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Sample records for 21-item hamilton depression

  1. [Factorial analysis of the Hamilton depression scale, II].

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, J F; Guelfi, J D; Ruschel, S; Blanchard, C; Pichot, P

    1981-04-01

    A factorial analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was performed on 85 ratings of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale obtained in 1979-1980 on inpatients with a major depressive illness. Using a replicable statistical technique, 4 factors were obtained. These factors do not overlap with those obtain on a similar sample with a similar technique nor with those obtained by other authors. It thus appears that there is no such thing as a factorial structure of this scale. PMID:7305179

  2. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  3. The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z

    2000-01-01

    In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827

  4. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: The making of a “gold standard” and the unmaking of a chronic illness, 1960–1980

    PubMed Central

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the ‘Gold Standard’ for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. Methods: My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. Results: The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a ‘Gold Standard’ ‘from below’, from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Discussion: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of ‘standard’, being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings. PMID:23172888

  5. The Symptom Frequency Characteristics of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Possible Symptom Clusters of Depressive Disorders in Korea: The CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Nam; Jae, Young-Myo; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed the symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) to understand the characteristics of each item and to propose the possible symptoms clusters. Methods From psychiatric clinics of 18 Hospitals in Korea, 1,183 patients, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic), dysthymia or depressive disorder not otherwise specified. according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study from January 2006 to August 2008. The frequencies of each item of HDRS-17 were analyzed according to sex and severity. In addition, we compared this study with a previous study performed in England by Hamilton and with two studies performed in Korea by Kim et al. Results The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study, ranging from 95.8% in work and activities to 37.4% in loss of weight. But, depressed mood, psychic anxiety and work and activities items exhibited constant and higher frequency or rank regardless of study, the severity of depression or sex. Insomnia early, somatic gastrointestinal, genital symptoms and insight showed relatively constant but lower frequency or rank in disregard of studies or the clinical variables. Other symptoms had variable frequencies or ranks according to the variable clinical situations (culture, time, sex, severity of depression). Conclusion We propose three clusters of symptoms in depressive disorders: core symptoms cluster, an associated symptoms, and a situation-specific symptoms. We can use these possible symptom clusters of depression in simplifying diagnosis of depression, increasing diagnostic specificity in special situation and indexing disease severity. PMID:22216040

  6. Temporal cortex dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in major depression.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Soili M; Kuikka, Jyrki; Tolmunen, Tommi; Hintikka, Jukka; Viinamäki, Heimo; Vanninen, Ritva; Haatainen, Kaisa; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tiihonen, Jari

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dopamine function of the temporal cortex in major depressive disorder using [(123)I]epidepride to image D(2/3) receptor binding sites. Ten major depressives and 10 healthy controls were selected from a general population sample for single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Among the major depressives there was a strong bilateral correlation between the scores on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and D(2/3) receptor binding. Dopaminergic abnormalities may be present in the temporal cortices of major depressives. PMID:18588596

  7. [Anxiety and polymorphism Val66Met of BDNF gene--predictors of depression severity in ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Golimbet, V E; Volel', B A; Kopylov, F Iu; Dolzhikov, A V; Korovaitseva, G I; Kasparov, S V; Isaeva, M I

    2015-01-01

    In a framework of search for early predictors of depression in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) we studied effect of molecular-genetic factors (polymorphism of brain-derived neirotrophic factor--BDNF), personality traits (anxiety, neuroticism), IHD severity, and psychosocial stressors on manifestations of depression in men with verified diagnosis of IHD. Severity of depression was assessed by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21-item (HAMD 21), anxiety and neuroticism were evaluated by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and "Big Five" questionnaire, respectively. It wa shown that personal anxiety and ValVal genotype of BDNF gene appeared to be predictors of moderate and severe depression. PMID:26050483

  8. Factors of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items) at 2 weeks correlated with poor outcome at 1 year in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaiwu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chunxue; Luo, Ben Yan; Shi, Yuzhi; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-02-01

    There was fewer paper about the relation between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 Items, HDRS-17) factors and stroke outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of total score and factors of HDRS-17 on outcome of ischemic stroke at 1 year. A total of 1,953 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into a multicentered and prospective cohort study. The HDRS-17 was used to assess symptoms at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke. The Modified Ranking Scale (mRS) scores of 3-6 points and 0-2 points were regarded as poor outcome and benign outcome, respectively. At 1 year, 1,753 (89.8 %) patients had mRS score data. After adjusting for the confounders, patients with a total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8 had a worse outcome at 1 year (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23). Symptoms of suicide (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.27-2.83), decreased or loss of interest of work (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.38-2.58), retardation (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.27-2.38), psychic anxiety (OR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.26-2.34), and agitation (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.40) increased the risks for poor outcome by >60 %, respectively. Depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia also increased the risk for poor outcome by nearly 50 %, respectively. A total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8, and suicide, decreased or loss of interest of work, anxiety, agitation, retardation, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia of the HDRS-17 factors at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke increase the risk for poor outcome at 1 year. PMID:23715751

  9. Hamilton, Ritz, and elastodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of Ritz is applied to the equation that Hamilton called the 'Law of Varying Action'. Direct analytical solutions are obtained for the transient motion of beams, both conservative and nonconservative. The results obtained are compared to exact solutions obtained by the use of rigorously exact free-vibration modes in the differential equations of Lagrange and to an approximate solution obtained through the application of Gurtin's principles for linear elastodynamics. A brief discussion of Hamilton's law and Hamilton's principle is followed by examples of results for both free-free and cantilever beams with various loadings.

  10. Elizabeth Hamilton: Enlightenment Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Rosalind

    1986-01-01

    Elizabeth Hamilton, an eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scottish writer on education, was one of the first to advocate the application of educational psychology to teaching. She introduced Pestalozzi's method to the English-reading public and argued for equal education for all children of both sexes and all social backgrounds. (LFL)

  11. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  12. Development and validation of a 21-item challenges to stopping smoking (CSS-21) scale

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dennis; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Bonevski, Billie; Abramson, Michael J; Taylor, Simone; Poole, Susan G; Weeks, Gregory R; Dooley, Michael J; George, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identification of challenges associated with quitting and overcoming them may improve cessation outcomes. This study describes the development and initial validation of a scale for measuring challenges to stopping smoking. Methods The item pool was generated from empirical and theoretical literature and existing scales, expert opinion and interviews with smokers and ex-smokers. The questionnaire was administered to smokers and recent quitters who participated in a hospital-based smoking cessation trial. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify subscales in the questionnaire. Internal consistency, validity and robustness of the subscales were evaluated. Results Of a total of 182 participants with a mean age of 55 years (SD 12.8), 128 (70.3%) were current smokers and 54 (29.7%) ex-smokers. Factor analysis of the 21-item questionnaire resulted in a 2-factor solution representing items measuring intrinsic (9 items) and extrinsic (12 items) challenges. This structure was stable in various analyses and the 2 factors accounted for 50.7% of the total variance of the polychoric correlations between the items. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) coefficients for the intrinsic and extrinsic subscales were 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers had a higher mean score (±SD) for intrinsic (24.0±6.4 vs 20.5±7.4, p=0.002) and extrinsic subscales (22.3±7.5 vs 18.6±6.0, p=0.001). Conclusions Initial evaluation suggests that the 21-item challenges to stopping smoking scale is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in research and clinical settings to assess challenges to stopping smoking. PMID:27033963

  13. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  14. Zung, Beck, and Hamilton Rating Scales as Measures of Treatment Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment studies using the Zung Self-Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as dependent measures were reviewed to determine whether these scales provide comparable data for assessing treatment effects. Results indicated that the Zung and the Beck showed less change in depression following…

  15. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  16. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  17. Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.

  18. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... it might motivate the person to go for treatment. Treating Depression Your doctor or mental health expert can often treat your depression successfully. Different therapies seem to work for different people. For instance, ...

  19. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    Drug Fact Sheet Depressants Overview Includes barbiturates (barbs), benzodiazepines (benzos) and sedative-hypnotics. Depressants will put you ... unsafe, increasing the likelihood of coma or death. Benzodiazepines were developed to replace barbiturates, though they still ...

  20. Incongruent Reduction of Serotonin Transporter Associated with Suicide Attempts in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study with 4-[18F]-ADAM

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Ho, Pei-Shen; Chen, Chun-Yen; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Liang, Chih-Sung; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    Background: Much evidence supports the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behaviors. Methods: In this study, we recruited 17 antidepressant-naïve patients with MDD and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. SERT availability was measured in vivo with N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[18F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[18F]-ADAM) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation were used to assess the severity of depression and the intent of suicide ideation prior to PET imaging. All subjects with MDD were in a current state of depression with HDRS scores ≧18. Subjects who attempted suicide within two weeks of the study onset were recruited in the depressed suicidal group (n = 8). Subjects with MDD who denied any prior suicide attempt were recruited into the depressed non-suicidal group (n = 9). Results: A significant reduction of SERT availability in the midbrain, thalamus, and striatum was noted in the MDD group relative to the control group (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value < 0.05). Moreover, this effect was more pronounced in the depressed suicidal group compared to the control group (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value < 0.01). Relative to both the depressed non-suicidal and control groups, the depressed suicidal group showed an increased prefrontal cortex (PFC)/midbrain SERT binding ratio (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value < 0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests an incongruent reduction of PFC SERT binding relative to the midbrain might discriminate between depressed suicide attempters and non-attempters in patients with MDD and may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicide behaviors. PMID:25522405

  1. Neural correlates of clinical improvement after deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) for treatment-resistant depression: a case report using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Zangen, Abraham; Berlim, Marcelo T

    2015-02-01

    We report the effects of a 4-week trial of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) on depressive and anxious symptoms and brain activity in a patient (Mrs A) with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The protocol involved a pre- and a post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during which Mrs A had to perform a working memory task (i.e., n-back). Her baseline score on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D21) was 24, indicating severe depressive symptoms. Immediately after 4 weeks of daily DTMS treatment applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), her HAM-D21 score decreased to 13 (a 46% reduction), and 1 month later, it was 12 (a 50% reduction). Moreover, Mrs A's accuracy scores on the n-back task (i.e., 2-back condition) improved from 79% (baseline) to 96% (after DTMS treatment). At the neural level, Mrs A showed significantly increased brain activity in the working memory network (e.g., DLPFC, parietal cortex) during the execution of the 2-back condition after DTMS treatment compared to baseline. PMID:24313336

  2. Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

    PubMed

    Roncadelli, Marco; Schulman, L S

    2007-10-26

    Quantum canonical transformations have attracted interest since the beginning of quantum theory. Based on their classical analogues, one would expect them to provide a powerful quantum tool. However, the difficulty of solving a nonlinear operator partial differential equation such as the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) has hindered progress along this otherwise promising avenue. We overcome this difficulty. We show that solutions to the QHJE can be constructed by a simple prescription starting from the propagator of the associated Schrödinger equation. Our result opens the possibility of practical use of quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory. As an application, we develop a surprising relation between operator ordering and the density of paths around a semiclassical trajectory. PMID:17995307

  3. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  4. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed in the United States. Common places of origin Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, ...

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  6. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Doctors use them to treat things like insomnia or anxiety . But if depressant drugs (like sedatives, ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar ...

  7. Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter

    2016-05-21

    Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [abcd] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of "higher-order" relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original coefficient and can be calculated with exactly the same type of recursive equations. Secondly I observe that for models in which the population is not too large and local genetic renewal is rare (e,g, rare mutation), these higher order coefficients are not needed even with non-additive interactions; in fact the synergistic interaction is entirely equivalent to a closely-related additive one. The overall conclusion is that in the study of synergistic binary social interactions (2-player games) in a finite homogeneous population with weak selection and rare genetic renewal, a standard inclusive-fitness analysis is able to predict the direction of allele-frequency change. I apply this result to analyze a recent model of Allen and Nowak (2015). PMID:26947271

  8. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of ...

  9. Hamiltonization of the generalized Veselova LR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Yu. N.; Jovanović, B.

    2009-08-01

    We revise the solution to the problem of Hamiltonization of the n-dimensional Veselova nonholonomic system studied previously in [1]. Namely, we give a short and direct proof of the hamiltonization theorem and also show the trajectorial equivalence of the problem with the geodesic flow on the ellipsoid.

  10. Basic Theatrical Understanding: Considerations for James Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Noel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Hamilton's idea of "basic understanding" of a theatrical performance. The author finds it hard to grasp this conception. He worries, although perhaps only on the basis of misunderstanding, that Hamilton's conception of the basic understanding of theatrical performances will not do the work he wants it to do as…

  11. Disproportionate Reduction of Serotonin Transporter May Predict the Response and Adherence to Antidepressants in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study with 4-[18F]-ADAM

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Ho, Pei-Shen; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chun-Yen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Huang, Chang-Chih; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Wan, Fang-Jung; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many lines of evidence suggest the role of serotonin transporter (SERT)-mediated reuptake of serotonin in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to examine whether the pretreatment of SERT binding potential or SERT binding ratio between terminal projection regions relative to the midbrain raphe nuclei was associated with treatment outcomes to SERT-targeted antidepressants. Methods: We recruited 39 antidepressant-naïve patients with MDD and 39 heathy controls. Positron emission tomography with N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[18F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[18F]-ADAM) was used to measure in vivo SERT availability prior to antidepressant treatment. The 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was use to assess the severity of depression from baseline to week 6. All the patients with MDD had HDRS scores of 18 or more. Results: Pretreatment SERT binding in the thalamus and striatum positively correlated with an early reduction in HDRS scores at week 3. Nonresponders and dropout patients showed a proportionate reduction in SERT binding in the terminal projection regions and midbrain compared to healthy controls. In contrast, a disproportionate reduction in SERT binding in the terminal projection regions relative to midbrain was observed in responders. Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that a disproportionate reduction in SERT binding between terminal projection regions and midbrain may predict better treatment outcomes in patients with MDD. PMID:25568284

  12. Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon, Michele

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational

  13. 78 FR 30795 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  14. Role of the serotonin transporter gene locus in the response to SSRI treatment of major depressive disorder in late life.

    PubMed

    Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Andrea; Paroni, Giulia; Fontana, Andrea; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Gravina, Carolina; Urbano, Maria; Cascavilla, Leandro; Paris, Francesco; Panza, Francesco; Padovani, Alessandro; Pilotto, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has been suggested that the serotonin or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) and its gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) response modulators in late-life depression (LLD), and particularly in late-life major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies differed in design and results. Our study aimed to investigate the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter and serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) gene locus, encoding 5-HTT and SSRI treatment response in late-life MDD. For a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 234 patients with late-life MDD to be treated with escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine or citalopram for 6 months. The SLC6A4 polymorphisms rs4795541 (5-HTTLPR), rs140701 and rs3813034 genotypes spanning the SLC6A4 locus were investigated in blinded fashion. No placebo group was included. We assessed responder or non-responder phenotypes according to a reduction in the 21-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score of ⩾ 50%. At follow-up, 30% of the late-life MDD patients were non-responders to SSRI treatment. No time-course of symptoms and responses was made. A poor response was associated with a higher baseline HDRS-21 score. We observed a significant over-representation of the rs4795541-S allele in the responder patients (0.436 versus 0.321; p = 0.023). The single S-allele dose-additive effect had OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.12-2.69) in the additive regression model. Our findings suggested a possible influence of 5-HTTLPR on the SSRI response in patients with late-life MDD, which is potentially useful in identifying the subgroups of LLD patients whom need a different pharmacological approach. PMID:25827644

  15. The combination of triiodothyronine (T3) and sertraline is not superior to sertraline monotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder☆

    PubMed Central

    Garlow, Steven J.; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the combination of triiodothyronine (T3) plus sertraline at treatment initiation confers greater antidepressant efficacy than sertraline plus placebo in patients with major depressive disorder. Method Eight-week, double blind, randomized placebo controlled clinical trial of 153 adult outpatients between 18 and 60 years of age, with DSM-IV defined major depressive disorder. Patients were treated with sertraline flexibly adjusted for tolerability and in a double blind fashion with placebo or T3 (25 μg/day in week 1 and increasing to 50 μg/day in week 2). Response was defined categorically as 50% reduction and total score less than 15 in 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21) at week 8 and remission as HRSD-21 less than 8. Results There was no difference between treatment groups at final assessment; 65% of placebo and 61.8% of T3 treated subjects achieved response and 50.6% of placebo and 40.8% of T3 treated patients achieved remission. The mean daily dose at final assessment of sertraline and T3, respectively was 144.7 mg (±48.7 mg) and 48.2 μg (±7 μg). Median time to response did not differ between treatment groups. Baseline thyroid function tests did not predict response to sertraline treatment or T3 augmentation. Conclusions These results do not support the routine use of T3 to enhance or accelerate onset of antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder. PMID:22964160

  16. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669

  17. Association between ABCB1 Polymorphisms and Antidepressant Treatment Response in Taiwanese Major Depressive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui Hua; Chou, Chen-Hsi; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Po See

    2015-01-01

    Objective The multidrug resistance 1 (ABCB1, MDR1) gene, encoding P-glycoprotein, is extensively distributed and expressed in various tissues, such as a blood-brain barrier transporter. P-glycoprotein plays an important role in controlling the passage of substances between the blood and brain. The current study aimed to investigate possible associations of functional ABCB1 polymorphisms (C3435T, G2677T and C1236T) with response to antidepressant treatment and serum cortisol levels in Taiwanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We recruited 112 MDD patients who were randomized to fluoxetine (n=58, mean dose: 21.4±4.5 mg/day) or venlafaxine (n=54, 80.2±34.7 mg/day) treatment for 6 weeks. The 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was administered initially and biweekly after treatment, and cortisol levels were assessed initially and after 6-week antidepressant treatment. Results The initial HDRS scores and the HDRS scores after six weeks of antidepressant treatment were not significantly different among the different genotypes in each polymorphism of ABCB1. The percentage changes of HDRS scores over time were significantly different in the polymorphisms of ABCB1 G2677T (p=0.002). MDD patients with the G/G genotype of ABCB1 G2677T had a worse antidepressant treatment response. However, the polymorphisms of ABCB1 genotypes were not significantly associated with cortisol levels before and after antidepressant treatment in MDD patients. Conclusion The results suggested that the variants of ABCB1 may influence the short-term antidepressant response in MDD patients. Further details of the underlying mechanisms of ABCB1 in antidepressant treatment remain to be clarified. PMID:26598582

  18. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  19. Unbiased sampling of lattice Hamilton path ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Marc L.

    2006-10-01

    Hamilton paths, or Hamiltonian paths, are walks on a lattice which visit each site exactly once. They have been proposed as models of globular proteins and of compact polymers. A previously published algorithm [Mansfield, Macromolecules 27, 5924 (1994)] for sampling Hamilton paths on simple square and simple cubic lattices is tested for bias and for efficiency. Because the algorithm is a Metropolis Monte Carlo technique obviously satisfying detailed balance, we need only demonstrate ergodicity to ensure unbiased sampling. Two different tests for ergodicity (exact enumeration on small lattices, nonexhaustive enumeration on larger lattices) demonstrate ergodicity unequivocally for small lattices and provide strong support for ergodicity on larger lattices. Two other sampling algorithms [Ramakrishnan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7592 (1995); Lua et al., Polymer 45, 717 (2004)] are both known to produce biases on both 2×2×2 and 3×3×3 lattices, but it is shown here that the current algorithm gives unbiased sampling on these same lattices. Successive Hamilton paths are strongly correlated, so that many iterations are required between statistically independent samples. Rules for estimating the number of iterations needed to dissipate these correlations are given. However, the iteration time is so fast that the efficiency is still very good except on extremely large lattices. For example, even on lattices of total size 10×10×10 we are able to generate tens of thousands of uncorrelated Hamilton paths per hour of CPU time.

  20. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  1. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  2. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  3. Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  4. Frontal and right temporal activations correlate negatively with depression severity during verbal fluency task: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takamasa; Yoshida, Sumiko; Matsuda, Taro; Okamoto, Nagahisa; Sakamoto, Kota; Koseki, Shunsuke; Numachi, Yotaro; Matsushima, Eisuke; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2012-07-01

    Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive, on-the-spot, functional neuroimaging technique allowing detection of the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. Previous NIRS studies indicated the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) increase during a verbal fluency task (VFT) is attenuated in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) as compared with healthy controls. However, the possible relationship between depression symptom severity and oxy-Hb change on NIRS has not yet been elucidated. To examine this relationship, we recruited 30 patients with MDD and 30 age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. All underwent NIRS during VFT. As expected, the oxy-Hb increase during the task was significantly smaller in patients than in controls. After false discovery rate correction using 31 channels, the mean increase in oxy-Hb during the task showed a significant negative correlation with the total score of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 21-item version (ch25: rho = -.56; FDR-corrected p: .001). When each item of the HAM-D21 was examined individually, insomnia early in 9 channels (rho = -.63 to -.46; FDR corrected p: .000-.014), work and activity in 2 channels (rho = -.61 to -.57; FDR corrected p: .001 to .003) and psychomotor retardation in 12 channels (rho = -.70 to -.44; FDR corrected p: .000-.018) showed significant negative correlations with the mean oxy-Hb increase in the right frontal temporal region. Although it is possible that our results were affected by medication, these data suggest reduced right frontal temporal activation on NIRS during VFT is related to the symptom severity of MDD. PMID:22572569

  5. Association analysis for corticotropin releasing hormone polymorphisms with the risk of major depressive disorder and the response to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hun Soo; Won, Eunsoo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Ham, Byung-Joo; Lee, Min-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent neuroendocrine abnormalities observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The peptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key mediator for HPA axis function during stress. This study evaluated the associations of CRH polymorphisms with susceptibility to MDD and response to antidepressant treatment, and the gene-environment interaction with stressful life events (SLEs). After screening 31 polymorphisms in the gene encoding CRH, we evaluated the association of polymorphisms with MDD susceptibility in 149 patients with MDD and 193 control subjects; in patients, we also evaluated the response to treatment with antidepressants. Although genotypes and haplotypes were not significantly associated with the risk of MDD, non-remitters were more likely to carry haplotype 1 (ht1) than were remitters (P = 0.019-0.038), when only patients without SLE were included; however, the association was not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Additionally, after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment in patients who experienced no SLEs, significantly higher 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating scores were found in MDD subjects who were CRH ht1 homozygotes compared to patients carrying one or no ht1 alleles (P = 0.007 and 0.027 at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively). Although these preliminary observations require further confirmation in future studies, these results on the interaction between CRH haplotypes and SLEs, suggest that CRH ht1 which is moderated by SLEs, may be associated with antidepressant treatment outcomes in patients with MDD. PMID:26055202

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi meet Möbius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to quantum mechanics leads to a cocycle condition, which is invariant under D-dimensional Mobius transformations with Euclidean or Minkowski metrics. In this paper we aim to provide a pedagogical presentation of the proof of the Möbius symmetry underlying the cocycle condition. The Möbius symmetry implies energy quantization and undefinability of quantum trajectories, without assigning any prior interpretation to the wave function. As such, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, augmented with the global Möbius symmetry, provides an alternative starting point, to the axiomatic probability interpretation of the wave function, for the formulation of quantum mechanics and the quantum spacetime. The Möbius symmetry can only be implemented consistently if spatial space is compact, and correspondingly if there exist a finite ultraviolet length scale. Evidence for nontrivial space topology may exist in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  8. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2014-10-01

    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  9. A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.

    2008-09-01

    We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.

  10. Correlates of Self-Reported and Clinically Assessed Depression in Outpatient Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Robert A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assesses levels of depression presented by 76 male and 29 female alcoholics using Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression. To estimate overall depression from the self-report and clinical instruments, Z scores for both measures were summed. Correlations were calculated between composite scores and alcoholics'…

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi Theory in Cauchy Data Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, CéAdric M.; de Leóan, Manuel; de Diego, David Martín; Vaquero, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Recently, M. de LeóAn et al. [8] have developed a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for classical fields in the setting of multisymplectic geometry. Our purpose in the current paper is to establish the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory in the Cauchy data space, and relate both approaches.

  12. An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M

    2014-12-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy. PMID:25448145

  13. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  15. WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Zhao, G.

    2013-10-01

    We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Å.

  16. Improvements in Depression and Changes in Fatigue: Results from the SLAM DUNC Depression Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Angela M.; Gaynes, Bradley N.; McGuinness, Teena; Quinlivan, Evelyn B.; Ogle, Michelle; Heine, Amy; Thielman, Nathan M.; Pence, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue and depression are common co-morbid conditions among people with HIV infection. We analyzed a population of HIV-infected adults with depression, who were enrolled in a depression treatment trial, to examine the extent to which improvements in depression over time were associated with improvements in HIV-related fatigue. Data for this analysis come from a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of improved depression treatment on antiretroviral adherence. Fatigue was measured using the HIV-Related Fatigue Scale, and depressive symptoms were measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Participants (n = 234) were on average nearly 44 years of age and predominantly male, black or African American, and unemployed. Individuals who experienced stronger depression response (i.e., greater improvement in depression score) had larger decreases in fatigue. However, even among those who demonstrated a full depression response, nearly three-quarters continued to have either moderate or severe fatigue at 6 and 12 months. PMID:26525221

  17. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  18. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Hamilton, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Hamilton, Photographer June, 1934. Copied by Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer (a) EXT.-FRONT, LOOKING NORTH - Enfield Road (Schoolhouse), Prescott Center, Franklin County, MA

  20. Quantum Hamilton Mechanics and the Theory of Quantization Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Paul

    A formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of complex canonical variables is presented. It is seen that these variables are governed by Hamilton's equations. It is shown that the action variables need to be quantized. By formulating a quantum Hamilton equation for the momentum variable, the energies for two different systems are determined. Quantum canonical transformation theory is introduced and the geometrical significance of a set of generalized quantization conditions which are obtained is discussed.

  1. Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.

  2. Screening for Depression Patients in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Alma; Pranjic, Nurka; Selmanovic, Senada; Alibasic, Esad; Alic, Fahrudin; Ramic, Enisa; Spahic-Sarajlic, Selvedina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The aims are to establish the prevalence of newfound, unidentified cases of depressive disorder by screening with the Becks Depression scale; To establish a comparative relationship with self-identified cases of depression in the patients in the family medicine; To assess the significance of the BDI in screening practice of family medicine. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted anonymously by Beck's Depression scale (Beck Depression Questionnaire org.-BDI) and specially created short questionnaire. The study included 250 randomly selected patients (20-60 years), users of services in family medicine in “Dom Zdravlja” Zenica, and the final number of respondents with included in the study was 126 (51 male, 75 female; response or response rate 50.4%). Exclusion factor was previously diagnosed and treated mental disorder. Participation was voluntary and respondents acknowledge the validity of completing the questionnaire. BDI consists of 21 items. Answers to questions about symptoms were ranked according to the Likert type scale responses from 0-4 (from irrelevant to very much). Respondents expressed themselves on personal perception of depression, whether are or not depressed. Results: Depression was observed in 48% of patients compared to 31% in self estimate depression analyzed the questionnaires. The negative trend in the misrecognition of depression is -17% (48:31). Depression was significantly more frequent in unemployed compared to employed respondents (p=0.001). The leading symptom in both sexes is the perception of lost hope (59% of cases). Conclusion: All respondents in family medicine care in Zenica showed a high percentage of newly detected (17%) patients with previously unrecognized depression. BDI is a really simple and effective screening tool for the detection and identification of persons with symptoms of depression. PMID:24783910

  3. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  4. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications

    PubMed Central

    McGlothlin, Joel W.; Wolf, Jason B.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Moore, Allen J.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing—with good reason—almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930

  5. P 300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R.; Shukla, R.; Dalal, P.K.; Sinha, P.K.; Trivedi, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    P300 component of the event related potential (ERP) provides one neurophysiological index of cognitive dysfunction in depression. Forty subjects fulfilling DSM-III criteria for depression were compared to 40 age and sex matched normal controls. The P300 was recorded using the auditory odd-ball paradigm. Depressives had a significantly prolonged P300 latency and reduced P300 amplitude as compared to the controls. The P300 latency showed a significant positive correlation with age of the patient and severity of depression while P300 amplitude showed a significant negative correlation with age. The clinical subcategory of depression, duration of illness and sex did not show any relationship with P300 abnormality. Twelve out of 40 depressives (30%) had an abnormal P300. The mean Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) score was significantly high in those with an abnormal P300. PMID:21407978

  6. 75 FR 24938 - City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... February 26, 2010, City of Hamilton, Ohio (Hamilton) and American Municipal Power, Inc. (AMP) filed an... approval to transfer the license for the Meldahl Project from Hamilton to Hamilton and AMP....

  7. Extending Fourier transformations to Hamilton's quaternions and Clifford's geometric algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-10-01

    We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton's algebra of quaternions. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class of Clifford's geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data.

  8. INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND MARBLE SCULPTURE IN SOME OF THE HEMICYCLE NICHES. ONE OF THE NICHES HOUSED A “CANNON STOVE” FOR HEATING THE ROOM IN THE COLDER MONTHS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) LEFT CENTER BUILDING 31 RIGGER'S SHOP (1890) CENTER BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (1853) RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  10. Involutive constrained systems and Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study singular systems with complete sets of involutive constraints. The aim is to establish, within the Hamilton-Jacobi theory, the relationship between the Frobenius' theorem, the infinitesimal canonical transformations generated by constraints in involution with the Poisson brackets, and the lagrangian point (gauge) transformations of physical systems.

  11. Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…

  12. Rehearsal and Hamilton's "Ingredients Model" of Theatrical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, David

    2009-01-01

    One among the many virtues of James Hamilton's book, "The Art of Theater," is that it challenges the hegemony of the classical paradigm in the performing arts by questioning its applicability to theatrical performances. He argues instead for an "ingredients model" of the relationship between a literary script and a theatrical work. According to…

  13. 75 FR 37293 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... additional controlled airspace at Hamilton Municipal Airport (75 FR 20794) Docket No. FAA-2009-0190... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  14. Antenatal depression and hematocrit levels as predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235

  15. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  16. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants’ and interviewers’ vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery. PMID:26985326

  17. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80302; phone: (303)...

  18. 78 FR 3024 - Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS; Intent To Prepare a Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS; Intent To Prepare a... conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Sam D. Hamilton... information to: Mr. Steve Reagan, Project Leader, Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee NWR, 2970 Bluff Lake...

  19. A comparison of the performance of rating scales used in the diagnosis of postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W M; Harris, B; Lazarus, J; Richards, C

    1998-09-01

    The results of a study looking into the association between thyroid status and depression in the postpartum period were reanalysed to explore the psychometric properties of the rating scales employed. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was found to be superior to that of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in identifying RDC-defined depression, and on a par with the observer-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, which it also matched for sensitivity to change in mood state over time. The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale performed well, reflecting the fact that anxiety represents a prominent symptom in postnatal depression. PMID:9761410

  20. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  1. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of patients with a major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    Rothuber, Helfried; Mitterauer, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background A major depressive episode diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria can be accompanied by symptoms that DSM-IV does not include. These symptoms are sometimes classified as comorbidities. Our study assessed altered behavioral modes during a major depressive episode; ie, if 1 or more modes of behavior operated less or even not at all (“never”), or if the operation of others was more frequent or even constant (“always”). We hypothesize that these altered behavioral modes, especially the extreme positions “never” (hypomodes) and “always” (hypermodes) might correlate with depression scores and thus represent a typical symptom of depression. Material/Methods We used the 35-item Salzburg Subjective Behavioral Analysis (SSBA) questionnaire to measure altered behavioral modes in 63 depressed patients and 87 non-depressed controls. Depression was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale. Results In our test group (n=63) we found a total of 888 extreme positions. The mean number of extreme positions per patient was 11.15±5.173 (SD). Extreme positions were found in all 35 behavioral modes. The mean Hamilton score was 22.08±7.35 (SD). The association of the incidence of extreme positions and the Hamilton score in our test group was highly significant (Spearman’s Rho=0.41; p=.001). In the control group (n=87), only 11 persons were found to display extreme positions, with a total of only 25. Conclusions Although this study has several limitations, such as the small sample or the use of a questionnaire in the validation procedure, the significant correlation of extreme positions and the Hamilton score indicate that altered modes of behavior as detected with the SSBA might be typical symptoms in a major depressive episode. PMID:21525807

  2. [Depressive frustration at vascular diseases of a brain in patients of elderly and senile age].

    PubMed

    Kudrina, P I; Ar'ev, A L; Titkov, Iu S

    2012-01-01

    According to inspection of 206 patients of 60 years old and elder on the basis of neurologic department of the Geriatric Center of Republican Hospital No 3 high prevalence of depression of small and average degree in the persons of advanced age suffering from cerebrovascular diseases is revealed. To estimate the expressiveness of depression the Hamilton's scale including 17 parameters was used. PMID:23130521

  3. A Pilot Study of Adjunctive Family Psychoeducation in Adolescent Major Depression: Feasibility and Treatment Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Mark; Boyle, Michael; McCleary, Lynn; Miller, Jennifer; Steele, Margaret; Duku, Eric; Offord, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To obtain preliminary evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depressive disorder. Method: Participants were from outpatient clinics in Hamilton and London, Ontario. Over 24 months, 41 adolescents ages 13 through 18 years meeting major depressive disorder criteria were…

  4. [Toloxatone and depression].

    PubMed

    Fernández Labriola, R; Caetano Esquivel, G; Alvarez, M; Servidio, M

    1991-12-01

    One hundred and one depressed inpatients were treated by the authors with a second-generation antidepressive original molecule: Toloxatone, a specific and reversible MAO A inhibitor. Upon admission, all 101 patients with depressive illness did not score higher than 20 on Hamilton's Scale, and did not score lower than 4 on Fischer, Fernández Labriola and Rodríguez Casanova's Endogeneity Test. Biological profiles (Phenyl-ethylamine, NA, and MHPG) were available on 57 subjects. At the beginning of the experiment: (a) No subject was taking antidepressives, (b) Patients' age averaged 46; (c) The 6-week experiment was a double-blind vs. placebo type. Daily toloxatone dose was standardized in a 400 mg intake. Significant modifications were detected in 51 subjects. Among the 59 subjects that were administered active substance, 37 achieved either "excellent" or "good" outcomes. Biological markers pointed out a profile of patients with a better response to Toloxatone: Namely, patients with a lower noradrenergic activity. Anxiety-free depression as well as inhibited depressions are a psychiatrist's choice for administering Toloxatone. PMID:1843597

  5. Preliminary study of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Weng, Li-Jen; Su, Yi-Jen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2006-10-01

    This description concerns the development of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms and the selection of its items for a Taiwanese sample. 102 Taiwanese outpatients (28 men, 74 women) with major depressive disorder completed a 44-item preliminary scale. All had experienced a major depressive episode but had not been treated by antidepressants within the prior two weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to evaluate the validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS). Items, 12 for the Depression Subscale and 10 for the Somatic Subscale, were selected for the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale according to their frequency and their association with rated severity of depression and clinical practices. The mean Hamilton Depression score was 23.9 (SD = 5.2) versus 38.4 (SD = 11.3) for the total DSSS; means for the Depression subscale were 23.5 +/- 6.0 and the Somatic subscale 14.9 +/- 6.8. Cronbach alpha was .88 for the total DSSS, .78 for the Depression subscale, and .86 for the Somatic subscale. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the two scales was .59 (p <.01). The new scale had adequate internal consistency reliability and convergent validity. Much study is required to assess its structure, item characteristics, and in judging its applicability and limitations, and sensitivity to cultural differences in clinical settings. PMID:17153806

  6. Change in Psychosocial Functioning and Depressive Symptoms during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Todd W.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Carmody, Thomas; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent, is recurrent, and impairs people’s work, relationships, and leisure. Acute-phase treatments improve psychosocial impairment associated with MDD, but how these improvements occur is unclear. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that reductions in depressive symptoms exceed, precede, and predict improvements in psychosocial functioning. Method Patients with recurrent MDD (N = 523; 68% women, 81% Caucasian; M = 42 years old) received acute-phase Cognitive Therapy (CT; Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery, 1979). We measured functioning and symptom severity with the Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (Weissman & Bothwell, 1976), Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (Leon et al., 1999), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960) and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush et al., 1996). We tested cross-lagged correlations between functioning and symptoms measured at baseline and the beginning, middle and end of acute phase CT. Results Pre- to post- treatment improvement in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms was large and inter-correlated. Depressive symptoms improved more and sooner than did psychosocial functioning. But among four assessments across the course of treatment, improvements in functioning more strongly predicted later improvement in symptoms than vice versa. Conclusions Improvements in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms correlate substantially during acute-phase CT, and improvements in functioning may play a role in subsequent symptom reduction during acute-phase CT. PMID:21781377

  7. Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.

    PubMed

    Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila

    2016-01-01

    The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved. PMID:27516930

  8. Care of depressed patients with anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nutt, D J

    1999-01-01

    Anxiety frequently coexists with depression, either as a comorbid anxiety disorder or as anxiety symptoms accompanying a primary depressive disorder. Effective therapy for the treatment of depressive illness must include a consideration of anxiety symptoms, since anxiety has been estimated to be present in up to 96% of patients with depressive illness. Available data also indicate that depressed patients with significant anxiety may be at greater risk for suicide. Of particular clinical importance are symptoms of somatic anxiety: they are present in up to 86% of depressed patients, and the failure to treat them effectively can diminish the ability of a patient to function. Since the overall prognosis for recovery from a major depressive episode is less than optimal in patients with significant anxiety, treatments that can provide an effective and early relief of both depressive and anxiety symptoms are of paramount importance. Drugs with serotonin reuptake inhibition (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) may produce transient increases in anxiety symptomatology presenting as jitteriness, agitation, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms when treatment is initiated. Mirtazapine has intrinsic receptor-blocking properties (in particular, serotonin-2 [5-HT2] receptor blockade) that can be linked to an early relief of anxiety symptoms during the treatment. The available data show that mirtazapine is superior to placebo in depressed patients with high baseline anxiety and/or agitation. Furthermore, mirtazapine was statistically significantly superior to both citalopram and paroxetine in alleviating anxiety symptoms early in treatment as assessed by changes from baseline on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety or the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression anxiety/somatization factor, respectively. Mirtazapine provides early and effective relief of both depressive and anxiety symptoms, reducing the

  9. Research on Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Hamilton Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Cui, Chao-Dong

    An important concept, "closed domain" is proposed in this paper. In the same time, necessary and sufficient lemma for closed domain, R, is proved on which necessary and sufficient theorem for judging whether a general graph G is a Hamilton graph is proposed and proved. All instances in this paper are judged by comparatively using the theorem proposed herein and the original necessary condition theorem and sufficient condition theorem to prove the correctness of the method proposed in this paper.

  10. Bäcklund transformations relating different Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozonov, A. P.; Tsiganov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss one of the possible finite-dimensional analogues of the general Bäcklund transformation relating different partial differential equations. We show that different Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be obtained from the same Lax matrix. We consider Hénon-Heiles systems on the plane, Neumann and Chaplygin systems on the sphere, and two integrable systems with velocity-dependent potentials as examples.

  11. Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.

  12. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.

  13. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.

    2009-03-15

    We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.

  14. Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D

    2007-06-01

    In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian." PMID:17542838

  15. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on IL-6 levels in unmedicated women experiencing the first episode of depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Souza, Luciano D; Fucolo, Briane A; Wiener, Carolina D; Silva, Ricardo A; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Jansen, Karen; Ghislene, Gabriele; Oses, Jean P; Kaster, Manuella P

    2013-10-30

    A group of 11 women (18-29 years old) in the first episode of depression was evaluated before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Depressive scores, assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale (HRSD), and serum IL-6 levels significantly decreased after the seventh session. These results suggest that CBT reduced both depressive symptoms and the inflammatory state in women. PMID:23541242

  16. Depression in Parkinson's disease: study of 60 cases.

    PubMed

    Prado, Roberto César Pereira do; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

    2005-09-01

    Depression is very frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and largely unrecognized by neurologists, emphasizing the need of an approach to psychiatric symptoms by non psychiatrists in order to ensure an early diagnosis of depression in PD; clinical characteristics and the prevalence rate of depression in PD were evaluated and the relationship of depression in PD with other variables were determined. Sixty PD subjects, who fulfilled the clinical criteria for primary PD, 56.6% males, age range from 44 to 85 years old, in different stages of the disease were investigated. All subjects were submitted to the UPDRS-III, V and VI, Clinical Interview Schedule and the Hamilton depression scale. A significant correlation was found between depression and UPDRS-III, V and VI, anxiety and irritability. The frequency of depression in PD in this study was nearly 40% possessing specific features. Structured interviews and evaluation scales are essential for an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of depression in PD. PMID:16258653

  17. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms. PMID:24323201

  18. Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.

    2006-12-01

    We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.

  19. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, William H.

    1997-08-01

    I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an ``inverted'' polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation.

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi solutions for strongly coupled gravity and matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salopek, D. S.

    1998-05-01

    A Green function method is developed for solving strongly coupled gravity and matter in the semiclassical limit. In the strong-coupling limit, one assumes that Newton's constant approaches infinity, 0264-9381/15/5/009/img1. As a result, one may neglect second-order spatial gradients, and each spatial point evolves like a homogeneous universe. After constructing the Green function solution to the Hamiltonian constraint, the momentum constraint is solved using functional methods in conjunction with the superposition principle for Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Exact and approximate solutions are given for a dust field or a scalar field interacting with gravity.

  1. Enhanced platelet reactivity in pediatric depression: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Can, Mehmet M; Guler, Gamze; Guler, Ekrem; Ozveren, Olcay; Turan, Burak; DiNicolantinio, James J; Kipshidze, Nodar; Serebruany, Victor

    2015-10-01

    Depression is associated with poor prognosis for cardiovascular disease (CVD) including mortality. Among multiple mechanisms linking depression and CVD, changes in platelet reactivity are known to be one of the major confounders of such adverse association. However, there are very limited data in children. Thus, we evaluated some conventional hemostatic indices including whole blood platelet aggregation in patients with documented pediatric depression and compared these data with those obtained from healthy children. The pediatric patients fulfilled criteria for major depression with a minimum score of 19 on the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory Scale. Plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, platelet count, mean platelet volume, and platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were measured in 67 pediatric patients with depression and matched by age and sex with 78 healthy controls. As expected, the depressed children had significantly higher BECK scales (P = 0.001) compared with the normal subjects. Platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P = 0.0001 for both) was significantly higher in depressed children. BECK scale scores correlated significantly with platelet aggregation induced by ADP (r = 0.3, P = 0.001) and collagen (r = 0.4, P = 0.01). In contrast, platelet counts, fibrinogen, D-dimer, mean platelet volume, and antithrombin-III levels were almost identical between both groups. Children with depression exhibit mostly intact hemostatic parameters, with the exception of significantly higher platelet activity when compared with healthy controls. These data match well with prior evidence from depressed adults supporting the hypothesis that platelets participate in the pathogenesis of depression. However, beyond pure assessment of platelet activity, other elements including serotonin content and cell receptor changes in pediatric depression should be elucidated before randomized trial(s) can be justified. PMID:25688456

  2. Effect of Sahaj Yoga on depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Das, S; Mondal, S; Goswampi, U; Gandhi, A

    2005-01-01

    Sahaj Yoga is a meditative technique that has been found to have beneficial effects in some psycho-somatic illnesses. The study was carried out on 30 cases (19 Males, 11 females, age 18-45 years) of major depression diagnosed on the basis of DSM IV criteria. The patients were then randomly divided into two groups: Group 1: (10 Males & 5 Females) Patients who were practising Sahaj Yoga and also received conventional anti-depressants. Group 2: (9 Males & 6 Females) Patients who were only receiving conventional anti-depressants. Training in Sahaj yoga was conducted under the supervision of a trained Sahaj Yogi for 8 weeks. At start of the study, all the patients were subjected to Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Above scales were again assessed after two months of treatment. There was significant improvement in HAM-D as well as HAM-A scores in both Group 1 and Group 2 patients (P<0.001). However, percentage improvement in HAM-D scores and HAM-A scores in patients receiving Sahaj Yoga was significantly higher than in Group 2 patients. The number of patients who went into remission after two months of intervention were also significantly higher in Group 1 patients (P=0.02). The present study demonstrates that Sahaj Yoga has got a potential role as a component in the management of depressive disorders. PMID:16579401

  3. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  4. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY...

  5. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY 13346.... Jordan Kerber, Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology,...

  6. Depression - elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...

  7. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  8. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  9. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  10. Dependency and self-criticism in treatments for depression.

    PubMed

    Chui, Harold; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Dinger, Ulrike; Barrett, Marna S; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-07-01

    Dependency and self-criticism are vulnerability factors for depression. How these personality factors change with treatment for depression and how they relate to symptom change across different types of treatment require further research. In addition, cultural differences that interact with the dependency/self-criticism-depression relation remain underinvestigated. We randomly assigned 149 adults with major depression to receive active medication (MED; n = 50), supportive-expressive therapy (SET; n = 49), or placebo pill (PBO; n = 50). Participants completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976) before and after treatment and completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1967) throughout the course of treatment. Self-criticism as measured on the DEQ decreased with treatment similarly across conditions. DEQ Dependency decreased in MED but remained unchanged in SET and PBO. Higher initial dependency, but not higher initial self-criticism, predicted poor treatment response across conditions. Greater reduction in self-criticism was associated with greater reduction in depressive symptoms, but the effect was weaker for racial minorities (vs. White). Increase in connectedness, an adaptive form of dependency, was associated with symptom improvement in SET but not MED. Hence, different pathways of change seem to be implicated in the treatment of depression depending on culture and type of intervention. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866638

  11. Unified formalism for the generalized kth-order Hamilton-Jacobi problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; de Léon, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2014-08-01

    The geometric formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory enables us to generalize it to systems of higher-order ordinary differential equations. In this work we introduce the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on higher-order autonomous dynamical systems described by regular Lagrangian functions.

  12. 78 FR 22873 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On February 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC,...

  13. 78 FR 22872 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On February 19, 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC,...

  14. 77 FR 52135 - Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion...) approved the application of Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland to convert to the stock form of...

  15. A Celebration of Voices: The Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the establishment of, changes in, and discussions that have taken place at the Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth, celebrating its 17th year of stimulating dialogue on children's books. The conference honors author Virginia Hamilton, winner of almost every major award in the field of children's…

  16. Sense of Belonging and Mental Health in Hamilton, Ontario: An Intra-Urban Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic variations in sense of community belonging in Hamilton, Ontario. It also identifies the most significant health and social factors associated with belonging in the city. The research employs data from the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey for respondents aged 18 or over living in the Hamilton Census…

  17. Venlafaxine extended release versus citalopram in patients with depression unresponsive to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lenox-Smith, Alan J; Jiang, Qin

    2008-05-01

    Findings from the National Institute of Mental Health's Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression trial indicate that approximately 50% of patients with major depressive disorder do not experience a treatment response after adequate first-line treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). This study was designed to test the hypothesis that, after treatment failure with an SSRI, switching to venlafaxine extended release (ER) would offer advantages over switching to another SSRI, citalopram. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine ER and citalopram in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression in patients who did not experience a treatment response to an SSRI other than citalopram and to investigate the effects of severity of depression by categorizing treatment groups according to baseline severity. This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study. Participants were adult outpatients who, following 8 weeks of monotherapy with an adequate dosing regimen of an SSRI other than citalopram and had not responded, met the diagnostic criteria for depression as described in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, and had a score > or =20 on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D21). After a 7-day screening period, patients were randomly assigned to receive venlafaxine ER 75 mg/day or citalopram 20 mg/day for the first 2 weeks. Doses could be increased every 2 weeks through week 6. Treatment lasted 12 weeks and was followed by a 1-week tapering period. Maximum dosages were venlafaxine ER 300 mg/day or citalopram 60 mg/day. The primary end point was the final on-therapy total HAM-D21 score. To investigate the treatment effects of the severity of depression on efficacy, a subgroup analysis was performed for baseline HAM-D21 total score < or =31 and >31. The analyses for HAM-D21, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating

  18. Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.

  19. Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.

    PubMed

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141

  20. Particle dynamics inside shocks in Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

    PubMed

    Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2010-04-13

    The characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action-minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. For non-smooth 'viscosity' solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this description is usually pursued only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we show that, for any convex Hamiltonian, there exists a uniquely defined canonical global non-smooth coalescing flow that extends particle trajectories and determines the dynamics inside shocks. We also provide a variational description of the corresponding effective velocity field inside shocks, and discuss the relation to the 'dissipative anomaly' in the limit of vanishing viscosity. PMID:20211875

  1. Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141

  2. Hamilton's inclusive fitness in finite-structured populations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter D.; Maciejewski, Wes

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's formulation of inclusive fitness has been with us for 50 years. During the first 20 of those years attention was largely focused on the evolutionary trajectories of different behaviours, but over the past 20 years interest has been growing in the effect of population structure on the evolution of behaviour and that is our focus here. We discuss the evolutionary journey of the inclusive-fitness effect over this epoch, nurtured as it was in an essentially homogeneous environment (that of ‘transitive’ structures) having to adapt in different ways to meet the expectations of heterogeneous structures. We pay particular attention to the way in which the theory has managed to adapt the original constructs of relatedness and reproductive value to provide a formulation of inclusive fitness that captures a precise measure of allele-frequency change in finite-structured populations. PMID:24686932

  3. The World She Dreamed, Generations She Shared, Visions She Wrote: A Tribute to Virginia Hamilton 1936-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tribute to Virginia Hamilton. Notes that at a time when Black people, especially girls, were seriously beginning to struggle with self-acceptance and self-worth, Hamilton's "bold and imaginative writing was nothing short of revolutionary." (SG)

  4. Measuring children's perceptions of their mother's depression: the Children's Perceptions of Others' Depression Scale-Mother Version.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Tully, Erin; Connell, Arin M; Hartman, Corey L; Huh, Myoyeon

    2011-04-01

    Several theoretical perspectives suggest that knowledge of children's perceptions of and beliefs about their parents' depression may be critical for understanding its impact on children. This paper describes the development and preliminary evidence for the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Children's Perceptions of Others' Depression - Mother Version (CPOD-MV), which assesses theoretically and empirically driven constructs related to children's understanding and beliefs about their mothers' depression. These constructs include children's perceptions of the severity, chronicity, and impairment of their mothers' depression; self-blame for their mother's depression; and beliefs about their abilities to deal with their mother's depression. The CPOD-MV underwent two stages of development: (1) a review of the literature to identify key constructs, focus groups to help generate items, and clinicians' ratings on the relevance and comprehensibility of the drafted items and (2) a study of the measure's psychometric properties. The literature review, focus groups, and item-reduction techniques yielded a 21-item measure. Reliability, factor structure, and discriminant, convergent, and concurrent validity were tested in a sample of 10- to 17-year-old children whose mothers had been treated for depression. The scale had good internal consistency; factor structure suggestive of a single construct; and discriminant, concurrent, convergent, and incremental validity, suggesting the importance of measuring children's perceptions of their mothers' depression beyond knowledge of mothers' depression symptom level when explaining which children have the greatest risk for emotional and behavioral problems among children of depressed mothers. These findings support continued development and beginning clinical applications of the scale. PMID:21480696

  5. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Relan, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29%) whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72%) based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33%) and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%). The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0%) and among females was anxious mood (92.85%). Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27366712

  6. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves. PMID:8237434

  7. Lie symmetries and their inverse problems of nonholonomic Hamilton systems with fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jing-Li; Fu, Li-Ping; Chen, Ben-Yong; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This letter focuses on studying Lie symmetries and their inverse problems of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton systems. Based on the invariance of the fractional motion equations, constraint equations and virtual displacement restrictive conditions of the systems under the infinitesimal transformation with respect to the time and generalized coordinates, the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton system are discussed and the corresponding definitions, determining equations, limiting equations, additional restricting equations and Lie theorems are given. The letter also systematically studies inverse theorems of Lie symmetries of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton systems. Finally, an example is discussed to illustrate theses results.

  8. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin. PMID:26249452

  9. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems.

  10. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle

    PubMed Central

    Drapaca, Corina S.

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin–Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin–Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented. PMID:26236195

  11. On Dynamics of Lagrangian Trajectories for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2016-02-01

    Characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. However this description is valid only for smooth solutions. For nonsmooth "viscosity" solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this picture holds only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we discuss two physically meaningful regularization procedures, one corresponding to vanishing viscosity and another to weak noise limit. We show that for any convex Hamiltonian, a viscous regularization allows us to construct a nonsmooth flow that extends particle trajectories and determines dynamics inside the shock manifolds. This flow consists of integral curves of a particular "effective" velocity field, which is uniquely defined everywhere in the flow domain and is discontinuous on shock manifolds. The effective velocity field arising in the weak noise limit is generally non-unique and different from the viscous one, but in both cases there is a fundamental self-consistency condition constraining the dynamics.

  12. Quantum vortices within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-06-21

    Quantum vortices are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in the complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. It is shown that the Polya vector field of the quantum momentum function is parallel to contours of the probability density. A nonstationary state constructed from eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the formation of a transient excited state quantum vortex, and the coupled harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate quantization of the circulation integral in the multidimensional complex space. This study not only analyzes the formation of quantum vortices but also demonstrates the local structures for the quantum momentum field and for the Polya vector field near a node of the wave function. PMID:18570490

  13. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems. PMID:19045012

  14. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  15. Quantum line bundles via Cayley-Hamilton identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, D.; Saponov, P.

    2001-06-01

    As shown by Pyatov and Saponov (1995 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28 4415-21) and Gurevich et al (1997 Lett. Math. Phys. 41 255-64), the matrix L = || lij||, whose entries lij are generators of the so-called reflection equation algebra (REA), is subject to some polynomial identity resembling the Cayley-Hamilton identity for a numerical matrix. Here a similar statement is presented for a matrix whose entries are generators of a filtered algebra that is a `non-commutative analogue' of the REA. In an appropriate limit we obtain a similar statement for the matrix formed by the generators of the algebra U(gl(n)). This property is used to introduce the notion of line bundles over quantum orbits in the spirit of the Serre-Swan approach. The quantum orbits in question are presented explicitly as some quotients of one of the algebras mentioned above both in the quasiclassical case (i.e. that related to the quantum group Uq(sl(n))) and a non-quasiclassical one (i.e. that arising from a Hecke symmetry with non-standard Poincaré series of the corresponding symmetric and skew-symmetric algebras).

  16. Fluvoxamine monotherapy for psychotic depression: the potential role of sigma-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychotic depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy in treating psychotic depression. In some cases, the clinician or patient may prefer to avoid antipsychotic drugs altogether because of the risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in patients with psychotic depression treated with these drugs. Methods We report five cases where fluvoxamine monotherapy was effective in the patients with psychotic depression. Results The scores on the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in the five patients with psychotic depression were reduced after fluvoxamine monotherapy. Conclusion Doctors should consider fluvoxamine monotherapy as an alternative approach in treating psychotic depression because it avoids the risk of EPS from antipsychotic drugs. PMID:20025739

  17. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  18. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  19. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy if you have postpartum depression. Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may help reduce ... Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may ... seriousness of postpartum depression, but may not prevent it. ...

  20. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... get treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  1. Depression - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of ... one time or another for short periods. Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of ...

  2. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  3. Depression does not influence basal ganglia-mediated psychomotor speed in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    von Giesen, H J; Bäcker, R; Hefter, H; Arendt, G

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of depressive mood (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [Ham-D]) on basal ganglia-mediated psychomotor speed (motor test battery) in 202 HIV-1 seropositive homosexual males with no prior history of antiretroviral treatment. HIV-1 seropositive patients showed a significant slowing of most rapid alternating movements (MRAM) and significantly prolonged contraction times (CT) compared with 66 HIV-1 seronegative male control subjects. Factor analysis of Ham-D scores isolated a factor containing the items depressed mood, suicide, and psychic and somatic anxiety. This factor did not correlate with MRAM or CT. Depression and psychomotor speed are independent in HIV-1infection. PMID:11207334

  4. Intravenous mirtazapine is safe and effective in the treatment of depressed inpatients.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, M; Konstantinidis, A; Kasper, S; Eichberger, G; Hinterhuber, H; Hofmann, P; Nimmerrichter, A; Schubert, H; Egger, C; Nickel, M; Stuppaeck, C

    2006-01-01

    Mirtazapine is a third-generation antidepressant with a dual mode of action. The oral administration has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of depressed patients. In this multicenter naturalistic study, we assessed the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic efficacy of intravenously administered mirtazapine in 80 moderately to severely depressed inpatients during a treatment period of 14 days. We found a significant decrease of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score compared to baseline. Side effects were mild and transient. Our data indicate that intravenous mirtazapine is an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment for depressed inpatients. PMID:16511339

  5. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  6. Stochastic homogenization of nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Tran, Hung V.; Yu, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    We prove stochastic homogenization for a general class of coercive, nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension. Some properties of the effective Hamiltonian arising in the nonconvex case are also discussed.

  7. 75 FR 12594 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption in Hamilton County, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Hamilton County, OH On February 24, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed with the Surface... discontinue service over 5.70 miles of railroad between milepost CT 2.10 and milepost CT 7.80, in...

  8. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  9. Perinatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  10. Some suggested approaches to solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation associated with constrained rigid body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.

  11. Testing the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Balenger, Susan L; Zuk, Marlene

    2014-10-01

    Hamilton and Zuk proposed a good-genes model of sexual selection in which genetic variation can be maintained when females prefer ornaments that indicate resistance to parasites. When trait expression depends on a male's resistance, the co-adaptive cycles between host resistance and parasite virulence provide a mechanism in which genetic variation for fitness is continually renewed. The model made predictions at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels. In the three decades since its publication, these predictions have been theoretically examined in models of varying complexity, and empirically tested across many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. Despite such prolonged interest, however, it has turned out to be extremely difficult to empirically demonstrate the process described, in part because we have not been able to test the underlying mechanisms that would unequivocally identify how parasites act as mediators of sexual selection. Here, we discuss how the use of high-throughput sequencing datasets available from modern genomic approaches might improve our ability to test this model. We expect that important contributions will come through the ability to identify and quantify the suite of parasites likely to influence the evolution of hosts' resistance, to confidently reconstruct phylogenies of both host and parasite taxa, and, perhaps most exciting, to detect generational cycles of heritable variants in populations of hosts and parasites. Integrative approaches, building on systems undergoing parasite-mediated selection with genomic resources already available, will be particularly useful in moving toward robust tests of this hypothesis. We finish by presenting case studies of well-studied host-parasite relationships that represent promising avenues for future research. PMID:24876194

  12. Hamilton study: estimating exposure to ambient suspended particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pengelly, L.D.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Kerigan, A.T.; Furlong, W.; Toplack, S.

    1987-12-01

    In the industrial city of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, we recently carried out an epidemiological study of the effect of environmental factors on respiratory health in 3500 elementary school children. The level and size distribution of suspended particles in ambient air was measured from 24-h samples taken at 6-day intervals from a network of 29 hivol TSP samplers, and nine Andersen 2000 4-stage cascade impactors. Exposure was computed by generating a 3-dimensional response surface using a linear regression model of the form: TSP = (1 + E + N)/sup 2/, based on monthly geometrical mean data for all sites. From this response surface generated for a given month, TSP levels were predicted by the model for all schools by specifying their geographical coordinates. The yearly exposure for a given child was determined from the arithmetic mean of the predicted values for 12 monthly TSP levels. A similar procedure was employed for calculation of the exposure to the fine (less than or equal to 3.3 ..mu..m) and coarse (> 3.3 ..mu..m) size fraction, as well as the aerodynamic mass median diameter of particles from the network of cascade impactors. Results of the measurements showed that gradients for TSP up to approximately 10 ..mu..g/m/sup 3//km exist over the city covering distances from 5 to 10 km. The range of 1 yr mean exposure values calculated for each child was from 30.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ to 74.5 ..mu../m/sup 3/. Comparable figures for particle size were up to 0.3 ..mu..m AMMD (aerodynamic mass median diameter)/km and annual mean particle size exposure from 2.69 to 3.53 ..mu..m AMMD.

  13. Holographic Wilson loops, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and regularizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontello, Diego; Trinchero, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The minimal area for surfaces whose borders are rectangular and circular loops are calculated using the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. This amounts to solving the HJ equation for the value of the minimal area, without calculating the shape of the corresponding surface. This is done for bulk geometries that are asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). For the rectangular contour, the HJ equation, which is separable, can be solved exactly. For the circular contour an expansion in powers of the radius is implemented. The HJ approach naturally leads to a regularization which consists in locating the contour away from the border. The results are compared with the ɛ -regularization which leaves the contour at the border and calculates the area of the corresponding minimal surface up to a diameter smaller than the one of the contour at the border. The results for the circular loop do not coincide if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the contour at the border. It is shown that using this expansion parameter the ɛ -regularization leads to incorrect results for certain solvable non-AdS cases. However, if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the minimal surface whose area is computed, then the results coincide with the HJ scheme. This is traced back to the fact that in the HJ case the expansion parameter for the area of a minimal surface is intrinsic to the surface; however, the radius of the contour at the border is related to the way one chooses to regularize in the ɛ -scheme the calculation of this area.

  14. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124715

  15. The prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms from an Arabian setting: a wake up call.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, E A; Irfan, F; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Naeem, Naghma; Alsalem, A; Alamiri, N; Alraiyes, T; Alfowzan, M; Alabdulsalam, A; Ababtain, A; Aljabab, S; Bukhari, M; Alsinaidi, O; Alofaisan, Y

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that medical students have a higher rate of depressive symptoms than the general population and age- and sex-matched peers. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the medical students of a large school following a traditional curriculum and its relation to personal background variables. A descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The medical students of King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were screened for depressive symptoms using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. A high prevalence of depressive symptoms (48.2%) was found, it was either mild (21%), moderate (17%), or severe (11%). The presence and severity of depressive symptoms had a statistically significant association with early academic years (p < 0.000) and female gender (p < 0.002). The high prevalence of depressive symptoms is an alarming sign and calls for remedial action, particularly for the junior and female students. PMID:22409188

  16. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  17. Phytopharmaceutical treatment of anxiety, depression, and dementia in the elderly: evidence from randomized, controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried

    2015-06-01

    Based on subgroup analyses of randomized, controlled clinical trials, we review the efficacy of three phytopharmaceutical drugs, respectively of the corresponding active substances silexan® (WS® 1265, lavender oil) in anxiety disorders, WS® 5570 (Hypericum extract) in major depression, and EGb 761® (Ginkgo biloba extract) in Alzheimer, vascular, or mixed type dementia, in elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years. Four trials were eligible in each indication. Meta-analyses and analyses based on pooled raw data showed that the three drugs were significantly superior to placebo in the elderly subset, and that their treatment effects reflected in the main outcome measures (Hamilton Anxiety scale, Hamilton Depression scale, Neuropsychiatric Inventory) were comparable with those observed in the original trials without age restrictions. The results confirm the efficacy of the three herbal active substances in elderly patients of ≥ 60 years of age. In anxiety, depression, and dementia, they thus represent efficacious and well-tolerated alternatives to synthetic drugs. PMID:26092515

  18. Estrogen therapy for severe persistent depressions in women.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Vogel, W; Kobayashi, Y

    1979-05-01

    Positive results are reported from a double-blind study of estrogen therapy administered to severely depressed, inpatient women who had failed to respond to various conventional treatments of depression. Large doses of oral conjugated estrogen were administered for a three-month period to 23 premenopausal and postmenopausal inpatient women. Placebos were administered for a comparable period to 17 similar patients. The posttreatment Hamilton ratings of depression were significantly reduced in the estrogen-treated group, but not in the placebo group. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed. The risk-benefit ratio for estrogen therapy of depression in these patients was judged to be favorable. However, periodic endometrial biopsies are required to monitor the endometrial response of women receiving high doses of estrogens. PMID:219802

  19. Depression in Patients with Mastocytosis: Prevalence, Features and Effects of Masitinib Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Daniela Silva; Sultan, Serge; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Pillet, Nathalie; Montestruc, François; Gineste, Paul; Barete, Stéphane; Damaj, Gandhi; Moussy, Alain; Lortholary, Olivier; Hermine, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Depression in patients with mastocytosis is often reported but its prevalence and characteristics are not precisely described. In addition, the impact of therapies targeting mast cells proliferation, differentiation and degranulation on psychic symptoms of depression have never been investigated. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and to describe features of depression in a large cohort of mastocytosis patients (n = 288) and to investigate the therapeutic impact of the protein kinase inhibitor masitinib in depression symptoms. The description of depression was based on the analysis of a database with Hamilton scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Efficacy of masitinib therapy was evaluated using non parametric Wilcoxon test for paired data within a three months period (n = 35). Our results show that patients with indolent mastocytosis present an elevated prevalence of depression (64%). Depression was moderate in 56% but severe in 8% of cases. Core symptoms (such as psychic anxiety, depressed mood, work and interests) characterized depression in mastocytosis patients. Masitinib therapy was associated with significant improvement (67% of the cases) of overall depression, with 75% of recovery cases. Global Quality of Life slightly improved after masitinib therapy and did not predicted depression improvement. In conclusion, depression is very frequent in mastocytosis patients and masitinib therapy is associated with the reduction its psychic experiences. We conclude that depression in mastocytosis may originate from processes related to mast cells activation. Masitinib could therefore be a useful treatment for mastocytosis patients with depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:22031830

  20. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy for residual depression: a case series.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ed; Scott, Jan; Wingrove, Janet; Rimes, Katharine; Bathurst, Neil; Steiner, Herbert; Kennell-Webb, Sandra; Moulds, Michelle; Malliaris, Yanni

    2007-09-01

    The treatment of chronic and recurrent depression is a priority for the development of new interventions. The maintenance of residual symptoms following acute treatment for depression is a risk factor for both chronic depression and further relapse/recurrence. This open case series provides the first data on a cognitive-behavioural treatment for residual depression that explicitly targets depressive rumination. Rumination has been identified as a key factor in the onset and maintenance of depression, which is found to remain elevated following remission from depression. Fourteen consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for medication--refractory residual depression [Paykel, E.S., Scott, J., Teasdale, J.D., Johnson, A.L., Garland, A., Moore, R. et al., 1999. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy--a controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 829-835] were treated individually for up to 12 weekly 60-min sessions. Treatment specifically focused on switching patients from less helpful to more helpful styles of thinking through the use of functional analysis, experiential/imagery exercises and behavioural experiments. Treatment produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, rumination and co-morbid disorders: 71% responded (50% reduction on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 50% achieved full remission. Treating depressive rumination appears to yield generalised improvement in depression and co-morbidity. This study provides preliminary evidence that rumination-focused CBT may be an efficacious treatment for medication--refractory residual depression. PMID:17367751

  1. Neuron-specific enolase levels in drug-naïve young adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Carolina David; Molina, Mariane Lopez; Passos, Miguel; Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Bittencourt, Guilherme; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to assess neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels and clinical features in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a cross-sectional study with drug-naïve young adults with MDD (aged 18-29 years). Serum levels of NSE were assessed using the electrochemiluminescence method. MDD diagnosis, suicidal ideation, and time of disease were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) were used to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. No relationship was observed between NSE levels and severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, time of disease, and suicidal ideation. These results suggest that NSE serum levels were not associated with clinical features of MDD among drug-naïve young adults. PMID:27026487

  2. Immune and hormonal activity in adults suffering from depression.

    PubMed

    Nunes, S O V; Reiche, E M V; Morimoto, H K; Matsuo, T; Itano, E N; Xavier, E C D; Yamashita, C M; Vieira, V R; Menoli, A V; Silva, S S; Costa, F B; Reiche, F V; Silva, F L V; Kaminami, M S

    2002-05-01

    An association between depression and altered immune and hormonal systems has been suggested by the results of many studies. In the present study we carried out immune and hormonal measurements in 40 non-medicated, ambulatory adult patients with depression determined by CID-10 criteria and compared with 34 healthy nondepressed subjects. The severity of the condition was determined with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of 40 depressed patients, 31 had very severe and 9 severe or moderate depression, 29 (72.5%) were females and 11 (27.5%) were males (2.6:1 ratio). The results revealed a significant reduction of albumin and elevation of alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-globulins, and soluble IL-2 receptor in patients with depression compared to the values obtained for nondepressed subjects (P<0.05). The decrease lymphocyte proliferation in response to a mitogen was significantly lower in severely or moderately depressed patients when compared to control (P<0.05). These data confirm the immunological disturbance of acute phase proteins and cellular immune response in patients with depression. Other results may be explained by a variety of interacting factors such as number of patients, age, sex, and the nature, severity and/or duration of depression. Thus, the data obtained should be interpreted with caution and the precise clinical relevance of these findings requires further investigation. PMID:12011944

  3. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  4. A new type of scale for determining remission from depression: the Remission from Depression Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A; Ragheb, Moataz

    2013-01-01

    Current standards for treating major depressive disorder (MDD) recommend that achieving remission should be considered the principal goal of treatment. Recent research suggests that the symptom-based definitions of remission used in efficacy studies do not adequately reflect the perspective of depressed patients receiving treatment in routine clinical settings. We developed the Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) to capture the broader array of domains considered by patients to be relevant to the construct of remission--symptoms of depression, nondepressive symptoms, features of positive mental health, coping ability, functioning, life satisfaction and a general sense of well-being. The current report is the first study of the reliability and validity of the RDQ. The test-retest reliability of the RDQ was studied in 60 depressed outpatients in ongoing treatment. The convergent and discriminant validity of the RDQ was studied in 274 depressed outpatients who were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and who completed several self-report scales including the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS). The RDQ demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with a Cronbach's α of .97 for the total scale and above .80 for each of the 7 subscales. The test-retest reliability of the total scale was .85 and above .60 for each subscale. Both the RDQ and QIDS were significantly associated with patients' self-reported remission status. However, the RDQ remained significantly associated with remission status after controlling for QIDS scores (r = -.32, p < .001) whereas the QIDS was not associated with remission status after controlling for RDQ scores (r = -.06). The RDQ is a reliable and valid measure that evaluates the multiple domains that depressed patients consider important in determining remission. The results are consistent with prior research suggesting that depressed patients' perspective of remission goes beyond symptom resolution

  5. [A pathogenesis of post-stroke depression].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E G; Dobrovol'skaia, L E; Posokhov, S I; Sharapova, R B

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females aged 30-74 years, mean age 61 years) with depression were examined 3-6 months after ischemic stroke. Control group included 10 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Neurological, psychological and psychometric tests (the Hamilton, Beck, Spilberger, mini mental scales and Quality of Life questionnaire) were conducted. A mean depression level in patients with stroke did not differ from that in the controls and did not depend on lesion size, location, neurological deficit degree. Clinically pronounced, i.e. relatively severe, post-stroke depression was detected in 22% of the patients and its severity was higher in cases of right-hemisphere stroke. Psychosocial factors were found to be the most significant in post-stroke depression. Depression occurred more often in patients, who were single, in women, in preserved intelligence and higher level of personality anxiety. Loss of job as a result of the vascular disaster proved to be not a very important psycho-traumatizing factor in the group studied. PMID:12747096

  6. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  7. Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Porfirio

    2013-12-01

    We study the behavior of solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a minimax framework of game theory. The solutions of this problem represent the optimal payoff of a zero-sum game of two players, where the number of moves between the players converges to infinity. A real number, called the critical value, plays a central role in this work; this number is the asymptotic average action of optimal trajectories. The aim of this paper is to show the existence and characterization of solutions of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this kind of games.

  8. Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2013-05-01

    Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. When the well-behaved Painleve coordinate system and Eddington coordinate are used, we get the correct result of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy before and after radiation but a direct computation will lead to a wrong result via Hamilton-Jacobi method. Our results show that the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal but it is consistent with underlying unitary theory.

  9. Pharmacological treatment of severely depressed patients: a meta-analysis comparing efficacy of mirtazapine and amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Kasper, S; Zivkov, M; Roes, K C; Pols, A G

    1997-05-01

    Efficacy data were available from 405 severely depressed patients (baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-HAMD scores > or = 25) participating in randomized, double-blind, amitriptyline-controlled studies of mirtazapine. Main efficacy variable were changes from baseline in the group mean 17-item HAMD scores and responder rates. Secondary efficacy variables were changes in depressed mood item on the HAMD and in factors derived from the 17-item HAMD scale. Treatment with either mirtazapine or amitriptyline resulted in robust reductions of baseline HAMD scores and in similar and high percentages of responders. Both drugs produced favourable effects on depressed mood and on symptoms commonly associated with depression, such as anxiety, sleep and vegetative disturbances. There were neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant differences between mirtazapine and amitriptyline at any assessment point nor at endpoint. The results demonstrate that the new antidepressant mirtazapine and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline are equally effective in the treatment of severely depressed patients. PMID:9169299

  10. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  11. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  12. 77 FR 5501 - City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... Filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: City of Hamilton, Ohio and American Municipal Power, Inc. e... serve a copy of the document on that resource agency. k. Description of Request: The City of...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF THE HAMILTON-THORN COMPUTERIZED SPERM MOTILITY ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR USE WITH RAT SPERMATOZOA IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To optimize the Hamilton-Thorn Motility Analyzer (HIM, Hamilton-Thorn Research, Beverly, MA) for use in reproductive toxicology studies with rat spermatozoa, the accuracy and precision of the instrument were assessed under a variety of instrument settings. ideotapes of both fast ...

  14. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  15. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  16. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is very severe, you may have hallucinations and delusions (false beliefs). This condition is called depression with ... This helps relieve your symptoms. If you have delusions or hallucinations, your provider may prescribe additional medicines. ...

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in Japanese Parkinson’s disease patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shinmei, Issei; Kobayashi, Kei; Oe, Yuki; Takagishi, Yuriko; Kanie, Ayako; Ito, Masaya; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Murata, Miho; Horikoshi, Masaru; Dobkin, Roseanne D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the feasibility of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for Japanese Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with depression. To increase cultural acceptability, we developed the CBT program using manga, a type of Japanese comic novel. Methods Participants included 19 non-demented PD patients who had depressive symptoms (GRID-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ≥8). A CBT program comprising six sessions was individually administered. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of the CBT program in terms of the dropout rate and occurrence of adverse events. The primary outcome was depressive symptom reduction in the GRID-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression upon completion of CBT. Secondary outcomes included changes in the self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale), functional impairment, and quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey). Results Of the 19 participants (mean age =63.8 years, standard deviation [SD] =9.9 years; mean Hohen–Yahr score =1.7, SD =0.8), one patient (5%) withdrew. No severe adverse event was observed. The patients reported significant improvements in depression (Hedges’ g =−1.02, 95% confidence interval =−1.62 to −0.39). The effects were maintained over a 3-month follow-up period. Most of the secondary outcome measurements showed a small-to-moderate but nonsignificant effect size from baseline to post-intervention. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that CBT is feasible among Japanese PD patients with depression. Similar approaches may be effective for people with PD from other cultural backgrounds. The results warrant replication in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27354802

  18. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163

  19. Depression and anxiety symptoms in relation to anthropometry and metabolism in men.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Ann-Charlotte; Ljung, Thomas; Rosmond, Roland; McEwen, Bruce; Holm, Göran; Akesson, Hans Olof; Björntorp, Per

    2002-10-10

    Depression is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Abdominal obesity is also a high risk factor for these diseases. Therefore, symptoms of depression and anxiety were examined in relation to abdominal obesity. A total of 59 middle-aged men volunteered for measurements with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS). These results were examined in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and sagittal abdominal diameter, a measurement of intra-abdominal fat mass, and metabolic variables. Men with WHR>1.0 (n=26) in comparison with men with normal WHR (<1.0, n=33) showed significantly higher sum scores in all the scales used. There were positive correlations between the sum scores of all the depression scales and the WHR or the sagittal abdominal diameter. BMI correlated comparatively weakly only with the HDS. The correlations with the WHR remained when the influence of BMI was eliminated, suggesting that obesity is less involved than centralization of body fat. Insulin and glucose were significantly related to the HDS. Morning cortisol levels were negatively related to the BDI and (borderline) to the MADRS, suggesting perturbations of the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We conclude that men with abdominal obesity have symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:12429356

  20. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms based on the cut-off score of 14. Socioeconomic factors and student characteristics such as male sex, low monthly income per capita, father's poor education background, and higher year of study were associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students. Students who studied in comprehensive universities were more likely to have depressive symptoms compared with those from medical universities. Habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, sleep deprivation, and hospitalization or medication for one week or more in the last four weeks also predisposed students to higher risk of depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that depressive symptoms are becoming a highly prevalent health problem among Chinese medical students. Primary and secondary prevention should be prioritized to tackle this issue based on potential risk factors. PMID:26691910

  1. Application of Hamilton's Principle to the Study of the Anharmonic Oscillator in Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)

  2. Infant Care in Hamilton County: 4C Final Report and Model Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Betty Ann Hanna

    This report describes a one-year feasibility study to design a functional child development model for infant day care in Hamilton County, Ohio. Mothers of babies under 18 months were interviewed by telephone to determine use of and interest in infant day care. Assessment was made of existing resources for full time day care in the county…

  3. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  4. A Survey of Environmental Education in Hamilton County Schools (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garver, Janice B.

    Environmental education (EE) courses and programs offered in grades K-12 in Hamilton County (Ohio) public, private, and parochial schools were surveyed by means of a questionnaire mailed to 67 district level administrators, principals, and teachers. Questionnaires were returned from 5 private, 4 parochial, and 27 public schools, representing a 57…

  5. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  6. Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton: Black Women Writers and Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Gregory Jerome; Brooks, Wanda M.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that African American literature has always had science fiction elements in its focus on narratives of the alienated and marginalized "other." Contends that Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton are two African American writers of science fiction who examine the connections between the stories of a culture and the genre of science fiction.…

  7. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were highlighted as…

  8. 76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2011-04-02, amendment 39-16602 (76 FR..., FR2183, FR2187, FR2262, FR2276 through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710...-25-AD; Amendment 39-16602; AD 2011-04-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton...

  9. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  10. 75 FR 20794 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX...

  11. Metaphor, Ambiguity, and Motive in Evolutionary Biology: W. D. Hamilton and the "Gene's Point of View"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journet, Debra

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the power of ambiguous metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…

  12. The Code Red Project: Engaging Communities in Health System Change in Hamilton, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Patrick F.; Buist, Steve; Johnston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The communication of determinants of health and health outcomes normally executed through academic channels often fail to reach lay audiences. In April of 2010, the results of collaboration between academe and mass media were published in the Hamilton Spectator, one of Canada's 10 largest English-language daily newspapers as a 7-day series. The…

  13. Fort Hamilton High School Project GRASP. ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Ruddie A.; And Others

    This report is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted at the Fort Hamilton High School in Brooklyn, New York, in 1979-1980. This bilingual program provided instruction for Greek, Spanish, and Arabic speaking students. The ethnic and economic composition of the neighborhood and of the school population are discussed, and the…

  14. Pharmacologic Treatment of Dimensional Anxious Depression: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.; Richards, Erica M.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacologic treatment of dimensionally defined anxious depression. Data Sources: English-language, adult human research articles published between 1949 and February 2013 were identified via PUBMED and EMBASE. The search term was treatment of anxious depression. Study Selection: We identified and reviewed 304 original articles. Of these, 31 studies of patients with anxious depression, who were treated with an antidepressant or antipsychotic, are included in this review. Data Extraction: All studies explicitly used a dimensional definition of anxious depression. All patients were treated with either antidepressants or antipsychotic medications. Results: Of the 31 relevant psychopharmacologic studies identified, 7 examined patients receiving only 1 medication, 2 studied cotherapeutic strategies, 1 examined antipsychotic augmentation, and 21 compared multiple medications. Eleven were pooled analyses from several studies. All studies were of adults (18–92 years old). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety/Somatization Factor Score was used to define anxious depression in 71% of the studies, and 77.4% were post hoc analyses of previous datasets. Seventeen studies found selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and/or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) to be useful for successfully treating anxious depression. However, patients with anxious depression were less likely to experience sustained response or remission. Furthermore, baseline anxious depression puts patients at greater risk for side effect burden. Conclusions: Despite achieving response with SSRIs, SNRIs, and TCAs, patients with dimensionally defined anxious depression do not maintain response or remission and often report a larger burden of side effects compared to nonanxious depressive patients, suggesting that it is a harder-to-treat subtype of major depressive disorder. PMID:25317369

  15. Quinolinic Acid Responses during Interferon-α-Induced Depressive Symptomatology in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection - A Novel Aspect for Depression and Inflammatory Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Andreas; Meinitzer, Andreas; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; Stauber, Rudolf; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this exploratory study is to gain for the first time a more comprehensive picture of the impact of changes of quinolinic acid concentrations on depressive symptomatology during and after IFN-α therapy. Methods The quinolinic acid concentrations of 35 HCV patients are examined in a prospective survey over the entire period of IFN-α treatment as well as three months later at six different times (baseline, one, three, six and nine months after the beginning of IFN-α treatment, and after the end of treatment). Results During IFN-α treatment Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores rise significantly. At the same time there is greater activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, with a resulting increase in plasma kynurenine concentrations. Compared to baseline values quinolinic acid concentrations increase significantly during therapy, reflecting an increased neurotoxic challenge. In addition, patients with higher scores in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at six and nine months after starting therapy show significantly higher levels of quinolinic acid concentration. Conclusions The increase of quinolinic acid during IFN-α therapy might contribute to depressive symptomatology through the neurotoxic challenge caused by quinolinic acid. Subsequently, our exploratory study results support the inflammatory hypothesis of depression. The awareness of relevant risk factors of IFN-α treatment-induced depression is essential to develop preventative treatment strategies. PMID:26368809

  16. Agomelatine Increases BDNF Serum Levels in Depressed Patients in Correlation with the Improvement of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pettorruso, Mauro; De Berardis, Domenico; Varasano, Paola Annunziata; Lucidi Pressanti, Gabriella; De Remigis, Valeria; Valchera, Alessandro; Ricci, Valerio; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Biggio, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agomelatine modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via its interaction with melatonergic and serotonergic receptors and has shown promising results in terms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increase in animal models. Methods: Twenty-seven patients were started on agomelatine (25mg/d). Venous blood was collected and brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels were measured at baseline and after 2 and 8 weeks along with a clinical assessment, including Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Results: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration increased after agomelatine treatment. Responders showed a significant increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after 2 weeks of agomelatine treatment; no difference was observed in nonresponders. Linear regression analysis showed that more prominent brain-derived neurotrophic factor level variation was associated with lower baseline BDNF levels and greater anhedonic features at baseline. Conclusions: Patients affected by depressive disorders showed an increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration after a 2-week treatment with agomelatine. The increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was found to be greater in patients with lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and marked anhedonia at baseline. PMID:26775293

  17. Pre-treatment waking cortisol response and vulnerability to interferon α induced depression.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jessica; Lallemant, Camille; Mushtaq, Farrah; Greenwood, Matthew; Keller, Majella; Golding, Bruno; Tibble, Jeremy; Haq, Inam; Whale, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Depressive disorder is a common consequence of interferon α treatment. An understanding of the aetiological processes involved is evolving. HPA axis abnormalities are clearly described in community depressive disorder and represent vulnerability to depression development. We explored whether pre-treatment HPA axis abnormalities influence depression emergence during interferon α treatment. We examined waking HPA axis response via salivary cortisol sampling in 44 non-depressed, chronic hepatitis C infected patients due to commence standard interferon α treatment. Hamilton depression scales and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV major depressive disorder status were administered monthly during treatment. Major depressive disorder developed in 26 of 44 subjects during interferon-α treatment. The pre-treatment waking cortisol response over 1h was significantly greater in the subsequent switch to depression group (F=4.23, p=0.046). The waking cortisol response pre-treatment with interferon α appears greater in those subsequently switching to depressive disorder during treatment. This waking response may join other vulnerability factors for depression emergence in this group. This model could prove a valuable tool in understanding non-iatrogenic depressive disorder in the general population and notably the role of cytokines. PMID:22571879

  18. Increased Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Depression is Correlated with the Severity of Depression and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Aydin Sunbul, Esra; Yanartas, Omer; Cengiz, Fatma; Bozbay, Mehmet; Sari, Ibrahim; Gulec, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic inflammation is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and psychiatric disorders. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been investigated as a new biomarker for systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation of NLR with severity of depression and CV risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 256 patients with depressive disorder. Patients were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Patients were classified into four groups according to their HAM-D score such as mild, moderate, severe, and very severe depression. Patients were also evaluated in terms of CV risk factors. Results Patients with higher HAM-D score had significantly higher NLR levels compared to patients with lower HAM-D score. Correlation analysis revealed that severity of depression was associated with NLR in depressive patients (r=0.333, p<0.001). Patients with one or more CV risk factors have significantly higher NLR levels. Correlation analysis revealed that CV risk factors were associated with NLR in depressive patients (r=0.132, p=0.034). In logistic regression analyses, NLR levels were an independent predictor of severe or very severe depression (odds ratio: 3.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.867-4.884, p<0.001). A NLR of 1.57 or higher predicted severe or very severe depression with a sensitivity of 61.4% and specificity of 61.2%. Conclusion Higher HAM-D scores are associated with higher NLR levels in depressive patients. NLR more than 1.57 was an independent predictor of severe or very severe depression. A simple, cheap white blood cell count may give an idea about the severity of depression. PMID:26766954

  19. Cognitive function, functional performance and severity of depression in Chinese older persons with late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Tam, C W C; Lam, L C W

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between cognitive status and depressive symptoms and their liability to cause functional decline are of clinical and public health importance as it appears to be common, frequently coexists, and may be treatable. This study examined the relationship of depression severity and cognitive performance and the impact of such an interaction on functional ability in Chinese elderly subjects with late-onset depression. METHODS. A total of 105 non-demented elderly patients with late-onset depression were recruited. Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living and severity of depression were respectively assessed with the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale and the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Various cognitive domains were assessed including global cognitive function, delayed episodic memory, and executive functions. The relationship between specific cognitive impairment and mood symptom severity was assessed. The clinical correlates of functional performance were also examined. RESULTS. Increasingly severe depression was associated with lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination, delayed recall, and poorer performance in the Trail Making Test-Part A (after adjusting for the effect of age and education). The severity of apathy correlated negatively with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores only. Among the depressed subjects, greater levels of depression and apathy, poorer performance in Trail Making Test-Part B, and mild parkinsonian signs were associated with lower functional scores. CONCLUSIONS. Lack of interest and motivation, depressive mood, compounded by behavioural abnormalities resulting from executive dysfunction, accounted for functional disability in elderly subjects with late-onset depression. These relationships may provide the background for developing interventions targeting functional deficits associated with specific cognitive dysfunctions and depression. PMID:22447800

  20. Building a new Rasch-based self-report inventory of depression.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Michela; Giampaglia, Giuseppe; Saggino, Aristide

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item-trait interaction (χ (2)=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations. PMID:24511231

  1. Building a new Rasch-based self-report inventory of depression

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Michela; Giampaglia, Giuseppe; Saggino, Aristide

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients). Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item–trait interaction (χ2=147.71; df =168; P=0.48). Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations. PMID:24511231

  2. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921

  3. [Deficit in selective attention and its evolution in depression].

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Raoux, N; Everett, J; Dantchev, N; Widlöcher, D

    1997-01-01

    Selective attention was measured in 34 depressed patients and 34 controls using a computerized version of the Stroop test, that included a manipulation of the stimulus onset asynchrony (SCA) in order to explore the efficacy of cognitive inhibition as a function of depression and of clinical amelioration of degression after therapy. Clinical tests included a measure of psychomotor slowing [Echelle de Ralentissement de Widlöcher (ERD), the Hamilton (Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)]. Selective attention was measured with the Stroop test, which includes four measures: Word, Color, Color-Word, and Color-Word minus Color, or interference. All of these measures were deficient in the depressed patients, particularly Stroop interference. Even when additional time was given to inhibit the Stroop distractor in the SOA condition, depressed subjects still showed significantly inferior performance. After four weeks of anti-depressive treatment, fifteen of the patients were retested, and showed significant improvement on all the Stroop measures, particularly on Stroop interference. The improvement in performance on the attentional measures was comparable in magnitude to that seen on the clinical scales, and suggests that the interference measure can be a sensitive indicator of clinical status in depressed patients. PMID:9264929

  4. Using a pharmacogenomic algorithm to guide the treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Flavin, D K; Winner, J G; Allen, J D; Jordan, J J; Nesheim, R S; Snyder, K A; Drews, M S; Eisterhold, L L; Biernacka, J M; Mrazek, D A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of utilizing a pharmacogenomic testing report to guide the selection and dosing of psychotropic medications in an outpatient psychiatric practice. The non-randomized, open label, prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2010. In the first cohort, depressed patients were treated without the benefit of pharmacogenomic testing (the unguided group). A DNA sample was obtained from patients in the unguided group, but the results were not shared with either the physicians or patients until the end of the 8-week study period. In the second cohort (the guided group), testing results were provided at the beginning of the 8-week treatment period. Depression ratings were collected at baseline and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rated (QIDS-C16) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17). Clinician and patient satisfaction was also assessed. The reduction in depressive symptoms achieved within the guided treatment group was greater than the reduction of depressive symptoms in the unguided treatment group using either the QIDS-C16 (P=0.002) or HAM-D17 (P=0.04). We concluded that a rapidly available pharmacogenomic interpretive report provided clinical guidance that was associated with improved clinical outcomes for depressed patients treated in an outpatient psychiatric clinic setting. PMID:23047243

  5. Relationships Among Depressive Symptoms, Benefit-Finding, Optimism, and Positive Affect in Multiple Sclerosis Patients After Psychotherapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Stacey L.; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience psychological problems, such as depression, benefit-finding is commonly reported. Using the Broaden-and-Build Model of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2001) and the Expectancy-Value Model of optimism (Carver & Scheier, 1998) as two related, yet, distinct conceptual frameworks, this study examined positive affect and optimism as mediators of the relationship between improved depression and enhanced benefit-finding. Design MS patients (N = 127), who participated in a larger, randomized clinical trial comparing two types of telephone psychotherapy for depression, were assessed at baseline, midtherapy (8 weeks), end of therapy (16 weeks), and 6- and 12-month posttherapy. Main Outcome Measures Depression was measured with a telephone administered version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; Positive Affect was measured with the Positive Affect Subscale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale; Optimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test—Revised; Benefit-Finding was measured with the revised version of the Stress-Related Growth Scale. Results Data were analyzed with multilevel random-effects models, controlling for time since MS diagnosis and type of treatment. Improved depression was associated with increased benefit-finding over time. The relationship between improved depression and benefit-finding was significantly mediated by both increased optimism and increased positive affect. Conclusion Findings provide support to both theoretical models. Positivity appears to promote benefit-finding in MS. PMID:18377142

  6. Measures of anhedonia and hedonic responses to sucrose in depressive and schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I; Givry-Steiner, L; Lecrubier, Y; Puech, A J

    1998-09-01

    Anhedonia may be considered as a transnosological feature of depression and schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess hedonic responses to sucrose solutions and sweet taste perception threshold in patients with major depression and in schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy subjects (matched for age and gender with depressive patients), and to compare these responses to evaluations by the Physical and Social Anhedonia scale of Chapman and the Pleasure Scale of Fawcett, generally used to quantify anhedonia. Hedonic responses to sucrose solutions were similar in patients with major depression (n = 20), schizophrenia (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20). Sweet taste perception threshold was significantly higher in depressive patients than in controls. Hedonic response to sucrose was inversely correlated with physical Anhedonia Scores and sweet taste perception threshold with Pleasure Scale scores. Measures of hedonia/anhedonia were not related with the intensity of depression or anxiety as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale, respectively. In 11 depressed patients hospitalised for 17 to 33 days, neither hedonic ratings to sucrose solutions, sweet taste perception threshold, Physical, Social Anhedonia scores nor Pleasure Scale scores were modified in spite of substantial decrease in MADRS or Hamilton Anxiety scores. Hedonic responses to sucrose solutions and sweet taste perception threshold may be used as complementary evaluation to quantify anhedonia. PMID:19698645

  7. Understanding Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... daylight are shorter; for example, during winter months. Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is ... to a Therapist Anxiety Disorders Cutting Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Why Am I So Sad? Sadness and Depression ...

  8. Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness maximization, and the goal of individual behaviour in symmetric two-player games.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Martens, J

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. PMID:26679493

  9. Telehealth Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Co-Occurring Insomnia and Depression Symptoms in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Scogin, Forrest; Thomas, S. Justin; DiNapoli, Elizabeth A.; Dillon, Haley R.; McFadden, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Telehealth has proven effective with a wide range of disorders, but there is a paucity of data on the use of telehealth using cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) with late-life insomnia and depression. This pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of using telehealth to treat older adults with comorbid insomnia and depression living in rural Alabama. Method Five patients received 10 sessions of CBT for insomnia and depression. Patients were engaged in treatment via Skype from their primary care physician’s office. Assessments were conducted at baseline, posttreatment, and 2-month follow-up. Results Patients exhibited clinically significant improvement in both insomnia (sleep diaries and Insomnia Severity Index) and depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) at posttreatment, and these gains were well maintained at 2-month follow-up. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that telehealth may be an effective means of providing treatment to older adults, including underserved populations. PMID:24014056

  10. Applying Interpersonal Psychotherapy to Bereavement-Related Depression Following Loss of a Spouse in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, MARK D.; FRANK, ELLEN; CORNES, CLEON; IMBER, STANLEY D.; ANDERSON, BARBARA; EHRENPREIS, LIN; MALLOY, JULIE; SILBERMAN, REBECCA; WOLFSON, LEE; ZALTMAN, JEAN; REYNOLDS, CHARLES F.

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as a treatment for outpatients with major depression has been documented in several controlled trials. Recently, IPT has been adapted specifically for depression in late life. The authors report on their experience in applying IPT to geriatric patients whose depression is temporally linked to the loss of their spouses. Detailed treatment techniques are illustrated with case vignettes. Preliminary treatment outcomes are presented for 6 subjects who showed a mean change on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression from 18.5 ± 2.3 SD to 7.2 ± 4.6 after an average of 17 weekly IPT sessions. IPT appears to be an effective short-term treatment for bereavement-related depression in elderly subjects. PMID:22700188

  11. Cognitive and motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without depression.

    PubMed

    Cubo, E; Bernard, B; Leurgans, S; Raman, R

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define risk factors for depression in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the correlation of depression with cognitive function and the primary domains of parkinsonian motor dysfunction tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, gait and balance impairment. The risk factors for depression in patients with PD remain controversial. Several investigators have demonstrated a significant association between cognitive dysfunction and depression, but motoric and disease variables can confound this evaluation and have shown an inconsistent relation to depression. A consecutive series of 88 patients with PD were examined using the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRSm), Hoehn-Yahr stage (HY), and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). Major depression was diagnosed according to the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Gender, age, handedness, PD duration, side of PD onset, motor fluctuations, UPDRSm total score, daily Levodopa dose, and Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) were analyzed using multivariate and univariate logistic regression, Fisher's Exact test, and Pearson correlations. Major depression was diagnosed in 12 patients (7.3%). Low MMSE score, axial bradykinesia, gait and balance impairment were strongly significant predictors of depression. In conclusion, depression and physical function are important factors impairing the quality of life for patients with PD, and regular depression screening and treatment should focus on patients with PD who have cognitive impairment, high axial bradykinesia, gait and balance impairment. PMID:11575867

  12. Late pregnancy thyroid-binding globulin predicts perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (p<.001). When analyzed alone, FT4 levels were a less strong but still significant predictor of all depression and anxiety ratings (p<.05) while TBG levels was a significant or nearly significant predictor of most ratings. FT4, TBG and trauma history, but not

  13. Disease-Related Variables and Depression Among Iranian Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Chaghazardi, Maryam; Abdoli, Nasrin; Arman, Farid; Hoseini, Seyed Davood; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The factors affecting the correlation between Parkinson disease (PD) and depression have remained unclear. Objectives: We assessed the prevalence of depression among patients with PD and the association between PD-related variables and depression severity. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in Kermanshah Province of Iran. Sampling was based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with confirmed Parkinson disease who were referred to clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Depression was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Clinical characteristics of PD, including tremor, rigidity, impaired posture, loss of autonomic movement, changes in speech and handwriting, masked face, and hyposmia were indexed. Anhedonia was assessed with Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Data were collected between April 2010 and March 2014. Results: A total of 350 patients (52.9% men and 47.1% women) participated in this investigation. Female gender (36.5% in women vs. 13.0% in men, P < 0.0001), impaired posture (27.2% in affected individuals vs. 18.8%, P = 0.002), masked face (39.0% vs. 5.2%, P < 0.0001), and hyposmia (48.7% vs. 21.0%, P = 0.001) were associated with higher susceptibility to profound depression. Lower scores of all domains of Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (including interest/pastimes, social interaction, sensory experience, and food/drink) were related to more severe depression (P < 0.0001 for all subscales). Severe and profound depression was found in 44% of the participants. Conclusions: This study estimated that the prevalence of major depression among Iranian individuals with PD living in Kermanshah as 44%. Major determinants of depression were female gender, rigidity, impaired posture, masked face, hyposmia, and anhedonia. PMID:26568863

  14. [Alice Hamilton (1869-1970): a pioneer of occupational medicine and public health].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M; Steplewski, Z

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was the mother of occupational health a pioneer in public health in the United States. She worked as a doctor in Hull House, the first settlement house, and she was an advocate of the birth-control movement. She led pioneering studies of occupational head, mercury, carbon monoxide poisoning and many other chemical intoxications of workers. She was an assistant professor of industrial medicine at the Harvard Medical School (1919-1935). During the years 1924-1930 she worked for the Health Organization of the League of Nations. From 1943 she acted as a vice-president of the American Health Association. Alice Hamilton was an expert in the field of occupational lead poisoning. PMID:10438256

  15. Value-oriented citizenship index: New extensions of Kelman and Hamilton's theory to prevent autocracy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Davide; Passini, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    In Crimes of obedience, Kelman and Hamilton argue that societies can be protected by the degeneration of authority only when citizenship is based on a strong values orientation. This reference to values may be the weakest point in their theory because they do not explicitly define these values. Nevertheless, their empirical findings suggest that the authors are referring to specific democratic principles and universal values (e.g., equality, fairness, harmlessness). In this article, a composite index known as the value-oriented citizenship (VOC) index is introduced and empirically analysed. The results confirm that the VOC index discriminates between people who relate to authority based on values rather than based on their role or on rules in general. The article discusses the utility of the VOC index to develop Kelman and Hamilton's framework further empirically as well as its implications for the analysis of the relationship between individuals and authority. PMID:26463549

  16. Crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis as projected from plane-wave basis sets.

    PubMed

    Deringer, Volker L; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Simple, yet predictive bonding models are essential achievements of chemistry. In the solid state, in particular, they often appear in the form of visual bonding indicators. Because the latter require the crystal orbitals to be constructed from local basis sets, the application of the most popular density-functional theory codes (namely, those based on plane waves and pseudopotentials) appears as being ill-fitted to retrieve the chemical bonding information. In this paper, we describe a way to re-extract Hamilton-weighted populations from plane-wave electronic-structure calculations to develop a tool analogous to the familiar crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) method. We derive the new technique, dubbed "projected COHP" (pCOHP), and demonstrate its viability using examples of covalent, ionic, and metallic crystals (diamond, GaAs, CsCl, and Na). For the first time, this chemical bonding information is directly extracted from the results of plane-wave calculations. PMID:21548594

  17. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328

  18. Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, Stanley; Sethian, James A.

    1987-01-01

    New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.

  19. From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2013-07-01

    A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.

  20. Association of Celiac Disease With Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis; Lane Hamilton Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Sandal, Ozlem Sarac; Bag, Ozlem; Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Bekem Soylu, Ozlem; Diniz, Gulden; Ozturk, Aysel; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage, which is seen primarily in childhood. Celiac disease is defined as a chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine, caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. Association of IPH and celiac disease is known as Lane Hamilton syndrome. There are limited number of case reports of this syndrome in literature. Case Presentation: Although there were no growth and developmental delay and gastrointestinal symptoms like chronic diarrhea, chronic constipation, vomiting, abdominal bloating and pain in the two patients with IPH, they were diagnosed with Lane Hamilton Syndrome. After initiation of gluten-free diet, their IPH symptoms disappeared and hemoglobin levels were observed to return to normal. Conclusions: Even if there were no gastrointestinal symptoms in a patient with IPH, celiac disease should be investigated. These patients may benefit from gluten free diet and IPH symptoms may disappear. PMID:26495097

  1. A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.

  2. The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, Stanley

    1989-01-01

    Simple inequalities for the Riemann problem for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimension when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave) are presented. The initial data is globally continuous, affine in each orthant, with a possible jump in normal derivative across each coordinate plane, x sub i = 0. The inequalities become equalities wherever a maxmin equals a minmax and thus an exact closed form solution to this problem is then obtained.

  3. Compressed Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kurganov, Alexander; Levy, Doron; Petrova, Guergana

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new family of Godunov-type semi-discrete central schemes for multidimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These schemes are a less dissipative generalization of the central-upwind schemes that have been recently proposed in series of works. We provide the details of the new family of methods in one, two, and three space dimensions, and then verify their expected low-dissipative property in a variety of examples.

  4. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to Study the Hawking Radiation of Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng

    Taking the self-gravitation interaction and unfixed background space-time into account, we study the Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one, which is accordant with that obtained using Parikh and Wilczek's method and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of the black hole.

  6. Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2014-04-15

    We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius’ integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.

  7. Treatment of Late-Life Depression Alleviates Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Whyte, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the burden experienced by family caregivers of older adults with depression and to examine the positive effects on caregivers of treating late-life depression. Design Two-phase treatment study for major depressive disorder (MDD) that included 6 weeks of open treatment with antidepressant medication for all older patients followed by 16 weeks of randomized treatment for patients who were partial responders, comparing a combination of medication and interpersonal psychotherapy with medication alone. Setting Primary care and university late-life mental health research clinic. Participants Adults aged 60 and older participating in a randomized trial for treatment of MDD who enrolled in a family caregiver study and their caregiver (N = 244 dyads). Measurements Improvement in patient symptoms during open treatment (lower scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)) and remission of depression during randomized treatment (3 consecutive weekly HRSD scores of ≤7) were examined as predictors of lower general caregiver burden and burden specific to patient depression. Results Caregivers reported a moderate to high level of general caregiver burden on average. Change in patient depression during open treatment was associated with significantly decreased depression-specific burden (β = −0.22, P =.001) and a trend toward lower general burden (β = − 0.08, P =.08). Caregivers of patients who remitted showed significantly decreased depression-specific burden (F (1,76) = 4.27, P =.04). Conclusion Treatment of late-life depression has benefits that extend to the family members on whom patients depend. Caregiver education and support may strengthen these effects. PMID:19943833

  8. Noether's theorem for non-conservative Hamilton system based on El-Nabulsi dynamical model extended by periodic laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities for both holonomic and nonholonomic systems based on a new non-conservative dynamical model introduced by El-Nabulsi. First, the El-Nabulsi dynamical model which is based on a fractional integral extended by periodic laws is introduced, and El-Nabulsi—Hamilton's canonical equations for non-conservative Hamilton system with holonomic or nonholonomic constraints are established. Second, the definitions and criteria of El-Nabulsi—Noether symmetrical transformations and quasi-symmetrical transformations are presented in terms of the invariance of El-Nabulsi—Hamilton action under the infinitesimal transformations of the group. Finally, Noether's theorems for the non-conservative Hamilton system under the El-Nabulsi dynamical system are established, which reveal the relationship between the Noether symmetry and the conserved quantity of the system.

  9. Separability of Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations in general Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel; Kubiznák, David

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and scalar field equations in general higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes. No restriction on the parameters characterizing these metrics is imposed.

  10. Complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Bohmian trajectories: Application to the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2014-03-14

    The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics.

  11. Spatial and temporal variability in metal bioavailability and toxicity of sediment from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Krantzberg, G. )

    1994-10-01

    Trace metals in sediment from nearshore urban and industrialized centers of the Great Lakes are frequently at concentrations well above geological background values. Total metal content in sediment, however, is a weak predictor of sediment toxicity. This study examined the bioavailability of metals from Hamilton Harbor in Lake Ontario and considered variability in metal forms on a temporal basis. Sediment from regions within Hamilton Harbor is highly contaminated with metals; nevertheless, not all metal-contaminated sites were toxic to test organisms. Most sediment did elicit sublethal and/or lethal responses in bioassay organisms. Metal bioavailability, as measured by weak acid extractions, metal bioaccumulation by fathead minnows, and sediment toxicity, was greater in sediment collected in the fall as compared to sediment collected in the spring. Results of analyses of tissue residues in test organisms and the reduced toxicity observed in sediment collected from some stations in the spring as compared to the fall implicate trace metals and sediment oxygen demand as contributing to sediment toxicity. The suitability for colonization by benthic invertebrates of sediment in some areas of Hamilton Harbor appears to be limited by both contaminants and high sediment oxygen demand. Improving the oxygen regime of the harbor should result in improvements in the benthic invertebrate community directly, by providing a suitable oxygen regime for organisms less tolerant of temporal anoxia, and indirectly by decreasing metal bioavailability, possibly through the co-precipitation of trace metals with iron and manganese hydroxides.

  12. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

  13. Complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Bohmian trajectories: application to the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2014-03-14

    The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics. PMID:24628169

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near-field aspects.

    PubMed

    Keller, O

    2008-02-01

    After having briefly reviewed the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of classical point-particle mechanics, its extension to the quantum regime and the formal identity between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function and the eikonal equation of geometrical optics, an eikonal theory for free photons is established. The space-time dynamics of the photon is described on the basis of the six-component Riemann-Silberstein energy wave function. Form-identical eikonal equations are obtained for the positive and negative helicity dynamics. Microscopic response theory is used to describe the linear photon-matter interaction. In the presence of matter the free-photon concept is replaced by a quasi-photon concept, and there is a quasi-photon for each of the two helicity states. After having established integro-differential equations for the wave functions of the two quasi-photons, the eikonal conditions for the quasi-photons are determined. It appears that the eikonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eikonal over volumes of near-field domain size. In these space integrals the dynamics of the electrons (matter particles) appears via transverse transition current densities between pairs of many-body states. Generalized microscopic polarization and magnetization fields are introduced to establish the connection between the quasi-photon and macroscopic eikonal theories. PMID:18304094

  15. Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: Properties, classification and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Blasco, A.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2015-04-01

    We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in González-López, Kamran, and Olver (1992) [23] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. By determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. We also analyse biomathematical models, the Milne-Pinney equations, second-order Kummer-Schwarz equations, complex Riccati equations and Buchdahl equations.

  16. The Effect of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression on Insomnia Symptoms in a Cohort of Women with Sexual Abuse Histories

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.; May, Pamela E.; Perlis, Michael L.; Ward, Erin A.; Lu, Naiji; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Insomnia frequently occurs with trauma exposure and depression, but can ameliorate with improvements in depression. Insomnia was assessed by the insomnia subscale of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in 106 women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression receiving Interpersonal Psychotherapy in an uncontrolled pilot (n = 36) and an immediately subsequent randomized controlled trial (n = 70) comparing IPT to treatment as usual. Depression improved in each study and in both treatment conditions; insomnia had smaller, non-significant improvements. Overall, 95 women (90%) endorsed insomnia on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at baseline and, of those, 90% endorsed insomnia following treatment. Despite improvements in depression, insomnia persists for most women with CSA. PMID:19885874

  17. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Paliperidone Extended-release on Depressive Symptoms in Schizoaffective Disorder: A Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Alphs, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background: This analysis evaluates improvement in symptoms of depression in patients with schizoaffective disorder administered oral paliperidone extended-release by accounting for the magnitude of direct and indirect (changes in negative and positive symptoms and worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms) treatment effects on depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post hoc analysis were drawn from two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone extended-release versus placebo in adult subjects with schizoaffective disorder (N=614; NCT00412373, NCT00397033). Subjects with baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores of 16 or greater were included. Structural equation models (path analyses) were used to separate total effects into direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score at the Week 6 end point was the dependent variable; changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive and negative factors and Simpson-Angus Scale (to evaluate extrapyramidal symptoms) scores were independent variables. Results: At baseline, 332 of 614 (54.1%) subjects had a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of 16 or greater. Path analysis determined that up to 26.4 percent of the paliperidone extended-release versus placebo effect on depressive symptoms may be attributed to a direct treatment effect, and 45.8 percent and 28.4 percent were mediated indirectly through improvements on positive and negative symptoms, respectively. No effects were identified as mediated through extrapyramidal symptoms changes (-0.7%). Conclusion: Results of this analysis suggest that paliperidone’s effect on depressive symptoms in subjects with schizoaffective disorder participating in two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies is mediated through indirect effects (e.g., positive and negative symptom changes) and a direct treatment effect. PMID:27222760

  18. Sleep debt and depression in female college students.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Quentin; Natarajan, Viji; Pavlova, Milena; Kawasaki, Susan; Gleason, Ray; Koff, Elissa

    2010-03-30

    The objective of the study was to evaluate relationships between sleep habits and depressive symptoms. Pilot study data were collected about sleep schedules, related factors and depression in female college students to find whether their sleep schedules correlate with affective symptoms. In the subsequent main study, similar information was collected under more controlled conditions. Depression was measured using the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and HAM-D-3 (modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Response rates were 31.3% of eligible students for the pilot survey and 71.6% for the main study. Both studies showed that about 20% of students reported weekday sleep debts of greater than 2 h and about 28% reported significantly greater sleep debt and had significantly higher depression scores (P<0.0001) than other students. Melancholic symptoms indicated by high CES-D scores (>24), were observed in 24% of students. Sleep problems explained 13% of the variance for both the CESD scale and the HAM-D-3 scale. Among female college students, those who report a sleep debt of at least 2 h or significant daytime sleepiness have a higher risk of reporting melancholic symptoms than others. PMID:20079935

  19. [Postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Guo, S F

    1993-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in Beijing, China, in 1992. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to inquire the mothers at 6-12 month after delivery. A total of 550 women were investigated by mailing. 425 women replied. The positive rate of PPD in our study was 17.9%. Women who had had a history of mood disorder before pregnancy had a higher risk of PPD. Social and psychological factors such as lacking support from the women's relatives, the poor marital relationship and the bad living condition shown to be significantly associated with postnatal depression. PPD can seriously affected the physical and mental health and well-being of women, her child's early education causing delayed development and her family causing a great deal of suffering, personal distress and marital troubles even causing divorce and suicide. Thus it is important to identify the high risk women and give treatment as early as possible. PMID:8313745

  20. Sex differences of salivary cortisol secretion in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Hinkelmann, Kim; Botzenhardt, Johannes; Muhtz, Christoph; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kellner, Michael; Otte, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Depression is associated with increased cortisol secretion and occurs more often in women than in men. Thus, it has been hypothesized that differences in cortisol secretion might, in part, be responsible for the greater risk of developing depression in women. However, only few studies have examined sex differences in baseline cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy controls. We examined sex effects on cortisol secretion in 52 medication-free patients with major depression (37 women, 15 men, mean ± SD age 35 ± 11 years, Hamilton Depression Scale mean score 27 ± 5) and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, and 22:00 h. Repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a group × sex interaction (p = 0.05). Post hoc tests revealed higher cortisol concentrations in depressed compared to healthy men [F(1;29) = 7.5, p = 0.01]. No differences were found between depressed and non-depressed women. Our results do not support the hypothesis that differences in cortisol secretion between depressed and non-depressed subjects are more pronounced in women than in men. Study characteristics and methods as well as sex-specific confounding variables such as menstrual cycle, menopause and the use of oral contraceptives may account for inconclusive results across studies. PMID:21790344

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism after 131I-Treatment of Graves’ Disease: A Risk Factor for Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Tian, Ai-Juan; Yuan, Xin; Cheng, Xiao-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well accepted that there is a close relationship between hypothyroidism and depression, previous studies provided inconsistent or even opposite results in whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) increased the risk of depression. One possible reason is that the etiology of SCH in these studies was not clearly distinguished. We therefore investigated the relationship between SCH resulting from 131I treatment of Graves’ disease and depression. Design And Methods The incidence of depression among 95 patients with SCH and 121 euthyroid patients following 131I treatment of Graves’ disease was studied. The risk factors of depression were determined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was performed in patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels exceeding 10 mIU/L. Results Patients with SCH had significantly higher Hamilton Depression Scale scores, serum TSH and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels compared with euthyroid patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed SCH, Graves’ eye syndrome and high serum TPO antibody level as risk factors for depression. L-thyroxine treatment is beneficial for SCH patients with serum TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrated that SCH is prevalent among 131I treated Graves’ patients. SCH might increase the risk of developing depression. L-thyroxine replacement therapy helps to resolve depressive disorders in SCH patients with TSH > 10mIU/L. These data provide insight into the relationship between SCH and depression. PMID:27135245

  2. Predicting symptoms in major depression after inpatient treatment: the role of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Günther, Vivien; Rufer, Michael; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Alexithymia has been considered to have a negative influence on the course of symptoms in various psychiatric disorders. Only a few studies of depressed patients have examined whether alexithymia predicts the outcome of therapeutic interventions or the course of symptoms in naturalistic settings. This prospective study investigated whether alexithymia is associated with depressive symptoms after a multimodal inpatient treatment. Forty-five inpatients suffering from acute major depression were examined in the initial phase of treatment and then again after seven weeks. Patients took part in a multimodal treatment programme comprising psychodynamic-interactional oriented individual and group therapy. The majority of patients were taking antidepressants during study participation. To assess alexithymia and depressive symptoms, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were administered at baseline and follow-up. When controlling for baseline depressive symptoms along with trait anxiety, high scores in the externally oriented thinking (EOT) facet of alexithymia at baseline predicted high severity of depressive symptoms at follow-up (for self-reported as well as interviewer-based scores). Inpatients suffering from major depression with a more pronounced external cognitive style might benefit less from a routine multimodal treatment approach (including psychodynamic interactional therapy, antidepressant medication, and complementary therapies). Intervention programmes might modify or account for alexithymic characteristics to improve the course of depressive symptoms in these patients. PMID:26935972

  3. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Mansouri, Akram; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth. PMID:27095995

  4. Can Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 predict response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depressed outpatients?

    PubMed

    Kertzman, Semion; Vainder, Michael; Reznik, Ilya; Gotzlav, Yossef; Weizman, Abraham; Kotler, Moshe; Iancu, Iulian

    2012-05-01

    There is growing evidence that individual differences among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) on psychological and demographic measures may predict the therapeutic response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In this retrospective chart review, 108 outpatients with current major depressive episodes were treated with citalopram, paroxetine, or fluvoxamine. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 were administered before and after 8 weeks of SSRIs treatment. Clinical response was defined as a 50% or greater decrease in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score (final visit minus baseline). This naturalistic short-term follow-up outcome study demonstrates that among depressive outpatients who responded to an 8-week trial, 57.4% achieved a good response to SSRIs. Statistical analysis showed that SSRI treatment may be 3.03 times more advantageous for MDD outpatients who are younger than 39 years. The patients with an elevated score of above 66T on the Social Introversion Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 scale are approximately 0.37 times as likely to be SSRI responders as are patients with a Social Introversion score less than 66T. Thus, it seems that in MDD outpatient age is the strongest predictor of response to SSRIs. PMID:22415223

  5. Season of birth, clinical manifestations and Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression

    PubMed Central

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Iacovides, Apostolos; Karamouzis, Michael; Kaprinis, George S; Ierodiakonou, Charalambos

    2007-01-01

    Background Reports in the literature suggest that the season of birth might constitute a risk factor for the development of a major psychiatric disorder, possibly because of the effect environmental factors have during the second trimester of gestation. The aim of the current paper was to study the possible relationship of the season of birth and current clinical symptoms in unipolar major depression. Methods The study sample included 45 DSM-IV major depressive patients and 90 matched controls. The SCAN v. 2.0, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS) were used to assess symptomatology, and the 1 mg Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) was used to subcategorize patients. Results Depressed patients as a whole did not show differences in birth season from controls. However, those patients born during the spring manifested higher HDRS while those born during the summer manifested the lowest HAS scores. DST non-suppressors were almost exclusively (90%) likely to be born during autumn and winter. No effect from the season of birth was found concerning the current severity of suicidal ideation or attempts. Discussion The current study is the first in this area of research using modern and rigid diagnostic methodology and a biological marker (DST) to categorize patients. Its disadvantages are the lack of data concerning DST in controls and a relatively small size of patient sample. The results confirm the effect of seasonality of birth on patients suffering from specific types of depression. PMID:17683542

  6. Mirtazapine in the treatment of adolescents with major depression: an open-label, multicenter pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Vuola, Tapani; Lahelma, Liisa; Marttunen, Mauri

    2004-01-01

    This multicenter, open-label study with a duration of 85 days was performed to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy and safety of mirtazapine (dose range, 30-45 mg) in 12-18-year-old adolescents diagnosed with major depression. Twenty-four (24) patients (15 female patients and 9 male patients) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depression and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) score of 18 at baseline were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome measures were HAM-D-17, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales. Any changes in symptoms of anxiety were measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The average age of the 23 subjects, who were eligible for analysis, was 16.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 6.11, median 17.3). The mean daily dose of mirtazapine was 32.9 mg. Mirtazapine showed a marked efficacy on all rating scales and was well tolerated. Mirtazapine had a beneficial effect on sleep. A rapid onset of sleep and pattern of action was seen. No dropouts due to adverse events were recorded. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were tiredness, increased appetite, and dizziness. The results of this study suggest that mirtazapine may be an effective treatment for major depression in adolescents. PMID:15319015

  7. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    DANA-ALAMDARI, Leila; KHEIROURI, Sorayya; NOORAZAR, Seyed Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Eighty-five adults, 44 drug free patients with MDD and 41 apparently healthy controls, participated in the study. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess severity of major depression. Mental health of the controls was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. Stress level of the participants was assessed by the Holmes and Rahe stress scale. Serum 25(OH) D levels was measured by immunochemiluminescence assay. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH) D concentration of lower than 20 ng/ml. Results: Depressed patients had the higher levels of stress. There was a positive correlation between stress level and disease severity (r= 0.32, P= 0.03). In total participants, mean percentage of vitamin D deficiency was 77.6% with 75% in patients and 80.5% in the healthy subjects. There were no differences between the two groups in serum 25(OH) D levels and percentage of subjects with the vitamin deficiency. A negative correlation was observed between disease severity and serum 25(OH) D level of patients with depression episodes < 2 y (r= −0.38, P = 0.08) and winter samples (samples collected and measured from December to march, r= −0.62, P = 0.004). Conclusion: Serum 25(OH) D levels were not associated with depression. However, the inverse relationship between levels of vitamin D and depressive symptoms in current depression episodes and in sun-deprived season warrants further investigation. PMID:26284211

  8. Psychiatric morbidity and depressive symptomatology in patients with permanent pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, O; Ozmen, E; Küey, L; Kültür, S; Yeşil, M; Postaci, N; Bayata, S

    1997-06-01

    Implantation of a permanent pacemaker requires a psychological effort on the patient's part for adaptation in the acute term, and chronically, it restricts activities of the patient and may cause some psychiatric disturbances. To investigate psychiatric morbidity and depressive symptomatology of the patients with permanent pacemakers, 84 pacemaker patients were diagnosed using the DSM-III-R criteria and depressive symptoms were determined by modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (mHDRS). Sixteen (19.1%) patients had been given a psychiatric diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were adjustment disorder (5.9%) and major depressive episode (4.7%). Nine patients (10.7%) were diagnosed as having clinical depression (mHDRS > or = 17). The mean score of mHDRS was 7.57 +/- 7.46, and the severity of depression was significantly higher in females. The most frequent symptoms are difficulties in work and activities (53.6%), psychic anxiety (48.8%), loss of energy (42.9%), and hypochondriasis and insomnia (39.3%). Depressed mood, psychic anxiety, loss of energy, loss of interest, insomnia, and hypochondriasis were significantly more frequent in females. Uneducated patients had a more significant loss of energy than educated patients. Depressed mood, psychic anxiety, and somatic concerns and symptoms were more frequent in patients with permanent pacemakers than in the general population. These symptoms, resembling mixed anxiety-depression disorder, were related to fears of having a permanent pacemaker, since our series were composed of uneducated patients who did not have enough knowledge about the device. PMID:9227759

  9. APATHY IN LATE-LIFE DEPRESSION: COMMON, PERSISTENT, AND DISABLING

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Genevieve S.; Bhutani, Saumya; Lucas, Bryony J.; Gunning, Faith M.; AbdelMalak, Bassem; Seirup, Joanna K.; Klimstra, Sibel A.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the relationship between apathy and disability in late-life depression, and (2) the functional significance of improvement in apathy following escitalopram treatment in terms of its relationship to disability. Methods Subjects were 71 non-demented elderly with non-psychotic major depression. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, subjects who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) ≥ 18 received escitalopram 10mg daily for 12 weeks. Apathy and disability were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) respectively. These measures and the HDRS were administered at baseline and again following 12 weeks of treatment. Results At baseline, 38% of depressed subjects had significant apathy (AES ≥ 36.5). Severity of apathy at baseline significantly correlated with severity of disability. In a multivariate regression model, baseline severity of apathy, but not the overall depressive syndrome (HDRS), significantly correlated with baseline disability. Following escitalopram treatment, improvement in apathy significantly correlated with improvement in disability measures, while change in the rest of the depressive syndrome did not. The overall change in apathy and disability in response to escitalopram treatment was significant but small. Conclusions Apathy is common in late-life depression and is associated with disability above and beyond the influence of other depressive symptoms. Given the strong relationship between apathy and disability, understanding the neurobiology of apathy and developing treatments for apathy may improve the functional outcomes of late-life depression. PMID:25047306

  10. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  11. Nutritional Interventions in Depression and Perinatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734

  12. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. PMID:25600920

  13. Does Cognition Predict Treatment Response and Remission in Psychotherapy for Late-Life Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Rideaux, Tiffany; O'Hara, Ruth; Arean, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify cognitive predictors of geriatric depression treatment outcome. Method Older participants completed baseline measures of memory and executive function, health, and baseline and posttreatment Hamilton Depression Scales (HAM-D) in a 12-week trial comparing psychotherapies (problem-solving vs. supportive; n = 46). We examined cognitive predictors to identify treatment responders, i.e., HAM-D scores reduced by ≥50%, and remitters, i.e., posttreatment HAM-D score ≤ 10. Results Empirically-derived decision trees identified poorer performance on switching (i.e. Trails B), with a cut-score of ≥82” predicting psychotherapy responders. No other cognitive or health variables predicted psychotherapy outcomes in the decision trees. Conclusions Psychotherapies that support or improve the executive skill of switching may augment treatment response for older patients exhibiting executive dysfunction in depression. If replicated, Trails B has potential as a brief cognitive tool for clinical decision-making in geriatric depression. PMID:25441055

  14. Real-Time Self-Regulation of Emotion Networks in Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Linden, David E. J.; Habes, Isabelle; Johnston, Stephen J.; Linden, Stefanie; Tatineni, Ranjit; Subramanian, Leena; Sorger, Bettina; Healy, David; Goebel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Many patients show no or incomplete responses to current pharmacological or psychological therapies for depression. Here we explored the feasibility of a new brain self-regulation technique that integrates psychological and neurobiological approaches through neurofeedback with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a proof-of-concept study, eight patients with depression learned to upregulate brain areas involved in the generation of positive emotions (such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and insula) during four neurofeedback sessions. Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically. Randomised blinded clinical trials are now needed to exclude possible placebo effects and to determine whether fMRI-based neurofeedback might become a useful adjunct to current therapies for depression. PMID:22675513

  15. Real-time self-regulation of emotion networks in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Linden, David E J; Habes, Isabelle; Johnston, Stephen J; Linden, Stefanie; Tatineni, Ranjit; Subramanian, Leena; Sorger, Bettina; Healy, David; Goebel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Many patients show no or incomplete responses to current pharmacological or psychological therapies for depression. Here we explored the feasibility of a new brain self-regulation technique that integrates psychological and neurobiological approaches through neurofeedback with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a proof-of-concept study, eight patients with depression learned to upregulate brain areas involved in the generation of positive emotions (such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and insula) during four neurofeedback sessions. Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically. Randomised blinded clinical trials are now needed to exclude possible placebo effects and to determine whether fMRI-based neurofeedback might become a useful adjunct to current therapies for depression. PMID:22675513

  16. The relationship between alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and internet addiction severity in a sample of Italian high school students.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed. PMID:25401143

  17. The Relationship between Alexithymia, Anxiety, Depression, and Internet Addiction Severity in a Sample of Italian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed. PMID:25401143

  18. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with late-life depression: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sonal; Sharma, Mahendra Prakash; Bharath, Srikala

    2016-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study and assessed on the behavioral analysis pro forma, geriatric depression scale, Hamilton depression rating scale, Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, The World Health Organization quality of life Assessment Brief version (WHOQO-L-BREF). The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding the nature of depression, training in formal and informal mindfulness meditation, and cognitive restructuring. A total of 8 sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for each patient. The results of this study indicate clinically significant improvement in the severity of depression, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in all 5 patients. Eight-week MBCT program has led to reduction in depression and increased mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in patients with late-life depression. PMID:27512325

  19. Transcranial sonography findings related to depression in parkinsonian disorders: cross-sectional study in 126 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmans, Angela E.P.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Mess, Werner H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transcranial sonography (TCS) has emerged as a potential diagnostic tool for Parkinson’s disease. Recent research has suggested that abnormal echogenicity of substantia nigra, raphe nuclei and third ventricle is associated with increased risk of depression among these patients. We sought to reproduce these findings in an ongoing larger study of patients with parkinsonian syndromes. Methods. A total of 126 patients with parkinsonian symptoms underwent the Hamilton Depression Scale, and TCS of the substantia nigra (SN) (n = 126), the raphe nuclei (RN) (n = 80) and the third ventricle (n = 57). We then calculated the correlation between depression and hyper-echogenic SN, hypo-echogenic RN and a wider third ventricle. Results. In patients with PD we found no significant difference of the SN between non-depressed and depressed patients (46% vs. 22%; p = 0.18). Non-depressed patients with other parkinsonisms more often had hyperechogenicity of the SN than depressed patients (51% vs. 0%; p = 0.01). We found no relation between depression and the echogenicity of the RN or the width of the third ventricle. Conclusions. In patients with parkinsonian syndromes, we found no association between depression and hyper-echogenic SN, hypo-echogenic RN or a wider third ventricle, as determined by transcranial sonography. PMID:27231659

  20. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with late-life depression: A case series.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sonal; Sharma, Mahendra Prakash; Bharath, Srikala

    2016-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study and assessed on the behavioral analysis pro forma, geriatric depression scale, Hamilton depression rating scale, Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, The World Health Organization quality of life Assessment Brief version (WHOQO-L-BREF). The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding the nature of depression, training in formal and informal mindfulness meditation, and cognitive restructuring. A total of 8 sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for each patient. The results of this study indicate clinically significant improvement in the severity of depression, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in all 5 patients. Eight-week MBCT program has led to reduction in depression and increased mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in patients with late-life depression. PMID:27512325

  1. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  2. Depression after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library CARING FOR SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Depression After Stroke After a stroke, your loved one ... available! Almost half of all stroke survivors have depression. Depression is a normal response to the losses ...

  3. The method of Ritz applied to the equation of Hamilton. [for pendulum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    Without any reference to the theory of differential equations, the initial value problem of the nonlinear, nonconservative double pendulum system is solved by the application of the method of Ritz to the equation of Hamilton. Also shown is an example of the reduction of the traditional eigenvalue problem of linear, homogeneous, differential equations of motion to the solution of a set of nonhomogeneous algebraic equations. No theory of differential equations is used. Solution of the time-space path of the linear oscillator is demonstrated and compared to the exact solution.

  4. Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on triangulated domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive triangulation algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.

  5. Classical field theories from Hamiltonian constraint: Canonical equations of motion and local Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Václav

    2016-04-01

    Classical field theory is considered as a theory of unparametrized surfaces embedded in a configuration space, which accommodates, in a symmetric way, spacetime positions and field values. Dynamics is defined by a (Hamiltonian) constraint between multivector-valued generalized momenta, and points in the configuration space. Starting from a variational principle, we derive local equations of motion, that is, differential equations that determine classical surfaces and momenta. A local Hamilton-Jacobi equation applicable in the field theory then follows readily. The general method is illustrated with three examples: non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics, De Donder-Weyl scalar field theory, and string theory.

  6. The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardi, Martino; Osher, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    Simple inequalities are presented for the viscosity solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimensions when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave). The initial data are uniformly Lipschitz and can be written as the sum of a convex function in a group of variables and a concave function in the remaining variables, therefore including the nonconvex Riemann problem. The inequalities become equalities wherever a 'maxmin' equals a 'minmax', and thus a representation formula for this problem is obtained, generalizing the classical Hopi formulas.

  7. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.

    PubMed

    Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C

    2008-08-01

    The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378

  8. Scalar particles emission from black holes with topological defects using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2015-11-01

    We study quantum tunneling of charged and uncharged scalar particles from the event horizon of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes pierced by an infinitely long spinning cosmic string and a global monopole. In order to find the Hawking temperature and the tunneling probability we solve the Klein-Gordon equation by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation. We show that Hawking temperature is independent of the presence of topological defects in both cases.

  9. On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.

  10. Coordinates Used in Derivation of Hawking Radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; He, Xiaokai; Liu, Wenbiao

    2009-05-01

    Coordinates used in derivation of Hawking radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi method are investigated more deeply. In the case of a 4-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole, a direct computation leads to a wrong result. In the meantime, making use of the isotropic coordinate or invariant radial distance, we can get the correct conclusion. More coordinates including Painleve and Eddington-Finkelstein are tried to calculate the semi-classical Hawking emission rate. The reason of the discrepancy between naive coordinate and well-behaved coordinates is also discussed.

  11. Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A

    2000-05-23

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. PMID:10811874

  12. Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Brian E.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. Methods The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech–Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. Results Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. Limitations The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. Conclusions Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality. PMID:11246086

  13. Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Over the last few years, our Tinnitus Research Group has identified an increasing number of patients with tinnitus who also complained of repeated perception of complex sounds, such as music and voices. Such hallucinatory phenomena motivated us to study their possible relation to the patients' psyches. Aims: To assess whether hallucinatory phenomena were related to the patients' psychosis and/or depression, and clarify their content and function in the patients' psyches. Method: Ten subjects (8 women; mean age = 65.7 years) were selected by otolaryngologists and evaluated by the same psychologists through semi-structured interviews, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychoanalysis interviews. Results: We found no association between auditory hallucinations and psychosis; instead, this phenomenon was associated with depressive aspects. The patients' discourse revealed that hallucinatory phenomena played unconscious roles in their emotional life. In all cases, there was a remarkable and strong tendency to recall/repeat unpleasant facts/situations, which tended to exacerbate the distress caused by the tinnitus and hallucinatory phenomena and worsen depressive aspects. Conclusions: There is an important relationship between tinnitus, hallucinatory phenomena, and depression based on persistent recall of facts/situations leading to psychic distress. The knowledge of such findings represents a further step towards the need to adapt the treatment of this particular subgroup of tinnitus patients through interdisciplinary teamwork. Prospective. PMID:25991952

  14. Anhedonia, suicide ideation and dexamethasone nonsuppression in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Oei, T I; Verhoeven, W M; Westenberg, H G; Zwart, F M; van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a valid analysis of a number of operationalised symptoms common to depressive behaviour, a study was performed comprising 46 patients showing depressive symptoms, according to operationalised criteria and as part of which all agreed to undergo the following tests: (a) psychiatric: Present State Examination; (b) psychological: Hamilton Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Suicide Ideation Scale, Chapman Anhedonia Scale, Mood Scale, Sleep Quality Scale, Activities Scale, Social Support Scale, Questionnaire on Recently Experienced Events and the Paykel Life Events Interview; and (c) biochemical: Dexamethasone Suppression (DEX) Test. After gathering different depressive subgroups, based on operationalised symptoms, a dichotomy was made in the distributions of the (an)hedonia, suicide ideation and DEX-(non) suppression scores. This study may indicate that anhedonia, suicide ideation and DEX-nonsuppression are the opening to the identification of a subgroup of depressed patients. This symptom complex could not definitely be identified on the basis of existing DSM-III diagnostic entities, because of the known fact that this method of classification is not appropriate for our purposes in revealing pathophysiological processes. It is suggested, therefore, that these symptoms might prove to be the anchor-point from which to reach a better insight into the aetiology and pathogenesis (i.e. the final common pathway) of depression. PMID:2366212

  15. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and leptin levels in patients with a diagnosis of severe major depressive disorder with melancholic features

    PubMed Central

    Sarandöl, Emre; Kırhan, Emine; Özkaya, Güven; Kırlı, SelcÇuk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and leptin have been hypothesized to be involved in the neurobiology of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate BDNF, VEGF and leptin levels in patients with severe melancholic depression. Methods: A total of 40 drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with melancholic features and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Demographic information, psychiatric evaluation and physical examination were documented for both groups. Serum BDNF, VEGF levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and leptin with radioimmunoassay methods. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to the patients. Results: There were no significant differences in serum BDNF, VEGF and leptin levels between the patient and control groups. There was a negative correlation between BDNF levels and the number of depressive episodes. It was noted that VEGF levels decreased with increasing severity of depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest that BDNF levels might be associated with the recurrence of depression and VEGF levels might be a determinant of the severity of depression. PMID:23983958

  16. Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables

    PubMed Central

    Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Kararizou, Eleni; Gatzonis, Stergios-Stylianos; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siatouni, Anna; Loucaidis, Panagiotis; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Vlaikidis, Nikolaos; Kaprinis, George S

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy. Methods We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 ± 10.0 years, range 16–60) with a mean disease duration of 13.9 ± 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21) and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T), respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Results High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE) were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE). Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T. Conclusion Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression. PMID:17971199

  17. Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Depressive Symptoms in Chronic Stable Angina Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mahn-Won; Kim, Ji-Hun; Cho, Jung-Sun; Choi, Min-Seok; Gweon, Tae-Geun; Ju, Il-Nam; Baek, Ju-Yeol; Seung, Ki-Bae; Go, Hyojin

    2012-01-01

    Objective Depression is present in 1 of 5 outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and a well-documented risk factor for recurrent cardiac events and mortality. We examined the impact of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), on depressive symptoms, in chronic stable angina (CSA) patients. Methods On prospective and non-randomized trial, consecutive CSA patients (n=171), who had undergone coronary angiography from January 2006 to December 2007, were included. Patients were subdivided into PCI and non-PCI groups, and then completed 21-item the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), at the baseline and pre-discharge, to assess the depressive symptoms. Results A total of 108 (63%) patients were assigned to the non-PCI group, and 63 (37%) patients to the PCI group. Using an independent t-test, we found that patients with PCI were significantly older (non-PCI vs. PCI; 57±11 vs. 64±10, years, p<0.001), had more joint disease (12.0 vs. 27.0%, p=0.013), more stroke history (5.6 vs. 17.5%, p=0.012) and higher incident of family history of cardiovascular disease (28.7 vs. 46.0%, p=0.025), but less religion (54.6 vs. 36.5%, p=0.002) and private health insurance (43.5 vs. 20.6%, p=0.002). The mean difference of BDI-II score between the baseline and pre-discharge was higher in patients with PCI (OR: 1.266; 95% CI: 1.146-1.398, p<0.001). Conclusion In conclusion, PCI contributes independently to higher risk of developing depressive symptoms in CSA patients during hospitalization; Routine assessment and management of PCI related depressive symptoms are justified. PMID:22993524

  18. Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the least-action/least-time dynamical path based on fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bijoy K.; Janicki, Marek R.; Ayers, Paul W.

    2004-10-01

    Classical dynamics can be described with Newton's equation of motion or, totally equivalently, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here, the possibility of using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to describe chemical reaction dynamics is explored. This requires an efficient computational approach for constructing the physically and chemically relevant solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation; here we solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations on a Cartesian grid using Sethian's fast marching method [J. A. Sethian, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1591 (1996)]. Using this method, we can—starting from an arbitrary initial conformation—find reaction paths that minimize the action or the time. The method is demonstrated by computing the mechanism for two different systems: a model system with four different stationary configurations and the H+H2→H2+H reaction. Least-time paths (termed brachistochrones in classical mechanics) seem to be a suitable chioce for the reaction coordinate, allowing one to determine the key intermediates and final product of a chemical reaction. For conservative systems the Hamilton-Jacobi equation does not depend on the time, so this approach may be useful for simulating systems where important motions occur on a variety of different time scales.

  19. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators

    PubMed Central

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Thongpibul, Kulvadee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders. Participants and methods An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36), the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed. Results Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive function were found to significantly mediate the relationship between depression and pain, while controlling for demographic variables. The total effect of depression on pain was significant. This model, with an additional three mediators, accounted for 15% of the explained variance in pain compared to 9% without mediators. For the alternative model, after controlling for the mediators, a nonsignificant total direct effect level of self-sacrificing was found, suggesting that the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was based only on an indirect effect and that perceived stress was found to be the strongest mediator. Conclusion Serial mediation may help us to see how depression and pain are linked and what the fundamental mediators are in the chain. No significant, indirect effect of self-sacrificing on pain was observed, if perceived stress was not part of the depression and/or cognitive function mediational chain. The results shown here have implications for future

  20. Maintenance Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Sessions are Associated with Reduced Depressive Relapses in Patients with Unipolar or Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; Imperatori, Claudio; Del Casale, Antonio; Di Pietro, Simone; Ferri, Vittoria R.; Serata, Daniele; Raccah, Ruggero N.; Zangen, Abraham; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a new form of TMS allowing safe stimulation of deep brain regions. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the role of dTMS maintenance sessions in protecting patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) from developing depressive or manic relapses in a 12-month follow-up period. Methods: Twenty-four drug-resistant patients with a current depressive episode and a diagnosis of MDD or BD have been enrolled in the study. All the participants underwent daily dTMS sessions for 4 weeks. One group (maintenance – M group) received additional maintenance dTMS sessions weekly or twice a week. Results: After the first dTMS cycle, a significant reduction of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores was observed in all participants. Subsequently, the HDRS mean scores did not significantly change over time in the M group, while it significantly increased in the non-M-group after 6 and 12 months. Discussion: This study confirms previous evidence of a positive therapeutic effect of dTMS on depressive symptoms and suggests that, after recovery from acute episodes, maintenance dTMS sessions may be helpful in maintaining euthymia in a 12-month follow-up period. PMID:25709596

  1. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Unlike other areas of medicine, psychiatry is almost entirely dependent on patient report to assess the presence and severity of disease; therefore, it is particularly crucial that we find both more accurate and efficient means of obtaining that report. Objective To develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for depression, called the Computerized Adaptive Test–Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Design Case-control study. Setting A psychiatric clinic and community mental health center. Participants A total of 1614 individuals with and without minor and major depression were recruited for study. Main Outcome Measures The focus of this study was the development of the CAT-DI. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used to study the convergent validity of the new measure, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of minor and major depressive disorder. Results A mean of 12 items per study participant was required to achieve a 0.3 SE in the depression severity estimate and maintain a correlation of r=0.95 with the total 389-item test score. Using empirically derived thresholds based on a mixture of normal distributions, we found a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.88 for the classification of major depressive disorder in a sample consisting of depressed patients and healthy controls. Correlations on the order of r=0.8 were found with the other clinician and self-rating scale scores. The CAT-DI provided excellent discrimination throughout the entire depressive severity continuum (minor and major depression), whereas the traditional scales did so primarily at the extremes (eg, major depression). Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items administered and allows measurement uncertainty to vary. In

  2. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Development and Validation of a Screening Scale for Depression in Korea: The Lee and Rhee Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seon Hee; Rhee, Min Kyu; Kang, Rhee Hun; Lee, Hwa Young; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument that addressed how individuals express and experience depression to detect this disorder in Koreans. We also assessed the validity, reliability, and diagnostic utility of this scale (Lee and Rhee Depression Scale; LRDS). Methods The sample consisted of 3,697 normal adults selected from 12 administrative districts (Do) and 448 Korean patients diagnosed with depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Reliability was calculated using Cronbach's α. Construct validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were also measured. Receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to evaluate diagnostic efficiency. Results The LRDS was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's α=0.95) consisting of six factors: negative thinking about the future, negative thinking about the self, worry and agitation, depressed mood, somatization, and loss of volition. Comparison of LRDS scores discriminated the group of patients with depression from the normal individuals in the control group. The measure showed good concurrent validity in that scores were significantly and strongly correlated with scores on established scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the D scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-second edition (MMPI-2). Diagnostic efficiency was 77.7%, and the cut-off scores were 65 for males and 70 for females. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop a depression-screening scale on the basis of Korean patients' complaints about the disorder. As a culturally sensitive tool, the LRDS will be useful in clinical and research settings in Korea. PMID:22396683

  4. Relationship of Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder with Major Depression: Relevance to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Beherre, Prakash B.; Rathi, Rajesh; Panigrahi, Mahima; Patil, Pradeep Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and depressive disorder are fairly common; symptoms do overlap, often under-identified and under-emphasized, particularly in rural India. Objective: The objective was to assess the occurrence of PMS and PMDD in a sample of students and staff of a nursing college and to find their correlation with depression. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study; Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural India (Wardha, Maharashtra); 118 female nursing students or staff aged between 18 and 40 years, who were likely to stay within the institution for the study period. The participants were rated on Penn daily symptom report prospectively for a period of 3-month. Those who scored positive were applied diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for PMDD; and were applied primary care evaluation of mental disorders depression screening followed by DSM-IV TR criteria for depression. Severity of depression was measured using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: Main outcome measures were frequency and severity of depression in individuals with PMS and PMDD and their clinical and sociodemographic correlation. The age range of the sample was 18-37 years. Some PMS symptoms were observed in 67%; diagnosis of PMDD in 10%; depressive symptoms in 28% of the sample. 46.4% of those with depressive symptoms had major depression. The diagnosis of major depression was significantly associated with the severity of PMS symptoms as well as the presence of PMDD. Conclusion: Premenstrual syndrome is present in a substantial proportion of young females. Concurrent depression is increased by the severity of PMS symptoms and the presence of PMDD. Gynecologist needs to screen such subjects for depression and refer to mental-health professional early, in routine clinical practice. PMID:25969600

  5. MHC, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Buczek, M; Okarma, H; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Radwan, J

    2016-03-01

    The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. Infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. However, the link between immune genes, infection and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. Here, we explored whether the presence and identity of functional variants (supertypes) of the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is responsible for the recognition of parasites, predict the load of lung and gut parasites and antler development in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). While we found MHC supertypes to be associated with infection by a number of parasite species, including debilitating lung nematodes, we did not find support for the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. On the contrary, we found that lung nematode load was positively associated with antler development. We also found that the supertypes that were associated with resistance to certain parasites at the same time cause susceptibility to others. Such trade-offs may undermine the potential genetic benefits of mate choice for resistant partners. PMID:26687843

  6. Structure and metamorphism of the Franciscan Complex, Mt. Hamilton area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C., Jr.; Wentworth, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Truncation of metamorphic isograds and fold axes within coherent terranes of Franciscan metagraywacke by intervening zones of melange indicate that the melange is tectonic and formed after the subduction-related metamorphism and folding. These relations are expressed in two terranes of blueschist-facies rocks of the Franciscan Complex in the Mt. Hamilton area, northern California-the Jurassic Yolla Bolly terrane and the structurally underlying Cretaceous Burnt Hills terrane. Local preservation in both terranes of basal radiolarian chert and oceanic basalt beneath continent-derived metagraywacke and argillite demonstrates thrust repetition within the coherent terranes, although these relations are scarce near Mt. Hamilton. The metagraywackes range from albite-pumpellyite blueschists to those containing well-crystallized jadeitic pyroxene, and a jadeite-in isograd can be defined in parts of the area. Primary bedding defines locally coherent structural orientations and folds within the metagraywacke units. These units are crosscut by thin zones of tectonic melange containing blocks of high-grade blueschist, serpentinite, and other exotic rocks, and a broader, but otherwise identical melange zone marks the discordant boundary between the two terranes.

  7. 1989 Alice Hamilton lecture. Lead and human health: background and recent findings.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M

    1990-02-01

    This paper, prepared in tribute to Dr. Alice Hamilton on her 120th birthday, reviews her pioneering studies of occupational lead poisoning and its control, her largely unheeded warnings about the possible consequences of widespread lead exposure to the general public through the use of leaded fuel, and the results of recent studies of human exposure to and health effects of lead in the general environment. Evidence is presented for dose-related non-threshold effects for children with blood lead concentrations below 25 micrograms/dl for a variety of effects including verbal IQ; mental development; physical size; and age at physical milestones such as first steps, hearing thresholds, and postural sway. For adults, various studies have produced associations between blood pressure and blood lead concentrations below 35 micrograms/dl, suggesting possible effects on cardiovascular health. While the biological mechanisms responsible for these effects remain poorly understood, recent and current efforts to reduce exposure to lead by the virtual elimination of lead in gasoline and food packaging show that we have learned one of Dr. Hamilton's important lessons, i.e., that the most effective means of reducing excessive exposures are through control of the environmental sources. PMID:2404752

  8. On the connection between Hamilton and Lagrange formalism in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba-Chávez, Selym; Alkofer, Reinhard; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-08-01

    The connection between the Hamilton and the standard Lagrange formalism is established for a generic quantum field theory with vanishing vacuum expectation values of the fundamental fields. The effective actions in both formalisms are the same if and only if the fundamental fields and the momentum fields are related by the stationarity condition. These momentum fields in general differ from the canonical fields as defined via the effective action. By means of functional methods a systematic procedure is presented to identify the full correlation functions, which depend on the momentum fields, as functionals of those usually appearing in the standard Lagrange formalism. Whereas Lagrange correlation functions can be decomposed into tree diagrams, the decomposition of Hamilton correlation functions involves loop corrections similar to those arising in n-particle effective actions. To demonstrate the method we derive for theories with linearized interactions the propagators of composite auxiliary fields and the ones of the fundamental degrees of freedom. The formalism is then utilized in the case of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory for which the relations between the two-point correlation functions of the transversal and longitudinal components of the conjugate momentum to the ones of the gauge field are given.

  9. A practical approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvang, Henriette; Hadjiantonis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the subject of holographic renormalization for asymptotically AdS spacetimes. For many applications of holography, one has to handle the divergences associated with the on-shell gravitational action. The brute force approach uses the Fefferman- Graham (FG) expansion near the AdS boundary to identify the divergences, but subsequent reversal of the expansion is needed to construct the infinite counterterms. While in principle straightforward, the method is cumbersome and application/reversal of FG is formally unsatisfactory. Various authors have proposed an alternative method based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. However, this approach may appear to be abstract, difficult to implement, and in some cases limited in applicability. In this paper, we clarify the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization and present a simple algorithm for its implementation to extract cleanly the infinite counterterms. While the derivation of the method relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the actual application of our algorithm does not. The work applies to any D-dimensional holographic dual with asymptotic AdS boundary, Euclidean or Lorentzian, and arbitrary slicing. We illustrate the method in several examples, including the FGPW model, a holographic model of 3d ABJM theory, and cases with marginal scalars such as a dilaton-axion system.

  10. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework for optimal control in multistage energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2000-03-01

    We enunciate parallelism for structures of variational principles in mechanics and thermodynamics in terms of the duality for thermoeconomic problems of maximizing of production profit and net profit which can be transferred to duality for least action and least abbreviated action which appear in mechanics. With the parallelism in mind, we review theory and macroscopic applications of a recently developed discrete formalism of Hamilton-Jacobi type which arises when Bellman's method of dynamic programming is applied to optimize active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multistage energy systems with free intervals of an independent variable. Our original contribution develops a generalized theory for discrete processes in which these intervals can reside in the model inhomogeneously and can be constrained. We consider applications to multistage thermal machines, controlled unit operations, spontaneous relaxations, nonlinear heat conduction, and self-propagating reaction-diffusion fronts. They all satisfy a basic functional equation that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJB equation) and a related discrete optimization algorithm with a maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. Correspondence is shown with the well-known HJB theory for continuous processes when the number of stages approaches an infinity. We show that a common unifying criterion, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy, can be proven to act locally in the majority of considered cases, although the related global statements can be invalid far from equilibrium. General limits are found which bound the consumption of the classical work potential (exergy) for finite durations.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic compound profiles from extracts of Dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods coexisting in Hamilton Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Aggregates of dreissenid mussels were collected in Hamilton Harbour (western Lake Ontario) from a south shore site (Randle Reef) in an area characterized by coal tar-contaminated sediments, and from a site on the north shore exposed to particulates circulating in the harbour water column. Samples were separated into three components: dreissend mussels, gammarid amphipods (Gammarus fasciatus), and particulate material. The samples were freeze-dried, and extracted using ultrasonication in dichloromethane. The organic solvent extracts were subjected to an open-column alumina and Sephadex LH-20 gel column clean-up procedure, and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles of all sample extracts were dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentrations of the individual compounds were normalized for contaminant profile comparison of the extracts of dreissenids, amphipods, and particulates associated with aggregates of dreissenid mussels. These profiles were also compared with extracts of coal tar-contaminated sediment from the Randle Reef area, and extracts of suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates in Hamilton Harbour are being accumulated by dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods.

  12. From classical Lagrangians to Hamilton operators in the standard model extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate whether a theory based on a classical Lagrangian for the minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) can be quantized such that the result is equal to the corresponding low-energy Hamilton operator obtained from the field-theory description. This analysis is carried out for the whole collection of minimal Lagrangians found in the literature. The upshot is that the first quantization can be performed consistently. The unexpected observation is made that at first order in Lorentz violation and at second order in the velocity, the Lagrangians are related to the Hamilton functions by a simple transformation. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that this holds universally. That result is used successfully to obtain classical Lagrangians for two complicated sectors of the minimal SME that have not been considered in the literature so far. Therefore, it will not be an obstacle anymore to derive such Lagrangians even for involved sets of coefficients—at least to the level of approximation stated above.

  13. Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks

  14. Correlations between Pre-morbid Personality and Depression Scales in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Il; Park, Oak Tae; Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Yi, Sook-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between pre-morbid personality and depression scales in patients with stroke. Method The subjects of this study included 45 patients with stroke and their caregivers. We conducted an interview of patients with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and also evaluated general characteristic (age, sex, location of lesion, cause of stroke, duration of illness, educational background, history of medication for depression) and functional level. Caregivers were evaluated with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) for depressive mood, with NEO-PI (Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory) for pre-morbid personality. The results of each questionnaire were analyzed in order to investigate their correlation. The results were statistically analyzed with independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation test. Results The HRSD score of the caregivers had a significant correlation with the BDI score (p=0.001) of the patients. The BDI score correlated with Neuroticism (p=0.021) and the HRSD score also correlated with Neuroticism (p=0.015). There were no statistical correlation of depression with sex, age, case of stroke, location of lesion, duration of illness and functional level. Conclusion Among pre-morbid personalities, neuroticism of NEO-PI is the only factor which is significantly correlated with depression scales in stroke patients. Evaluating pre-morbid personality can be helpful in predicting the depressive mood in stroke patients, so we may have early intervention for it. PMID:22506141

  15. Depression, body mass index, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a holistic approach

    PubMed Central

    Catalfo, Giuseppe; Crea, Luciana; Lo Castro, Tiziana; Magnano San Lio, Francesca; Minutolo, Giuseppe; Siscaro, Gherardo; Vaccino, Noemi; Crimi, Nunzio; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several clinical studies suggest common underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of COPD and depressive/anxiety disorders. We aim to evaluate psychopathological and physical effects of aerobic exercise, proposed in the context of pulmonary rehabilitation, in a sample of COPD patients, through the correlation of some psychopathological variables and physical/pneumological parameters. Methods Fifty-two consecutive subjects were enrolled. At baseline, the sample was divided into two subgroups consisting of 38 depression-positive and 14 depression-negative subjects according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). After the rehabilitation treatment, we compared psychometric and physical examinations between the two groups. Results The differences after the rehabilitation program in all assessed parameters demonstrated a significant improvement in psychiatric and pneumological conditions. The reduction of BMI was significantly correlated with fat mass but only in the depression-positive patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that pulmonary rehabilitation improves depressive and anxiety symptoms in COPD. This improvement is significantly related to the reduction of fat mass and BMI only in depressed COPD patients, in whom these parameters were related at baseline. These findings suggest that depressed COPD patients could benefit from a rehabilitation program in the context of a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26929612

  16. Massless Spin-Zero Particle and the Classical Action via Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Gödel Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2012-08-01

    In this letter we investigate the separability of the Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Gödel universe. We show that the Klein-Gordon eigen modes are quantized and the complete spectrum of the particle's energy is a mixture of an azimuthal quantum number, m and a principal quantum number, n and a continuous wave number k. We also show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation gives a closed function for classical action. These results may be used to calculate the Casimir vacuum energy in Gödel universe.

  17. Antidepressant Effects of a Single Dose of Ayahuasca in Patients With Recurrent Depression: A SPECT Study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Rafael Faria; de Lima Osório, Flávia; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Macedo, Ligia R H; Maia-de-Oliveira, João Paulo; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; de Araujo, Draulio Barros; Riba, Jordi; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2016-02-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian botanical hallucinogenic brew which contains dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, and harmine, a monoamine-oxidase A inhibitor. Our group recently reported that ayahuasca administration was associated with fast-acting antidepressive effects in 6 depressive patients. The objective of the present work was to assess the antidepressive potentials of ayahuasca in a bigger sample and to investigate its effects on regional cerebral blood flow. In an open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit, 17 patients with recurrent depression received an oral dose of ayahuasca (2.2 mL/kg) and were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale during acute ayahuasca effects and 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after drug intake. Blood perfusion was assessed eight hours after drug administration by means of single photon emission tomography. Ayahuasca administration was associated with increased psychoactivity (Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale) and significant score decreases in depression-related scales (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) from 80 minutes to day 21. Increased blood perfusion in the left nucleus accumbens, right insula and left subgenual area, brain regions implicated in the regulation of mood and emotions, were observed after ayahuasca intake. Ayahuasca was well tolerated. Vomiting was the only adverse effect recorded, being reported by 47% of the volunteers. Our results suggest that ayahuasca may have fast-acting and sustained antidepressive properties. These results should be replicated in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. PMID:26650973

  18. The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Choi, Joong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback on depressive symptoms and electrophysiological disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited participants suffering from depression to evaluate efficacy of left prefrontal beta with alpha/theta training. An 8-week, prospective, open-label study was undertaken. Twenty participants were recruited. The treatment protocol was twice or three times a week training of beta at F3 with alpha/theta at Pz for 8 weeks. When every visit, patients were received beta training for 30 min, and then alpha/theta training for 30 min. Baseline, 4 and 8 week scores of; the Hamilton rating scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton rating scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S), and pre- and post-treatment resting state EEGs were compared. Interhemispheric alpha power asymmetry (A score) was computed for homologous sites F3-F4. Pre- and post-training clinical assessments revealed significant improvements in HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, and CGI-S scores. Cumulative response rates by HAM-D were 35.0 and 75.0 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, corresponding cumulative remission rates by HAM-D were 15.0 and 55.0 %, respectively. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-treatment A score. Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder. PMID:26392114

  19. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pregnenolone for Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E Sherwood; Park, John; Marx, Christine E; Hynan, Linda S; Gardner, Claire; Davila, Domingo; Nakamura, Alyson; Sunderajan, Prabha; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Depression in bipolar disorder (BPD) is challenging to treat. Therefore, additional medication options are needed. In the current report, the effect of the neurosteroid pregnenolone on depressive symptoms in BPD was examined. Adults (n=80) with BPD, depressed mood state, were randomized to pregnenolone (titrated to 500 mg/day) or placebo, as add-on therapy, for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (IDS-SR), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Serum neurosteroid levels were assessed at baseline and week 12. Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANCOVA with a between factor of treatment assignment, a within factor (repeated) of visit, and the baseline value, as well as age and gender, as covariates. In participants with at least one postbaseline visit (n=73), a significant treatment by week interaction for the HRSD (F(5,288)=2.61, p=0.025), but not IDS-SR, was observed. Depression remission rates were greater in the pregnenolone group (61%) compared with the placebo group (37%), as assessed by the IDS-SR (χ2(1)=3.99, p=0.046), but not the HRSD. Large baseline-to-exit changes in neurosteroid levels were observed in the pregnenolone group but not in the placebo group. In the pregnenolone group, baseline-to-exit change in the HRSA correlated negatively with changes in allopregnanolone (r(22)=−0.43, p=0.036) and pregNANolone (r(22)=−0.48, p=0.019) levels. Pregnenolone was well tolerated. The results suggest that pregnenolone may improve depressive symptoms in patients with BPD and can be safely administered. PMID:24917198

  20. Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Jie; Pei, Liu-Bao; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Zi-Yu; Yang, Jian-Li

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder is a devastating mental illness leading to a lifetime prevalence of higher than 16% on individuals. The treatment delay and inevitable adverse effects are major limitations of current depression interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin produced significant antidepressant properties in depression in both rodents and humans without adverse effects. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the antidepressant actions of curcumin and the underlying mechanism in depressed patients. A total of 108 male adults aged between 31 and 59 years were systematically recruited in Tianjin Anding Hospital. Subjects were administered the Chinese version of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale that measures different scores of depressive symptoms. The subjects were asked to take 2 capsules containing either 1000 mg of curcumin or placebo soybean powder daily for 6 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications. The plasma levels of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and salivary cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after curcumin or placebo treatment during the 6-week procedure. Chronic supplementation with curcumin produced significant antidepressant behavioral response in depressed patients by reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder. PMID:26066335

  1. [Treatment response of depressive patients with comorbid problem drink].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Eri; Tayama, Masaya; Saito, Toshikazu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of Problem Drink on depression. Forty participants with depression were divided into 2 groups: non-Problem Drinker (NPD) group (n = 22) and Problem Drinker (PD) group (n = 18) according to Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score (NPD < 12, PD > or = 12). Depression was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The effect of medication on depressive symptoms was monitored over 12 weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Significant improvement in HAM-D score was observed at 2 weeks in NPD patients but not until 4 weeks in PD patients. Total HAM-D scores were lower in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. Therapeutic doses (dose of antidepressant used was equivalent to greater than 75 mg of imipramine) of antidepressants resulted in significant improvement in HAM-D scores at 2 weeks in NPD patients, but not until 8 weeks in PD patients and brought lower HAM-D scores in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. The AUDIT score and total alcohol consumption during the study period were negatively correlated to the improvement in HAM-D score. In NPD patients, the level of education of patients in remission was higher than those by patients not in remission. In contrast, level of education of patients in remission were similar to those in PD patients not in remission. The above results suggest that co-occurrence of alcohol use disorders with depression is associated with a lower response to antidepressants which may reflect not only the result of biological alterations in the brain by chronic ethanol ingestion but also an inhibitory effect of ethanol on antidepressant action in the brain. Drinking-related cognitive dysfunction may also relate to the decreased response to treatment in the depressed patients with comorbid Problem Drinker. PMID:24427900

  2. A 10-week memantine treatment in bipolar depression: a case report. Focus on depressive symptomatology, cognitive parameters and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Tabaszewska, Agnieszka; Barszcz, Zbigniew; Józefowicz, Olga; Kropiwnicki, Paweł; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2013-12-01

    Memantine and other glutamatergic agents have been currently investigated in some off-label indications due to glutamatergic involvement in several psychoneurological disorders. We assumed that memantine similarly to ketamine may positively influence mood, moreover having a potential to improve cognition and general quality of life. We report a case of a 49-year-old male hospitalized during a manic and a subsequent moderate depressive episode. After an ineffective use of lithium, olanzapine and antidepressive treatment with mianserin, memantine was added up to 20 mg per day for 10 weeks. The mental state was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Clinical Global Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale and psychological tests. After 10 weeks the patient achieved a partial symptomatic improvement in mood, anxiety and quality of sleep, but his activity remained insufficient. We also observed an improvement in the parameters of cognitive functioning and quality of life. There was neither significant mood variations during the memantine use nor mood changes after its termination. No significant side effects were noted during the memantine treatment. We conclude that using memantine in bipolar depression may improve mood, cognitive functioning and quality of life. PMID:24474993

  3. Depressive Symptoms in Crohn's Disease: Relationship with Immune Activation and Tryptophan Availability

    PubMed Central

    Guloksuz, Sinan; Wichers, Marieke; Kenis, Gunter; Russel, Maurice G. V. M.; Wauters, Annick; Verkerk, Robert; Arts, Baer; van Os, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with immune activation and depressive symptoms. This study determines the impact of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment in CD patients on depressive symptoms and the degree to which tryptophan (TRP) availability and immune markers mediate this effect. Fifteen patients with CD, eligible for anti-TNF-α treatment were recruited. Disease activity (Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI), Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI)), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)), quality of life (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ)), symptoms of depression and anxiety (Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)), immune activation (acute phase proteins (APP)), zinc and TRP availability were assessed before treatment and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Anti-TNF-α increased IBDQ scores and reduced all depression scores; however only SCL-90 depression scores remained decreased after correction for HBI. Positive APPs decreased, while negative APPs increased after treatment. After correction for HBI, both level and percentage of γ fraction were associated with SCL-90 depression scores over time. After correction for HBI, patients with current/past depressive disorder displayed higher levels of positive APPs and lower levels of negative APPs and zinc. TRP availability remained invariant over time and there was no association between SCL-90 depression scores and TRP availability. Inflammatory reactions in CD are more evident in patients with comorbid depression, regardless of disease activity. Anti-TNF-α treatment in CD reduces depressive symptoms, in part independently of disease activity; there was no evidence that this effect was mediated by immune-induced changes in TRP availability. PMID:23544139

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among prospective medical students.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Esa, Ab Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have reported that the prevalence of psychological distress among medical students during medical training was high. However, there are very few studies exploring on the psychological health of prospective medical students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for stress, anxiety and depression symptoms among the prospective medical students. A cross-sectional study was done on two cohorts of applicants to a public medical school. A total of 839 applicants were invited to participate in the study. The 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered to the applicants after they completed interviews. A total of 743 (92.2%) applicants took part in the study. The prevalence of moderate to extremely severe level of stress, anxiety and depression were 3.6%, 54.5% and 1.9%, respectively. Stress was significantly associated with extra-curricular activity (p<0.001) and race (p<0.001). Anxiety was associated with extra-curricular activity (p<0.001), race (p<0.001), mother education level (p=0.002) and CGPA group (p=0.034). Depression was associated with academic performance in class (p<0.001) and race (p=0.004). Prevalence of stress and depression among entering medical students was low; however prevalence of anxiety was high which could be due to worry about the interviews to enter medical course. The associated factors of psychological distress among prospective medical students were related to academic, non-academic, parent education and cultural backgrounds. PMID:23466109

  5. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619091

  6. Interleukin-1 beta -511C/T genetic polymorphism is associated with age of onset of geriatric depression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jen-Ping; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Yang, Chen-Hong; Hsu, Cheng-Dien; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2009-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and in cognitive function decline in the elderly. This study tests the hypothesis that a biallelic functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the interleukin-1 beta gene (IL1B -511C/T) affects vulnerability to geriatric depression and its manifestations, including age of onset, depression severity, and cognitive function. We genotyped the IL1B -511C/T polymorphism in 125 elderly inpatients diagnosed with major depression and 282 normal elderly controls. The depressed patients were evaluated at baseline after admission using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) for depression severity and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) for cognitive function; depression age of onset was evaluated by interview and medical records. We found no association between IL1B -511C/T genotypes and geriatric depression susceptibility (P = 0.213), depression severity (HAM-D scores; P = 0.766) or cognitive function (MMSE scores; P = 0.827); however, compared with depressed subjects carrying the -511C allele, depressed subjects who were -511T homozygotes showed a significantly later depression age of onset of 7 years (P = 0.021). Our findings suggest that the IL1B -511C/T polymorphism may be related to age at manifestation among individuals vulnerable to depression, but they do not affect the basic vulnerability to or severity of depression in elderly Chinese adults. Further study is warranted to confirm this finding and to assess its generalization to other ethnic groups. PMID:19629761

  7. The effect of problem solving and decision making skills on tendency to depression and anxiety in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Abazarian, Elaheh; Baboli, M Teimourzadeh; Abazarian, Elham; Ghashghaei, F Esteki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most prevalent disease that has involved 177 million people all over the world and, due to this, these patients suffer from depression and anxiety and they should use special methods for controlling the same. The aim of this research is the study of the effect of problem solving and decision making skill on the rate of the tendency to depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental (case-control) study. Statistically, the population of the present study was all diabetic patients of Qaemshahr who were controlled by physicians in 2011-2012. Thirty files were selected randomly from them and divided into two 15 patients’ groups (control and subject group) randomly. The measurement tools were Back depression inventory (21 items) and Zank anxiety questionnaire that were distributed among two groups. Then, the subject group participated in eight sessions of teaching problem solving and decision making courses separately, and the second group (control group) did not receive any instruction. Results: Finally, both groups had passed post-test and the data obtained from the questionnaires were studied by variance analysis statistical methods. Conclusion: The results showed that teaching problem solving and decision making skills was very effective in reducing diabetic patients’ depression and anxiety and resulted in reducing their depression and anxiety. PMID:26261814

  8. Antidepressant medication can improve hypertension in elderly patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenjing; Ma, Lina; Zhao, Xiaoling; Li, Yun; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Jia; Han, Rui; Liu, Huizhen

    2015-12-01

    We explored the influence of antidepressant therapy on blood pressure and quality of life in elderly patients with hypertension. Depression occurs at a higher rate in patients with hypertension than in the normal population. It has been reported that depressive symptoms lead to poorer hypertension control, resulting in the development of complications. We conducted a randomized, parallel group study. A total of 70 elderly patients with hypertension in the period of August 2008 to March 2011 were divided into two groups based on their antihypertensive therapy, a control group (amlodipine, 5 mg daily; n=35) and a therapy group (amlodipine, 5mg daily; citalopram, 20 mg daily; n=35). We compared 24 hour, daytime, and nighttime measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in addition to quality of life, assessed using the Hamilton rating scale for depression, and a 36 item Short Form quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). Both groups were followed for 3 months. At the end of 3 months, all blood pressure levels were significantly lower in the therapy group than in the control group. The other scores (with the exception of the physical function subcategory of the SF-36 quality of life scale) were significantly higher. Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of depressive symptoms in elderly patients with hypertension, and should consider antidepressant therapy in these patients. PMID:26256065

  9. BDNF plasma levels variations in major depressed patients receiving duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Escelsior, Andrea; Rocchi, Giulio; Conio, Benedetta; Magioncalda, Paola; Marozzi, Valentina; Presta, Andrea; Sterlini, Bruno; Contini, Paola; Amore, Mario; Fornaro, Pantaleo; Martino, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective of the study was to investigate BDNF levels variations in MDD patients during antidepressant treatment with duloxetine. 30 MDD patients and 32 healthy controls were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and monitored for BDNF plasma levels at baseline, week 6 and week 12 of duloxetine treatment (60 mg/day) and at baseline, respectively. According to early clinical response to duloxetine (defined at week 6 by reduction >50 % of baseline HAM-D score), MDD patients were distinguished in early responders (ER) and early non-responders (ENR), who reached clinical response at week 12. Laboratory analysis showed significant lower baseline BDNF levels among patients compared to controls. During duloxetine treatment, in ENR BDNF levels increased, reaching values not significantly different compared to controls, while in ER BDNF levels remained nearly unchanged. Lower baseline BDNF levels observed in patients possibly confirm an impairment of the NEI stress-adaptation system and neuroplasticity in depression, while BDNF increase and normalization observed only in ENR might suggest differential neurobiological backgrounds in ER vs. ENR within the depressive syndrome. PMID:25501804

  10. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of fluvoxamine and amitriptyline in depression.

    PubMed

    Vezmar, Sandra; Miljkovic, Branislava; Vucicevic, Katarina; Timotijevic, Ivana; Prostran, Milica; Todorovic, Zoran; Pokrajac, Milena

    2009-05-01

    Although often necessary for obtaining remission following major depressive disorder, combined antidepressant treatment is frequently associated with drug interactions and enhanced adverse drug effects. We investigated pharmacokinetic interactions following combined fluvoxamine and amitriptyline treatment and their impact on therapeutic efficacy and tolerability. Twenty-two inpatients with major depression [Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) rating > or =18] were treated with either amitriptyline (75 mg/day), fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) or both. Blood samples, for determination of amitriptyline, its major metabolite nortritpyline, and fluvoxamine, were obtained after single dose administration and in steady-state. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated using HAM-D and adverse drug effects were evaluated using the clinical global impression scale. Following combined treatment, steady-state plasma levels of nortriptyline were significantly decreased compared to monotherapy. HAM-D scores after two-week treatment showed that there was a better response to combined treatment. There was no significant difference in severity of adverse effects among groups. We observed a pharmacokinetic interaction between fluvoxamine and amitritpyline resulting in impaired metabolism of the later. However, no significant impact of the interaction on treatment safety was observed. Moreover, concomitant use of amitriptyline at 75 mg/day and fluvoxamine at 100 mg/day was well tolerated with a more prompt and stronger onset of clinical response compared to monotherapy in patients with major depression. PMID:19444001

  11. Millon multiaxial personality patterns differentiate depressed and anxious outpatients.

    PubMed

    Freeman, A M; Kablinger, A S; Rolland, P D; Brannon, G E

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-three patients, including 47 patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and 46 patients with Major Depression (MD), were entered into recent clinical trials. Clinicians acknowledge that during the initial screening process, clear separation between depressed and anxious patients may be difficult. By using the DSM-IV criteria, the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, and a variety of other structured evaluations, patients were divided into the two diagnostic groups. The Millon Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) was administered to all 93 patients as part of their initial assessment, but was not used in the diagnostic decision making process or in assignment to a particular clinical study. Upon completion of these studies, the Millon data were analyzed utilizing a cutoff score of 75, conforming to previous studies. Statistically significant differences in Millon personality patterns between MD and GAD patients included dependent, obsessive-compulsive, self-defeating, and borderline traits. Patients exhibiting dependent, self-defeating, and borderline patterns were statistically more likely to be included in clinical trials of MD rather than GAD. Also, patients with MD were more likely to disclose clinical information and exhibit self-critical behavior when compared to those with GAD. These results suggest that the MCMI-III may detect personality differences between anxious and depressed outpatients presenting for clinical trials. PMID:10569130

  12. Landau-Lifshitz magnetodynamics as a Hamilton model: Magnons in an instanton background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Wang, Kang L.

    2010-07-01

    To take full advantage of the well-developed field-theoretic methods, Magnonics needs a yet-existing Lagrangian formulation. Here, we show that Landau-Lifshitz magnetodynamics is a member of the covariant-Schrödinger-equation family of Hamilton models and apply the covariant background method arriving at the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian formalism for magnons in an instanton background. Magnons appear to be nonrelativistic spinless bosons, which feel instantons as a gauge field and as a Bose condensate. Among the examples of the usefulness of the proposition is the recognition of the instanton-induced phase shifts in magnons as the Berry phase and the interpretation of the spin-transfer-torque generation as a ferromagnetic counterpart of the Josephson supercurrent.

  13. Variation in helper effort among cooperatively breeding bird species is consistent with Hamilton's Rule.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan P; Freckleton, Robert P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604

  14. Nice to kin and nasty to non-kin: revisiting Hamilton's early insights on eusociality.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    When helping behaviour is costly, Hamiltonian logic implies that animals need to direct helpful acts towards kin, so that indirect fitness benefits justify the costs. We revisit inferences about nepotism and aggression in Hamilton's 1964 paper to argue that he overestimated the general significance of nepotism, but that other issues that he raised continue to suggest novel research agendas today. We now know that nepotism in eusocial insects is rare, because variation in genetic recognition cues is insufficient. A lower proportion of individuals breeding and larger clutch sizes selecting for a more uniform colony odour may explain this. Irreversible worker sterility can induce both the fiercest possible aggression and the highest likelihood of helping random distant kin, but these Hamiltonian contentions still await large-scale testing in social animals. PMID:24132094

  15. Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease with involvement of multiple epiphyses of both feet.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826

  16. Chemico/biological investigation of contaminated sediment from the Hamilton Harbour area of western Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; Allan, L.; McCarry, B.E.; Bryant, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Highly contaminated sediment from the Hamilton Harbour area of western Lake Ontario was examined using a bioassay-directed fractionation methodology. A sediment sample was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and the resulting extract was fractionated into compound classes using an alumina clean-up step and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques. The resulting fractions were subjected to bioassays using TA98- and TA100-like strains modified by the inclusion of genes for the activating enzymes nitroreductase and O-acetyl-transferase. The majority of the mutagenic activity displayed by the sample extract was found to be present in the fraction containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Extracts of the PAH-containing fraction displayed dramatically higher responses with the TA100 type strains with metabolic activation. Further separation of the PAH-containing fraction showed the majority of the biological activity coeluted with PAH having molecular masses of 276, 278, and 302 amu.

  17. Matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for aeroassisted plane-change maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Melamed, Nahum

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general procedure for constructing a matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation based on the method of characteristics. The development is for a class of perturbation problems whose solution exhibits two-time-scale behavior. A regular expansion for problems of this type is inappropriate since it is not uniformly valid over a narrow range of the independent variable. Of particular interest here is the manner in which matching and boundary conditions are enforced when the expansion is carried out to first order. Two cases are distinguished - one where the left boundary condition coincides with or lies to the right of the singular region and one where the left boundary condition lies to the left of the singular region. A simple example is used to illustrate the procedure, and its potential application to aeroassisted plane change is described.

  18. Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions. PMID:24320362

  19. The classical limit of minimal length uncertainty relation: revisit with the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2016-05-01

    The existence of a minimum measurable length could deform not only the standard quantum mechanics but also classical physics. The effects of the minimal length on classical orbits of particles in a gravitation field have been investigated before, using the deformed Poisson bracket or Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we first use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to derive the deformed equations of motion in the context of Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. We then employ them to study the precession of planetary orbits, deflection of light, and time delay in radar propagation. We also set limits on the deformation parameter by comparing our results with the observational measurements. Finally, comparison with results from previous papers is given at the end of this paper.

  20. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.

  1. Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J), level set, and Eikonal equations on triangulated domains are presented. The first scheme is a provably monotone discretization for certain forms of the H-J equations. Unfortunately, the basic scheme lacks proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. By employing a virtual edge flipping technique, Lipschitz continuity of the numerical flux is restored on acute triangulations. Next, schemes are introduced and developed based on the weaker concept of positive coefficient approximations for homogeneous Hamiltonians. These schemes possess a discrete maximum principle on arbitrary triangulations and naturally exhibit proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. Finally, a class of Petrov-Galerkin approximations are considered. These schemes are stabilized via a least-squares bilinear form. The Petrov-Galerkin schemes do not possess a discrete maximum principle but generalize to high order accuracy.

  2. A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for termination of seizure-like bursting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2014-10-01

    We use Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods to find minimum-time and energy-optimal control strategies to terminate seizure-like bursting behavior in a conductance-based neural model. Averaging is used to eliminate fast variables from the model, and a target set is defined through bifurcation analysis of the slow variables of the model. This method is illustrated for a single neuron model and for a network model to illustrate its efficacy in terminating bursting once it begins. This work represents a numerical proof-of-concept that a new class of control strategies can be employed to mitigate bursting, and could ultimately be adapted to treat medically intractible epilepsy in patient-specific models. PMID:24965911

  3. Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for dynamical horizons in different coordinate gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, Roberto; Hayward, Sean A.; Nadalini, Mario; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on dynamical black hole instability is further elucidated within the Hamilton-Jacobi method for horizon tunneling and the reconstruction of the classical action by means of the null expansion method. Everything is based on two natural requirements, namely that the tunneling rate is an observable and therefore it must be based on invariantly defined quantities, and that coordinate systems which do not cover the horizon should not be admitted. These simple observations can help to clarify some ambiguities, like the doubling of the temperature occurring in the static case when using singular coordinates and the role, if any, of the temporal contribution of the action to the emission rate. The formalism is also applied to FRW cosmological models, where it is observed that it predicts the positivity of the temperature naturally, without further assumptions on the sign of energy.

  4. On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

  5. Constants of the motion, universal time and the Hamilton-Jacobi function in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    In most text books of mechanics, Newton's laws or Hamilton's equations of motion are first written down and then solved based on initial conditions to determine the constants of the motions and to describe the trajectories of the particles. In this essay, we take a different starting point. We begin with the metrics of general relativity and show how they can be used to construct by inspection constants of motion, which can then be used to write down the equations of the trajectories. This will be achieved by deriving a Hamiltonian-Jacobi function from the metric and showing that its existence requires all of the above mentioned properties. The article concludes by showing that a consistent theory of such functions also requires the need for a universal measure of time which can be identified with the "worldtime" parameter, first introduced by Steuckelberg and later developed by Horwitz and Piron.

  6. Refinement of the Hamilton-Jacobi solution using a second canonical transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Gabella, W.E. . Dept. of Physics); Ruth, R.D.; Warnock, R.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Two canonical transformations are implemented to find approximate invariant surface for a nonlinear, time-periodic Hamiltonian. The first transformation is found from the non-perturbative, iterative solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The residual angle dependence remaining after performing the transformation is mostly eliminated by a second, perturbative transformation. This refinement can improve the accuracy, or the speed, of the invariant surface calculation. The motion of a single particle in one transverse dimension is studied in a storage ring example where strong sextupole magnets are the source of nonlinearity. The refined transformation to action-angle variables, and the corresponding invariant surface, can attain accuracy similar to that of a good non-perturbative transformation in half the computation time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Lane-Hamilton syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Guy F M; Somers, Katia; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of a three-and-a-half-year-old boy, who presented with poor general condition, stunted growth, had the presence of nail clubbing, persistent cough and frequent diarrhoea. Persistent iron deficiency anaemia without signs of haemolysis suggested Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) which is or/is an extremely rare combination of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) and celiac disease (CD), although both diseases are immunologically mediated and the pathogenetic link between them is not clear. We have now 3 years of follow-up on gluten-free diet (GFD), resulting in a gradual recovery of the abnormal laboratory results in combination with an improving growth. Clinically, he is asymptomatic without any additional treatment. Our case illustrates that CD should be specifically looked for in patients with IPH, especially those in whom the severity of anaemia is disproportionate to the IPH symptoms. Both diseases may benefit from a GFD. PMID:21947219

  8. Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath

    SciTech Connect

    Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2005-06-15

    Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.

  9. Variation in helper effort among cooperatively breeding bird species is consistent with Hamilton's Rule

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jonathan P.; Freckleton, Robert P.; Hatchwell, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604

  10. Gauge symmetry of the N-body problem in the Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Goldreich, Peter

    2003-12-01

    In most books the Delaunay and Lagrange equations for the orbital elements are derived by the Hamilton-Jacobi method: one begins with the two-body Hamilton equations in spherical coordinates, performs a canonical transformation to the orbital elements, and obtains the Delaunay system. A standard trick is then used to generalize the approach to the N-body case. We reexamine this step and demonstrate that it contains an implicit condition which restricts the dynamics to a 9(N-1)-dimensional submanifold of the 12(N-1)-dimensional space spanned by the elements and their time derivatives. The tacit condition is equivalent to the constraint that Lagrange imposed ``by hand'' to remove the excessive freedom, when he was deriving his system of equations by variation of parameters. It is the condition of the orbital elements being osculating, i.e., of the instantaneous ellipse (or hyperbola) being always tangential to the physical velocity. Imposure of any supplementary condition different from the Lagrange constraint (but compatible with the equations of motion) is legitimate and will not alter the physical trajectory or velocity (though will alter the mathematical form of the planetary equations). This freedom of nomination of the supplementary constraint reveals a gauge-type internal symmetry instilled into the equations of celestial mechanics. Existence of this internal symmetry has consequences for the stability of numerical integrators. Another important aspect of this freedom is that any gauge different from that of Lagrange makes the Delaunay system noncanonical. In a more general setting, when the disturbance depends not only upon positions but also upon velocities, there is a ``generalized Lagrange gauge'' wherein the Delaunay system is symplectic. This special gauge renders orbital elements that are osculating in the phase space. It coincides with the regular Lagrange gauge when the perturbation is velocity independent.

  11. The relationships between the use of self-regulated learning strategies and depression among medical students: an accelerated prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Van Nguyen, Hung; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Wright, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this study to determine the relationships between the use of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL) and depression scores among medical students. An accelerated prospective cohort study among 623 students at a public medical university in Vietnam was carried out during the academic year 2012-2013. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (21 items) was used to measure depression scores as the primary research outcome, and to measure anxiety and stress scores as the confounding variables. Fourteen SRL subscales including intrinsic/extrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning, control of learning beliefs, rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, meta-cognitive strategies, time and study environment, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking were measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Data were collected at two points in time (once each semester). There were 744 responses at the first time (95.88%) and 623 at time two (drop-out rate of 16.26%). The generalized estimating equation was applied to identify any relationships between the use of each SRL subscale and depression scores at time 2, adjusting for the effects of depression at time 1, anxiety, stress, within cluster correlation, and potential demographic covariates. Separate multivariate GEE analysis indicated that all SRL subscales were significantly negatively associated with depression scores, except for extrinsic goal orientation and peer learning. Whereas full multivariate GEE analysis revealed that self-efficacyT1, help-seekingT1, time and study environmentT2 were found to be significantly negatively associated with depressionT2, adjusting for the effects of depressionT1, anxiety, stress, and demographic covariates. The results should be used to provide appropriate support for medical students to reduce depression. PMID:24628063

  12. Charles Hamilton Houston: The Legal Scholar Who Laid the Foundation for Integrated Higher Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blight, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the story of Charles Hamilton Houston, an African American legal scholar who led a crusade focused on equal educational opportunities and facilities for African American students. He used the courts to force Americans to listen to his message about racial subjugation, segregation, and lynch law. (SM)

  13. Fort Hamilton High School Project SPEED: Special Education to Eliminate Dropouts. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Mary; Sica, Michael

    The major goal of Project SPEED (at Fort Hamilton High School, Brooklyn, New York) was dropout prevention. In its first year of operation, 1982-83, the project provided English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction, bilingual instruction in basic skills required for graduation, and guidance services to approximately 300 limited English proficient…

  14. The spacetime models with dust matter that admit separation of variables in Hamilton-Jacobi equations of a test particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetrin, Konstantin; Filippov, Altair; Osetrin, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of dust matter in spacetime models, admitting the existence of privilege coordinate systems are given, where the single-particle Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be integrated by the method of complete separation of variables. The resulting functional form of the 4-velocity field and energy density of matter for all types of spaces under consideration is presented.

  15. Hamilton/Jacobi perturbation methods applied to the rotational motion of a rigid body in a gravitational field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.

  16. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...

  17. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of duloxetine in depressed patients with and without a family history of affective disorders in first-degree relatives

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Shiliang; QIAN, Mincai; ZHONG, Hua; SONG, Guohua; LU, Meijuan; FENG, Rui; ZHANG, Lei; NI, Jianliang; CHEN, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether or not a positive family history of affective disorders predicts the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of depression. Aims Assess the relationship of a family history of affective disorders to the efficacy of duloxetine in the treatment of depressive disorder. Methods Seventy-seven patients with depressive disorder (as defined by the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10) were enrolled in the study and treated with standard doses of duloxetine for 12 weeks. Among these patients 37 had a family history of affective disorder in first-degree relatives and 40 did not. The Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA), Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS), Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 12th week after enrollment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to analyze the association between a family history of affective disorders and the efficacy of duloxetine. Results Patients with a positive family history of affective disorders had an earlier age of onset, a longer duration of illness, a higher level of psychic anxiety, and more prominent anhedonia. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant improvement in the severity of depression over the 12 weeks but no differences in the magnitude or speed of improvement between the two groups. Treatment was considered effective (i.e., drop in baseline HAMD-17 total score of ≥50%) in 75.7% of those with a family history of affective disorders and in 77.5% of those without a family history (X2=0.04, p=0.850). Conclusions Family history of affective disorders is not associated with the effectiveness of duloxetine in the acute treatment of depressive disorder. PMID:26549960

  19. Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may

  20. The effects of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with post-stroke depression

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Shan, Jin; Ze, Yu; Xiao-yan, Zeng; Xiao-hua, Hu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe the effect of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with post-stroke depression. [Subjects] Ninety patients with post-stroke depression were randomly divided into 3 groups: fluoxetine treatment group (n = 30), hyperbaric oxygen therapy group (n = 30), and hyperbaric oxygen combined treatment group (n = 30). [Methods] Fluoxetine treatment group received anti-depression drugs (fluoxetine, 20 mg/day), hyperbaric oxygen therapy group received hyperbaric oxygen (once a day, 5 days/week), hyperbaric oxygen combined treatment group received fluoxetine and hyperbaric oxygen treatments as described above. All patients received routine rehabilitation therapy. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) scores were evaluated before and at the end of 4th week. The total effective rate of depression release between the 3 groups was also compared at the end of study. [Results] The end scores of HAMD and SSS in the 3 groups were significantly lower than those before treatment. The total effective rate of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy group after treatment was higher than the other two groups. [Conclusions] Combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with post-stroke depression. The total effective rate of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy was higher than other routine anti post-stroke depression treatments. PMID:26157204

  1. Difference in the binocular rivalry rate between depressive episodes and remission.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ting; Ye, Xing; Wei, Qiang; Xie, Wen; Cai, Chunlan; Mu, Jingjing; Dong, Yi; Hu, Panpan; Hu, Xinglong; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to a phenomenon in which, when different images are presented to each eye simultaneously, perception alternates spontaneously between monocular views rather than being a superposition of the two images. Recently, the involvement of serotonin systems has been reported to be related to the phenomenon. There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the serotonin systems in depression and the antidepressants that enhance 5-HT transmission, which in turn improves mood and behavior. However, the available data with respect to rivalry rates in depression are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether perceptual rivalry was affected by a dysfunctional serotonin system in patients with depression and whether there was a rivalry rate difference between episode and remission states in depression patients. Twenty-eight patients with depression and 30 healthy controls were recruited in the study. We assessed the rivalry rate and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with depression during clinical episode and remission states. The results suggested that alternation rates for patients during episodes were significantly slower than during remission and than in healthy controls. Also, alternation rates for patients during remission were slower than in healthy controls. These results may provide further clues to serotonergic neural systems contributing to the dynamics of perception rivalry and may foster enlightenment regarding the field of binocular rivalry in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar disorder. PMID:26247392

  2. The compensation and capitalization models: a test of two approaches to individualizing the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Cheavens, Jennifer S; Strunk, Daniel R; Lazarus, Sophie A; Goldstein, Lizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    Despite long-standing calls for the individualization of treatments for depression, modest progress has been made in this effort. The primary objective of this study was to test two competing approaches to personalizing cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression (viz., capitalization and compensation). Thirty-four adults meeting criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (59% female, 85% Caucasian) were randomized to 16-weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment in which strategies used were selected based on either the capitalization approach (treatment matched to relative strengths) or the compensation approach (treatment matched to relative deficits). Outcome was assessed with a composite measure of both self-report (i.e., Beck Depression Inventory) and observer-rated (i.e., Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed a significant treatment approach by time interaction indicating a faster rate of symptom change for the capitalization approach compared to the compensation approach (d = .69, p = .03). Personalizing treatment to patients' relative strengths led to better outcome than treatment personalized to patients' relative deficits. If replicated, these findings would suggest a significant change in thinking about how therapists might best adapt cognitive-behavioral interventions for depression for particular patients. PMID:22982085

  3. The phenomenology and course of depressive syndromes in pre-trial detention.

    PubMed

    Cassau, Jan S; Goodwin, Danielle Eva

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the prevalence, the phenomenology and the course of depressive syndromes in pre-trial confinement. In the course of the first examination, socio-biographic data and information pertaining to subjects' psychiatric and forensic record and their current situation in imprisonment were collected from a random sample of 105 male prisoners in a Berlin pre-trial detention center, with the help of a semi-structured interview. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), each a self-rating questionnaire, taken together with a clinician rating were successively performed to assess the level of depression. A further examination was conducted approximately three weeks later. The subjects in the follow-up group (n=67) were questioned in a semi-structured follow-up interview regarding their confinement conditions and were requested again to fill in the BDI-II and HAMD questionnaires. The statistical analysis compares the results from administration of the two instruments at two points in time. Individual's symptoms of depression as well as potentially aggravating or protective factors relating to the development of depressive symptoms are taken note of separately. The results of the study reveal the prevalence of mild depressive syndromes in a pre-trial prison population and a tendency to improve within the period of pre-trial confinement. PMID:22425763

  4. Night locomotor activity and quality of sleep in quetiapine-treated patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Todder, Doron; Caliskan, Serdal; Baune, Bernhard T

    2006-12-01

    This research assesses the development of the night-activity rhythm and quality of sleep during course of treatment among patients with unipolar or bipolar depression and receiving antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Twenty-seven patients with major depressive episode were included into a 4-week follow-up study and compared with 27 healthy controls. Motor activity was continuously measured with an electronic wrist device (actigraphy), sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and patients were clinically assessed with the Hamilton depression score. All patients received a standard antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Whereas we found a rapid and maintaining improvement of subjective sleep parameters during the 4-week study, we observed a rapid improvement of some objective sleep parameters (actigraph) within the first week, but no further significant change of objective sleep parameters during the rest of the study. Another main finding of this study is that changes of subjectively and objectively assessed sleep parameters do not necessarily reflect clinical improvement of depression during the same timeline. Despite partial clinical remission, objective sleep parameters still showed significantly different patterns compared with controls. This study is the first to examine the effect of quetiapine on locomotor activity alongside with sleep in depression. As the studied patients with depression showed improvement in subjective and objective sleep parameters, quetiapine may be a promising drug for patients with depression and insomnia. Further studies need to investigate in detail the timeline of clinical remission and alterations of objective and subjective sleep parameters. PMID:17110822

  5. Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Downar, Jonathan; Croarkin, Paul E; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Blumberger, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) has shown efficacy in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression with limited impairment in memory. To date, the use of MST in adolescent depression has not been reported. Here we describe the first successful use of MST in the treatment of an adolescent patient with refractory bipolar depression. This patient received MST in an ongoing open-label study for treatment-resistant major depression. Treatments employed a twin-coil MST apparatus, with the center of each coil placed over the frontal cortex (ie, each coil centered over F3 and F4). MST was applied at 100 Hz and 100% machine output at progressively increasing train durations. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. This adolescent patient achieved full remission of clinical symptoms after an acute course of 18 MST treatments and had no apparent cognitive decline, other than some autobiographical memory impairment that may or may not be related to the MST treatment. This case report suggests that MST may be a safe and well tolerated intervention for adolescents with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Pilot studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MST in adolescents warrant consideration. PMID:25382978

  6. Are in-patient depressives more often of the melancholic subtype? Danish University Antidepressant Group.

    PubMed

    Stage, K B; Bech, P; Gram, L F; Kragh-Sørensen, P; Rosenberg, C; Ohrberg, S

    1998-12-01

    In contrast to out-patients, hospitalized depressed patients have been reported to respond better to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) than to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and moclobemide. This may be due to differences in the type of patients included in the trials. The hypothesis that hospitalized depressed patients have a different symptom profile to out-patients was tested by comparing 352 patients from three in-patient studies with 581 patients from three out-patient studies conducted in Denmark during the period 1980-1992. All patients had major depression and were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Scale. The full version of the Newcastle Diagnostic Rating Scale (1965) was applied to 443 of the patients. In-patients were characterized by higher scores on the items 'depressed mood', 'suicidal impulses', 'work and interest (reduced)', 'retardation', 'distinct quality of depression', 'weight loss', 'feeling of guilt' and 'nihilistic delusions', and by lower scores on the items 'somatic complaints', 'hypochondriasis', 'psychological stressors' and 'anxiety'. In total, 76% of the in-patients and 40% of the out-patients had melancholic/endogenous depression. These findings may explain why TCAs are superior to SSRIs and moclobemide in hospitalized patients, since other data indicate that TCAs seem to be the most effective treatment for the melancholic/endogenous subtype. PMID:9879783

  7. Universality of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) problem areas in Thai depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD) and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits) were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness). Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p < 0.01; interpersonal role disputes: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 2.18 - 16.52, p < 0.01; role transitions: adjusted OR = 26.30, 95%CI = 7.84 - 88.25, p < 0.01; and interpersonal deficits: adjusted OR = 2.92, 95%CI = 1.12 - 7.60, p < 0.05). Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients. PMID:20964850

  8. Home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) for Depressed, Cognitively Impaired, Disabled Elders: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Arean, Patricia A.; Teri, Linda; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This preliminary study examines the efficacy of 12-week home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) vs. home-delivered Supportive Therapy (ST) in reducing depression and disability in 30 depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled older adults. Design A 12-week randomized clinical trial. Research assistants were unaware of the participants' randomization status. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Setting Weill Cornell - Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research (ACISR). Participants Thirty elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability were recruited through advertisement and the Home-Delivered Meals Program of the Westchester County Department of Senior Programs and Services. Intervention PATH is a home-delivered intervention designed to reduce depression and disability in depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled elders. PATH is based on Problem Solving Therapy (PST) and integrates environmental adaptation and caregiver participation. PATH is consistent with Lawton's ecological model of adaptive functioning in aging. Measurements Depression and disability were measured with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24 items and Sheehan Disability Scale, respectively. Client Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction with treatment. Results Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that PATH was more efficacious than ST in reducing depression and disability at 12 weeks. Participants in both treatment groups were satisfied with treatment. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that PATH is well accepted and efficacious in depressed elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. Because this population may not adequately respond to antidepressant medication treatment, PATH may provide relief to many patients who would otherwise remain depressed and suffer. PMID:20808092

  9. Systemic Family Therapy of Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression with Epilepsy in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Meng, Huaqing; Zeng, Kebin; Quan, Fengying; Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to find if systemic family therapy (SFT) does work in anxiety and depression with epilepsy in adolescents (ADAE). Methods 104 adolescents with epilepsy, aged 13–20 years old, were included from December 2009 to December 2010, the enrolled patients were with anxiety [Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score ≥14 points] or depression [Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) score ≥20 points]. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (n=52) treated with antiepileptic drugs (AED) and the intervention group (n=52) undergone Systemic Family Therapy (SFT) as well as AED. The AED improvements, anxiety and depression scores, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Family Assessment Device (FAD) and scale of systemic family dynamics (SSFD) were observed after 3-month treatment. Results The frequencies of epileptic seizures in intervention group was decreased much more significantly than the control group (4.22±3.54 times/month vs. 6.20±5.86 times/month, p=0.04); and the scores of anxiety (9.52±6.28 points vs. 13.48±8.47 points, p=0.01) and depression (13.86±9.17 points vs. 18.89±8.73 points, p=0.02) were significantly decreased than the control group; meanwhile, the family dynamics and family functions were significantly improved, and the social support was also increased (p<0.05). Conclusion SFT combined with AEDs had better efficacies than AEDs alone, not only the frequency of epileptic seizures was decreased, but also the patients' anxiety and depression were improved, and the family dynamics, family functions and social support were improved. PMID:27247596

  10. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating -18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r (2) = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  11. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A.; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating −18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  12. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... your depression or making it worse. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used for severe depression that is ... does not respond to medication or therapy. Although ECT once had a bad reputation, it has greatly ...

  13. Genetic biomarkers of depression

    PubMed Central

    Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, Amarinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on the assessment of symptoms. In order to identify the biological markers for depression, we have focused on gathering information on different factors responsible for depression including stress, genetic variations, neurotransmitters, and cytokines and chemokines previously suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present review illustrates the potential of biomarker profiling for psychiatric disorders, when conducted in large collections. The review highlighted the biomarker signatures for depression, warranting further investigation. PMID:22754217

  14. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. ...

  15. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... on treatment for heart disease iv . The annual economic cost of depression in 1995 was $600 per ... Lowe SW, Berglund PA, Corey-Lisle PK. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how ...

  16. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of talk therapy commonly used to treat depression. It helps you change thinking patterns and behaviors ... are two of the most common used to treat depression. Your provider or therapist can help you find ...

  17. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  18. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  19. Irrational Beliefs in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Eric

    1977-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that certain types of irrational beliefs covary with the severity of depression, 156 undergraduates completed the Beck Depression Inventory and R. G. Jone's Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). (Author)

  20. Depression: Working It Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Working It Out Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... of this technique. Especially when combined with medications, it can help relieve depression. Research shows that it ...

  1. Help With Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Girls Raises the Risk of Depression New York Times Well Blog) Earlier onset of breast development in ... Bell: I’m Over Staying Silent About Depression Time: Motto There’s nothing weak about struggling with mental ...

  2. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ... at risk for: Returning symptoms, such as severe depression Increased risk of suicide (for some people) Withdrawal ...

  3. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  4. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  5. Assessment of Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Monroe M.; Tesiny, Edward P.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of the Peer Nomination Inventory of Depression (PNID). Reliability proved highly acceptable. Content validity was determined by experts' judgments. Subjects with high PNID scores exhibited depressed intellectual functioning, poor social behavior, and diminished ebullience. (Author)

  6. Managing your depression - teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jansen KL, Cloy JA. Treatment of childhood and adolescent depression. Am Fam Physician . 2012;86:442-448. PMID: ... Services Task Force. Screening and treatment for major depressive ... Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Pediatrics . ...

  7. Augmentation of light therapy in difficult-to-treat depressed patients: an open-label trial in both unipolar and bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Camardese, Giovanni; Leone, Beniamino; Serrani, Riccardo; Walstra, Coco; Di Nicola, Marco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the clinical benefits of bright light therapy (BLT) as an adjunct treatment to ongoing psychopharmacotherapy, both in unipolar and bipolar difficult-to-treat depressed (DTD) outpatients. Methods In an open-label study, 31 depressed outpatients (16 unipolar and 15 bipolar) were included to undergo 3 weeks of BLT. Twenty-five completed the treatment and 5-week follow-up. Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale and the Depression Retardation Rating Scale were used to assess changes in anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, respectively. Results The adjunctive BLT seemed to influence the course of the depressive episode, and a statistically significant reduction in HDRS scores was reported since the first week of therapy. The treatment was well-tolerated, and no patients presented clinical signs of (hypo)manic switch during the overall treatment period. At the end of the study (after 5 weeks from BLT discontinuation), nine patients (36%, eight unipolar and one bipolar) still showed a treatment response. BLT augmentation also led to a significant improvement of psychomotor retardation. Conclusion BLT combined with the ongoing pharmacological treatment offers a simple approach, and it might be effective in rapidly ameliorating depressive core symptoms of vulnerable DTD outpatients. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial on larger samples. PMID:26396517

  8. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  9. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  10. [Attempted suicide and depression].

    PubMed

    Stenager, E N; Christensen, L L; Jepsen, I M; Krarup, G; Petersen, P; Rasmussen, G T; Benjaminsen, S

    1991-03-18

    The frequency of depressive illness was investigated in 195 patients who had been referred consecutively after attempted suicide during the period 15. February 1989-15, October 1989. A total of 130 of these patients were admitted to hospital while the remainder were treated in the psychiatric emergency room or admission department. Registration of depressive symptoms on admission revealed that 85% had depressed mood and other depressive symptoms. According to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 51% suffered from definite depressive disease on admission. According to Zung's Depression Scale, 60% were depressed. On the basis of observations during hospitalization, 25% suffered from depressive disease according to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 19% of these patients suffered from endogenic depression according to the Newcastle I scale which corresponds to 5% of all the hospitalized patients with attempted suicide. Approximately 10% were treated with antidepressives. Only 8% were discharged with the diagnoses of endogenic or reactive psychoses (ICD-8). It is concluded that depressive symptoms occur in the majority of patients with attempted suicide but that slight non-endogenic depressive states are most commonly concerned and that many of these improve rapidly during hospitalization without medicinal treatment. Restraint should be observed in prescription of antidepressive medicine to patients with attempted suicide until the diagnosis of depressive disease is verified. PMID:2014567

  11. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  12. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  13. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  14. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  15. Deformed Hamilton-Jacobi Equations and the Tunneling Radiation of the Higher-Dimensional RN-(A)dS Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhongwen; Li, Guoping; Jiang, Pengying; Pan, Yang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations from the generalized Klein-Gordon equation and generalized Dirac equation. Then, we study the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and entropy of the higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordström de Sitter black hole via the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our results show that the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for charged scalar particles and charged fermions have the same expressions. Besides, the modified Hawking temperatures and entropy are related to the mass and charge of the black hole, the cosmology constant, the quantum number of emitted particles, and the term of GUP effects β.

  16. Multimodal E-Mental Health Treatment for Depression: A Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duffecy, Jennifer; Jin, Ling; Ludman, Evette J; Lewis, Adam; Begale, Mark; McCarthy Jr, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet interventions for depression have shown less than optimal adherence. This study describes the feasibility trial of a multimodal e-mental health intervention designed to enhance adherence and outcomes for depression. The intervention required frequent brief log-ins for self-monitoring and feedback as well as email and brief telephone support guided by a theory-driven manualized protocol. Objective The objective of this feasibility trial was to examine if our Internet intervention plus manualized telephone support program would result in increased adherence rates and improvement in depression outcomes. Methods This was a single arm feasibility trial of a 7-week intervention. Results Of the 21 patients enrolled, 2 (9.5%) dropped out of treatment. Patients logged in 23.2 ± 12.2 times over the 7 weeks. Significant reductions in depression were found on all measures, including the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) (Cohen’s d = 1.96, P < .001), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (d = 1.34, P < .001), and diagnosis of major depressive episode (P < .001). Conclusions The attrition rate was far lower than seen either in Internet studies or trials of face-to-face interventions, and depression outcomes were substantial. These findings support the feasibility of providing a multimodal e-mental health treatment to patients with depression. Although it is premature to make any firm conclusions based on these data, they do support the initiation of a randomized controlled trial examining the independent and joint effects of Internet and telephone administered treatments for depression. PMID:21169164

  17. Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Sexual Arousal in Depressed Women: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jong-Chul; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Eun, Sung-Jong; Lee, Moo-Suk; Han, Kyung-Lae; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective There was a recent study to explore the cerebral regions associated with sexual arousal in depressed women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this neuroimaging study was to investigate the effects of antidepressant treatment on sexual arousal in depressed women. Methods Seven depressed women with sexual arousal dysfunction (mean age: 41.7±13.8, mean scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17): 35.6±7.1 and 34.9±3.1, respectively) and nine healthy women (mean age: 40.3±11.6) underwent fMRI before and after antidepressant treatment. The fMRI paradigm contrasted a 1 minute rest period viewing non-erotic film with 4 minutes of sexual stimulation viewing an erotic video film. Data were analyzed by SPM 2. The relative number of pixels activated in each period was used as an index of activation. All depressed women were treated with mirtazapine (mean dosage: 37.5 mg/day) for 8 to 10 weeks. Results Levels of brain activity during sexual arousal in depressed women significantly increased with antidepressant treatment (p<0.05) in the regions of the hypothalamus (3.0% to 11.2%), septal area (8.6% to 27.8%) and parahippocampal gyrus (5.8% to 14.6%). Self-reported sexual arousal during visual sexual stimulation also significantly increased post-treatment, and severity of depressive symptoms improved, as measured by the BDI and HAMD-17 (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that sexual arousal dysfunction of depressed women may improve after treatment of depression, and that this improvement is associated with increased activation of the hypothalamus, septal area, and parahippocampal gyrus during sexual arousal. PMID:23251203

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun Kook; Hong, Seung Chul; Won, Wang Youn; Hahn, Changtae

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD-K), a scale for assessment of depression in dementia. Methods The original CSDD was translated into Korean and the content was verified through back-translation procedures. This study included 59 depressive patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 62 non-depressive patients with AD and 36 healthy elderly controls. The subjects were assessed using CSDD-K, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), the 15-item Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the Korean version of Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE-K). Results In the reliability test, Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliabilities were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively, indicating that the CSDD-K has good internal consistency. There were significant differences in CSDD-K total scores between AD patients with depression and AD patients without depression (p<0.001). In the analysis of the concurrent validity of the CSDD-K, there were significant correlations between the CSDD-K and HAM-D17 (r=0.91, p<0.001) and between the CSDD-K and GDS15 (r=0.75, p<0.001). ROC curve analysis identified a cut-off score of 7 for the CSDD-K, where the sensitivity was 87.5% and the specificity was 100%. Factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution accounting for 63.8% of the common variance. Conclusion The CSDD-K showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of depressive symptom severity in AD patients. The CSDD-K is a useful instrument for assessing AD patients with depressive symptoms in Korean ethnic population. PMID:23251196

  19. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  20. [Symptomatic and concurrent depressions].

    PubMed

    Terra, J L

    1999-04-01

    The symptomatic and concurrent depressions description need to resort to comorbidity and symptomatic co-occurrence concepts. Patients with depressive symptoms or in a major depressive episode may also be suffering from another nonmood psychiatric disorders as alcoholism, anxiety or eating disorders. Many general medical conditions which are link with depression are illustrated with the examples of cancer, coronary artery disease, endocrinologic diseases, dementia, stroke and chronic fatigue syndrome. When depression and another psychiatric or medical conditions occur together, it is important to provide to the practitioner guidelines for the decision to treat one of the two disorders. This paper contains an example of decisional algorithm. PMID:10337217

  1. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  2. Depression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  3. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran. PMID:27294798

  4. The Impacts of Migraine among Outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder at a Two-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Yang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    Background No study has investigated the impacts of migraine on depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and remission at the two-year follow-up point among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the above issues. Methods Psychiatric outpatients with MDD recruited at baseline were investigated at a two-year follow-up (N = 106). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale were used. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. The patients were divided into no migraine, inactive migraine, and active migraine subgroups. Multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate the significant factors related to full remission of depression. Results Among patients without pharmacotherapy at the follow-up, patients with active migraine had significantly greater severities of anxiety and somatic symptoms as compared with patients without migraine; moreover, patients with active migraine had the lowest improvement percentage and full remission rate. There were no significant differences in depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms between patients with inactive migraine and those without migraine. Active headache at follow-up was a significant factor related to a lower full remission rate. Conclusions Active headache at follow-up was associated with a lower rate of full remission and more residual anxiety and somatic symptoms at follow-up among patients with migraine. Physicians should integrate a treatment plan for depression and migraine for the treatment of patients with MDD. PMID:26000962

  5. The influence of comorbid personality disorders on recovery from depression

    PubMed Central

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Boonyanaruthee, Vudhichai; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Intaprasert, Suthi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The impact of personality disorders on the treatment of and recovery from depression is still a controversial topic. The aim of this paper is to provide more information on what has led to this disagreement. Materials and methods Clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores were assessed among 82 depressed outpatients who were receiving a routine treatment combination of antidepressant medication and psychosocial intervention. The participants were followed up over five visits at 3-month intervals: at the baseline, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Personality disorders were assessed after the last visit in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. These repeated measures were used to explore the impact of personality disorders on HAMD scores by using a linear mixed model. Results Among the four personality clusters that were used (A, B, C, and mixed), only those in cluster B and in the mixed cluster were found to take significantly longer than those without personality disorders, for reduction in HAMD scores over the course of treatment. Conclusion In this study, the impact of personality disorders on treatment outcomes varied with the way that the personality disorder variables were described and used as independent predictors. This is because the outcomes were influenced by the impact weight of each personality disorder, even within the same cluster. PMID:25834447

  6. Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Ren, Zhanmei

    2015-09-01

    We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second order differential system (SODS) and the first order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which exhibit some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different from the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison- Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but not introduced by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.

  7. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  8. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164

  9. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Möbius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented. PMID:21861551

  10. Directly solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations by Hermite WENO Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a class of new Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) schemes based on finite volume framework to directly solve the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. For HWENO reconstruction, both the cell average and the first moment of the solution are evolved, and for two dimensional case, HWENO reconstruction is based on a dimension-by-dimension strategy which is the first used in HWENO reconstruction. For spatial discretization, one of key points for directly solving HJ equation is the reconstruction of numerical fluxes. We follow the idea put forward by Cheng and Wang (2014) [3] to reconstruct the values of solution at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points and numerical fluxes at the interfaces of cells, and for neither the convex nor concave Hamiltonian case, the monotone modification of numerical fluxes is added, which can guarantee the precision in the smooth region and converge to the entropy solution when derivative discontinuities come up. The third order TVD Runge-Kutta method is used for the time discretization. Extensive numerical experiments in one dimensional and two dimensional cases are performed to verify the efficiency of the methods.

  11. Integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations by wavefront expansion and phase space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Eric R.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2000-11-01

    In this paper we report upon our computational methodology for numerically integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations using hydrodynamic trajectories. Our method builds upon the moving least squares method developed by Lopreore and Wyatt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190 (1999)] in which Lagrangian fluid elements representing probability volume elements of the wave function evolve under Newtonian equations of motion which include a nonlocal quantum force. This quantum force, which depends upon the third derivative of the quantum density, ρ, can vary rapidly in x and become singular in the presence of nodal points. Here, we present a new approach for performing quantum trajectory calculations which does not involve calculating the quantum force directly, but uses the wavefront to calculate the velocity field using mv=∇S, where S/ℏ is the argument of the wave function ψ. Additional numerical stability is gained by performing local gauge transformations to remove oscillatory components of the wave function. Finally, we use a dynamical Rayleigh-Ritz approach to derive ancillary equations-of-motion for the spatial derivatives of ρ, S, and v. The methodologies described herein dramatically improve the long time stability and accuracy of the quantum trajectory approach even in the presence of nodes. The method is applied to both barrier crossing and tunneling systems. We also compare our results to semiclassical based descriptions of barrier tunneling.

  12. Computing tunneling paths with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bijoy K.; Ayers, Paul W.

    We present a new method for computing the most probable tunneling paths based on the minimum imaginary action principle. Unlike many conventional methods, the paths are calculated without resorting to an optimization (minimization) scheme. Instead, a fast marching method coupled with a back-propagation scheme is used to efficiently compute the tunneling paths. The fast marching method solves a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the imaginary action on a discrete grid where the action value at an initial point (usually the reactant state configuration) is known in the beginning. Subsequently, a back-propagation scheme uses a steepest descent method on the imaginary action surface to compute a path connecting an arbitrary point on the potential energy surface (usually a state in the product valley) to the initial state. The proposed method is demonstrated for the tunneling paths of two different systems: a model 2D potential surface and the collinear reaction. Unlike existing methods, where the tunneling path is based on a presumed reaction coordinate and a correction is made with respect to the reaction coordinate within an 'adiabatic' approximation, the proposed method is very general and makes no assumptions about the relationship between the reaction coordinate and tunneling path.

  13. Killing tensors, warped products and the orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaratnam, Krishan McLenaghan, Raymond G.

    2014-01-15

    We study Killing tensors in the context of warped products and apply the results to the problem of orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This work is motivated primarily by the case of spaces of constant curvature where warped products are abundant. We first characterize Killing tensors which have a natural algebraic decomposition in warped products. We then apply this result to show how one can obtain the Killing-Stäckel space (KS-space) for separable coordinate systems decomposable in warped products. This result in combination with Benenti's theory for constructing the KS-space of certain special separable coordinates can be used to obtain the KS-space for all orthogonal separable coordinates found by Kalnins and Miller in Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. Next we characterize when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in coordinates decomposable in a warped product by showing that the conditions originally given by Benenti can be reduced. Finally, we use this characterization and concircular tensors (a special type of torsionless conformal Killing tensor) to develop a general algorithm to determine when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in a special class of separable coordinates which include all orthogonal separable coordinates in spaces of constant curvature.

  14. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, Robert E.; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Moebius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.

  16. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-437-1818, Champion International Corporation, Hamilton, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Tubbs, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    In response to a request from employees at the Champion International Corporation paper mill located in Hamilton, Ohio, a study was made of possible excessive noise hazards arising in the small cutter area of the facility. One paper cutter, considered by workers to be louder than the others, was scheduled to have an enclosure installed for the rotary knife blade. Noise surveys were conducted in July before the installation and in November after the installation of the enclosure. Data gathered in July indicated noise levels of 108 decibels-A (dB-A), while the octave-band analysis demonstrated the majority of the sound energy to be in the midfrequency range from 250 to 4000 hertz (Hz). In November, tests showed the level to be 95dB-A with a corresponding decrease in the midfrequency sound intensities. Enclosing the rotary knife blade did reduce the potential for noise exposure, but noise measurements in excess of the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit of 85dB-A for an 8-hour day were common. The author concludes that a noise hazard existed in the small cutter area. The author recommends that engineering controls be continuously sought to further reduce the noise level from this particular machine. The use of nonmetallic drive gears should be considered, along with filling of the hollow knife blade cylinder with a lightweight acoustical material. An effective hearing-conservation program should be implemented and employees trained in the proper use of hearing protective devices.

  17. [The "shoeleather epidemiology" or the reinvention of medical survey. Alice Hamilton and industrial medicine in early 20th century America].

    PubMed

    Rainhorn, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was a pioneer in industrial medicine, a new discipline that emerged with a new interest in working conditions and occupational hazards within an era of unprecedented industrial growth. From various sources, including her reports after she visited Arizona copper belt in 1919, my paper emphasizes the innovation of Hamilton's approach,"shoeleather epidemiology". She went to the source of information in workshops, plants and construction sites, observed the very concrete part of industrial work, interviewed many stakeholders in and around the workplace, making a methodological toolbox for industrial surveys. Her method combined an old medical practice (the medical inquiry) and a new clinical field (the plant) and placed the worker as a patient in the core of the issue of occupational health and safety. PMID:23923341

  18. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.

  19. Self-gravitation interaction of IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz gravity via new Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Molin; Xu, Yin; Lu, Junwang; Yang, Yuling; Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo

    2014-06-01

    The apparent discovery of logarithmic entropies has a significant impact on IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz (IRDHL) gravity in which the original infrared (IR) property is improved by introducing three-geometry's Ricci scalar term "μ4 R" in action. Here, we reevaluate the Hawking radiation in IRDHL by using recent new Hamilton-Jacobi method (NHJM). In particular, a thorough analysis is considered both in asymptotically flat Kehagias-Sfetsos and asymptotically non-flat Park models in IRDHL. We find the NHJM offers simplifications on the technical side. The modification in the entropy expression is given by the physical interpretation of self-gravitation of the Hawking radiation in this new Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) perspectives.

  20. Dynamics without Time for Quantum Gravity: Covariant Hamiltonian Formalism and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation on the Space G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on , and a canonical function S on which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.

  1. Dynamics without Time for Quantum Gravity: Covariant Hamiltonian Formalism and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation on the Space G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space G of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on G, and a canonical function S on G which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.

  2. The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids : a renovated Hamilton-Crosser model.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.; Choi, S. U.-S.; Energy Technology

    2004-08-01

    We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton-Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity.

  3. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Kulhara, Paramanand; Chandna, Shalu; Aneja, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress) and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A); Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Descriptive statistics; Pearson's Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002); high workload (P ≤ 0.001); frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001) and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009). Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001). The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively) and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422); whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465). Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future. PMID:26097358

  4. Nomothetic and Idiographic Symptom Change Trajectories in Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in three symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Method Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% white; age mean = 43 years) with DSM-IV recurrent major depressive disorder completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions, and pre-/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. Results The three symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for inter-measure score conversions via their common factor. Pre-post CT symptom reductions were large (ds 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), one-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and one-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Conclusions Reaching a low-symptom “destination” at the end of CT via any coherent “path” is more important in the short-term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals’ progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing symptom change patterns. PMID:23627652

  5. Assessing depression and anxiety in the caregivers of pediatric patients with chronic skin disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Ana Paula Dornelles da Silva; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Nagatomi, Aline Rodrigues da Silva; Pereira, Rita Langie; Townsend, Roberta Zaffari; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The literature has shown that the presence of emotional disturbances in caregivers of children with skin diseases affects the course and treatment of the disease. Anxiety and depression are among the most frequently reported psychiatric diagnoses related to this fact. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression in caregivers of pediatric patients with chronic skin disorders, exemplified by atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and vitiligo, and correlate them to the quality of life of the patients. METHODS The sample consisted of 118 patients with atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis, monitored by their main caregiver. The levels of anxiety and depression in the caregivers were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index was applied. RESULTS Anxiety was observed in 36% of the caregivers of the patients with atopic dermatitis, in 36% of those of children affected by psoriasis, and in 42% of those responsible for pediatric patients with vitiligo. Depression occurred in 36% of the caregivers of patients with atopic dermatitis, in 36% of those of children affected by psoriasis and in 26% of those responsible for pediatric patients with vitiligo. There was a significant correlation between poor quality of life scores in patients with vitiligo and the presence of depression and anxiety in their caregivers. CONCLUSION Emotional disorders tend to be present among close family members of children with the chronic skin diseases studied and their prevention can help in controlling and treating these diseases. PMID:24474096

  6. Depression, Anxiety and Somatization in Women with War Missing Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Baraković, Devla; Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436

  7. On cell problems for Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-coercive Hamiltonians and their application to homogenization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamuki, Nao; Nakayasu, Atsushi; Namba, Tokinaga

    2015-12-01

    We study a cell problem arising in homogenization for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is not coercive. We introduce a generalized notion of effective Hamiltonians by approximating the equation and characterize the solvability of the cell problem in terms of the generalized effective Hamiltonian. Under some sufficient conditions, the result is applied to the associated homogenization problem. We also show that homogenization for non-coercive equations fails in general.

  8. Two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo with meridional circulation and an associated Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. P.

    2015-08-01

    A two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo is constructed, taking into account meridional flows. A Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the resulting system of magnetic-field generation equatons is constructed using an asymptotic method analogous to the WKB method. This equation makes it possible to analytically study the influence of meridional flows on the duration of the solar magnetic-activity cycle and the evolution of magnetic waves.

  9. Equivalence between Nonlinear H{sub {infinity}} Control Problems and Existence of Viscosity Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Soravia, P.

    1999-01-15

    In this paper we extend to completely general nonlinear systems the result stating that the H{sub {infinity}} suboptimal control problem is solved if and only if the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation has a nonnegative (super)solution. This is well known for linear systems, using the Riccati equation instead of the HJI equation. We do this using the theory of differential games and viscosity solutions.

  10. Abnormal cerebellar volume in acute and remitted major depression.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal cortical volume is well-documented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but cerebellar findings have been heterogeneous. It is unclear whether abnormal cerebellar structure relates to disease state or medication. In this study, using structural MRI, we investigated cerebellar volume in clinically acute (with and without psychotropic treatment) and remitted MDD patients. High-resolution structural MRI data at 3T were obtained from acute medicated (n=29), acute unmedicated (n=14) and remitted patients (n=16). Data from 29 healthy controls were used for comparison purposes. Cerebellar volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Patients with an acute MDD episode showed increased volume of left cerebellar area IX, and this was true for both medicated and unmedicated individuals (p<0.05 cluster-corrected). Remitted patients exhibited bilaterally increased area IX volume. In remitted, but not in acutely ill patients, area IX volume was significantly associated with measures of depression severity, as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). In addition, area IX volume in remitted patients was significantly related to the duration of antidepressant treatment. In acutely ill patients, no significant relationships were established using clinical variables, such as HAMD, illness or treatment duration and number of depressive episodes. The data suggest that cerebellar area IX, a non-motor region that belongs to a large-scale brain functional network with known relevance to core depressive symptom expression, exhibits abnormal volume in patients independent of clinical severity or medication. Thus, the data imply a possible trait marker of the disorder. However, given bilaterality and an association with clinical scores at least in remitted patients, the current findings raise the possibility that cerebellar volume may be reflective of successful treatment as well. PMID:27321187

  11. Possible role of adrenomedullin and nitric oxide in major depression.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Abdullah; Yaman, Gozde Bacik; Demirdas, Arif; Onal, Suleyman

    2013-10-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ADM induces vasorelaxation by activating adenylate cyclase and stimulating the release of NO. These two molecules are known to influence cerebral activity. In this study, we aimed to examine the serum levels of ADM and NO in patients with major depression (MD). We enrolled 50 patients with MD and 50 healthy control subjects. The diagnosis of MD was established on the basis of a structured clinical interview using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). The severity of depressive symptoms was evaluated using Hamilton's 17-item Depression Rating Scale. The mean serum levels of ADM and NO in patients with MD were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (p=0.001, for both). The severity of psychomotor retardation in patients with MD was significantly correlated with the ADM (r=0.37, p=0.007) and NO levels (r=0.29, p=0.038). The patients with obvious psychomotor retardation had significantly higher levels of ADM and NO than did the patients with no psychomotor retardation (p=0.025, p=0.030). A significantly positive correlation was found between ADM and NO levels in patients with MD (r=0.79, p=0.001). Serum levels of ADM and NO levels were not correlated with the severity or duration of depression or depressive symptoms (except psychomotor retardation). In conclusion, our study indicates that serum levels of ADM and NO are elevated in patients with MD and that increased serum levels of ADM and NO may be associated with psychomotor retardation. The ADM-NO system may serve as a new target in the treatment of patients with MD and psychomotor retardation. PMID:23867466

  12. Hamilton and Zuk meet heterozygosity? Song repertoire size indicates inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Janem; Arcese, Peter; Cassidy, Alicel E V; Marr, Amyb; Smith, Jamesn M; Keller, Lukasf

    2005-03-01

    Hamilton and Zuk's influential hypothesis of parasite-mediated sexual selection proposes that exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments indicate a male's addictive genetic immunity to parasites. However, genetic correlated of ornaments and immunity have rarely been explicitly identified. Evidence supporting Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis has instead been gathered by looking for positive phenotypic correlations between ornamentation and immunity; such correlations are assumed to reflect causal, addictive relationships between these traits. We show that in a song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, increased with his cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to an experimental challenge. However, this phenotypic correlation could be explained because both repertoire size and CMI declined with a male's inbreeding level. Repertoire size therefore primarily indicated a male's relative heterozygosity, a non-addictive genetic predictor of immunity. Caution may therefore be required when interpreting phenotypic correlations as support for Hamilton and Zuk's addictive model of sexual selection. However, our results suggest that female song sparrows choosing with large repertoires would on average acquire more outbred and therefore more heterozygous mates. Such genetic dominance effects on ornamentation are likely to influence evolutionary trajectories of female choice, and should be explicitly incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:15799943

  13. Depression associated with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered. PMID:25962363

  14. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  15. Branched-Chain Amino Acids as New Biomarkers of Major Depression - A Novel Neurobiology of Mood Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Andreas; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; von Lewinski, Dirk; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd; Theokas, Simon; Robier, Christoph; Mangge, Harald; Reicht, Gerhard; Hlade, Peter; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine might play an unrecognised crucial role in the development of depression through their activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. The aim of this research project is to evaluate whether BCAAs are altered in patients with major depression and might thus be appropriate biomarkers for major depression. Methods The concentrations of valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Psychiatric and laboratory assessments were obtained at the time of in-patient admittance. Results The BCAAs are significantly decreased in patients with major depression in comparison with healthy subjects (valine: Mann-Whitney-U: 968.0; p <0.0001, leucine: Mann-Whitney-U: 1246.5; p = 0.013, isoleucine: Mann-Whitney-U: 1252.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, as shown by Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, there is a significant negative correlation between valine, leucine and isoleucine concentrations and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) as well as Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores. Conclusions Our study results are strong evidence that in patients with major depression, BCAAs might be appropriate biomarkers for depression. Reduced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) due to a reduction of BCAAs might play a crucial unrecognised factor in the etiology of depression and may evoke depressive symptomatology and lower energy metabolism in patients with major depression. In the future, mTor and its up- and downstream signalling partners might be important targets for the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:27490818

  16. Amyloid-Associated Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Steffens, David C.; Au, Rhoda; Folstein, Marshal; Summergrad, Paul; Yee, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Irwin; Mwamburi, D. Mkaya; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2010-01-01

    Context A high ratio of plasma amyloid-β peptide 40 (Aβ40) toAβ42, determined by both high Aβ40 and low Aβ42 levels, increases the risk of Alzheimer disease. In a previous study, we reported that depression is also associated with low plasma Aβ42 levels in the elderly population. Objective To characterize plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio and cognitive function in elderly individuals with and without depression. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Homecare agencies. Participants A total of 995 homebound elderly individuals of whom 348 were defined as depressed by a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression score of 16 or greater. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive domains of memory, language, executive, and visuospatial functions according to levels of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides. Results Subjects with depression had lower plasma Aβ42 levels (median, 14.1 vs 19.2 pg/mL; P = .006) and a higher plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio (median, 8.9 vs 6.4; P < .001) than did those without depression in the absence of cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. The interaction between depression and plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio was associated with lower memory score (β = −1.9, SE = 0.7, P = .006) after adjusting for potentially confounders. Relative to those without depression, “amyloid-associated depression,” defined by presence of depression and a high plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio, was associated with greater impairment in memory, visuospatial ability, and executive function; in contrast, nonamyloid depression was not associated with memory impairment but with other cognitive disabilities. Conclusion Amyloid-associated depression may define a subtype of depression representing a prodromal manifestation of Alzheimer disease. PMID:18458206

  17. Age-related differences in suicidality between young people and older adults with depression: data from a nationwide depression cohort study in Korea (the CRESCEND study).

    PubMed

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Song, Hoo Rim; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2015-01-01

    This study compared young people and older adults with depression to identify differences in suicidality between these groups. A total of 1003 patients with moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] score ≥14) were recruited from a national sample of 18 hospitals. Of the patients included in this study, 103 (10.3%) were placed in the younger group (age <25years) and 900 (89.7%) were placed in the older group (age ≥25years). Suicide-related variables and predictive factors associated with significant suicidal ideation were compared between the two groups. Regardless of the severity of depression, subjects in the younger group were more likely than were those in the older group to report significant suicidal ideation (scores ≥6 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B], 79.6 vs. 53.7%, respectively; p<0.001), have had a suicide attempt at the current episode (4.9 vs. 1.6%, respectively; p=0.037), and have a history of suicide attempts (43.7 vs. 19.4%, respectively; p<0.001). Logistic regression models revealed that, in contrast to the predictive factors in the older group, subjects in the younger group were more affected by their history of suicide attempts (OR [95% CI]: 12.4, [1.5-99.1]; p=0.018) and depressive episodes (OR [95% CI]: 13.0, [1.6-104.0]; p=0.016). Also in contrast to the older group, an increase in HDRS score was not identified as a possible precipitating factor of significant suicidal ideation in younger subjects. The present findings demonstrate that suicidality in depressed young people was more severe than in older adults, but that suicidality was not correlated with the severity of depression. These data suggest that close attention should be paid to young people even in mild or moderate depression. PMID:25459419

  18. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian

  19. The effects on children of depressed mothers’ remission and relapse over 9 months

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, M. M.; Wickramaratne, P.; Pilowsky, D. J.; Poh, E.; Hernandez, M.; Batten, L. A.; Flament, M. F.; Stewart, J. W.; Blier, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The high rate of depression among children of depressed mothers is well known. Suggestions that improvement in maternal acute depression has a positive effect on the child have emerged. However, data on the mechanisms of change have been sparse. The aim was to understand how remission and relapse in the mother might explain the changes in the child’s outcome. Method Participants were 76 depressed mothers who entered into a medication clinical trial for depression and 135 of their eligible offspring ages 7–17 years. The mothers and children were assessed at baseline and periodically over 9 months by independent teams to understand the relationship between changes in children’s symptoms and functioning and maternal remission or relapse. The main outcome measures were, for mothers, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and, for children, the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Results Maternal remission was associated with a decrease in the child’s depressive symptoms. The mother’s subsequent relapse was associated with an increase in the child’s symptoms over 9 months. The effect of maternal remission on the child’s improvement was partially explained by an improvement in the mother’s parenting, particularly the change in the mother’s ability to listen and talk to her child, but also reflected in her improvement in parental bonding. These findings could not be explained by the child’s treatment. Conclusions A depressed mother’s remission is associated with her improvement in parenting and a decrease in her child’s symptoms. Her relapse is associated with an increase in her child’s symptoms. PMID:25065614

  20. Association Between MKP-1, BDNF, and Gonadal Hormones with Depression on Perimenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Ling-yun; Wang, Ya-wen; Zhou, Fu-ling; Ma, Xian-cang; Yan, Run-zhi; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Quan-li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts effects on the neuronal function of hippocampal neurons and increases hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression, which causes depressive behaviors in rat or mouse. Here we focus on the change of serum MKP-1, BDNF, testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2) levels, in order to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of MKP-1, BDNF, T, and E2 are associated with depression in perimenopausal women. Methods: Women with depression, after meeting criteria in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, for mental and behaviural disorders and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were included in the study. Psychosocial data and blood samples were obtained from the subjects in the study, including 38 perimenopausal and 32 young women with depression, 26 healthy control perimenopausal women, and 34 young women. Results: Serum MKP-1 levels were higher and T was lower in the women with depression compared to controls (p<0.05), and depressed perimenopausal women exhibited the highest serum MKP-1 levels and lowest T levels. Logistic regression analyses showed that MKP-1 levels were positively correlated with HDRS scores in the women, and T levels were inversely correlated with HDRS scores in the perimenopausal women (p<0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that high serum MKP-1 levels are associated with depression in women, and this association did not appear to be confounded by age. Further, the results provide evidence of association between depressive symptom severity and increasing serum MKP-1 levels in women, and decreasing T levels in perimenopausal women. PMID:26176177

  1. Ethiopathogenesis of Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, M; Berardelli, I; Biondi, M

    2014-01-01

    Etiology of depressive disorders is still unknown. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology such as neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine alterations, genetics, life events and their appraisal. Some of these components are strictly linked. Subjects with a family member affected by mood disorders are more prone to suffer from depressive disorders. It is also true that receiving feedbacks of indifference or neglect during childhood from one parent who suffer from depression may represent a factor of vulnerability. Indeed, reaction to a specific negative event may determine an increased allostasis which lead to a depressive episode. Thus, a psychological cause does not exclude a neurobiological cascade. Whereas in other cases recurrent depressive episodes appear in absence of any negative life event. This review provides a set of data regarding the current etiopathogenesis models of depression, with a particular attention to the neurobiological correlates and vulnerability factors. PMID:25614753

  2. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  3. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  4. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  5. Depression and the Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the incidence of depression and signs of depression in gifted children, including perfectionism, emotional sensitivity, existential depression, and a history of depression in the family. A list of questions to consider regarding possible signs of depression in children is provided. (Contains references.) (CR)

  6. Hydrology of the Cave Springs area near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, Arthur D.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrology of Cave Springs, the second largest spring in East Tennessee,was investigated from July 1987 to September 1989. Wells near the spring supply about 5 million gallons per day of potable water to people in Hamilton County near Chattanooga. Discharge from the spring averaged about 13.5 cubic feet per second (8.72 million gallons per day) during the study period. Withdrawals by the Hixson Utility District from wells upgradient from the outflow averaged 8.6 cubic feet per second (5.54 million gallons per day). Aquifer tests using wells intersecting a large solution cavity supplying water to the spring showed a drawdown of less than 3 feet with a discharge of 9,000 gallons per minute or 20 cubic feet per second. Temperature and specific conductance of ground water near the spring outflow were monitored hourly. Temperatures ranged from 13.5 to 18.2 degrees celsius, and fluctuated seasonally in response to climate. Specific-conductance values ranged from 122 to 405 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, but were generally between 163 to 185 microsiemensper centimeter. The drainage area of the basin recharging the spring system was estimated to be 1O squaremiles. A potentiometric map of the recharge basin was developed from water levels measured at domestic and test wells in August 1989. Aquifer tests at five test wells in the study area indicated that specific-capacity values for these wells ranged from 4.1 to 261 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Water-quality characteristics of ground water in the area were used in conjunction with potentiometric-surface maps to delineate the approximate area contributing recharge to Cave Springs.

  7. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation within Spar Mountain Member of Ste. Genevieve Limestone, Hamilton County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Pryor, W.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Spar Mountain Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) in Hamilton County, Illinois, consists of 40-60 ft (12-18 m) of interbedded limestones, shales, and sandstones. Five cores and 1400 electric logs were used to delineate two shallowing-upward carbonate cycles and 2 major clastic pulses within the Spar Mountain. Eight lithofacies representing 6 depositional environments were identified. They are: (A) echinoderm-brachiopod dolostone to packstone (outer ramp), (B) ooid-peloidal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (C) skeletal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (D) ooid-molluscan-intraclastic wackestone to grainstone (inner ramp), (E) pelletal-skeletal wackestone (inner ramp), (F) quartzarenite (channelized nearshore), (G) quartz-sublithic arenite to wacke (delta platform), and (H) quartz mudstone (prodelta, delta platform). Deposition occurred on a southwest-dipping carbonate ramp, with siliciclastic sediments originating from the northeast. The sequence of facies and their inferred depositional environments record 2 major progradational episodes. Oolitic facies are interpreted to be of tidal-bar belt origin and quartzarenite facies are interpreted to be of delta-distributary channel origin. Their distribution is partially controlled by antecedent and syndepositional topography. Many of these paleotopographic highes are positive features today and yield pinch-out stratigraphic relationships. Paleogeographic reconstructions demonstrate that the primary control on facies distribution was the position of the delta proper along strike. However, depositional topography also influenced sedimentation, particularly in the sand-sized fraction. Using this concept, better prediction of underlying porous buildups (ooid shoals) is possible if thickness of the overlying siliciclastic is known. Within buildups, a complex diagenetic history complicates the distribution of porosity.

  8. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  9. [Sleep in depression].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Darcourt, G

    1990-11-28

    Insomnia is a cardinal symptom of depression, side by side with alterations of mood and slowing down of psychomotor activities. It bears witness to a rupture in the built-in circadian rhythm: architectural changes in sleep betray a biological desynchronization. Insomnia is also a failed attempt at finding a solution to depression. Total deprivation of sleep for one night may damp down the depressive disorders, and so does partial sleep deprivation in the second part of the night during several days. This leads to the conclusion that the waking-sleep system participates in the expression of symptoms of depression or even contributes to the genesis of the disease. PMID:2148377

  10. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  11. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  12. Effectiveness of the Relaxation Response-Based Group Intervention for Treating Depressed Chinese American Immigrants: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Albert; Slipp, Lauren E.; Niles, Halsey; Jacquart, Jolene; Chow, Choi-Ling; Fava, Maurizio; Denninger, John W.; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR)-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22) were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12). After intervention, completers (N = 15) showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression. PMID:25198683

  13. Comparative efficacy and safety of nortriptyline and fluoxetine in the treatment of major depression: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Fabre, L F; Scharf, M B; Itil, T M

    1991-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of nortriptyline and fluoxetine were compared in a double-blind, randomized, multicenter 5-week trial involving 205 outpatients with acute major depression of moderate severity. Seventy-two nortriptyline and 84 fluoxetine patients completed at least 2 weeks of medication and were included in the efficacy analysis; all patients were evaluated for side effects. Average total scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) for both treatment groups declined from 22-23 at baseline to 11.5 at the conclusion of the 5-week period. At Week, 5, 71% of nortriptyline patients and 65% of fluoxetine patients were much or very much improved. Fluoxetine was associated more frequently with nausea (p less than .05), while nortriptyline was associated more frequently with dry mouth (p less than .05). These results are discussed in the context of selecting between nortriptyline and fluoxetine for a particular depressed patient. PMID:2050651

  14. The Carroll rating scale for depression. II. Factor analyses of the feature profiles.

    PubMed

    Smouse, P E; Feinberg, M; Carroll, B J; Park, M H; Rawson, S G

    1981-03-01

    Factor analyses were conducted for the Hamilton depression rating scale (HRS) and the self administered Carroll counterpart (CRS). The factor loadings for the respective first factors were similar; those for the respective second factors showed strict sign consistency but only moderate consistency of magnitude; the loadings for the respective third factors showed no particular consistency. The first three CRS and first three HRS factor scores were computed for each individual and correlations were computed from these factor scores. The first and second factors were highly correlated but the third factors were negatively correlated indicating that they were not measuring the same thing. The first factors of the CRS and HRS correlated highly with their respective raw total scores and were indices of the severity of illness. The self-administered CRS (with matching weights) is a credible alternative to the HRS for routine clinical assessment of the severity of depression. PMID:7272610

  15. Etizolam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pariante, F; Caddeo, S; Ecari, U

    1989-01-01

    A double-blind study was carried out in 30 female patients with generalized anxiety disorders associated with depressive symptoms to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of etizolam and alprazolam. Patients were allocated at random to receive one or other drug at a dosage of 0.5 mg twice daily for 5 weeks. Assessments were made on entry and after 3 and 5 weeks of treatment using the Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and for depression. The results showed that both drugs had marked anxiolytic and antidepressive activity, there being significant reductions after treatment in mean total rating scores compared to baseline. Although there was no statistically significant difference between the two drugs, there was a trend for etizolam to be more effective in relieving anxiety somatization symptoms. Apart from moderate daytime drowsiness in a few patients, both drugs were considered to be extremely well tolerated. PMID:2692969

  16. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  17. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  18. Depression in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis is closely associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, HAI-PENG; GU, YU-RONG; ZHANG, GENG-LIN; SU, YU-JIE; WANG, KE; ZHENG, YU-BAO; GAO, ZHI-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Depression in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can affect the quality of life, disease diagnosis and case fatality rate. The aim of this study was to explore depression in patients with CHB and cirrhosis, and the effect of the severity of liver cirrhosis on the depressive emotional state. The depressive emotional state was investigated using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) in 114 patients with CHB and cirrhosis, comprising 42 cases classified as Child-Pugh grade (CPG)-A, 38 cases classified as CPG-B and 34 cases classified as CPG-C at a single hepatology center. Patients with mood disorders accounted for 33.33% of the 114 cases with CHB and liver cirrhosis and comprised 10 cases of CPG-A, 12 cases of CPG-B and 16 cases of CPG-C classification. The results shows that HAMA and HAMD scores of patients in the CPG-C group were significantly higher than those in the CPG-A group (P<0.01), but not significantly higher than those in the CPG-B group (P>0.05). The incidence rate of mood disorders in the CPG-C group was significantly higher than that in the CPG-B group (P=0.0336), and the incidence rate of mood disorders was higher in the CPG-B group compared with the CPG-A group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.4370). The incidence rate of mood disorders in patients in the CPG-A group was significantly lower than that in the CPG-C group (P=0.0078). The study shows that a considerable proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis have mood disorders, and the depression rates of CHB-infected patients with liver cirrhosis are closely associated with the severity of the cirrhosis. PMID:27347069

  19. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  20. Counseling Interventions with Depressed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Defines depression and anxiety in children and addresses assessment issues. Describes nine specific interventions within the home and school that have helped depressed children. Provides case example of depressed sixth grade boy. (ABL)

  1. Type-D Personality Can Predict Suicidality in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young-Hoon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kim, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the putative association between type-D personality and suicidality, including the history of suicide attempt and suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty-six outpatients aged between 18 and 65 years with MDD were recruited for this study from Ilsan Paik Hospital. The cohort was stratified into two subgroups according to the presence of type-D personality and history of suicide attempt (yes vs. no). Depression severity was evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The type-D Personality Scale-14 (DS-14), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) were also applied. Results The total BSS, BHS, and BIS scores were higher for the group with type-D personality than for the group without this personality (p=0.004, 0.01, and 0.003, respectively). In addition, the total scores for the BSS, BHS, and social inhibition (SI; subscale of DS-14) were higher for the group with a history of suicide attempt than for the group without this history (p=0.0000004, 0.003, and 0.033, respectively). There were positive correlations between the total DS-14 score and the total BSS, BHS, and BIS scores (r=0.413 and p=0.000077, r=0.404 and p=0.00012, and r=0.245 and p=0.024, respectively). Conclusion Depressed patients with type-D personality are more vulnerable to suicidality than those without type-D personality, even when the MDD severity is identical. In addition, the SI score was higher in patients with a history of suicide attempt than in those without this history. PMID:25110494

  2. Comparison of escitalopram and paroxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Li; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hui; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yu-Li; Shen, Winston W; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Liang-Huey; Tang, Hwa-Sheng; Lai, Hsiang-Ling; Lin, Pei-Sheng; Lin, Keh-Ming; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui

    2013-11-01

    This is a single-blind, parallel, flexible-dose study to compare the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram and paroxetine in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited 399 patients from the outpatient clinics of five hospitals in northern Taiwan. Patients were administered either escitalopram (10-30 mg) or paroxetine (20-40 mg) according to the judgment of clinicians. These patients were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8. A total of 302 patients fulfilled the evaluation criteria and were included in a statistical analysis. We found that escitalopram induced more significant symptom reduction and response rate in terms of the mean HAM-D scores at week 6 (P<0.05) and week 8 (P<0.05) than paroxetine, but that there were no significant differences between the two groups in the remission rate. Escitalopram induced significantly less frequency of adverse effects of weakness (P<0.01), nausea and vomiting (P<0.001), drowsiness (P<0.01) as well as somnolence (P<0.01) than paroxetine, although all these side effects were mild and tolerable. However for a more definitive result, future prospective trials with the inclusion of a placebo group and a double-blind design are needed. In patients who did not have severe depression (HAM-D score at baseline<21), but not in severely depressed patients, escitalopram was statistically superior to paroxetine, as shown by the mean change in the HAM-D score. PMID:23881184

  3. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  4. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  5. Real Stories of Depression

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Depression Background on Educational Materials Resources for Health Care Providers Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Join A Study Depression Studies for Adults Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

  6. Treatment of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Laura; Del Grande, Claudia; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2013-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long-term outcome. In these cases, an accurate screening for diagnostic indicators of a possible bipolar course of the illness should guide the therapeutic choices, and lead to prognostic improvement. Antidepressant use is still the most controversial issue in the treatment of bipolar depression. Despite inconclusive evidence of efficacy and tolerability, this class of agents is commonly prescribed in acute and long-term treatment, often in combination with mood stabilizers. In this article, we review available treatment options for bipolar depression, and we shall provide some suggestions for the management of the different presentations of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. PMID:23391164

  7. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... these steps do not help, medicines to treat depression and talk therapy often help. Doctors often prescribe lower doses of ... Depression often responds to treatment. The outcome is usually better for people who have access to social services, family, and friends ...

  8. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  9. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... that concern you or may be due to depression. The doctor may: Ask you and other family members questions. Do some tests to rule out ... one of these medicines might be causing the depression, the doctor will ... advice for you and other family members and caregivers on how to cope. He ...

  10. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hamilton, Frances C; Watts, Peter M; Watson, Rosemary A

    2005-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have aetiological importance in depression. To determine the effect of adding fish oil to existing therapy in participants who were being treated for depression in a community setting, 77 participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 g of either fish or olive oil per day in addition to their existing therapy. Fifty-nine (77%) participants completed 12 weeks of treatment. Dietary, biochemical and lifestyle factors were measured throughout the study. Mood was assessed using the Short Form Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-SF) and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sample size calculations were based on the HDRS-SF. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses were carried out using residual maximum likelihood. There was no evidence that fish oil improved mood when compared to the placebo oil, despite an increase in circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, mood improved significantly in both groups within the first 2 weeks of the study (P<0.001) and this improvement was sustained throughout. In conclusion, fish oil was no more effective than the control as an add-on therapy for depression in this setting. PMID:15664306

  11. Taurine concentration in human blood peripheral lymphocytes: major depression and treatment with the antidepressant mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lucimey; Obregón, Francisco; Urbina, Mary; Carreira, Isabel; Baccichet, Edith; Peña, Solisbella

    2003-01-01

    Major depression is a serious disease with various systemic effects, including dysfunction of the immune response. Taurine has been known to be related to certain modifications of the immune system. The aim of this study was to determine the taurine concentration in lymphocytes of patients with major depression and to evaluate the influence of the antidepressant treatment with mirtazapine for six weeks on the levels of taurine. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine were also determined. Taurine, aspartate and glutamine levels were increased in the lymphocytes of depressed patients before mirtazapine treatment compared to the control group, and were normalized after treatment. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate did not differ between patients and controls. There was a significant and positive correlation between the severity of the disorder, measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale, and the concentration of taurine in the lymphocytes of depressed patients before treatment. This correlation was not observed after treatment and neither was there a correlation observed for the other amino acids. The present observations could be an indication of the relevance of taurine as a protective agent in the lymphocytes of patients with severe depression, and could be the result of modifications of taurine transport or efflux processes. PMID:12908614

  12. Opioid Analgesics and Depressive Symptoms in Burn Patients: What Is the Real Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Narei; Jung, Myung Hun; Kim, Jee Wook; Chun, Wook; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kee, Baik Seok; Lee, Boung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Major burn injuries are strongly associated with both psychological trauma and severe pain, and opioids are the mainstay analgesics for the treatment of severe burn pain. The objectives of this study are to find the complex relationship between opioid dose, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the acute management of pain in burn patients. Methods The symptoms of depression and PTSD were assessed in 43 burn patients immediately following wound stabilization and 2 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Total opioid doses and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores obtained during the second evaluation were positively but weakly correlated after controlling for age and total burn surface area (R=0.33, p=0.03). Moreover, pain management with opioids was significantly more common in burn patients with low Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores (evaluation 1) and high HAMD scores (evaluation 2) (F=6.66, p=0.001). Conclusion High opioid dose following acute burn trauma might have correlation with depressive symptoms. Monitoring of depressive symptoms may be important following acute burn trauma and consequent opioids pain management, particularly when PTSD symptoms appear minimal during the early stabilization of patients. PMID:27489384

  13. Severity of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Alopecia Areata in Bandar Abbas, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baghestani, Shahram; Seddigh, Seyed Hamzeh

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic disease which esthetic outcomes may result in deep effects on mental disorders of patients. In this case-control study, we compared the mental health of 68 patients diagnosed with AA with 68 healthy individuals using Hamilton anxiety and depression rating scales. There were significant differences between the case and control groups regarding the prevalence of anxiety and depression. The means of anxiety scores in cases and control group were 12.76±7.21 vs 8.54±6.37, P=0.003. Likewise, the means of depression scores for the groups were 12.84±4.03 vs 6.22±4.95, P=0.001. Further-more, patients with AA were exposed to depression approximately five times and to anxiety about three times more than normal people. Our study revealed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in AA patients. Dermatologists should pay more attention on psychological effect of the disease on the patients. PMID:26734119

  14. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression decreases resting ventromedial prefrontal glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, José V.; Sheikh, Sohail A.; Schwindt, Graeme C.; Lee, Joel T.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Surerus, Christa; Lewis, Scott M.; Abuzzahab, Farouk S.; Adson, David E.; Rittberg, Barry R.

    2008-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used as an adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Longitudinal measurement of changes in brain metabolism associated with VNS can provide insights into this new treatment modality. Eight severely depressed outpatients who were highly treatment-resistant underwent electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve for approximately one year. The main outcome measures were resting regional brain glucose uptake measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale. The most significant and extensive change over one year of chronic VNS localized to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending from the subgenual cingulate to the frontal pole. This region continued to decline in metabolism even toward the end of the study. Clinically, this cohort showed a trend for improvement. No correlations surfaced between change in glucose uptake and depression scores. However, the sample size was small; none remitted; and the range of depression scores was limited. Chronic VNS as adjunctive therapy in patients with severe TRD produces protracted and robust declines in resting brain activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a network with dense connectivity to the amygdala and structures monitoring the internal milieu. PMID:18595737

  15. Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: paroxetine vs. bupropion

    PubMed Central

    Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in study of patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicidal Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk. PMID:25555415

  16. Efficacy and process of cognitive bibliotherapy for the treatment of depression in jail and prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Jamie; Scogin, Forrest; Schriver, Jennifer; Domino, Marla; Wilson, Dawn; LaRocca, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this two-study project was to determine the effects of cognitive bibliotherapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms in jail and prison inmates. Participants in both samples were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received the 4-week bibliotherapy program or a delayed-treatment control group. In the jail sample, which served as a pilot study for the more detailed prison study, the treatment group showed greater improvement on the A. T. Beck and R. A. Steer Beck Depression Inventory, 1993, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX and the DAS (M. M. Weissman, & A. T. Beck Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: A preliminary investigation; paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, November, 1978, Toronto, ON, Canada). In the prison sample, results indicated that the treatment group showed greater improvement on the HRSD (M. Hamilton, Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness, British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol. 6, 1967, pp. 278-296) and the A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), 1996, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX. Approximately half of the treated participants achieved clinically significant change. Analyses of the follow-up data revealed maintenance of treatment gains in the prison and jail samples. In the prison study, significant changes were also observed on a general measure of psychological distress. Overall, results suggest that cognitive bibliotherapy may be efficacious for depressed inmates. PMID:23834667

  17. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed. PMID:22008979

  18. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  19. [Depression in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Murata, Miho; Okamoto, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is approximately 30-40%. Depression has a significantly negative impact on the QOL in Parkinson's disease patients. It leads to the worsening of tremors and frozen gait without disease progression and decreases the patient's motivation to participate in rehabilitation. The distinguishing feature of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is that guilt, self-blame and suicidal ideation are rarely seen compared to that observed in patients with major depression. Depression can occur in the pre-motor, diagnostic and advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. In particular, patients with wearing-off symptoms are apt to develop anxiety. As for treatment, it is very important to optimize dopamine replacement therapy. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have beneficial effects not only on the motor symptoms of the disease, but also the patient's mood. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and peer counseling may also be beneficial. PMID:24622217

  20. Depression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Becker, R E

    1988-12-01

    Depressive syndromes that occur during the course of schizophrenia are not clearly understood but have important implications for the treatment of the schizophrenic patient. In this review of the literature on depression secondary to schizophrenia, the author notes that lack of tested diagnostic criteria has led to a misunderstanding of its relatively high frequency and its association with poor outcome features such as impaired psychosocial functioning, schizophrenic relapse, and suicide. Differential diagnosis, including ruling out akinetic depression, is essential, he believes, partly because the concept of schizophrenic depression as postpsychotic is not supported by evidence. Clinical management must address such increased risk factors as relapse and suicide, but evidence indicates that secondary depression in schizophrenia does not respond to antidepressant medication. PMID:3068116

  1. Lao Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  2. Effects of acupuncture treatment on depression insomnia: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 70% of patients with depression who see their doctors experience insomnia. Insomnia treatment is a very important link for depression treatment. Furthermore, antidepression treatment is also important for depression insomnia. In acupuncture, LU-7 (Lie Que) and KID-6 (Zhao Hai), which are two of the eight confluence points in meridian theory, are used as main points. An embedded needle technique is used, alternately, at two groups of points to consolidate the treatment effect. These two groups of points are BL-15 (Xin Shu) with BL-23 (Shen Shu) and BL-19 (Dan Shu) with N-HN-54 (An Mian). The effectiveness of these optimized acupuncture formulas is well proven in the practice by our senior acupuncturists in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM. This study has been designed to examine whether this set of optimized clinical formulas is able to increase the clinical efficacy of depression insomnia treatment. Methods/design In this randomized controlled multicenter trial, all the eligible participants are diagnosed with depression insomnia. All participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups in a ratio of 1:1 and receive either conventional acupuncture treatment or optimized acupuncture treatment. Patients are evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)and the Hamilton rating scale(HAMD) for depression. The use of antidepression and hypnotics drugs is also considered. Results are obtained at the start of treatment, 1 and 2 months after treatment has begun, and at the end of treatment. The entire duration of the study will be approximately 36 months. Discussion A high quality of trial methodologies is utilized in the study, and the results may provide better evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for depression insomnia. The optimized acupuncture formula has potential benefits in increasing the efficacy of treating depression insomnia. Trial registration The trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial

  3. Depression and general anxiety in the prisoner of war's children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Razavi-Ratki, Seid Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh Molavi

    2012-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and general anxiety of the prisoners of war (POW) children. The study was also designed to compare the prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW's children and normal adults, 20 years after the Iraq-Iran war. Method An analytic cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 in Yazd (the centre of Yazd province in Iran). The target and sampled population were the children of the Iranian POW who lived in Yazd. One hundred and twenty six POW's children, who were born before 1990 (date of father's freedom) were assessed. The duration of father's captivation was between 29-119 months. Ninety-five subjects accepted to participate. General anxiety and major depression were assessed by Persian version of Hamilton Scale for anxiety and Beck depression Inventory. This study was a combination of the psychological interview and questionnaire. Ninety five of normal adult group were also paired matched and assessed. Result Among 126 POW's children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the responsive rate was 75.3% (95 participants). The mean age of participants was 28.3 (SD: 5.34).The father's captivation duration were 29-119 months (mean: 79.2, SD: 21.6). The prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW's children were 48.4% and 79%. The prevalence of depression and general anxiety among the paired group were 21.1% and 63.2%.The differences between two groups were significant (p =0.000). Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated the prevalence of major depression and general anxiety in POW's children and a normal adult sample. The differences of major depression and general anxiety among the two groups were significant. PMID:23482674

  4. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Chinese Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Myers, Hector; Chiu, Eddie; Mak, Elsie; Butner, Jonathan; Fujimoto, Ken; Wood, Jeff; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for adults have tested the effectiveness of a well-specified psychotherapy compared with a culturally adapted version of the same treatment. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) in treating depressed Chinese American adults. Methods This was a RCT that treated 50 Chinese Americans who met criteria for major depression and sought treatment at community mental health clinics. Participants were screened beginning September 2008, with the last assessment conducted in March 2011. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of CBT or CA-CBT. Stratified randomization was used for patients who were on and not on antidepressants when they first came to the clinic, and the study did not influence regular prescription practices. The primary outcomes were dropout rates and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale measured at baseline, session 4, session 8, and session 12. Results Participants in CA-CBT evidenced a greater overall decrease in depressive symptoms than those in CBT, but depression rates remained similarly high at week 12. Differences in dropout rates approached, but did not meet statistical significance (7% CA-CBT and 26% CBT). Conclusions Chinese Americans entered this study with very severe depression. Participants in both CBT and CA-CBT evidenced significant decreases in depressive symptoms, but the majority did not reach remission. Results suggest that these short-term treatments were not sufficient to address such severe depression and that more intensive and longer treatments may be needed. Results also indicate that cultural adaptations may confer additional treatment benefits. PMID:26129996

  5. Trait Neuroticism, Depression, and Cognitive Function in Older Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Lisa L.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Karuza, Jurgis; King, Deborah A.; Messing, Susan; Tu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Prior studies on the association of trait neuroticism and cognitive function in older adults have yielded mixed findings. We tested hypotheses that neuroticism is associated with measures of cognition and that depression moderates these relationships. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Primary care offices. Participants Primary care patients age ≥65 years. Measurements Trait neuroticism was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Major and minor depression (MDD, MinD) were determined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and depressive symptom severity by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Initiation-Perseveration subscale of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Trail-Making Tests A and B. Results In multiple regression analyses, neuroticism was associated with MMSE score independent of depression diagnosis (β = −0.04, χ2 = 14.2, df = 1, p = 0.0002, 95% CI = −0.07, −0.02) and Ham-D score (β = −0.04, χ2 = 8.97, df = 1, p = 0.003, 95% CI = −0.06, −0.01). Interactions between neuroticism and depression diagnosis (χ2 = 7.21, df = 2, p = 0.03) and Ham-D scores (χ2 = 0.55, df = 1, p = 0.46) failed to lend strong support to the moderation hypothesis. Conclusion Neuroticism is associated with lower MMSE scores. Findings do not confirm a moderating role for depression, but suggest that depression diagnosis may confer additional risk for poorer global cognitive function in patients with high neuroticism. Further study is necessary. PMID:20220585

  6. Depression in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    King-Wing Ma, Terry; Kam-Tao Li, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The reported prevalence of depression in dialysis population varied from 22.8% (interview-based diagnosis) to 39.3% (self- or clinician-administered rating scales). Such differences were attributed to the overlapping symptoms of uraemia and depression. Systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies showed that depression was a significant predictor of mortality in dialysis population. The optimal screening tool for depression in dialysis patients remains uncertain. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) have been validated for screening purposes. Patients who scored ≥14 using BDI should be referred to a psychiatrist for early evaluation. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID) remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Non-pharmacological treatment options include cognitive behavioural therapy and exercise training programs. Although frequent haemodialysis may have beneficial effects on patients' physical and mental well-being, it cannot and should not be viewed as a treatment of depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally effective and safe in ESRD patients, but most studies were small, non-randomized and uncontrolled. The European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) guideline suggests a trial of SSRI for 8 to 12 weeks in dialysis patients who have moderate-major depression. The treatment effect should be re-evaluated after 12 weeks to avoid prolonging ineffective medication. This review will discuss the current understanding in the diagnosis and management of depression in dialysis patients. PMID:26860073

  7. Consistent superiority of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors over placebo in reducing depressed mood in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Hieronymus, F; Emilsson, J F; Nilsson, S; Eriksson, E

    2016-01-01

    The recent questioning of the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is partly based on the observation that approximately half of company-sponsored trials have failed to reveal a significant difference between active drug and placebo. Most of these have applied the Hamilton depression rating scale to assess symptom severity, the sum score for its 17 items (HDRS-17-sum) serving as effect parameter. In this study, we examined whether the negative outcomes of many SSRI trials may be partly caused by the use of this frequently questioned measure of response. We undertook patient-level post-hoc analyses of 18 industry-sponsored placebo-controlled trials regarding paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline or fluoxetine, and including in total 6669 adults with major depression, the aim being to assess what the outcome would have been if the single item depressed mood (rated 0–4) had been used as a measure of efficacy. In total, 32 drug-placebo comparisons were reassessed. While 18 out of 32 comparisons (56%) failed to separate active drug from placebo at week 6 with respect to reduction in HDRS-17-sum, only 3 out of 32 comparisons (9%) were negative when depressed mood was used as an effect parameter (P<0.001). The observation that 29 out of 32 comparisons detected an antidepressant signal from the tested SSRI suggests the effect of these drugs to be more consistent across trials than previously assumed. Further, the frequent use of the HDRS-17-sum as an effect parameter may have distorted the current view on the usefulness of SSRIs and hampered the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:25917369

  8. Consistent superiority of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors over placebo in reducing depressed mood in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Hieronymus, F; Emilsson, J F; Nilsson, S; Eriksson, E

    2016-04-01

    The recent questioning of the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is partly based on the observation that approximately half of company-sponsored trials have failed to reveal a significant difference between active drug and placebo. Most of these have applied the Hamilton depression rating scale to assess symptom severity, the sum score for its 17 items (HDRS-17-sum) serving as effect parameter. In this study, we examined whether the negative outcomes of many SSRI trials may be partly caused by the use of this frequently questioned measure of response. We undertook patient-level post-hoc analyses of 18 industry-sponsored placebo-controlled trials regarding paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline or fluoxetine, and including in total 6669 adults with major depression, the aim being to assess what the outcome would have been if the single item depressed mood (rated 0-4) had been used as a measure of efficacy. In total, 32 drug-placebo comparisons were reassessed. While 18 out of 32 comparisons (56%) failed to separate active drug from placebo at week 6 with respect to reduction in HDRS-17-sum, only 3 out of 32 comparisons (9%) were negative when depressed mood was used as an effect parameter (P<0.001). The observation that 29 out of 32 comparisons detected an antidepressant signal from the tested SSRI suggests the effect of these drugs to be more consistent across trials than previously assumed. Further, the frequent use of the HDRS-17-sum as an effect parameter may have distorted the current view on the usefulness of SSRIs and hampered the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:25917369

  9. [Depression and the elderly].

    PubMed

    Gallarda, T; Lôo, H

    2009-06-01

    "Depression" and "old age" are often associated among our contemporaries. In this case, "depression" is understood to be "existential despair" and not a "depressive disease": an amalgam is made of the tragedy of the patient's existence and a pathological condition. Clinical pictures of depression, the pathological nature of which is obvious, are frequent in the elderly; however, the line between normal and pathological becomes less clear above a certain symptomatic threshold, in the presence of chronic evolutions and in situations of comorbidity. The nosographical tool, in spite of its limits, is precious. Epidemiological studies that include the comorbidities of the depressive episode with cognitive and/or somatic affections permit better estimations of the prevalence of the symptoms and the depressive problems among elderly populations. The formula "depression is depression at whatever age" harbours a certain truth if one takes into account the multiple factors that modify the symptomatic expression of depression in later life. The most documented factor is the comorbidity of depression with somatic affections that is present in the majority of those aged over 80. Other psychological or sociocultural factors are also apparent, but their influence has been studied less. The decline in cognitive performance observed during depression is not exclusive to the elderly but is undeniably more marked in this population. Making an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, conversely, eliminating this diagnosis in a depressed patient complaining of diminished cognition is an essential step in the subsequent management. Together with the neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging, required for diagnosis, a neuropsychogeriatric pluridisciplinary assessment is obviously required. The management of geriatric depression is based on various approaches that include somatic care, psychotropic drugs, brain stimulation techniques and psychotherapy, but also requires

  10. New examples of Hamilton-minimal and minimal Lagrangian manifolds in C{sup n} and CP{sup n}

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, A E

    2004-02-28

    A new method is proposed for constructing Hamilton-minimal and minimal Lagrangian immersions and embeddings of manifolds in C{sup n} and in CP{sup n}. In particular, using this method it is possible to construct embeddings of manifolds such as the (2n+1)-dimensional generalized Klein bottle K{sup 2n+1}, S{sup 2n+1}xS{sup 1}, K{sup 2n+1}xS{sup 1}, S{sup 2n+1}xS{sup 1}xS{sup 1}, and others.

  11. Lesbians’ Constructions of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Lesbians are a marginalized group of women living in a heteronormative society. This study describes lesbians’ subjective experiences of depression, and identifies the ways that dominant and alternative discourses shaped their understandings of depression and sexuality. Twelve self-identified lesbians participated in up to three in-depth interviews conducted over a nine month period. Thematic analysis led to themes that explicated their physical and emotional descriptions of depression; identified troubled interpersonal relationships as a primary source of depression; and the means implemented to cope with depression, including taking medication, engagement in therapy, developing social support networks, and discovering their own spirituality. Depression and sexuality were understood within the framework of the dominant discourses of (1) medical model (2) dysfunctional family and (3) organized religion; and the alternative discourses of (1) lesbian identity, (2) alternative families and (3) spirituality. Nurses in clinical practice can assist depressed lesbians clients by bolstering explorations of spirituality and the development of strong support networks within the lesbian and gay communities. Politically, institutionalized heteronormativity must be attacked at every level. PMID:19350435

  12. [Depression and aging].

    PubMed

    Léger, J M; Clément, J P

    1992-09-01

    Old age is a qualitative state during which depression frequently occurs. This illness presents particular features which should be considered in the course of both normal ageing and senility. Viewed as an existential crisis, ageing may be considered as a depression promoting factor. Rich in depression promoting factors, this period of life is a sequence of crises which result in reorganizations heavily dependent on the adaptive capabilities of the aged person. During ageing, depression exhibits particular features that one should be able to recognize and distinguish from the consequences of deficits that are the normal adjuncts of the ageing process. The same is true of alterations occurring in the cognitive sphere and which might result from demential alteration. During ageing, depression should be identified among the other decompensation patterns occurring in the aged patient by viewing the situation in terms of overhelmed mechanisms. Depression exhibits a pattern whereby it relates closely with the risk of dementia. Therapeutic management should take into account such a perspective, that one might call transnosographic, when considering the depressiveness of aged patients as a high-risk situation requiring long-term follow-up of their biological, psychodynamic, social and cognitive functions. PMID:1308847

  13. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  14. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  15. Overcoming functional impairment in postpartum depressed or anxious women: a pilot trial of desvenlafaxine with flexible dosing

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Swift, Elena; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Shankar, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Antidepressants are the first line treatment for moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in perinatal and general populations. However, there appears to be paucity of evidence around antidepressant use in women with postpartum depression or anxiety. Selection of an appropriate antidepressant is crucial in promoting efficacy, optimizing tolerability, and managing comorbid anxiety or depression. Our aim was to investigate the treatment effect and tolerability profile of desvenlafaxine, and to examine the functionality of women with postpartum depression or anxiety after desvenlafaxine treatment. Methods: Fifteen postpartum women with depression or anxiety completed this 12-week prospective pilot study with a flexible dose of desvenlafaxine (50–100 mg). Participants were recruited at a tertiary care level program. Measures of depression (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAM-A), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, PSWQ) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale, SDS) were completed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 17), the majority of women responded to medication (88.2%, n = 15), and reached remission of depressive (82.4%, n = 14) and anxiety symptoms (82.4%, n = 14). Remission of depression was achieved in a mean of 6.9 weeks [standard deviation (SD) = 3.01] at a mean dose of 71 mg/day (SD = 25.7). Significant decreases were observed on PSWQ worry scores (p < 0.0001) and SDS scores for social (p < 0.0001) and family life impairment (p < 0.0001). The medication was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: The results of our prospective pilot study suggest that treatment with desvenlafaxine of postpartum mothers with depression or anxiety can lead to symptom remission and restoration of functionality. PMID:27536346

  16. Depression and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Sue; Schmidt, Mike; Patton, George; Dwyer, Terry; Blizzard, Leigh; Otahal, Petr; Venn, Alison

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in a sample of young adults using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to ascertain depression status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,732 participants aged between 26 and 36 years. Insulin resistance was derived from blood chemistry measures of fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method. Those identified with mild, moderate, or severe depression were classified as having depressive disorder. RESULTS The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder was 5.4% among men and 11.7% among women. In unadjusted models mean insulin resistance was 17.2% (95% CI 0.7–36.0%, P = 0.04) higher in men and 11.4% (1.5–22.0%, P = 0.02) higher in women with depressive disorder. After adjustment for behavioral and dietary factors, the increased level of insulin resistance associated with depressive disorder was 13.2% (−3.1 to 32.3%, P = 0.12) in men and 6.1% (−4.1 to 17.4%, P = 0.25) in women. Waist circumference was identified as a mediator in the relationship between depression and insulin resistance, reducing the β coefficient in the fully adjusted models in men by 38% and in women by 42%. CONCLUSIONS A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women. The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference. PMID:20185745

  17. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  18. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  19. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  20. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  1. Depression Affects the Whole Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnar, Laura; Thomas, Dawn V.; Stillwell, Margaret; Bennett, Tess; Allison, Anita

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how expanding one's knowledge of depression can help in supporting Head Start families. Defines depression and lists symptoms of depression for adults and children of various ages, describes how parent's depression can affect child development and the family, and considers how Head Start and support agencies can support children and…

  2. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  3. Derivation of a Ritz series modeling technique for acoustic cavity-structural systems based on a constrained Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Jerry H

    2010-05-01

    Hamilton's principle for dynamic systems is adapted to describe the coupled response of a confined acoustic domain and an elastic structure that forms part or all of the boundary. A key part of the modified principle is the treatment of the surface traction as a Lagrange multiplier function that enforces continuity conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The structural displacement, fluid velocity potential, and traction are represented by Ritz series, where the usage of the velocity potential as the state variable for the fluid assures that the flow is irrotational. Designation of the coefficients of the potential function series as generalized velocities leads to corresponding series representations of the particle velocity, displacement, and pressure in the fluid, which in turn leads to descriptions of the mechanical energies and virtual work. Application of the calculus of variations to Hamilton's principle yields linear differential-algebraic equations whose form is identical to those governing mechanical systems that are subject to nonholonomic kinematic constraints. Criteria for selection of basis functions for the various Ritz series are illustrated with an example of a rectangular cavity bounded on one side by an elastic plate and conditions that change discontinuously on other sides. PMID:21117723

  4. Potential Relationship between Season of Birth and Clinical Characteristics in Major Depressive Disorder in Koreans: Results from the CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ2=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system. PMID:26996582

  5. Potential Relationship between Season of Birth and Clinical Characteristics in Major Depressive Disorder in Koreans: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon Cheol; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae Min; Jun, Tae Youn; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Jung Bum; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ² tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ²=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system. PMID:26996582

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations in acute depressive patients increase during lithium augmentation of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ricken, Roland; Adli, Mazda; Lange, Claudia; Krusche, Esther; Stamm, Thomas J; Gaus, Sebastian; Koehler, Stephan; Nase, Sarah; Bschor, Tom; Richter, Christoph; Steinacher, Bruno; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A; Borgwardt, Stefan; Hellweg, Rainer; Lang, Undine E

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, lithium has proved an effective augmentation strategy of antidepressants in both acute and treatment-resistant depression. Neuroprotective and procognitive effects of lithium have been evidenced. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a loss of BDNF is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression, and its restoration may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations were measured in a total of 83 acutely depressed patients before and after 4 weeks of lithium augmentation. A significant BDNF increase has been found during treatment (F2,81 = 5.04, P < 0.05). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations at baseline correlated negatively with relative Hamilton Depression Scale change after treatment with lithium (n = 83; r = -0.23; P < 0.05). This is the first study showing that lithium augmentation of an antidepressant strategy can increase BDNF serum concentrations. Our study replicates previous findings showing that serum BDNF levels in patients with depressive episodes increase during effective antidepressant treatment. Further studies are needed to separate specific effects of different antidepressants on BDNF concentration and address potential BDNF downstream mechanisms. PMID:24018547

  7. Temperament and Character in Euthymic Major Depressive Disorder Patients: The Effect of Previous Suicide Attempts and Psychotic Mood Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ekinci, Aslı Erkan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine personality traits of patients with major depressive disorder and explore the possible connections between personality and clinical and sociodemographic variables. Methods The sociodemographic and clinical properties of 80 patients with major depression, who were euthymic according to Hamilton Depression Scale scores, were recorded. Their personality was evaluated by using Temperament and Character Inventory and results were compared with 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We used general linear model analysis to evaluate the manner in which the variables contributed to TCI scores. Results Remitted depressive patients scored significantly lower on on self-directedness and higher on harm avoidance than HC. Previous suicide attempts had a main effect only on harm avoidance while previous psychotic mood episodes were significantly associated with novelty seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness. With respect to numeric clinical variables, only duration of illness was significantly and negatively correlated with NS and RD scores. Conclusion Patients with euthymic major depressive disorder may have significantly different personality traits than the normal population, and patients with different clinical and sociodemographic characteristics may show different personality patterns. In addition, assessment of major depressed patients by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory may be helpful to get a deeper insight into those personality traits underlying suicidality and the emergence of psychotic mood episode. PMID:22707961

  8. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with quetiapine in treating bipolar II depression: a randomized, double-blinded, control study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-hua; Lai, Jian-bo; Xu, Dong-rong; Qi, Hong-li; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bao, Ai-min; Hu, Chan-chan; Huang, Man-li; Chen, Jing-kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-bo; Li, Shu-lan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Xu, Wei-juan; Xu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201

  9. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with quetiapine in treating bipolar II depression: a randomized, double-blinded, control study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Lai, Jian-Bo; Xu, Dong-Rong; Qi, Hong-Li; Peterson, Bradley S; Bao, Ai-Min; Hu, Chan-Chan; Huang, Man-Li; Chen, Jing-Kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-Bo; Li, Shu-Lan; Zhou, Wei-Hua; Xu, Wei-Juan; Xu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201

  10. Concentration-response relationship for fluvoxamine using remission as an endpoint: a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis in major depression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaro; Fukui, Naoki; Sawamura, Kazushi; Sugai, Takuro; Watanabe, Junzo; Ono, Shin; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Ozdemir, Vural; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2008-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants thus far failed to identify a clear concentration-response relationship in major depression. Majority of the previous studies defined clinical response as 50% or greater reduction from baseline in depression rating scale scores. Because many patients who meet these criteria still present symptoms associated with functional impairment, there is a need to consider "remission" as an alternative end point in concentration-response analyses of SSRIs. The present 12-week prospective study investigated the relationship between fluvoxamine (an SSRI) plasma concentration and remission in outpatients with depression. We used a flexible dose titration study designed to mimic clinical practice within the therapeutic dose range of fluvoxamine (25-200 mg/d). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was computed to determine the optimal fluvoxamine plasma concentration for remission using 269 concentration data obtained from 80 patients. Analysis of the ROC curve from the entire study sample did not reveal a fluvoxamine concentration significantly predicting remission. By contrast, ROC analysis specifically in patients with moderate to severe depression (N = 51; baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score > or = 20) found a fluvoxamine concentration of 61.4 ng/mL as a significant predictor of remission. In conclusion, therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful for rational titration and individualization of fluvoxamine dose and predicting remission in patients with moderate to severe depression, who may presumably display lesser placebo component in pharmacodynamic response. PMID:18480690

  11. A comparative study on psycho-socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients with bipolar versus unipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Nisha, A.; Sathesh, V.; Punnoose, Varghese P.; Varghese, P. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have revealed significant differences between bipolar (BP) and unipolar depression (UP). Misdiagnosing BP depression results in suboptimal symptom resolution, induction of manic switch, mixed state, or accelerated cycling. This study compares various psycho-socio-demographic, longitudinal course, and phenomenological factors associated with BP and UP depression. Materials and Methods: We compared 30 UP and 30 BP depression patients using a specially designed intake proforma, International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 (HAMD-21), Hypomania Checklist-32 Questionnaire (HCL-32), Brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), and Kuppuswami's socioeconomic status scale. Results: BP depression group consisted of mostly males, with earlier age of onset of illness, longer illness duration, frequent episodes, hospitalizations and psychotic symptoms. The total HAM-D score and 4 HAM-D item scores–psychomotor retardation, insight, diurnal variation of symptoms and its severity, and paranoid symptoms were significantly higher in this group. Binary logistic regression identified the age of onset, the total duration of illness, frequency of affective episodes, and presence of delusions as predictors of bipolarity (odds ratio = 1.327; 1.517; 0.062; 0.137). Conclusions: Identification of clinical markers of bipolarity from large scale prospective studies is needed. PMID:26813699

  12. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  13. A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Venlafaxine-Extended Release for Co-occurring Cannabis Dependence and Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.; Agosti, Vito; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A.; Carpenter, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate whether venlafaxine-extended release (VEN-XR) is an effective treatment for cannabis dependence with concurrent depressive disorders. Design This was a randomized, 12 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of outpatients (n = 103) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants received up to 375 mg VEN-XR on a fixed-flexible schedule or placebo. All patients received weekly individual cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy that primarily targeted marijuana use. Settings The trial was conducted at two university research centers in the United States. Participants One hundred and three cannabis dependent adults participated in the trial. Measurements The primary outcome measures were 1) abstinence from marijuana defined as at least two consecutive urine-confirmed abstinent weeks and 2) improvement in depressive symptoms based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Findings The proportion of patients achieving a clinically significant mood improvement [50% decrease in Hamilton Depression score from baseline] was high and did not differ between groups receiving VEN-XR (63%) and placebo (69%) (X12=0.48, p-value= 0.49). The proportion of patients achieving abstinence was low overall, but was significantly worse on VEN-XR (11.8%) compared to placebo (36.5%) (X12=7.46, p-value<0.01; OR = 4.51, 95% CI: 1.53, 13.3). Mood improvement was associated with reduction in marijuana use in the placebo group (F1,179=30.49, p-value<0.01), but not the VEN-XR group (F1,186=0.02, p-value=0.89). Conclusions For depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, venlafaxine-extended release does not appear to be effective at reducing depression and may lead to an increase in cannabis use. PMID:23297841

  14. Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Laura L.; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research is telling us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research is giving people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:22895696

  15. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... Why Do You Want to Stop Taking This Medicine? Write down all of the reasons you want ...

  16. Recognizing teen depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... are twice as likely as boys to have depression. Your teen has trouble being social Your teen has learning disabilities Your teen has a chronic illness There are family problems or problems with their parents

  17. Caregiving and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dosage or interactions with other medications. Complementary and Alternative Therapies St. John’s wort . One of the most studied alternative treatments for depressive symptoms is St. John’s wort ( ...

  18. [Melancholia and neurotic depression].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S

    1999-11-01

    The author considers the psychopathological distinction between endogenous and neurotic depression as one of differing psychodynamics. In so doing he embeds both illnesses within psychoanalytic theory while at the same time allowing a sharp differentiation. Even the premorbid personalities of patients with endogenous and neurotic depression are different. The personalities of those with endogenous depression bear a similarity to those with obsessional character and betray a pathological super-ego monopolized by defence mechanisms. The personalities of patients with neurotic depression show an oral-dependent structure characterised by a structural deficit of the ego functions and of an autonomous super-ego. These factors are responsible for the greatly differing pathodynamics found in these illnesses and point to different etiological factors in socialization. PMID:10593139

  19. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby. In this case, controlling depression with medications prescribed by a health care provider may help prevent more serious problems from substance abuse. I’m considering trying an alternative treatment for ...

  20. Post-stroke depression.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge Moncayo; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is among the most common emotional disorders afflicting stroke sufferers. Approximately one third of stroke survivors experience an early or later onset of depression. PSD impedes the rehabilitation and recovery process, jeopardizes quality of life and increases mortality. Diagnosis of PSD is challenging in the acute and chronic aftermath. Therefore, it often remains unrecognized and/or undertreated. The interaction between depression and stroke is very complex and the pathophysiological mechanisms have not as yet been fully elucidated, although an interaction between anatomical and psychosocial factors may be important in PSD development. Neurochemical changes and clinical findings are similar to endogenous depression. PSD is potentially treatable, although no conclusive benefits of antidepressant agents and nonpharmacological interventions have been observed. The efficacy of preventive strategies in PSD remains essentially undetermined. PMID:18088202