    Theoretical biology is a field that attempts to understand the complex phenomena of life in terms of mathematical and physical principles. Likewise, theoretical medicine employs mathematical arguments and models as a methodology in approaching the complexities of human disease. Naturally, these concepts can be applied to dermatology. There are many possible methods available in the theoretical investigation of skin disease. A number of examples are presented briefly. These include the mathematical modelling of pattern formation in congenital naevi and erythema gyratum repens, an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of genetic networks in autoimmunity, and computer simulations of early melanoma growth. To conclude, an analogy is drawn between the behaviour of well-known physical processes, such as earthquakes, and the spatio-temporal evolution of skin disease. Creating models in skin disease can lead to predictions that can be investigated experimentally or by observation and offer the prospect of unexpected or important insights into pathogenesis.

  19. To what extent does climate explain variations in reported malaria cases in early 20th century Uganda?

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Larsen, Laragh; McCreesh, Nicky; Taylor, David

    2016-03-31

    Malaria case statistics were analysed for the period 1926 to 1960 to identify inter-annual variations in malaria cases for the Uganda Protectorate. The analysis shows the mid-to-late 1930s to be a period of increased reported cases. After World War II, malaria cases trend down to a relative minimum in the early 1950s, before increasing rapidly after 1953 to the end of the decade. Data for the Western Province confirm these national trends, which at the time were attributed to a wide range of causes, including land development and management schemes, population mobility, interventions and misdiagnosis. Climate was occasionally proposed as a contributor to enhanced case numbers, and unusual precipitation patterns were held responsible; temperature was rarely, if ever, considered. In this study, a dynamical malaria model was driven with available precipitation and temperature data from the period for five stations located across a range of environments in Uganda. In line with the historical data, the simulations produced relatively enhanced transmission in the 1930s, although there is considerable variability between locations. In all locations, malaria transmission was low in the late 1940s and early 1950s, steeply increasing after 1954. Results indicate that past climate variability explains some of the variations in numbers of reported malaria cases. The impact of multiannual variability in temperature, while only on the order of 0.5°C, was sufficient to drive some of the trends observed in the statistics and thus the role of climate was likely underestimated in the contemporary reports. As the elimination campaigns of the 1960s followed this partly climate-driven increase in malaria, this emphasises the need to account for climate when planning and evaluating intervention strategies.

  20. The Fate of the World is in your hands: computer gaming for multi-faceted climate change education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a multi-faceted (or 'wicked') problem. True climate literacy therefore requires understanding not only the workings of the climate system, but also the current and potential future impacts of climate change and sea level rise on individuals, communities and countries around the world, as noted in the US Global Change Research Program's (2009) Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The asymmetric nature of climate change impacts, whereby the world's poorest countries have done the least to cause the problem but will suffer disproportionate consequences, has also been widely noted. Education in climate literacy therefore requires an element of ethics in addition to physical and social sciences. As if addressing these multiple aspects of climate change were not challenging enough, polling data has repeatedly shown that many members of the public tend to see climate change as a far away problem affecting people remote from them at a point in the future, but not themselves. This perspective is likely shared by many students. Computer gaming provides a possible solution to the combined problems of, on the one hand, addressing the multi-faceted nature of climate change, and, on the other hand, making the issue real to students. Fate of the World, a game produced by the company Red Redemption, has been used on several occasions in a small (20-30 students) introductory level general education course on global warming at Weber State University. Players are required to balance difficult decisions about energy investment while managing regional political disputes and attempting to maintain minimum levels of development in the world's poorer countries. By providing a realistic "total immersion" experience, the game has the potential to make climate change issues more immediate to players, and presents them with the ethical dilemmas inherent in climate change. This presentation reports on the use of Fate of the World in an educational

  1. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-11-22

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  2. Has the probability of water deficit changed in Central Europe since the middle of the 20th century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, J.

    2010-09-01

    Daily precipitation totals and daily mean temperature from Central Europe, from the period 1951-2006 have been analyzed. The drought was described using de Martonne, Ped and SPI indices. Aridity index defined by de Martonne Mi (1926) is computed as: Mi= 12Ri/(Ti+10), where Ri is the monthly precipitation amount and Ti is the monthly mean air temperature. The Ped index is defined as Pi=(Ti-Tm)/σT -(Ri-Rm)/σR , where Tm and Rm are mean monthly (seasonal) temperature and precipitation, respectively, and σT and σR are standard deviations of monthly (seasonal) temperature and precipitation, respectively. According to McKee et al. (1993), the SPI is defined on each of the time scales as the difference between precipitation on the time series (Ri) and the mean value (Rm), divided by the standard deviation (σR). This definition assumes that the data fit the normal distribution, but because it is rarely true for precipitation data the data were usually transformed to standard normal distribution. Different distributions have been used to precipitation time series on monthly and seasonal scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. The relations between temporal series of different indices were analyzed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Also the trends were analyzed on the basis of both minimum square fit of polynomials and Mann-Kendall test. Spatial distribution of trends was analyzed.

  3. On a set of 20th century monumental events that shaped the modern discipline of ocean wind wave's research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2012-04-01

    History is made up of individual events. The modern ocean wind waves research has been active for nearly 70 years since the early years of the decade of 1940's while the World War II was still fighting in earnest and Sverdrup and Munk were embarked on an unprecedented attempt to make wave condition prediction for Navy Amphibious forces carrying out landing operation. That was certainly a monumental event that started the modern ocean wind wave's research. Here I wish to present a set of other monumental events in the intervening years which, in my personal view, are vital to the formation of our present day conventional ocean wind wave's research: • Circa 1945: The war time invention of underwater pressure wave gage that measures pressure fluctuations induced by surface waves and also marked as the start of single-point wave measurements prevalent today. • Circa 1950: When oceanographer Pierson met statistician Tukey and ocean wave spectrum analysis was thereby born. • Circa 1952: Something old something new - Longuet-Higgins introduced the distribution function of Load Rayleigh to the emerging ocean wave data analysis and Rayleigh distribution has been the mainstay of ocean wind wave's research ever since. • Circa 1953: Neumann started the quest to formulate a wind wave spectrum with his impressive first empirical spectrum before spectrum was widely measured. • Circa 1957: Phillips worked out the resonance theory for wind wave's generation. • Circa 1957: Miles simultaneously developed the shear flow model for wind wave's generation, complementary to Phillips theory. • Circa 1959: Hasselmann formulated the source function to start the first framework of comprehensive wind wave modeling. These are all the basic innovative milestones that the bulk of the conventional ocean wind wave research studies today were evolved from. While the monumental status of these works may represent merely the personal opinion of a single aficionado, I do feel that they

  4. Socio-metabolic transitions during the 20th century and their impacts on the scale of human resource use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer Kowalski, M.; Haas, W.; Wiedenhofer, D.; Krausmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    By talking about socio-metabolic transitions, we focus on changes in the energetic base of socio-economic systems, leading to fundamental changes in social and environmental relations. This refers to the historical shift from a biomass-based (agrarian) economy to a fossil fuel based (industrial) economy just as much as to a future shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy carriers. The classic example for the historical transition is the United Kingdom, where the increasing use of fossil fuels over the last 250 years follows a perfectly S-shaped curve, with a declining importance of biomass over the same period. In the course of this transition, population increased seven-fold, energy and materials use per capita tripled and income rose by a factor of 19. Today the UK, as other mature industrial economies, has reached a certain metabolic saturation - which indicates that it has finished its transition into the fossil fuel based economy. In our presentation, • We will first show that this pattern of a socio-metabolic transition can be identified for most high income industrial countries: the later the transition started, the faster it proceeded. The turning point for the stabilization of metabolic rates in all of them happened in the early 1970ies. • Next, we will show that this was not just a "historical" transition, however. Currently, a substantial number of countries comprising more than half of the world's population are following a similar transitional pathway at an accelerating pace. Based on empirical data on physical resource use we can show that these so-called emerging economies are currently in the take-off or acceleration phase of the very same transition. • Finally, we will show how the currently observed global trend of increasing annual resource extraction (biomass, fossil fuels, metals and minerals) is a result of a superposition of processes in countries which are in the stabilization and in the acceleration phase of this transition process

  5. Envisioning a Future of Computational Geoscience in a Data Rich Semantic World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Elag, M.; Jiang, P.; Marini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in observational systems and reduction in their cost are allowing us to explore, monitor, and digitally represent our environment in unprecedented details and over large areas. Low cost in situ sensors, unmanned autonomous vehicles, imaging technologies, and other new observational approaches along with airborne and space borne systems are allowing us to measure nearly everything, almost everywhere, and at almost all the time. Under the aegis of observatories they are enabling an integrated view across space and time scales ranging from storms to seasons to years and, in some cases, decades. Rapid increase in the convergence of computational, communication and information systems and their inter-operability through advances in technologies such as semantic web can provide opportunities to further facilitate fusion and synthesis of heterogeneous measurements with knowledge systems. This integration can enable us to break disciplinary boundaries and bring sensor data directly to desktop or handheld devices. We describe CyberInfrastructure effort that is being developed through projects such as Earthcube Geosemantics (http://geosemantics.hydrocomplexity.net), (SEAD (http://sead-data.net/), and Browndog (http://browndog.ncsa.illinois.edu/)s o that data across all of earth science can be easily shared and integrated with models. This also includes efforts to enable models to become interoperable among themselves and with data using technologies that enable human-out-of-the-loop integration. Through such technologies our ability to use real time information for decision-making and scientific investigations will increase multifold. The data goes through a sequence of steps, often iterative, from collection to long-term preservation. Similarly the scientific investigation and associated outcomes are composed of a number of iterative steps from problem identification to solutions. However, the integration between these two pathways is rather limited. We describe

  6. Variability on different time scales of Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in latest 20th century reanalyses ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Wild, Simon; Kruschke, Tim; Ulbrich, Uwe; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms are responsible for a large portion of damages all around the globe. Thus, knowledge about the temporal variability of these events during the past is of high socio-economic importance. In this study, the temporal variability of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms during the past century are analysed using ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR reanalysis datasets. Cyclones are identified using six hourly mean sea level pressure fields whereas wind storms are identified based on near-surface wind speeds. Analyses focus on wintertime events over both hemispheres and also for several subregions. Long-term trends as well as higher-frequency variability are investigated. Therefore, cyclone and wind storm time series are low-pass filtered with a cut-off frequency of 1/31 years using 31 weights and the high-frequency time series are obtained by calculating the residuum of the original and low pass-filtered time series. To analyse long-term trends, a linear regression model is fitted to the original time series for three different periods: 1901-1930, 1931-1960 and 1961-1999. Results suggest substantial differences regarding long-term trends between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclones and wind storm events, especially during the first half of the 20th century. In general, a better agreement is found for extreme cyclones compared to all cyclones. Furthermore, high-frequency variability over the Northern Hemisphere is in good agreement for cyclones and wind storms over most regions and throughout the century, with the highest correlations found at the end of the 20th century. Analyses for the Southern Hemisphere show smaller agreement between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclone and wind storms regarding their high-frequency variability. The results of this study indicate that no reliable conclusion regarding long-term variability of cyclones and wind storms can be drawn, based on solely these two 20th century reanalysis products. However, analyses

  7. Human teeth as historical biomonitors of environmental and dietary lead: some lessons from isotopic studies of 19th and 20th century archival material.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J G; MacKenzie, A B; Moody, G H

    2006-10-01

    The lead isotopic composition of various sections (crown, crown base, root) of teeth was determined in specimens collected from 19th century skulls preserved in museum collections and, upon extraction or exfoliation, from humans of known ages residing in Scotland in the 1990s. For most 20th century samples, calculation of accurate crown-complete or root-complete dates of tooth formation ranging from the 1920s to the 1990s enabled comparison of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios for teeth sections (crown base root) with corresponding decadally averaged data for archival herbarium Sphagnum moss samples. This showed that the teeth sections had been significantly influenced by incorporation of non-contemporaneous (more recent) lead subsequent to the time of tooth formation, most probably via continuous uptake by dentine. This finding confirmed that separation of enamel from dentine is necessary for the potential of teeth sections as historical biomonitors of environmental (and dietary) lead exposure at the time of tooth formation to be realised. Nevertheless, the mean 19th century value of 1.172+/-0.007 for the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in teeth was very similar to the corresponding mean value of 1.173+/-0.004 for 19th century archival moss, although relative contributions from environmental sources - whether direct, by inhalation/ingestion of dust contaminated by local lead smelting ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.17) and coal combustion ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.18) emissions, or indirect, through ingestion of similarly contaminated food - and drinking/cooking water contaminated by lead pipes of local origin, cannot readily be determined. In the 20th century, however, the much lower values of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (range 1.100-1.166, mean 1.126+/-0.013, median 1.124) for the teeth collected from various age groups in the 1990s reflect the significant influence of imported Australian lead of lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (~1.04) and released to the environment most notably through car

  8. 20th century trends of drought conditions in the Mediterranean: the influence of large-scale circulation patterns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Here we have used the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) proposed by Wells et al (2004) as a more appropriate approach to characterize drought conditions in the Mediterranean area. The scPDSI has been shown to perform better (than the original PDSI) when evaluating spatial and temporal drought characteristics for regions outside the USA (Schrier et al, 2005). Seasonal and annual trends for the 1901-2000, 1901-1950 and 1951-2000 periods were computed using the standard Mann-Kendall test for trend significance evaluation. However, statistical significance obtained with this test can be highly misleading because it does not take into account the low variability nature that dominates the seasonal evolution of scPDSI fields. We have now improved these results by employing a modified Mann-Kendall test for auto-correlated series (Hamed and Ramachandra, 1997), such as the scPDSI case. This development allowed for a better definition of the Mediterranean areas characterized by significant changes in the scPDSI, namely the largely negative trends that dominate the Mediterranean basin, with the exceptions of parts of eastern Turkey and northwestern Iberia, since initially these areas were overestimated. The spatio-temporal variability of these indices was evaluated with an EOF analysis, in order to reduce the large dimensionality of the fields under analysis. Spatial representation of the first EOF patterns shows that EOF 1 covers the entire Mediterranean basin (16.4% of EV), while EOF2 is dominated by a W-E dipole (10% EV). The following EOF patterns present smaller scale features, and explain smaller amounts of variance. The EOF patterns have also facilitated the definition of four sub-regions with large socio-economic relevance: 1) Iberia, 2) Italian Peninsula, 3) Balkans and 4) Turkey. Afterwards we perform a comprehensive analysis on the links between the scPDSI and the large-scale atmospheric circulation indices that affect the Mediterranean basin, namely; NAO, EA, and SCAND

  9. 20th-Century doubling in dust archived in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core parallels climate change and desertification in South America.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Joseph R; Aristarain, Alberto J; Banta, J Ryan; Edwards, P Ross; Simões, Jefferson C

    2007-04-03

    Crustal dust in the atmosphere impacts Earth's radiative forcing directly by modifying the radiation budget and affecting cloud nucleation and optical properties, and indirectly through ocean fertilization, which alters carbon sequestration. Increased dust in the atmosphere has been linked to decreased global air temperature in past ice core studies of glacial to interglacial transitions. We present a continuous ice core record of aluminum deposition during recent centuries in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, the most rapidly warming region of the Southern Hemisphere; such a record has not been reported previously. This record shows that aluminosilicate dust deposition more than doubled during the 20th century, coincident with the approximately 1 degrees C Southern Hemisphere warming: a pattern in parallel with increasing air temperatures, decreasing relative humidity, and widespread desertification in Patagonia and northern Argentina. These results have far-reaching implications for understanding the forces driving dust generation and impacts of changing dust levels on climate both in the recent past and future.

  10. Proceedings of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing First Flight's 20th Anniversary Celebration. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Kenneth E. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    A technical symposium, aircraft display dedication, and pilots' panel discussion were held on May 27, 1992, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first flights of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Supercrit- ical Wing (SCW) research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, aircraft modification, and flight research program activities. The DFBW and SCW technical contributions are cited. A dedication ceremony marked permanent display of both program aircraft. The panel discussion participants included eight of the eighteen research and test pilots who flew these experimental aircraft. Pilots' remarks include descriptions of their most memorable flight experiences The report also includes a survey of the Gulf Air War, and an after-dinner presentation by noted aerospace author and historian Dr. Richard Hallion.

  11. Proceedings of the 24th Day of Scientific lectures and 20th Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.H; Carwell, H.V.

    1999-11-29

    The National Society of Black Physicists will hold its Twentieth annual meeting and its XXIIII Day of Scientific Lectures at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on March 27th - 30th, 1997. The meeting provides a major opportunity for African American physicists and students to present their current research and discuss issues germane to the constituency. It is therefore crucial to have the broadest cross-section of the membership at each meeting. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was chosen as the site of the 20th annual meeting because of its historical significance to Physics (being one of the first national laboratories in the United States) and the laboratories continuing support of the goals and objectives of the society.

  12. Proceedings of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing First Flight's 20th Anniversary Celebration. Volume 2; Bibliography Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Kenneth E. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A technical symposium, aircraft display dedication, and pilots' panel discussion were held on May 27, 1992. to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first flights of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Supercritical Wing (SCW) research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, aircraft modification, and flight research program activities. The DFBW and SCW technical contributions are cited. A dedication ceremony marked permanent display of both program aircraft. The panel discussion participants included eight of the eighteen research and test pilots who flew these experimental aircraft. Pilots' remarks include descriptions of their most memorable flight experiences. The report also includes a survey of the Gulf Air War, an after-dinner presentation by noted aerospace author and historian Dr. Richard Hallion.

  13. The institutionalization of biology in Mexico in the early 20th century: the conflict between Alfonso Luis Herrera (1865-1942) and Isaac Ochoterena (1885-1950).

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Mateos, Ismael; Barahona, Ana

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the role played by Alfonso Luis Herrera and Isaac Ochoterena in the institutionalization of academic biology in Mexico in the early 20th century. As biology became institutionalized in Mexico, Herrera's basic approach to biology was displaced by Isaac Ochoterena's professional goals due to the prevailing political conditions at the end of the 1929. The conflict arose from two different conceptions of biology, because Herrera and Ochoterena had different discourses that were incommensurable, not only linguistically speaking, but also socioprofessionally. They had different links to influential groups related to education, having distinct political and socioprofessional interests. The conflict between Herrera and Ochoterena determined the way in which professional biology education has developed in Mexico, as well as the advancement in specific research subjects and the neglect of others.

  14. Computational and Functional Analysis of the Virus-Receptor Interface Reveals Host Range Trade-Offs in New World Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Scott A.; Jackson, Eleisha L.; Lungu, Oana I.; Meyer, Austin G.; Demogines, Ann; Ellington, Andrew D.; Georgiou, George

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal viruses frequently cause zoonotic disease in humans. As these viruses are highly diverse, evaluating the threat that they pose remains a major challenge, and efficient approaches are needed to rapidly predict virus-host compatibility. Here, we develop a combined computational and experimental approach to assess the compatibility of New World arenaviruses, endemic in rodents, with the host TfR1 entry receptors of different potential new host species. Using signatures of positive selection, we identify a small motif on rodent TfR1 that conveys species specificity to the entry of viruses into cells. However, we show that mutations in this region affect the entry of each arenavirus differently. For example, a human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in this region, L212V, makes human TfR1 a weaker receptor for one arenavirus, Machupo virus, but a stronger receptor for two other arenaviruses, Junin and Sabia viruses. Collectively, these findings set the stage for potential evolutionary trade-offs, where natural selection for resistance to one virus may make humans or rodents susceptible to other arenavirus species. Given the complexity of this host-virus interplay, we propose a computational method to predict these interactions, based on homology modeling and computational docking of the virus-receptor protein-protein interaction. We demonstrate the utility of this model for Machupo virus, for which a suitable cocrystal structural template exists. Our model effectively predicts whether the TfR1 receptors of different species will be functional receptors for Machupo virus entry. Approaches such at this could provide a first step toward computationally predicting the “host jumping” potential of a virus into a new host species. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate how evolutionary trade-offs may exist in the dynamic evolutionary interplay between viruses and their hosts, where natural selection for resistance to one virus could make humans or rodents susceptible

  15. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  16. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  17. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Jóhannesson, T.; Hannesdóttir, H.; Sigurðsson, S. Þ.; Berthier, E.

    2011-11-01

    The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936-1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895-2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000-2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30-40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

  18. The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokka, Roy K.

    2011-06-01

    Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

  19. Possible role of the dimming/brightening in observed temperatures across Europe since the second half of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The surface solar radiation (SSR) is the fundamental source of energy in the climate system, and consequently the source of life on our planet, due to its central role in the surface energy balance. Therefore, a significant impact on temperatures is expected due to the widespread dimming/brightening phenomenon observed since the second half of the 20th century (Wild, 2009). Previous studies pointed out the effects of SSR trends in temperatures series over Europe (Makowski et al., 2009; Philipona et al., 2009), although the lack of long-term SSR series limits these results. This work describes an updated sunshine duration (SS) dataset compiled by the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) project based on around 300 daily time series over Europe covering the 1961-2010 period. The relationship between the SS and temperature series is analysed based on four temperature variables: maximum (TX), minimum (TN) and mean temperature (TG), as well as the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Regional and pan-European mean series of SS and temperatures are constructed. The analyses are performed on annual and seasonal scale, and focusing on the interannual and decadal agreement between the variables. The results show strong positive correlations on interannual scales between SS and temperatures over Europe, especially for the DTR and TX during the summer period and regions in Central Europe. Interestingly, the SS and temperatures series show a tendency towards higher correlations in the smoothed series, both for different regions and temperature variables. These results confirm the relationship between temperature and SS trends over Europe since the second half of the 20th century, which has been speculated to partially decrease (increase) temperatures during the dimming (brightening) period (Makowski et al., 2009; Wild, 2009). Further research is needed to confirm this cause-effect relationship currently found only using correlation analysis.

  20. Coastal Fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and Its Basin from the 15 to the Early 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch. PMID:24204735

  1. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  2. A World of Opportunity: Postsecondary Training and Education for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    For most of the 20th century, high school was enough for a shot at middle-class status and wages. Eventually high school was surpassed by postsecondary education as the preferred route to professional and managerial jobs in the post-World War II era. This article describes how today, young workers rarely go anywhere in the American job market…

  3. World History: Need It Be from Adam to Atom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Dan

    1976-01-01

    Upon rejecting traditional world history curricula, which include all chronological developments from cave dweller to 20th century, a course is suggested to study significant patterns of government, economics, revolution, war, major religions, geography, scientific advancement, education, and rise and fall of civilizations. (Author/AV)

  4. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  5. 20th International Seapower Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Zealand in the group [Rear admiral Tony Jonathan Parr] shared how the New Zealand military struggled in the past to operate in an unclas- sified...Internet environment and social media. Relating to the recent earthquake in New Zealand , it was found that within five to seven days nations contributing...in Chile, Haiti, New Zealand , and Japan; tsunamis in Indonesia, Japan, and Chile; and the many hurricanes in the Caribbean Sea that have made our

  6. Apollo 11: 20th Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission.

  7. Assessing how seasonal hydrological balance has changed during the warming 20th century in the montane forests of Southeast Asian monsoon region using a stable isotope dendroclimatology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical montane forests act as water catchment and host of biodiversity in the Southeast Asian monsoon region, and understanding how their hydrological conditions change with global warming is vitally important. Global climate model simulations project enhanced moisture cycle in the tropics, which would cause stronger summer monsoon precipitations, but on the other hand the adiabatic lapse rate would be shifted towards a moister condition (amplification of warming at high elevation), inhibiting dry season orographic lifting cloud/fog formation (lifting cloud base hypothesis), enhancing evapo-transpiration, and leading to a net moisture loss during winter dry season. In this study, we have attempted to investigate how the seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asia has evolved in response to these influences through the 20th century using the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of subannual tree cellulose samples extracted from the annual rings of pine trees that grow in Doi Chiang Dao, a limestone mountain in northern Thailand. At this location the δ18O of cellulose exhibits distinctive annual cycles of up to 12‰, which is primarily a reflection of both the so-called ‘isotope amount effect’ that is associated with the strong monsoon precipitation during summer wet season and the moisture availability from different sources during winter dry season. We have demonstrated that tree cellulose δ18O could be used as a proxy for regional monsoon strength by showing that the annual mean cellulose δ18O correlate significantly with All India Rainfall, Webster-Yang monsoon index, as well as with both local and regional monsoon precipitation. ENSO is the dominant influence on interannual rainfall variability and this is well expressed in the interannual cellulose δ18O record. Using a 21-year moving window correlation analysis we find a weakening of ENSO influence after 1980, coinciding with the most rapid atmospheric warming. We expect to analyze older trees to

  8. Downward shortwave radiation trends in Europe since the 20th century: what we know from direct measurements and sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Calbo Angrill, J.; Brunetti, M.; van den Besselaar, E.; Guijarro, J. A.; Sanchez-Romero, A.; Klein Tank, A.; Manara, V.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Palle Bago, E.; Wang, K.; Hakuba, M.; Trentmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    The first part of this work presents results based on the longest series measuring downward shortwave radiation (DSR) available at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) over Europe. Particular emphasis is placed upon the quality control and homogenization of the dataset, which has been checked for temporal homogeneity by means of different relative homogeneity tests. The mean annual DSR series shows an increase from the 1930s to the early 1950s (i.e. early brightening period), followed by a reduction until mid-1980s (i.e., dimming period), and ending with an increase up to the present (i.e., brightening period). Unfortunately, there exists a substantial gap in direct measurements of DSR as only few stations in Europe provide records before the 1960s. To overcome the lack of direct measurements, the analysis can be supported with other proxy variables more widely measured, such as sunshine duration (SD) records. Thus, in this work we also present the reconstructed DSR variations since late 19th century in Europe based on the SD series over Europe with around one century of records, some of them starting in the 1880s. The reconstructed DSR variations have been estimated by using the relationship found between the SD series and a satellite-derived DSR dataset (0.03 x 0.03 of spatial resolution), provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), during the common 1983-2005 subperiod. The reconstructed records have been validated by using the GEBA series described in the first part of this work. The temporal evolution of the mean DSR annual series since the 1950s is characterized by the well-known dimming and brightening periods. Moreover, an early brightening period is also detected during the first half of the 20th century, although regional differences are observed with areas over Europe where the DSR show no increase in this subperiod. Interestingly, the reconstructed DSR also highlight an absolute minimum in 1912, which

  9. In Search of Our Past: Units in Women's History. World History Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Suzanne, Ed.; And Others

    This junior high school level student manual contains three units on the role of women in world history. The units, designed to supplement what is customarily taught in world history courses at this level, are entitled Women Under Feudalism: Western Europe and China, Women in the Industrial Revolution, and Women in Change: 20th Century Women in…

  10. State of the World 1990. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress toward a Sustainable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; And Others

    As the world enters the last decade of the 20th century, the environmental problems facing human societies have been given increased emphasis in world policy debates. The goal of the Worldwatch Institute is to help raise the level of public understanding of global environmental threats to the point where the public will support policies needed to…

  11. World Hunger: A Challenge to American Policy. Headline Series No. 252.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linowitz, Sol M.

    This booklet examines one of the most tragic and dangerous paradoxes facing the nations of the world at the end of the 20th century: hunger amid plenty. Even though the world does not lack for food, the problem lies in the distribution and power of ownership. There are serious moral, economic and political reasons why the U.S. in particular should…

  12. AEDS Proceedings: The Tomorrow in New Technology; Frontiers in Administrative Computing; Adventures in Instructional Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The 122 papers in this collection were presented in 15 sessions of the 20th annual convention of the Association for Educational Data Systems which was held in Orlando, Florida, May 10-14, 1982. Individual papers covered a wide variety of topics, including computer assisted instruction, computer managed instruction, computer literacy,…

  13. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework.

  14. An Account of Stellar Spectroscopy and John S. Plaskett’s Leadership within Early 20th-Century Astrophysics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihor Oakes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    From the perspective of the science of astronomy, the interpretation of the light spectrum was a fundamental development in the chemical analysis of celestial starlight. The breakthrough discovery with the application of spectroscopy in 1859, inaugurated a new period in astronomy that evolved into astrophysics. It launched a continuing episode of new astronomy that was later embraced in early 20th-century Canada where it was spearheaded by Canadian physicist and scientist, John S. Plaskett (1865-1941). The research work of John Plaskett at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa, Ontario, from 1903 and, later, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, British Columbia, from 1918, brought international recognition to Canada’s early efforts in astrophysics. Plaskett’s determination and personal boldness led to the establishment of a small cadre of Canadian astronomers who worked on their astrophysical research programs under Plaskett as their supervisor. Despite its small population at the time and a relatively infinitesimal number of professional astronomers, Canada did become recognized for its early spectrographic work in astrophysics, which was due to developing a professional status equal to its international colleagues. Plaskett improved the techniques of celestial spectroscopy during his scientific work at the Dominion Observatory and, again later, at its newly-built sister facility, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. Historically, Plaskett found himself to be the right person, in the right place, at the right time, and with the right temperament during the review period spanning 1903 to 1935.

  15. Loss of Genetic Diversity among Ocelots in the United States during the 20th Century Linked to Human Induced Population Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, Jan E.; Tewes, Michael E.; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.

    2014-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20th century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

  16. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846.

  17. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  18. The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the scientific advancement of women in the early 20th century: the example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist.

  19. Large-Scale Modeling Shows Little Impact of 20th-Century Changes in Temperature and Fire on the Central Canadian Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, B.; Peckham, S.; Ahl, D. E.; Gower, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    Boreal forests are predicted to experience relatively large climate change (IPCC 2001), and the fire dynamics of this region may not be in equilibrium with the changing climate (Flannigan et al. 1998, Kasischke & Stocks 2000). Here we investigate how well a biogeochemical model can simulate observed 20^{th}-century changes in the structure and function of the boreal forest. Biome-BGC was used to simulate a 1000 km x 1000 km section (6-8% of the global boreal forest) of central Canadian forest at 1 km2 resolution. Historical climate, disturbance, and CO2 forcing data were used to drive the model; three dynamic vegetation types (evergreen needleleaf tree, broadleaf deciduous tree, and moss) were employed. Soil type, drainage, and other site conditions were represented as accurately as available data allowed. Assuming that the forest was at a carbon-neutral steady state in 1948, CO2 and disturbance frequency changes had small (<20 g C m-2 yr-1) and opposite effects on forest C balance by 2005; in particular, the C losses from more frequent fires were almost balanced by the C uptake of post-disturbance deciduous forests. Precipitation changes had the largest effects on C balance, with the overall forest shifting from being neutral to a small source of C, while interannual variability increased. Such a shift is smaller than can be measured using current biometric and eddy covariance techniques.

  20. Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Mogollón, José M.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-04-01

    Various human activities - including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture - have intensified over the last century. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input-hydrology-in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg P yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg P yr-1. One of the major causes of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs, which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg P yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.