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  1. 78 FR 38070 - Renewal of Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, fax 202-395-5806, or by electronic mail at OIRA... electronic mail. Mail: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 1849 C Street NW., Room 2134LM, Attention: Jean Sonneman, Washington, DC 20240. Fax: to Jean Sonneman at 202-245-0050....

  2. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  3. Sir James Jeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, E. A.

    2013-09-01

    Memoir by S. C. Roberts; 1. Merchant Taylor's and Cambridge; 2. Princeton, 1905-9; 3. Return to England. The Adams Prize essay, 1909-19; 4. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1919-29; 5. Popular exposition, 1929-30; 6. Later years, 1931-46; 7. Science in Jeans's boyhood; 8. The partition of energy; 9. Rotating fluid masses; 10. Star clusters; 11. The equilibrium of the stars; 12. Jeans and philosophy; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Jean Brossel 1918 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnac, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of Jean Brossel to atomic physics, in particular to radiofrequency spectroscopy coupled with optical transitions, are presented. His part in the origins of the method, and in its ramifications over a half century in the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, are described. A list of publications and the curriculum vitae of Brossel are appended.

  5. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2003-03-01

    This paper gives a short account of some key elements in the life of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), specifically his relation to Napoleon Bonaparte. The mathematical approach to Fourier series and the original scepticism by French mathematicians are briefly illustrated.

  6. Jean Comandon Neuroscientist.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Lefebvre, Thierry; de Pastre, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The microbiologist Jean Comandon is famous for his studies on the movement of the syphilis bacteria as differentiated in various forms by ultramicroscope. He was also a pioneer on the technical application of the microcinematography in laboratory research. His collaboration with clinicians and surgeons in the study of various pathological disorders is little known. From 1918 to the 1920s, he collaborated with such neurologists as André Thomas, Jean Athanase Sicard, and others in the study of various neurological disorders by using cinematography as a scientific tool for understanding the clinical and pathological mechanisms of diseases. These collaborations allowed him to be involved in the beginnings of the French cinematography industry, especially with Charles Pathé who established a small film studio laboratory in Vincennes where a multidisciplinary group improved the application of cinematography in clinical medical practice. PMID:26684425

  7. Jean Comandon Neuroscientist.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Lefebvre, Thierry; de Pastre, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The microbiologist Jean Comandon is famous for his studies on the movement of the syphilis bacteria as differentiated in various forms by ultramicroscope. He was also a pioneer on the technical application of the microcinematography in laboratory research. His collaboration with clinicians and surgeons in the study of various pathological disorders is little known. From 1918 to the 1920s, he collaborated with such neurologists as André Thomas, Jean Athanase Sicard, and others in the study of various neurological disorders by using cinematography as a scientific tool for understanding the clinical and pathological mechanisms of diseases. These collaborations allowed him to be involved in the beginnings of the French cinematography industry, especially with Charles Pathé who established a small film studio laboratory in Vincennes where a multidisciplinary group improved the application of cinematography in clinical medical practice.

  8. Venus 1882 and Jean-Charles Houzeau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses on one particular type of telescope - the heliometer - designed for solving one specific basic problem in astronomy: the scale factor of the solar system. One very special instrument of this type was the ``heliometer with unequal focal lengths'' designed by the Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau for the 1882 transit of Venus. We also draw attention to the most interesting personality of Houzeau, and to his social engagement that went much beyond his work as a scientist.

  9. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

    PubMed

    Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit. PMID:26485488

  10. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

    PubMed

    Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.

  11. A Pedagogical Look at Jeans' Density Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Kwang-Hua W.

    2007-01-01

    We illustrate the derivations of Jeans' criteria for the gravitational instabilities in a static homogeneous Newtonian system for pedagogical objectives. The critical Jeans density surface is presented in terms of dimensionless sound speeds and (characteristic) length scales. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Designer Jeans: Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sharron J.

    1986-01-01

    Used classical conditioning theory of learning to predict attitudes of junior high students toward spending for designer jeans. Found that students were likely to say that in comparison to the nondesigner jeans, they would spend more for the designer jeans, select them more often as gifts, and purchase them more often for themselves. (Author/ABB)

  13. Why does the Jeans Swindle work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, M.; Hansen, S. H.; Wojtak, R.; Mamon, G. A.

    2013-04-01

    When measuring the mass profile of any given cosmological structure through internal kinematics, the distant background density is always ignored. This trick is often referred to as the `Jeans Swindle'. Without this trick a divergent term from the background density renders the mass profile undefined; however, this trick has no formal justification. We show that when one includes the expansion of the Universe in the Jeans equation, a term appears which exactly cancels the divergent term from the background. We thereby establish a formal justification for using the Jeans Swindle.

  14. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397918

  16. Jeans stability in collisional quantum dusty magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, M.; Asif, M.; Mir, Zahid; Salimullah, M.

    2014-09-15

    Jeans instability is examined in detail in uniform dusty magnetoplasmas taking care of collisional and non-zero finite thermal effects in addition to the quantum characteristics arising through the Bohm potential and the Fermi degenerate pressure using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas. It is found that the presence of the dust-lower-hybrid wave, collisional effects of plasma species, thermal effects of electrons, and the quantum mechanical effects of electrons have significance over the Jeans instability. Here, we have pointed out a new class of dissipative instability in quantum plasma regime.

  17. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  18. Jean Tague-Sutcliffe on Measuring Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Jean Tague-Sutcliffe's book "Measuring Information" offers a theory to permit the measurement of information services by means of the user-centered notion of the subjective information associated with the interaction between a user and a record on an occasion. Some suggestions are made to improve the theory's foundations. (Author/AEF)

  19. Jean Piaget's Debt to John Dewey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Jean Piaget became a veritable institution unto himself in education and psychology, largely as the result of his developmental-stage theory advanced over the second quarter of the twentieth century. Not until Piaget was 73 did he make mention of John Dewey's work at Dewey's laboratory school, founded in 1894 at the University of Chicago. But here…

  20. [Jean Fernel and the humanist spirit].

    PubMed

    Cordier, Jean-François

    2011-06-01

    Jean Fernel (1497-1558) embodied the humanist spirit of the Renaissance. He studied philosophy (especially Aristotle), astrology, arithmetic, mathematics and Latin literature before devoting his life to medicine. He conducted a comprehensive synthesis of the medical system of Galen, and invented the terms "physiology" and "pathology". His taste for teaching, his extensive clinical practice, his benevolent attitude to the sick, and his consideration for individuals and for human nature all contribute to Jean Fernel's image as a humanist. He was the most famous physician of his time, although his work relying on philosophy and galenic dogmatism eventually became obsolete. Forgotten for half a millennium, this distant precursor of holistic medicine is worthy of renewed interest. PMID:22530525

  1. Jean-Martin Charcot. 1825 to 1893.

    PubMed

    Clanet, M

    2008-06-01

    During the 31 years of his working life, Jean-Martin Charcot built up an exceptional career in Salpétrière hospital, and was a pioneer in different fields. He developed an organized teaching and research centre, contributed to increase the medical knowledge with a systematic use of physiology and pathology besides a rigorous clinical analysis, he founded geriatry and neurology and finally tried to create a scientific psychological approach for hysteria.

  2. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  3. Low energy ghosts and the Jeans' instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümrükçüoǧlu, A. Emir; Mukohyama, Shinji; Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a massless canonical scalar field minimally coupled to general relativity can become a tachyonic ghost at low energies around a background in which the scalar's gradient is spacelike. By performing a canonical transformation we demonstrate that this low energy ghost can be recast, at the level of the action, in a form of a fluid that undergoes a Jeans-like instability affecting only modes with large wavelength. This illustrates that low energy tachyonic ghosts do not lead to a catastrophic quantum vacuum instability, unlike the usual high-energy ghost degrees of freedom.

  4. The Jean Gutierrez spider mite collection.

    PubMed

    Migeon, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The family Tetranychidae (spider mites) currently comprises 1,275 species and represents one of the most important agricultural pest families among the Acari with approximately one hundred pest species, ten of which considered major pests. The dataset presented in this document includes all the identified spider mites composing the Jean Gutierrez Collection hosted at the CBGP (Montferrier-sur-Lez, France), gathered from 1963 to 1999 during his career at the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD). It consists of 5,262 specimens corresponding to 1,564 occurrences (combination species/host plant/date/location) of 175 species. Most specimens were collected in Madagascar and other islands of the Western Indian Ocean, New Caledonia and other islands of the South Pacific and Papuasia. The dataset constitutes today the most important one available on Tetranychidae worldwide.

  5. [Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé (1824-1889): A forgotten pioneer of plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Marck, K W; Martin, D

    2016-02-01

    The authors propose to define as main characterization of plastic reconstructive surgery the conceptual thinking that leads to a rational choice of an operative treatment. Conceptual thinking in plastic surgery started halfway the nineteenth century with the first schematic representations of the operative procedures available at that time, in which Von Ammon and Baumgarten, Szymanowski and Denucé played a prominent role. These four authors and their works are presented with special attention for the less known of them, Jean-Paul Denucé, surgeon in Bordeaux.

  6. Jean Piaget et sa Recherche: Search and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Elspeth M.

    1981-01-01

    The early influences on and development of Jean Piaget's thinking from which crystallized the ideas forming the foundation of his subsequent work are discussed. The influences noted are personal, intellectual, and professional. (MSE)

  7. Jean-Baptiste Charcot, the French Antarctic expedition and scurvy.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-07-01

    During the second expedition to the South Pole, Commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot and some members of the crew of "Pourquoi Pas?" developed symptoms suggestive of scurvy. The clinical picture was totally reversed after dietary changes. PMID:25054991

  8. Jean-Baptiste Charcot, the French Antarctic expedition and scurvy.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-07-01

    During the second expedition to the South Pole, Commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot and some members of the crew of "Pourquoi Pas?" developed symptoms suggestive of scurvy. The clinical picture was totally reversed after dietary changes.

  9. Jeans instability criterion from the viewpoint of Kaniadakis' statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge; Barboza, Edesio M., Jr.; Nunes, Rafael C.

    2016-06-01

    In this letter we have derived the Jeans length in the context of the Kaniadakis statistics. We have compared this result with the Jeans length already obtained in the nonextensive Tsallis statistics (Jiulin D., Phys. Lett. A, 320 (2004) 347) and we discussed the main differences between these two models. We have also obtained the κ-sound velocity. Finally, we have applied the results obtained here to analyze an astrophysical system.

  10. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  11. [Jean-Martin Charcot in German neurology].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H C; Hartung, H-P; Kieseier, B C

    2004-02-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), well known as the founder of modern neurology, was the most celebrated neurologist in the nineteenth century. His international success stemmed not only from mastery descriptions of various neurological disorders but also from his many contacts with scientists all over the world. The aim of this article is to review Charcot's ambivalent relationship to German neuropsychiatry of the time and to examine the German reception of his personality and work. Wilhelm Erb, Ludwig Hirt, Ernst von Leyden, Max Nonne, Adolph Strümpell, and other German physicians cultivated -to varying degrees - professional contacts with Charcot and, based on the fascination of his personality and significance of his work, were long and intensively influenced by the Salpêtrière school. The extent of their admiration became apparent in 1882 by the award of an honorary doctorate to Charcot by the University of Würzburg. Along with increasingly severe criticism of Charcot's research on hysteria and hypnosis, most German neuropsychiatrists became estranged, without neglecting his importance to the development of neurology in Germany.

  12. Jean-Martin Charcot and his legacy.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) rightly is considered the father of both modern neurology and psychiatry in France and much beyond. While he never was interested in mental disease and what was called 'alienism' at the time, his career at La Salpêtrière Hospital over 30 years was mainly marked by the development of a huge group of students which focused on the study and management of hysteria. When Charcot took office at the beginning of 1862, hysteria was a 'no-man's land', medically speaking, since neither the alienists nor the internists had much interest in this condition. At La Salpêtrière, these chronic patients were largely left to themselves before Désiré Bourneville, one of Charcot's first students, convinced his chief to care for them. Subsequently, the studies of Charcot with Paul Richer, Joseph Babinski, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Sollier, Pierre Janet, and many others allowed the condition to be addressed in detail. During his stay with Charcot in 1885-1866, Sigmund Freud, a young neuropathologist at the time, became fascinated by hysteria, an interest which probably was the main start of his interest in psychology. Charcot emphasized the concept of mental factors in hysteria, along with that of a 'dynamic' lesion, which accounted for the lack of neuropathological findings in the patients. While his ideas on hysteria and hypnotism were criticized after his death even by former pupils, such as Babinski, recent findings from functional studies using magnetic resonance imaging show how accurate and often visionary Charcot's thinking was in this field.

  13. The Jeans Modeling of the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samurovic, S.; Lalovic, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we investigate the predictions of Newtonian dynamics and the MOND theory related to the Milky Way galaxy using the Jeans equation. We used the measurements of the radial velocities of the blue horizontal branch (BHB) halo stars to test the predictions of Newtonian gravity and to also extend our study to different MOND models, taking orbital anisotropies that we calculate into account. The halo stars of the Galaxy were used as a tracer of the Galaxy's gravitational potential. The Jeans equation was calculated for both the Newtonian and the MOND approaches. We assumed spherical symmetry and calculated the Jeans equation by taking orbital anisotropies into account. Circular velocities for both approaches were also analyzed. We solved the Jeans equation in spherical approximation and confirm that the Newtonian model without dark matter cannot fit the observed velocity dispersion profile and that the truncated flat model with dark matter can provide a good fit to the observed velocity dispersion. For the MOND models, from the Jeans modeling we found that three models ("simple", "standard" and Zhao, 2007) can provide a fit to the data without significant anisotropies whereas the "toy" model needs anisotropies to obtain the same result.

  14. Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.

    2015-07-31

    The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.

  15. Kinetic theory of Jeans instability of a dusty plasma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, B P; Lakhina, G S; Krishan, V

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic theory of the Jeans instability of a dusty plasma has been developed in the present work. The effect of grain charge fluctuations due to the attachment of electrons and ions to the grain surface has been considered in the framework of Krook's collisional model. We demonstrate that the grain charge fluctuations alter the growth rate of the gravitational collapse of the dusty plasma. The Jeans length has been derived under limiting cases, and its dependence on the attachment frequency is shown. In the absence of gravity, we see that the damping rate of the dust acoustic mode is proportional to the electron-dust collision frequency. PMID:11970688

  16. Jeans instability with exchange effects in quantum dusty magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Rozina, Ch.; Jung, Y.-D.; Salimullah, M.

    2015-08-15

    Jeans instability is examined in magnetized quantum dusty plasmas using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The quantum effects are considered via exchange-correlation potential, recoil effect, and Fermi degenerate pressure, in addition to thermal effects of plasma species. It is found that the electron exchange and correlation potential have significant effects over the threshold value of wave vector and Jeans instability. The presence of electron exchange and correlation effect shortens the time of dust sound that comparatively stabilizes the self gravitational collapse. The results at quantum scale are helpful in understanding the collapse of the self-gravitating dusty plasma systems.

  17. Charcot's son, commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot: from neurology to "Pourquoi Pas?".

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Simões, Jefferson C

    2012-04-01

    Charcot name became very famous around the world, firstly because of the work of Professor Jean-Martin Charcot, the founder of Clinical Neurology, and, secondly, because of his son, Jean-Baptiste, the world famous maritime explorer.

  18. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the seminal educational text for which…

  19. Telematics, Narrative and Poetry: The Parole in Jeans Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    1999-01-01

    Explains "Parole in Jeans", a computer-based project developed to promote literature and foster collaborative poetry and story writing in lower secondary schools in Italy, Topics include network-based collaborative production; integration of literary writing and network communication; email; and the organizational model for the online course that…

  20. In Touch with Kids: A Conversation with Jean Marzollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard; Barrera, Rosalinda B.; Harris, Violet J.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews Jean Marzollo about her past, present, and future work in children's literature. Notes that her body of writing (more than 100 books of prose and poetry for young readers) transcends the boundaries of genre and disciplines, and is infused with a strong emphasis on rhyme and rhythm intended to capture the ears and minds of emergent and…

  1. Cocteau on the Film; Conversations with Jean Cocteau.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraigneau, Andre, Ed.

    This book is the text of an interview with the French film-maker, Jean Cocteau. It is the corrected edition, with a new introduction by George Amberg, of the English translation of the early 1950 conversation in French. Cocteau discusses the aesthetics, creative aspects, and production processes of his own films and films in general. His approach…

  2. Jean-martin charcot pathologist, neurologist, psychiatrist and physician.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2012-10-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot is known as father of modern neurology. Before him, neurology was only limited to select disorders like chorea. His contributions were not limited to neurology only, as he was instrumental in many new developments in the field of pathology, psychiatry, and internal medicine. Even after 100 years, Charcot`s clinical methods remain the pillar of modern neurology.

  3. Jean-Martin Charcot Pathologist, Neurologist, Psychiatrist and Physician

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot is known as father of modern neurology. Before him, neurology was only limited to select disorders like chorea. His contributions were not limited to neurology only, as he was instrumental in many new developments in the field of pathology, psychiatry, and internal medicine. Even after 100 years, Charcot`s clinical methods remain the pillar of modern neurology. PMID:23349597

  4. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  5. Reflections on Piaget. Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Memorial Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, John M., Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Sessions of and presentations given at a memorial conference, held in honor of Jean Piaget, are reported. The conference was sponsored by the Developmental Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, on November 14, 1980. Sixteen scholars from the fields of psychology, philosophy, and education participated. (CJ)

  6. Conceptual Development: Piaget's Legacy. Jean Piaget Symposium Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholnick, Ellin K., Ed.; Nelson, Katherine, Ed.; Gelman, Susan A., Ed.; Miller, Patricia H., Ed.

    Based on the papers presented at the 1996 Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society and highlighting the extent to which Piaget's ideas have served to scaffold contemporary thinking about every aspect of conceptual development, this volume examines the nature of conceptual development, its foundations, and the sources of its novelties. The chapters…

  7. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  8. Jean Piaget: An Introduction and Reader's Guide for Children's Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getts, Marilyn; Giacoma, Pete

    1981-01-01

    Introduces children's librarians to the theories of cognitive growth in children formulated by Jean Piaget. An annotated bibliography of three primary and 16 secondary references is provided to promote insight and to reinforce commitment to children's services. Five references are listed. (RAA)

  9. Hannah Arendt & Jean Baudrillard: Pedagogy in the Consumer Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the place of education within our "consumers' society", beginning with Hannah Arendt's account of the rise of consumerism to a position of political dominance and the resulting eclipse of public life. Connections are then made between Arendt's account of this rise and Jean Baudrillard's account of the postmodern proliferation…

  10. Wise, Holistic Thinking: An Interview with Jean Sunde Peterson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jean Sunde Peterson, professor and director of school-counselor preparation in the Department of Educational Studies at Purdue University. She is a licensed mental health counselor and a national certified counselor, planning to return to clinical work with gifted children and adolescents and their families…

  11. Whimsical Imagery: An Interview with Jean Nunez Donegan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Jean Nunez Donegan focusing on: her career as an artist; her experiences with teaching art at the secondary and college levels; her process for creating art; and her development as an artist. Includes directions for creating a branch with leaves and bamboo using clay. (CMK)

  12. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE: TRANSITION FROM HYDRODYNAMIC TO JEANS ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Alexey N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Tucker, Orenthal J.; Erwin, Justin T.

    2011-03-10

    Thermally driven escape from planetary atmospheres changes in nature from an organized outflow (hydrodynamic escape) to escape on a molecule-by-molecule basis (Jeans escape) with increasing Jeans parameter, {lambda}, the ratio of the gravitational to thermal energy of the atmospheric molecules. This change is described here for the first time using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. When heating is predominantly below the lower boundary of the simulation region, R{sub 0}, and well below the exobase of a single-component atmosphere, the nature of the escape process changes over a surprisingly narrow range of Jeans parameters, {lambda}{sub 0}, evaluated at R{sub 0}. For an atomic gas, the transition occurs over {lambda}{sub 0} {approx} 2-3, where the lower bound, {lambda}{sub 0} {approx} 2.1, corresponds to the upper limit for isentropic, supersonic outflow. For {lambda}{sub 0} > 3 escape occurs on a molecule-by-molecule basis and we show that, contrary to earlier suggestions, for {lambda}{sub 0} > {approx}6 the escape rate does not deviate significantly from the familiar Jeans rate. In a gas composed of diatomic molecules, the transition shifts to {lambda}{sub 0} {approx} 2.4-3.6 and at {lambda}{sub 0} > {approx}4 the escape rate increases a few tens of percent over that for the monatomic gas. Scaling by the Jeans parameter and the Knudsen number, these results can be applied to thermally induced escape of the major species from solar and extrasolar planets.

  13. Nickel dermatitis provoked by buttons in blue jeans.

    PubMed

    Brandrup, F; Larsen, F S

    1979-05-01

    A total of 79 nickel-sensitive patients (65 women, 14 men) were examined with regard to a present or past eczema corresponding to contact with metallic buttons in blue jeans; 63% of the women and 64% of the men had or had had eczema of this kind. Among 40% of the women below 30 years this was the primary site of manifestation. The seriousness of this sensitivity is illustrated by the fact that two-thirds of the nickel sensitive patients with button dermatitis had or had had eczema of the hands. The conclusion is that blue jean buttons should be made of a material which does not contain nickel, for instance zinc alloys which are presently used for some metallic buttons, or they should be designed in such a way that the button does not directly contact the skin.

  14. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  15. Jeans self gravitational instability of strongly coupled quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2014-07-15

    The Jeans self-gravitational instability is studied for quantum plasma composed of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid and non-degenerate strongly coupled ion fluid. The formulation for such system is done on the basis of two fluid theory. The dynamics of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid is governed by inertialess momentum equation. The quantum forces associated with the quantum diffraction effects and the quantum statistical effects act on the degenerate electron fluid. The strong correlation effects of ion are embedded in generalized viscoelastic momentum equation including the viscoelasticity and shear viscosities of ion fluid. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis technique for the two regimes of propagation, i.e., hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes. The Jeans condition of self-gravitational instability is also obtained for both regimes, in the hydrodynamic regime it is observed to be affected by the ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter while in the kinetic regime in addition to ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter, it is also affected by the ion velocity which is modified by the viscosity generated compressional effects. The Jeans critical wave number and corresponding critical mass are also obtained for strongly coupled quantum plasma for both regimes.

  16. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  17. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  18. Modified Jeans instability in Lorentzian dusty self-gravitating plasmas with Lennard-Jones potential

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Y. Z. Chen, H. Liu, S. Q.

    2014-11-15

    The Jeans instability in self-gravitating plasma with Kappa distributed dust grains is investigated basing on assumption that the mutual interaction among dust grains is governed by Lennard-Jones potential. It is shown that the presence of additional suprathermal particles has significant effects on the range of unstable modes and growth rate of Jeans instability. Compared with Maxwellian scenario, suprathermality stabilized the Jeans instability.

  19. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  20. Physical interpretation of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we use the quantum hydrodynamics and its hydrostatic limit to investigate the newly posed problem of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas from a different point of view in connection with the well-known Chandrasekhar mass-limit on highly collapsed degenerate stellar configurations. It is shown that the hydrodynamic stability of a spherically symmetric uniform quantum plasma with a given fixed mass is achieved by increase in its mass-density or decrease in the radius under the action of gravity. It is also remarked that for masses beyond the limiting Jeans-mass, the plasma becomes completely unstable and the gravitational collapse would proceed forever. This limiting mass is found to depend strongly on the composition of the quantum plasma and the atomic-number of the constituent ions, where it is observed that heavier elements rather destabilize the quantum plasma hydrodynamically. It is also shown that the Chandrasekhar mass-limit for white dwarf stars can be directly obtained from the hydrostatic limit of our model.

  1. Jeans analysis of Bok globules in {\\varvec{f(R)}} gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Jaakko; Vilja, Iiro

    2016-10-01

    We examine the effects of f( R) gravity on Jeans analysis of collapsing dust clouds. We provide a method for testing modified gravity models by their effects on star formation as the presence of f(R) gravity is found to modify the limit for collapse. In this analysis we add perturbations to a de Sitter background. As the standard Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is modified, new types of dynamics emerge. Depending on the characteristics of a chosen f( R) model, the appearance of new limits is possible. The physicality of these limits is further examined. We find the asymptotic Jeans masses for f( R) theories compared to standard Jeans mass. Through this ratio, the effects of the f( R) modified Jeans mass for viable theories are examined in molecular clouds. Bok globules have a mass range comparable to Jeans masses in question and are therefore used for comparing different f( R) models. Viable theories are found to assist in star formation.

  2. Transcultural nursing: a perspective derived from Jean-Paul Sartre.

    PubMed

    Rajan, M F

    1995-09-01

    Transcultural nursing care is a well-established theoretical framework. This theory, developed by Madeleine Leininger, can have an impact on clinical practice, academic preparation and nursing research. The heightened interest in applying transcultural care and the increased need to espouse this framework have been triggered by constant population changes. This paper defines transcultural nursing care and expands its definition further by comparing and contrasting it with Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialist perspective. The two modes of existence as defined by Sartre are closely examined. Concrete examples are offered as cultural phenomena and the components of a cultural assessment are discussed and applied. The philosophical thesis is approached from a transcultural nursing perspective and existentialism is shown to serve as a foundation for transcultural nursing. The advantages and disadvantages of transcultural nursing practice and the preparation of transcultural nurses are finally addressed.

  3. STS-86 Mission Specialist Jean-Loup Chretien at TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES, participates in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at Launch Pad 39A. This will be his third spaceflight, but first on the Space Shuttle. He flew twice as a research-cosmonaut on Russian missions. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will transfer to the orbiting Russian station and become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since the last docking mission, STS-84, in May. Launch of Mission STS-86 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

  4. [Albert-Jean-Louis Brun, pharmacist of Geneva and vulcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1996-01-01

    Albert-Jean-Louis Brun (1851-1929), was chemist of the University of Bern (Switzerland) and "licencié ès sciences" of the University of Sorbonne (France). In Paris he was a faithful follower of Charles Friedel. In Coutance (Genève), where he was working in his own chemistry, he realised all his researchs. After a trip to Stromboli in 1901, he studied the volcanic phenomena as a chemist, as a mineralogist and as a geophysicist. His researchs brought him till the mediterranean volcanos--Vesuve, Etna, Santorin--, till Java and Krakatoa, then Canarian islands, and the lava lake of Kilauea, etc. The results of his works are collected in a big book called "Recherches sur l'exhalaison volcanique": he presents a theory which was the subject of a polemic with the professor Henri Gautier of the professor Henri Gautier of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. PMID:11624861

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: early contributions of Jean-Martin Charcot.

    PubMed

    Goetz, C G

    2000-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is historically an important entity because its manifestations involve distinct signs that can be correlated with gray and white matter lesions at specific sites within the central nervous system. Working at the end of the nineteenth century, the celebrated neurologist, Jean-Martin Charcot, used this disorder as a prototypic example of the power of his research method, termed "méthode anatomoclinique." Using clinical cases and autopsy material, he showed how anatomical lesions in the nervous system could be accurately determined by the presence of carefully analyzed clinical signs. Charcot's work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brought together neurological entities formerly considered as disparate disorders, primary amyotrophy and primary lateral sclerosis. In addition, these studies contributed to the understanding of spinal cord and brain stem anatomy and the organization of the normal nervous system. Because of Charcot's fundamental contributions, the eponym "Charcot's disease" has been used internationally in association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  6. The early evolution of Jean Piaget's clinical method.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Susan Jean

    2005-11-01

    This article analyzes the early evolution of Jean Piaget's renowned "clinical method" in order to investigate the method's strikingly original and generative character. Throughout his 1st decade in the field, Piaget frequently discussed and justified the many different approaches to data collection he used. Analysis of his methodological progression during this period reveals that Piaget's determination to access the genuine convictions of children eventually led him to combine 3 distinct traditions in which he had been trained-naturalistic observation, psychometrics, and the psychiatric clinical examination. It was in this amalgam, first evident in his 4th text, that Piaget discovered the clinical dynamic that would drive the classic experiments for which he is most well known.

  7. The early evolution of Jean Piaget's clinical method.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Susan Jean

    2005-11-01

    This article analyzes the early evolution of Jean Piaget's renowned "clinical method" in order to investigate the method's strikingly original and generative character. Throughout his 1st decade in the field, Piaget frequently discussed and justified the many different approaches to data collection he used. Analysis of his methodological progression during this period reveals that Piaget's determination to access the genuine convictions of children eventually led him to combine 3 distinct traditions in which he had been trained-naturalistic observation, psychometrics, and the psychiatric clinical examination. It was in this amalgam, first evident in his 4th text, that Piaget discovered the clinical dynamic that would drive the classic experiments for which he is most well known. PMID:17152748

  8. [Pierre Bayen rediscovers the Essays of Jean Rey].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Jean Rey, a physician from The Bugue, a little town near Bergerac, published, in 1630, a book entitled "Essays" in which he explained the increase of the mass of lead, when it was strongly heated, by the fixation of a part of the air. This revolutionary publication was not received by the European scientists, because the Father Mersenne, "the secretary of learned Europe", was not able to repeat his experiments. Between 1774 and 1775, Pierre Bayen, who was a military apothecary, published his Works concerning the "precipitate per se", for us HgO, showing that when this compound was destroyed by heating, it produced a gas, and that the mass of this gas and the mass of the mercury obtained were equal to the mass of the "precipitate per se". He concluded that the phlogiston theory was contradictory with the results of the experiments. When, later on, Lavoisier published his important article on the increase of the mass of steal when it was heated in the air, he "forgot" to cite the Works of Bayen. In January 1775, Pierre Bayen published a letter in which he mentioned that he had discovered an exemplar of Jean Rey's book and explained that this physician of the 17th century had supposed the explanation that had been proved by Lavoisier. Nicolas Gobet then published a new edition of the "Essays" in 1777, but this new edition became itself quite rare. An inscription pencilled on the book kept by the British Museum pretends that all the exemplars Lavoisier could find were destroyed. It is not rigorous to conclude on a single document, especially when it is not signed, but it is sufficient to induce doubt.

  9. [Pierre Bayen rediscovers the Essays of Jean Rey].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Jean Rey, a physician from The Bugue, a little town near Bergerac, published, in 1630, a book entitled "Essays" in which he explained the increase of the mass of lead, when it was strongly heated, by the fixation of a part of the air. This revolutionary publication was not received by the European scientists, because the Father Mersenne, "the secretary of learned Europe", was not able to repeat his experiments. Between 1774 and 1775, Pierre Bayen, who was a military apothecary, published his Works concerning the "precipitate per se", for us HgO, showing that when this compound was destroyed by heating, it produced a gas, and that the mass of this gas and the mass of the mercury obtained were equal to the mass of the "precipitate per se". He concluded that the phlogiston theory was contradictory with the results of the experiments. When, later on, Lavoisier published his important article on the increase of the mass of steal when it was heated in the air, he "forgot" to cite the Works of Bayen. In January 1775, Pierre Bayen published a letter in which he mentioned that he had discovered an exemplar of Jean Rey's book and explained that this physician of the 17th century had supposed the explanation that had been proved by Lavoisier. Nicolas Gobet then published a new edition of the "Essays" in 1777, but this new edition became itself quite rare. An inscription pencilled on the book kept by the British Museum pretends that all the exemplars Lavoisier could find were destroyed. It is not rigorous to conclude on a single document, especially when it is not signed, but it is sufficient to induce doubt. PMID:25671980

  10. The effect of spin induced magnetization on Jeans instability of viscous and resistive quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2014-03-15

    The effect of spin induced magnetization and electrical resistivity incorporating the viscosity of the medium is examined on the Jeans instability of quantum magnetoplasma. Formulation of the system is done by using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. The analysis of the problem is carried out by normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is derived from set of perturbed equations to analyse the growth rate and condition of self-gravitational Jeans instability. To discuss the influence of resistivity, magnetization, and viscosity parameters on Jeans instability, the general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. In the case of transverse propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be affected by the viscosity, magnetization, resistivity, and magnetic field strength whereas Jeans criterion of instability is modified by the magnetization and quantum parameter. In the longitudinal mode of propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be modified due to the viscosity and quantum correction in which the Jeans condition of instability is influenced only by quantum parameter. The other non-gravitating Alfven mode in this direction is affected by finite electrical resistivity, spin induced magnetization, and viscosity. The numerical study for the growth rate of Jeans instability is carried out for both in the transverse and longitudinal direction of propagation to the magnetic field. The effect of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability in quantum plasma is analysed.

  11. Jeans instability of magnetized quantum plasma: Effect of viscosity, rotation and finite Larmor radius corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Shweta Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2015-07-31

    The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability.

  12. [Fatal diseases and "imaginary" suffering. "Hypochondria" and "consumption" in the correspondence between Jean Paul and Johann Bernhard Hermann, with a perspective on Jean Paul's literature and aesthetics].

    PubMed

    Meier, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The German writerJean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 1763-1825) and his friendJohann Bernhard Hermann (1761-1790) became acquainted with the thoughts of late Enlightenment at the University of Leipzig. They particularly appreciated the anthropology of Ernst Platner, who taught philosophy and aesthetics as well as medicine. Their confidential correspondence contains reflections on their respective situation and well being. Both write about feeling ill and label their illness "hypochondria". In the course of the correspondence Jean Paul's understanding of hypochondria evolves from an illness of the entrails as he follows Hermann, who supports the modern concept of hypochondria as an illness of the nerves. Two important themes from this correspondence recur in Jean Paul's novels and tales: firstly, his way of expressing comfort is related to his aesthetics, and secondly, the satirical way of portraying at least certain aspects of illness as imaginary reappears in his first successful novel "The Invisible Lodge" (1793).

  13. Interbeing and Mindfulness: A Bridge to Understanding Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzman, Kathleen L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains and compares Thich Naht Hanh's concept of interbeing and mindfulness and Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Describes the application of mindful practices to holistic nursing and nursing education. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  14. In memory of Jean-François Stéphan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, René

    2016-01-01

    This thematic issue of Comptes rendus Geoscience has been assembled to honor the memory of our late colleague and friend Jean-François Stéphan, whose remarkable scientific and community-directed activity has left a deep imprint on both the French and the International Earth Science communities. This volume brings together contributions of colleagues of Jean-François who were also close friends. Naturally, tectonics is the common theme of these contributions. Some of the papers presented here focus on tectonic questions and/or regions Jean-François worked on during his career; other papers present studies Jean-François motivated or encouraged in one way or another. Taken together, the papers of this thematic issue take the reader on a beautiful trip, from past to current tectonics.

  15. Jean-Baptiste Belley-Mars: The Obscure Life, the Authentic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how Jean-Baptiste Belley-Mars, a former slave, influenced Haitian history through his role in arguing for the abolition of slavery in the French colonies at the 1794 Paris National Convention. (MJL)

  16. Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) and the Belgrade School of Physiology.

    PubMed

    Andjus, P R; Stojilkovic, S S; Cvijic, G

    2011-01-01

    The founder of physiology studies in the Balkans and the pioneer of research on hypothermia, Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) was born 1884 in L'Havre. Giaja gained his PhD at the Sorbonne in 1909. In 1910 he established the first Chair of Physiology in the Balkans and organized the first Serbian Institute for Physiology at the School of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade. He led this Institute for more than 40 subsequent years. His most notable papers were in the field of thermoregulation and bioenergetics. Djaja became member of the Serbian and Croatian academies of science and doctor honoris causa of Sorbonne. In 1952 for the seminal work on the behavior of deep cooled warm blooded animals he became associate member of the National Medical Academy in Paris. In 1955 the French Academy of Sciences elected him as associate member in place of deceased Sir Alexander Fleming. Djaja died in 1957 during a congress held in his honor. He left more than 200 scientific and other papers and the golden DaVincian credo "Nulla dies sine experimento". His legacy was continued by several generations of researchers, the most prominent among them being Stefan Gelineo, Radoslav Andjus and Vojislav Petrović.

  17. [Jean-Paul Marat: physician, scientist and revolutionary].

    PubMed

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Physician, scientist and revolutionary are the biographical aspects that had better summarize the life of Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793). Due to the role that he played during the French Revolution, his work as a physician and scientist, prior to the events of l789, was forgotten. Marat made important contributions in the area of optics and electricity reflected in numerous publications, as well as translating Newton's Opticks (1787). Well known for his radical and aggressive ideas, his political vocation led him to embrace the revolutionary cause after the events of the Bastille. His figure was not indifferent to his contemporaries; although considered a hero by the poorest citizens, aristocrats and bourgeois considered him a cruel extremist. During the last years of his life, he suffered a cutaneous disease, the diagnosis of which is still a matter of controversy. Proposed diagnoses include eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, scabies and dermatitis herpetica, among others. Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday in 1793, becoming a martyr for some segments of the society that worshiped his memory. He was a man with a complex and curious personality whose figure and legacy are still a matter of discussion.

  18. [Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey: the founder of urological traumatology].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Ameijenda, C; Lent, V; Sohn, M

    2012-12-01

    Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842) was Surgeon-in-Chief of the Grande Army under Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) and personal physician of the Emperor. Against the opposition of the traditionalists he introduced the "ambulances volantes", the so-called flying ambulances. The aim was the medical treatment of the injured soldiers immediately on the battlefield. This revolutionary treatment led to a benefit not only for the own soldiers, but also for the wounded enemies. His innovation in the field of immediate assistance of wounded persons, together with Larreys' outstanding medical competence, saved thousands of soldiers lives on the battlefield of the Napoleonic wars. His memories concerning the military campaigns, have been even up to the 20th century one of the standard works of modern military surgery. He had as well great interest in urolological injuries of the urinary system and their conservative and operative care. Up to these days, his work shows a surprising actuality and perfect anatomic understanding. In a time without anaesthetics, antibiotics and under primitive circumstances, Larrey and his collegues accomplished surgical feats. Larreys flying ambulances were copied by many different countries. The American Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (M.A.S.H) is clearly based on his thoughts and ideals. In our opinion he is the father of the modern war surgery as well the urological traumatology. PMID:23254353

  19. [Jean Martin Charcot and his controversial research on hysteria].

    PubMed

    von Plessen, K

    1996-12-10

    Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) is known as the founder of neurology in France and was one of the most versatile medical researchers of his times. At the climax of his career in the Salpêtrière in Paris he began to study the phenomenon of hysteria. Hysterical symptoms were very common in the late nineteenth century in Europe and were looked upon as a challenge to medical science. By means of accurate observation, Charcot managed to describe the distinct features of hysteria. The disease became an accepted medical entity and patients were less often regarded as simulators. Charcot presumed that the disease had a physical cause, and tried to prove this by means of patho-anatomical studies and later by experiment, with help of hypnosis. Charcot's despotic personality, the extraordinary circumstances at the Salpêtrière and the hysteric patients formed a fascinating setting that gives exemplary insight into the non-linear progress of medical science.

  20. [Jean-Martin Charcot, his time and Kinnosuke Miura].

    PubMed

    Aki, M

    1993-12-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot died unexpectedly on August 16, 1893, just 100 years ago. As a young physician, he worked in pathology and medicine under Rayer for nine years, and wrote on diseases of the heart, lungs and kidneys, on rheumatism and gout. In 1862, he was appointed as medical superintendent to the Hospice de la Salpêtrière. This institution contained a population of over 5000 persons, affected with every kind of chronic maladies, particularly with diseases of the nervous system. As a clinician, he could begin to observe, examine and describe with his excellent master Duchenne de Boulogne. And as an anatomo-pathologist in his association with his colleague Vulpian, he devoted himself to compare the pathological findings with clinical records, to bring order into this chaos. During the 8-year period from 1862 to 1870, Charcot made many discoveries that made firm basis for neurology as one new specialty in medicine. The first beautiful fruit of their effort was the clinico-pathological identification of "Disseminated Sclerosis", clearly differentiated from "Paralysis agitans" of which first reported by Parkinson 1817. He succeeded Vulpian to the chair of pathological anatomy in 1872. The sequential decrement of the shift may be a reason why the disease is self-limited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Jean-Martin Charcot: neurologist by avocation, nephrologist by yearning.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2011-01-01

    In an age of medical advances and specialization, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) helped found the discipline of neurology and in 1882 was appointed the first Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System in France. As an investigator with broad interests and vast knowledge, Charcot contributed to several other disciplines. An early mentor and dominant figure in Charcot's formative years was Pierre Rayer (1793-1867), famous for his seminal contributions to the study of the kidney, who gifted to Charcot his passion for clinical pathological correlations and likely a yearning for the study of kidney diseases. Famous for the clarity and incisiveness of his formal teaching presentations, Charcot lectured on the kidney at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris in 1877. Translated into English and published as a book titled Lectures on Bright's Disease, those lectures became widely accessible and quoted in the literature through the 1940s. In addition, at a time when he was already concentrating on the study of neurological disorders, Charcot maintained his life-long interest in the kidney and published original studies on the pathological changes of the kidney in gout and experimental lead poisoning, as well as supporting a study of hysterical ischuria by his students.

  2. 50 years of space science (Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik-1 triggered my fascination for space at the age of 20. The past 50 years have allowed me to study the Sun with sounding rockets and satellites, revealing the complexity of our star, contributing to the understanding of its physics, and offering surprising manifestations of its behavior and of its effects on Earth. Building instruments for space astronomy, managing teams of space scientists and engineers, led me to become the science director of the European space agency between 1983 and 2001 where I formulated and managed the Horizon 2000 program, which led Europe to occupy the front row of world space science. The Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture offers me an opportunity, to describe the most spectacular achievements of this long-term plan and to outline some basic principles for reaching success, including the essential role of international cooperation with shared partnership. The Lecture also identifies key problems and controversial issues that space astronomy and exploration will face in the 21st century.

  3. [Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey: the founder of urological traumatology].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Ameijenda, C; Lent, V; Sohn, M

    2012-12-01

    Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842) was Surgeon-in-Chief of the Grande Army under Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) and personal physician of the Emperor. Against the opposition of the traditionalists he introduced the "ambulances volantes", the so-called flying ambulances. The aim was the medical treatment of the injured soldiers immediately on the battlefield. This revolutionary treatment led to a benefit not only for the own soldiers, but also for the wounded enemies. His innovation in the field of immediate assistance of wounded persons, together with Larreys' outstanding medical competence, saved thousands of soldiers lives on the battlefield of the Napoleonic wars. His memories concerning the military campaigns, have been even up to the 20th century one of the standard works of modern military surgery. He had as well great interest in urolological injuries of the urinary system and their conservative and operative care. Up to these days, his work shows a surprising actuality and perfect anatomic understanding. In a time without anaesthetics, antibiotics and under primitive circumstances, Larrey and his collegues accomplished surgical feats. Larreys flying ambulances were copied by many different countries. The American Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (M.A.S.H) is clearly based on his thoughts and ideals. In our opinion he is the father of the modern war surgery as well the urological traumatology.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

    2002-12-01

    This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third

  5. [Jean-Martin Charcot and his student, Kinnosuke Miura].

    PubMed

    Miura, Y

    1993-12-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was professor and chairman of the neurological clinic at La Salpêtrière, Paris (1882-1893). His student, Doctor Kinnosuke Miura (1864-1950) (my father) graduated in 1887 from Tokyo University. After two years' training under Prof. Erwin von Bälz in Tokyo, he obtained an opportunity to go abroad as a private doctor of Prince Arisugawa. He stayed in Paris during a period of 1889-1890. In these days, he had a chance to get acquaintance with Charcot. When his duty to the Prince was over, he could join the Charcot's clinic during 1891-1892. As he was deeply impressed by Charcot's neurology, after his return to Japan, he organized the Japanese Society of Neurology in 1902 with his colleague, Prof. Shuzo Kure. In the late 1930s, when I was a student at Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo University, my father told me very often how Maître Charcot studied carefully neurological symptoms; how he observed patients every day, at least during two weeks until he presented the patients before the students on every Tuesday at the amphitheatre of La Salpestrière; how Charcot had keen eye at autopsy, etc. He emphasized the importance of anatomo-pathologic examination besides careful clinical observation. Even after the death of Charcot, he continued a good relationships with Charcot's successors, especially with Pierre Marie and Emile Achard. On May 25, 1925, he celebrated a centenary anniversary of Charcot's birthday in Tokyo.

  6. Did Jean-Martin Charcot contribute to stroke?

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Paciaroni, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke was never identified as a significant, autonomous field of activity of the emerging school of neurology at La Salpêtrière, which developed after the appointment of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) during the last days of 1861. However, stroke was already present in Charcot's first paper (1851), which dealt with a case of multiple organ cardiac embolism, including middle cerebral artery infarction, at a time when the studies of Rudolf Virchow on thromboembolism were unknown in France. A few years later, Charcot made a still up-to-date description of vascular intermittent claudication, which had only been reported in the horse. In the 1860s, Charcot and his pupils presented several major works dealing with cerebrovascular disease, including famous studies on miliary aneurysms in cerebral hemorrhage. This work was done with Charles Bouchard, at the time Charcot's 'interne', but who would become one of his 'political' opponents 2 decades later, when in 1892, as president of the 'agrégation' jury, he rejected the professorship application of 4 protégés of Charcot, including Joseph Babinski and Georges Gilles de la Tourette. Further work on cerebrovascular disease by Charcot included histological studies of brain 'softening', paraneoplastic cerebral arterial occlusion and consequences of stroke (e.g. arthropathies, vegetative changes, contractures and abnormal movements). Brain localization, one of Charcot's major neurological topics, was also largely based on stroke case studies. Charcot's work on stroke remains poorly recognized, but it demonstrates his unique skills in stimulating scientific work in younger colleagues, many of whom subsequently became major figures of neurology and psychiatry.

  7. The Jeans modeling of the Milky Way galaxy: implications of the kinematics of the stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samurović, S.; Lalović, A.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: We investigate the predictions of Newtonian dynamics and the MOND theory related to the Milky Way galaxy using the Jeans equation. Methods: We used the measurements of the radial velocities of the blue horizontal branch (BHB) halo stars to test the predictions of Newtonian gravity and to also extend our study to different MOND models, taking orbital anisotropies that we calculate into account. Results: The halo stars of the Galaxy were used as a tracer of the Galaxy's gravitational potential. The Jeans equation was calculated for both the Newtonian and the MOND approaches. We assumed spherical symmetry and calculated the Jeans equation by taking orbital anisotropies into account. Circular velocities for both approaches were also analyzed. Conclusions: We solved the Jeans equation in spherical approximation and confirm that the Newtonian model without dark matter cannot fit the observed velocity dispersion profile and that the truncated flat model with dark matter can provide a good fit to the observed velocity dispersion. For the MOND models, from the Jeans modeling and the models of the circular velocity curves, we found that two models can provide a fit to the data without significant anisotropies whereas two other tested models need various anisotropies to obtain the same result.

  8. EAARL Topography - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) and bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Louisiana, acquired on September 22, 2006. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

  9. Delayed Attentional Engagement in the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Chun, Marvin M.; van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Observers often miss the 2nd of 2 visual targets (first target [T1] and second target [T2]) when these targets are presented closely in time; the attentional blink (AB). The authors hypothesized that the AB occurs because the attentional response to T2 is delayed by T1 processing, causing T2 to lose a competition for attention to the item that…

  10. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

    2002-12-01

    This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third

  12. Design jeans for recycling: a supply chain case study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Harrie; Goorhuis, Maarten

    2014-11-01

    Because the insight is raising that waste prevention needs an integral product chain approach, a product chain project was awarded with an International Solid Waste Association grant. The project decided to focus on jeans because of the large environmental impacts of cotton and the low recycling rates. The project used an open innovative approach by involving many actors from the different phases of the chain and included student and applied researchers. In a 'design jeans for recycling' students' workshop, prototypes of jeans that are easier to recycle have been developed. Integrating the new generation from different disciplines in the project proved to be very successful. The results show that an open innovation process can lead to very creative ideas and that lessons learned from this project could be used to develop new chain projects for other products. An important condition is that key actors are willing to cooperate in an open innovation approach.

  13. Design jeans for recycling: a supply chain case study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Harrie; Goorhuis, Maarten

    2014-11-01

    Because the insight is raising that waste prevention needs an integral product chain approach, a product chain project was awarded with an International Solid Waste Association grant. The project decided to focus on jeans because of the large environmental impacts of cotton and the low recycling rates. The project used an open innovative approach by involving many actors from the different phases of the chain and included student and applied researchers. In a 'design jeans for recycling' students' workshop, prototypes of jeans that are easier to recycle have been developed. Integrating the new generation from different disciplines in the project proved to be very successful. The results show that an open innovation process can lead to very creative ideas and that lessons learned from this project could be used to develop new chain projects for other products. An important condition is that key actors are willing to cooperate in an open innovation approach. PMID:25245293

  14. Secondary instability of Jeans mode in a gravitating fluid with uniform rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2011-06-15

    An axisymmetric rotating gas in a gravitational field is examined for its stability to two dimensional disturbances with first azimuthal mode. It is shown that a quasi-equilibrium is established when pressure and Coriolis force act against primary Jeans instability. A linear perturbation on this inhomogeneous equilibrium gives rise to secondary instability, which grows differently from homogeneous case. A stationary phase integral method demonstrates that the instability grows algebraically due to the free energy associated with the axisymmetric equilibrium. This secondary Jeans instability may have some bearing with the structure formations in the universe.

  15. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness. PMID:22203813

  16. A League of Willing Workers: The Impact of Northern Philanthropy, Virginia Estelle Randolph and the Jeanes Teachers in Early Twentieth-Century Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincham, Linda B.

    2005-01-01

    The Jeanes Fund helped solve the rural school problem and recognized the work of Virginia Randolph whose philosophy and teaching techniques were adopted by the Jeanes teachers. The work of Virginia Randolph and the Jeanes teachers is detailed and how their contributions throughout the South earned accolades for local school and community…

  17. Probes into the Actuality of Fantasy: Jean Epstein's "La Chute de la Maison Usher."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpole, Charles H.

    "La Chute de la Maison Usher" is a film adaptation by Jean Epstein of two stories by Edgar Allan Poe, "The Fall of the House of Usher" and "The Oval Portrait." This film was typical of Epstein's artistic preoccupation with the ambivalence of reality as expressed in fantasy or surrealism, in qualities of movement, and in the vagaries of seeing and…

  18. Rhetoric in Group Action: A Theory of Social Movements from Jean-Paul Sartre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Barbara

    The implications of a social movement theory advanced by Jean-Paul Sartre in his "Critique of Dialectical Reason" is examined in this paper. The paper notes that unlike sociologists and rhetoricians who have stressed the psychology of movement adherents, the reasons for movement formation, or the movement's interaction with power agents, Sartre…

  19. Resisting a Discourse of Mastery: A Conversation with Jean-Francois Lyotard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with Jean-Francois Lyotard, which provides insight into many concerns, including his views on culture, feminism, postmodernism, and writing. Explains Lyotard's belief that philosophy and inquiry ought to pursue perpetual questions as opposed to "answers" or mastery of a subject. (TB)

  20. A Portrait of the Teacher as Friend and Artist: The Example of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter

    2011-01-01

    The following is a reflection on the possibility of teaching by example, and especially as the idea of teaching by example is developed in the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. My thesis is that Rousseau created a literary version of himself in his writings as an embodiment of his philosophy, rather in the same way and with the same purpose that…

  1. Jean Vigo's "Zéro De Conduite" and the Spaces of Revolt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de conduite" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…

  2. [Jean Chièze (1898-1975), medical engraver and illustrator].

    PubMed

    Bouday, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    As an imaginative and sensitive woodcutter Jean Chièze illustrated more than 130 books and realised many draws, paintings and lithographs and about 2000 engravings. He took part in some editions about Rabelais, Hippocrates, Galen and Ambroise Paré.

  3. A Return to Love in William James and Jean-Luc Marion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Samuel Rocha primarily addresses, and challenges, the modern conception of reason and the lowly place of intuition, feeling, and love in what has become traditional philosophy and education. Drawing upon the rich thought of William James and Jean-Luc Marion, Rocha introduces the reader to a certain harmony between their ideas, most…

  4. Can You Hear Me Now? Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Listening Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Megan J. Laverty argues that Jean-Jacques Rousseau's conception of humane communication and his proposal for teaching it have implications for our understanding of the role of listening in education. She develops this argument through a close reading of Rousseau's most substantial work on education, "Emile: Or, On Education". Laverty…

  5. The Autodidact in Defense of Himself: Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Knut Hamsun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttry, Dolores

    1980-01-01

    Describes Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Knut Hamsun as self-educated men who never ceased to warn of the evils of formal education. Quoting from their works, considers their feelings toward education as revealed in Rousseau's "Emile," with its description of ideal education, and in the ill effects of education on Hamsun's characters. (AYC)

  6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau among the Footnotes: Mapping Interdisciplinary Research in Social Science Citation Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.; Buchanan, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Examination of citations indexed in Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) reveals salient patterns which can be helpful in determining interdisciplinarity and/or disciplinarity. Collection development efforts can be enhanced by examination of citation patterns of published research related to a classical social science author such as Jean-Jacques…

  7. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  8. The Enunciation of the Subject: Sharing Jean-Luc Nancy's Singular Plural in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the implications of Jean-Luc Nancy's reading of the subject for educational philosophy by connecting his re-interpretation of Descartes to his later thinking on what he names the ontological singular plural. Nancy's re-imagining of the Cogito coalesces around the figure of the mouth ("la bouche") through…

  9. A Biographic Comparison Tracing the Origin of Their Ideas of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Susan

    This paper compares the early life, background, and education of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. It makes the case that an adaptation of the curve developed by C. Quigley can be used to trace the motivations of both Piaget and Vygotsky in creating their respective theories. The analysis also reveals the adversity that each man faced. Although they…

  10. A Biographic Comparison Tracing the Similarities in the Lives of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Susan

    This paper focuses on similarities in the lives of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky to enlighten study of their pedagogies and to provide some information for current classroom techniques. Neither man had a great deal to say about his early life, although Piaget published an autobiography. A number of primary sources were used to construct the…

  11. Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner: Stages of Child Development and Implications for Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Iona H.

    1982-01-01

    The views of Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner concerning children's stages of development are compared and related to present-day instructional practices used in the Waldorf schools, which employ Steiner's ideas. Educational principles and practices used at the elementary school level are discussed. (PP)

  12. Manufactured Memory, Altered Belief and Self Report Mirage: The Alleged False Memory of Jean Piaget Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Frank

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that a Jean Piaget anecdote about an alleged memory implanted in a young child leading to both a visual and semantic memory that persists despite disconfirming evidence is entirely different than the recovered memory debate, which is about the alleged introduction of memories to grown adults. (CR)

  13. Looking for Marx: A Review of "Marx and Education" by Jean Anyon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2011-01-01

    "Marx and Education" is the second and latest volume in the new "Routledge Key Ideas in Education Series". The series is intended to offer readers concise introductions to specific sub-field developments in the field of educational scholarship. For their "Marx and Education" volume, Greg Dimitriadis and Bob Lingard invited Jean Anyon to illuminate…

  14. An Interview with Mark Ahlness and Jean Carmody about the Earth Day Groceries Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strangman, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an interview with Mark Ahlness, a third-grade teacher at Arbor Heights Elementary School in Seattle, Washington, and Jean Carmody, an art teacher at two elementary schools in Cranston, Rhode Island. Describes their collaborative project called the Earth Day Groceries Project. Explains that in this Internet project, students decorate…

  15. Il transito di Mercurio osservato da Jean Gambart il 5 maggio 1832: analisi ed eliometria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Jean Gambart (1800-1836) observed the transit of Mercury in 1832 with a Dollond refractor of 67 mm at 100x under optimal meteo conditions and 1" of seeing. The contact times reported on Astron. Nach. 10, 259 (1832) are used to find the solar diameter -0.13'' lower than its standard value.

  16. Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy in white room on launch pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the white room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-66 mission specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy is assisted with his partial pressure launch/entry suit by close-out crew members Travis Thompson and Danny Wyatt (background) before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis for its November 3 launch.

  17. The Semantics of Cross-Examination: A Case Study of the Jean Harris Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetz, Janice

    Use of communication theory in an analysis of the court proceedings of the Jean Harris murder trial suggests that Harris contributed to her conviction with her inconsistent use of language and her refusal to remain in low-profile. Harris' defense attorney attempted to portray her as an upstanding, well-bred member of the community, and as a…

  18. Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842): founder of military surgery and trauma care.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, M; Rosenberg, T; Liakakos, T; Androutsos, G

    2011-01-01

    Dominique-Jean Larrey was a distinguished surgeon in chief of Napoleon's army and a faithful servant of the Empire. His surgical skills and inventions, his absolute attachment and devotion to his profession, his humanitarian spirit and courage entitled him as one of history's greatest military surgeons. PMID:21520773

  19. The Role of Trustworthiness in Teaching: An Examination of "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that trustworthiness plays in the ability of teachers to function as moral role models. Through exploration of Muriel Spark's novel, "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie," I explain some of the central features of trustworthiness as a moral virtue and suggest how these features are critical…

  20. "He sees the development of children's concepts upon a background of sociology": Jean Piaget's honorary degree at Harvard University in 1936.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2004-02-01

    In the recent memory, Jean Piaget has been known as a cognitive developmental psychologist. But in 1936 when Harvard gave him his first honorary degree, he was recognized mainly as a sociologist. Why did Harvard honor him in 1936? Who knew his work well enough to nominate him? This article will address these questions by exploring archival documents from different sources. Evidence draws our attention to a broad social and intellectual endeavor in philanthropy, other social sciences, and especially industrial research that brought Piaget across the water. This article also attempts to interpret the circumstances of the nomination process inside and outside of Harvard University by using a theory of institutional design. It suggests that embodied in Harvard's honor of Piaget in 1936 was an idealistic act in social designing for a future society.

  1. "He sees the development of children's concepts upon a background of sociology": Jean Piaget's honorary degree at Harvard University in 1936.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2004-02-01

    In the recent memory, Jean Piaget has been known as a cognitive developmental psychologist. But in 1936 when Harvard gave him his first honorary degree, he was recognized mainly as a sociologist. Why did Harvard honor him in 1936? Who knew his work well enough to nominate him? This article will address these questions by exploring archival documents from different sources. Evidence draws our attention to a broad social and intellectual endeavor in philanthropy, other social sciences, and especially industrial research that brought Piaget across the water. This article also attempts to interpret the circumstances of the nomination process inside and outside of Harvard University by using a theory of institutional design. It suggests that embodied in Harvard's honor of Piaget in 1936 was an idealistic act in social designing for a future society. PMID:15022668

  2. Attention Breaks in Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, A. H.; Percival, F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes research into student attention patterns during lectures that suggests that student attention declines steadily during a lecture, and that the rate of decrease is dependent upon several variables including subject difficulty. (MLH)

  3. Training Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

  4. Ensaio de Pedagogia Comparada: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) X Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) (Essay on Compared Pedagogy: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) X Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanella, Francisco Cock

    2000-01-01

    Finds that, although the thought of Jean Jacques Rousseau is frequently cited as an influence on Immanuel Kant, this has no basis regarding pedagogical influence. Compares the "Projecto" and "Emilio" of Rousseau with Kant's "Pedagogia." (BT)

  5. Two Schemes of Intellectual Development: A Comparison of Development as Defined by William Perry and Jean Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the theories of Jean Piaget and William Perry (using individual interviews with college students) shows that the two theories outline different and independent processes for assessing intellectual development. (JN)

  6. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  7. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  8. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  9. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  10. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  11. The pursuit of being in the life and thought of Jean-Paul Sartre.

    PubMed

    Atwood, G E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has examined the relationship between the life and the thought of Jean-Paul Sartre. The central themes of Sartre's personal existence are shown to revolve around a struggle for self-definition and self-formation, rooted in the empathic failures of significant others during his formative years. It is argued that Sartre's experience of this struggle is mirrored and symbolized by the dialectic of being and nothingness which constitutes the central preoccupation of his philosophy.

  12. Analytical solutions to the mass-anisotropy degeneracy with higher order Jeans analysis: a general method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Thomas; Fairbairn, Malcolm

    2013-07-01

    The Jeans analysis is often used to infer the total density of a system by relating the velocity moments of an observable tracer population to the underlying gravitational potential. This technique has recently been applied in the search for dark matter (DM) in objects such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies where the presence of DM is inferred via stellar velocities. A precise account of the density is needed to constrain the expected gamma-ray flux from DM self-annihilation and to distinguish between cold and warm DM models. Unfortunately, the traditional method of fitting the second-order Jeans equation to the tracer dispersion suffers from an unbreakable degeneracy of solutions due to the unknown velocity anisotropy of the projected system. To tackle this degeneracy, one can appeal to higher moments of the Jeans equation. By introducing an analogue to the Binney anisotropy parameter at fourth order, β' we create a framework that encompasses all solutions to the fourth-order Jeans equations rather than the restricted range imposed by the separable augmented density. The condition β' = f(β) ensures that the degeneracy is lifted and we interpret the separable augmented density system as the order-independent case β' = β. For a generic choice of β', we present the line-of-sight projection of the fourth moment and how it could be incorporated into a joint likelihood analysis of the dispersion and kurtosis. The framework is then extended to all orders such that constraints may be placed to ensure a physically positive distribution function. Having presented the mathematical framework, we then use it to make preliminary analyses of simulated dwarf spheroidal data leading to interesting results which strongly motivate further study.

  13. Jean Falcon (1491-1541), a great surgeon and anatomist of the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkou, Maria; Skandalakis, Panagiotis; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Jean Falcon, an Aragon native, became a famous surgeon at the Faculty of Montpellier. He was a Royal physician, wealthy enough to live a luxurious life and treat influential patients. His lectures were legendary, and his works gave him fame among the surgeons' class. Of all his manuscripts stands the "Guidon", which became an anatomical surgeons' handbook, worthy of reference from the scientific community for centuries.

  14. d'Alembert, Jean-Baptiste Le Rond (1717-83)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    French mathematician, born in Paris. A foundling, he was named after the place where he was left, the church of St Jean Baptiste de Rond. He published d'Alembert's principle (the principle that the action of a force produces an equal and opposite reaction in the mass that it is accelerating) in Traité de Dynamique (1743), which was a new interpretation of Newton's dynamics. He used his new formul...

  15. Profiles of international archives: Les archives Jean Piaget, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2013-05-01

    This research report provides a look behind closed doors at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva, Switzerland. It situates the potential visitor, contextualizes the Archives in its own history, and then describes what scholars can expect to find. New details about Piaget's views on Equal Rights and Equal Pay are also provided, including a look at how they affected the women who worked his factory (esp. Bärbel Inhelder). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Jean Piaget's experiences on the couch: some clues to a mystery.

    PubMed

    Schepeler, E M

    1993-04-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct the historical, institutional, and personal circumstances leading to and surrounding Jean Piaget's psychoanalysis with Sabina Spielrein. It appears that the young Piaget's interest in psychoanalysis largely emanated from his long-standing problems with his mother. It is suggested that Piaget's lifelong tendency to intellectualise his own emotional experiences may relate to the near omission of affective factors in his psychological theories.

  17. Jean Piaget's experiences on the couch: some clues to a mystery.

    PubMed

    Schepeler, E M

    1993-04-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct the historical, institutional, and personal circumstances leading to and surrounding Jean Piaget's psychoanalysis with Sabina Spielrein. It appears that the young Piaget's interest in psychoanalysis largely emanated from his long-standing problems with his mother. It is suggested that Piaget's lifelong tendency to intellectualise his own emotional experiences may relate to the near omission of affective factors in his psychological theories. PMID:8491531

  18. Profiles of international archives: Les archives Jean Piaget, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2013-05-01

    This research report provides a look behind closed doors at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva, Switzerland. It situates the potential visitor, contextualizes the Archives in its own history, and then describes what scholars can expect to find. New details about Piaget's views on Equal Rights and Equal Pay are also provided, including a look at how they affected the women who worked his factory (esp. Bärbel Inhelder). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23544355

  19. The effect of suspended particles on Jean's criterion for gravitational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollkind, David J.; Yates, Kemble R.

    1990-07-01

    The effect that the proper inclusion of suspended particles has on Jeans' criterion for the self-gravitational instability of an unbounded nonrotating adiabatic gas cloud is examined by formulating the appropriate model system, introducing particular physically plausible equations of state and constitutive relations, performing a linear stability analysis of a uniformly expanding exact solution to these governing equations, and exploiting the fact that there exists a natural small material parameter for this problem given by N1/n sub 1, the ratio of the initial number density for the particles to that for the gas. The main result of this investigation is the derivation of an altered criterion which can substantially reduce Jeans' original critical wavelength for instability. It is then shown that the existing discrepancy between Jeans' theoretical prediction using and actual observational data relevant to the Andromeda nebula M31 can be accounted for by this new criterion of assuming suspended particles of a reasonable grain size and distribution to be present.

  20. Embodied Infant Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  1. Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the…

  2. Attention Attenuates Metacontrast Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Jennifer; Ro, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The influence of attention on perceptual awareness was examined using metacontrast masking. Attention was manipulated with endogenous cues to assess the effects on the temporal and spatial parameters of target visibility. Experiment 1 examined the time course of effective masking when the target and mask set were presented at an attended vs. an…

  3. Attentional processes and meditation.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Holley S; Adair, Kathryn C

    2010-12-01

    Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting, selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3) identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore, effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice, suggesting that meditators' better visual attention is not just immediate, but extends to contexts separate from meditation practice.

  4. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  5. Attention, reading and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Skottun, Bernt C; Skoyles, John R

    2006-07-01

    It has been proposed that magnocellular deficits cause dyslexia through reduced attention. According to one model (Vidyasagar, Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2004; 87: 4-10), attention is shifted from letter to letter during fixations and magnocellular deficits are hypothesised to cause reading problems by interfering with the ability to control the attention. The present report points out several problems in this model. 1. It requires dissociation of eye movements and attention, which may be problematic within the framework of reading. 2. There is direct evidence to indicate that reading is not carried out in a letter-to-letter manner during fixations. 3. There are aspects of the visual performance of dyslexic readers, which are difficult to attribute to inattention. 4. There are indications that attentional deficiencies of dyslexic readers are not associated with magnocellular deficits. 5. The evidence for linking magnocellular deficits to dyslexia in general is weak.

  6. Dissociative identity disorder: a feminist approach to inpatient treatment using Jean Baker Miller's Relational Model.

    PubMed

    Riggs, S R; Bright, M A

    1997-08-01

    Women diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) may experience episodic crises characterized by intense states of disconnection from self and others. Crises which result in potential harm to self/others may require inpatient treatment. With economic emphasis on shorter lengths of stay, a treatment program or model which focuses on the DID patient's sense of connectedness to self and others can enhance treatment efforts during brief inpatient hospitalizations. The Relational Model of Jean Baker Miller uses mutuality and empowerment within the therapeutic relationship and inpatient mileu to move the patient beyond therapeutic impasse/crisis toward a state of greater connectedness to self and others.

  7. Sentenced in sorrow: the role of asylum in the Jean Gianini murder defence.

    PubMed

    Gelb, S A

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the role played by the notion of asylum in the legal battle over confessed murderer Jean Gianini's mental competence and commitment. Gianini was a 16 year old who murdered his former teacher in a small upstate New York town in 1914. His trial was the first in the US to employ the Binet-Simon intelligence test as a defence and featured a clash of expert witnesses whose credibility was based upon their residence and work in asylums. The verdict of 'not guilty due to criminal imbecility' was due to the defence team's successful portrayal of the asylum as a punishing prison from which the defendant would never be released.

  8. Fertility in couples heterozygous for the tyrosinemia gene in Saguenay Lac-St-Jean.

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, M; Lamarre, V; Scriver, C R; Larochelle, J; Bouchard, G

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of 84 couples from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, jointly heterozygous for the tyrosinemia gene, was done to determine whether the birth of an homozygous child affected their fertility rates. The mean number of children born to tyrosinemia and control couples between 1940 and 1986 was not different (p greater than 0.05). The knowledge that tyrosinemia was an autosomal recessive disorder, with risk of recurrence in these families, did not appear to modify reproductive behaviour. Fertility fell significantly in both the tyrosinemia and control families in the period of observation. This change reflects the decline in fertility of French Canadians in general during this period.

  9. Jean-Martin Charcot's contributions to the interface between neurology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    White, M B

    1997-08-01

    Although much has been written about Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) as a neurologist and his commitment to the hysterics of the Salpêtrière, his influence on modern psychiatric thought has been misunderstood. His contributions range from the diagnosis and understanding of certain aspects of hysteria, which influenced psychoanalysis, to insights into the psychopathology of trauma that foreshadow modern concepts of post-traumatic stress disorder and somatoform disorders. This article reviews these aspects in the context of his contributions as a founder of modern neurology, neuropathology and proponent of the anatomo-clinical approach.

  10. Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893). The man behind the joint disease.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lee J

    2002-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot was one of the most celebrated French physicians of the 19th century. A masterful teacher and a captivating lecturer, Charcot created the foundations of neurology as an independent discipline, and transformed the Salpêtrière hospital, in Paris, into one of the world's greatest teaching centers for clinical neurologic research. His name is attached to the distinct pathologic entity, Charcot's joint disease, that he so meticulously described. This article reviews the highlights of Charcot's career and his clinicoanatomic studies of patients with tabetic arthropathies.

  11. A comparison between John Dewey's theory of inquiry and Jean Piaget's genetic analysis of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, E

    1977-06-01

    This article compares John Dewey's theory of inquiry with Jean Piaget's analysis of the mechanisms implied in the increase of knowledge. The sources for this paper are Dewey's studies on logic and the theory of inquiry and Piaget's historical-critical and psychogenetic investigations. Three major conclusions result from the comparison: first, there are significant convergences between the two theories; second, Piaget's developmental analysis makes explicit what is programmatic in Dewey's investigations; and, finally, Piaget is incorrect in characterizing Dewey's pragmatism as a method that does not meet the criteria of intelligent activity.

  12. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut Kevin R. Kregel, pilot, perform a successful Inflight Maintenance (IFM) on the Bubble Drop Particle Unit (BDPU). The IFM technique was performed initially on the ground at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by alternate payload specialist Pedro Duque of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the procedure being recorded on video and uplinked to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia to aid in the repair.

  13. [Jean-Jacques Lefrère: A miscarried ambition for blood safety in francophone Africa].

    PubMed

    Tayou Tagny, C; Laperche, S; Murphy, E

    2016-02-01

    The announcement of the death of Professor Jean-Jacques Lefrère caused considerable emotion and surprise within the francophone Africa blood transfusion research network. The group was created in 2007 in Paris. Each member that works within this group wanted to pay their last respects through dedicated publication for a brilliant researcher and writer. The tribute describes the creation of the group, its goals, its operations, its achievements and the prospects of its activities while emphasizing the essential role that Professor Lefrère played within the group. PMID:26762688

  14. A comparison between John Dewey's theory of inquiry and Jean Piaget's genetic analysis of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, E

    1977-06-01

    This article compares John Dewey's theory of inquiry with Jean Piaget's analysis of the mechanisms implied in the increase of knowledge. The sources for this paper are Dewey's studies on logic and the theory of inquiry and Piaget's historical-critical and psychogenetic investigations. Three major conclusions result from the comparison: first, there are significant convergences between the two theories; second, Piaget's developmental analysis makes explicit what is programmatic in Dewey's investigations; and, finally, Piaget is incorrect in characterizing Dewey's pragmatism as a method that does not meet the criteria of intelligent activity. PMID:328823

  15. Seduction and the vicissitudes of translation: the work of Jean Laplanche.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims to analyze Jean Laplanche's revision of Freudian metapsychology, which emerged from a critical return to Freud's officially abandoned seduction theory of 1895-1897. Where Freud gradually replaced the model of traumatic seduction with a theory of infantile sexuality and its drives, Laplanche articulates both trauma and sexual drive in a new theory of primal seduction, the fundamental anthropological situation in which human subjectivity is formed. The author concludes by considering Laplanche's modeling of the psychoanalytic situation and his reformulation of transference in relation to mourning and sublimation within the framework of the general theory of seduction.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  17. Nicotinic receptors and attention.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of different attentional functions by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists may be of therapeutic potential in disease conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. For this reason, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects have been the focus of research in humans and in preclinical models. Attention-enhancing effects of the nonselective nAChR agonist nicotine can be observed in human nonsmokers and in laboratory animals, suggesting that benefits go beyond a reversal of withdrawal deficits in smokers. The ultimate aim is to develop compounds acting with greater selectivity than nicotine at a subset of nAChRs, with an effects profile narrowly matching the targeted cognitive deficits and minimizing unwanted effects. To date, compounds tested clinically target the nAChR subtypes most abundant in the brain. To help pinpoint more selectively expressed subtypes critical for attention, studies have aimed at identifying the secondary neurotransmitter systems whose stimulation mediates the attention-enhancing properties of nicotine. Evidence indicates that noradrenaline and glutamate, but not dopamine release, are critical mediators. Thus, attention-enhancing nAChR agents could spare the system central to nicotine dependence. Neuroimaging studies suggest that nAChR agonists act on a variety of brain systems by enhancing activation, reducing activation, and enhancing deactivation by attention tasks. This supports the notion that effects on different attentional functions may be mediated by distinct central mechanisms, consistent with the fact that nAChRs interact with a multitude of brain sites and neurotransmitter systems. The challenge will be to achieve the optimal tone at the right subset of nAChR subtypes to modulate specific attentional functions, employing not just direct agonist properties, but also positive allosteric modulation and low-dose antagonism.

  18. Unmasking the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Potter, Mary C.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    When asked to identify 2 visual targets (T1 and T2 for the 1st and 2nd targets, respectively) embedded in a sequence of distractors, observers will often fail to identify T2 when it appears within 200-500 ms of T1--an effect called the "attentional blink". Recent work shows that attention does not blink when the task is to encode a sequence of…

  19. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  20. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  1. Attention and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  2. Attention and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time. PMID:15974348

  3. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  4. Attention, communication, and schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Rund, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper starts by drawing the historical lines for and giving an account of the main methods and results from an empirical investigation of cognitive disorders in schizophrenics and communication deviances in their parents. The focus of the report is on the significant correlations that were found between some aspects of parents' style of communication and offsprings' cognitive functioning. On the basis of the empirical study, the relationship between attention and communication is discussed, and the issue of whether attentional processes "change identity" by being embedded in a social context is considered. Furthermore, the influence of deviant communication in parents on attentional processes in offspring is discussed in relation to a main postulate in Vygotsky's theory; namely, that higher mental functions are internalized social relations. PMID:4049909

  5. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  6. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  7. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  8. The Influence of Their Notions of Humanism on the Drama of Jean-Paul Sartre and Bertolt Brecht.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivanovic, Judith

    The distinctive philosophies of Bertolt Brecht and Jean-Paul Sartre concerning man's existence directly influence their attitudes toward character, action, and the total drama. Both playwrights reveal that drama is an inseparable and reciprocal molding of content and form. The relationship between their ideas and their expressions of them is so…

  9. Richard Avedon's "In the American West" and Jean-Paul Sartre: An Existential Approach to Art and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubiel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Richard Avedon's photographic exhibit "In the American West" both as a work of art and as an important link to contemporary philosophical thought, particularly that of Jean-Paul Sartre, through its depiction of the human condition. Notes that the exhibit used as a teaching resource engages students in questions concerning art and value.…

  10. From Paris to Lyon, and from simple to complex liquids: a view on Jean-Pierre Hansen's contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Biben, Thierry; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-09-01

    We present a short perspective on some of the contributions made by Jean-Pierre Hansen to our theoretical understanding of soft matter static structure and dynamics, using the tools developed for simple liquids within the rigorous framework of statistical physics.

  11. Psychology and Schooling: The Impact of Susan Isaacs and Jean Piaget on 1960s Science Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jody S.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the tensions between two psychological frameworks in the negotiation of teaching practices, curriculum, and ideas about what constitutes childhood: (1) the theories of Jean Piaget focused on behavior at different developmental stages; or (2) the Susan Isaacs research that took a general view of children's intellectual capabilities. (CMK)

  12. Elementary Teachers' Application of Jean Piaget's Theories of Cognitive Development during Social Studies Curriculum Debates in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Perry, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore educators' use of Jean Piaget's theories concerning cognitive development to refute proposed social studies standards in Arizona. We describe the work of Piaget as well as the National Association for the Education of Young Children's developmentally appropriate practices as they apply to primary-grade children's…

  13. Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Adult Education and Revolution. Paradigma of Radical, Pedagogical Thought. 2nd Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dame, Frederick William

    This book explores Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational philosophy, as expressed in his key works, and applies that philosophy to adult education and revolution. The titles and topics of the book's seven chapters are as follows: (1) "L'Invitation: Raison d'Etre" (prelude, statement, significance, the process, assumptions and limitations); (2) "Le…

  14. Rayleigh-Jeans Condensation of Pumped Magnons in Thin-Film Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    We show that the formation of a magnon condensate in thin ferromagnetic films can be explained within the framework of a classical stochastic non-Markovian Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation where the properties of the random magnetic field and the dissipation are determined by the underlying phonon dynamics. We have numerically solved this equation for a tangentially magnetized yttrium-iron garnet film in the presence of a parallel parametric pumping field. We obtain a complete description of all stages of the nonequilibrium time evolution of the magnon gas which is in excellent agreement with experiments. Our calculation proves that the experimentally observed condensation of magnons in yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature is a purely classical phenomenon which should be called Rayleigh-Jeans rather than Bose-Einstein condensation.

  15. [The caring of family members in the intensive care units from the Jean Watson perspective].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Calatayud, M; Eseverri Azcoiti, M C

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a brief reflection on the caring of families in the Intensive Care Units. To address this issue, Jean Watson, one of the most important theoreticians on nursing of our days, has been taken as a reference. Watson was chosen because it is possible to understand perfectly the need to contemplate the family within the holistic care of critical patients from his theory. Thus, it is proposed to carry out an investigation that studies the care of the family members of the critical patient based on the idea of Watson's caring theory. To understand this approach, the theory of caring is analyzed and evaluated according to the guide produced by McEwen in 2007.

  16. [Embracing Jean Watson's theory of Human Caring through a reflective practice within a clinical situation].

    PubMed

    Cara, Chantal; O'Reilly, Louise

    2008-12-01

    Essentially based on humanistic values of respect, collaboration, and uniqueness rather than on objectification, control, and categorization of the person cared-for, a professional's practice rooted in caring is aimed at helping individuals and their families, which can only be carried out through respect for human dignity. If we are to consider caring as the core of nursing, nurses will undoubtedly have to make a conscious effort to preserve human caring within their clinical practice (Cara, 2004b; O'Reilly, 2008, Watson, 2002). However, to support this endeavour, caring theories, such as the one proposed by Jean Watson, are essential. Inspired by Cara's (2003) continuing education paper, this reflection paper takes a pragmatic approach to promote the understanding of key elements involved in Watson's caring theory through a process of reflective practice within a rehabilitation clinical situation.

  17. The practice of nurses caring for families of pediatric inpatients in light of Jean Watson.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maiara Rodrigues Dos; Bousso, Regina Szylit; Vendramim, Patrícia; Baliza, Michelle Freire; Misko, Maira Deguer; Silva, Lucía

    2014-08-01

    Objective To know the facilities and the difficulties of nurses in caring practice of hospitalized children's families in the light of Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Method It was used the descriptive qualitative approach. The data collection was conducted in three stages: presentation of theoretical content; engagement with families in the light of Watson's theory; and semi-structured interview with 12 pediatric nurses. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis, being possible to form three themes: Recognizing a framework for care; Considering the institutional context; and Challenges in family's relationship. Results The theory favored reflections about self, about the institutions and about nurses' relationship with the family of the child, normalized by a consciousness toward caring attitudes. Conclusion In this process, it is imperative that nurses recognize the philosophical-theoretical foundations of care to attend the child's family in hospital.

  18. Modification of the Jeans and Toomre instability criteria for astrophysical fractal objects within nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.; Marov, M. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    Within the formalism of Tsallis nonextensive statistics designed to describe the behavior of anomalous systems, systems with a strong gravitational interaction between their individual parts and the fractal nature of phase space, we have obtained linearized equations for the oscillations of a rigidly rotating disk by taking into account dissipative effects and give a derivation of the dispersion equation in the WKB approximation. Based on the previously derived modified Navier—Stokes hydrodynamic equations (the so-called equations of q-hydrodynamics), we have analyzed the axisymmetric oscillations of an astrophysical, differentially rotating gas—dust cosmic object and obtained modified Jeans and Toomre gravitational instability criteria for disks with a fractal phase-space structure.

  19. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768).

    PubMed

    Cook, A

    2003-04-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau sold his botanical texts to Daniel Malthus (father of Thomas Malthus) about 1775. Two of these are now in the Old Library, Jesus College, Cambridge, but all the rest have long been thought lost. However, a copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768) in the Lindley Library, Royal Horticultural Society, London, bears Rousseau's name and seems to have been annotated by him. The volume contains the bookplate of Jane Dalton, a cousin to whom Malthus willed "all[his] Botanical Books in which the name of Rousseau is written". Haller was well-known to Rousseau, who while in exile in the Swiss Jura (1763-1765), studied under one of Haller's collaborators, Abraham Gagnebin. Rousseau cited Haller's entry 762 when describing a species of Seseli to the Duchess of Portland.

  20. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach.

  1. Visual art in the neurologic career of Jean-Martin Charcot.

    PubMed

    Goetz, C G

    1991-04-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot, the world's first chaired professor of neurology, incorporated visual art into his daily practice of neurology. Art served as scientific documentation and was a pivotal tool in the development and dissemination of Charcot's clinicoanatomic method. Although Charcot drew extensively in clinical and laboratory studies, very few of these visual documents have ever been published or are currently available for public study. Charcot was central to the incorporation of medical photographs into the study of neurologic disease and relied heavily on visual material in his capacity as an international teacher. Art also misguided Charcot's career when he relied heavily on artwork in his attempt to convince critics that disorders seen at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, were independent of his suggestive influence.

  2. [Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893): a physician with multiple facets].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, Alain

    2013-12-01

    This work is registered in the year (2013) commemorating the 120 years since Jean-Martin Charcot's (1825-1893) death. Presently, the event takes place during 2013, in France, in Paris, at Hôpital de la Salpêtrière where Charcot practiced as medical chief of l'Hospice de la Vieillesse-Femmes, from 1862 until he died in 1893. The aim of the research is to show, from various examples and sources (printed and handwritten: fonds d'archives Charcot de la Salpêtrière) how talented Charcot was as a clinician, pathologist and microscopist, researcher and experimenter, teacher, artist, designer, cartoonist, polyglot and traveller), how varied his medical career was and how innovative his scientific method was. All this permitted Charcot to make an impressive number of medical discoveries in various fields which are today known as geriatrics and rheumatology, internal medicine, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry and paranormal processes.

  3. Neurologist or psychiatrist? The public and private domains of Jean-Martin Charcot.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, T

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of neurology as an autonomous, prestigious field in late-nineteenth-century Paris is well known. Less appreciated is the role that neurologists played vis-à-vis the cognate older field of psychiatry. Taking Jean-Martin Charcot, the most influential neurologist of his time, as a test case, this paper contrasts his attitudes and practice in the public setting of teaching and hospital work with his private practice. A staunch defender of a clear distinction between his field and psychiatry, Charcot's private practice displayed more flexibility. Treating hysteria and neurasthenia created a middle ground of nervous diseases for him to cultivate. Unpublished case histories and other materials, especially from the Charcot library, support the conception of neurologists as active agents in constituting a new psychological medicine.

  4. Errors from Rayleigh-Jeans approximation in satellite microwave radiometer calibration systems.

    PubMed

    Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei

    2013-01-20

    The advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a total power radiometer and scans across the track within a range of ±52.77° from nadir. It has 22 channels and measures the microwave radiation at either quasi-vertical or quasi-horizontal polarization from the Earth's atmosphere. The ATMS sensor data record algorithm employed a commonly used two-point calibration equation that derives the earth-view brightness temperature directly from the counts and temperatures of warm target and cold space, and the earth-scene count. This equation is only valid under Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) approximation. Impacts of RJ approximation on ATMS calibration biases are evaluated in this study. It is shown that the RJ approximation used in ATMS radiometric calibration results in errors on the order of 1-2 K. The error is also scene count dependent and increases with frequency.

  5. Nutrient status of the lowbush blueberry, Lac-Saint-Jean area, Quebec, Canada. [Vaccinium angustifolium

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, A.R.; Gagnon, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is an important commercial crop of the Lac-Saint-Jean area (Quebec, Canada). The major blueberry fields are located on sandy soils relatively poor in available mineral nutrients. The nutrients originate from a thin organic layer found on the top of these sandy soils. The leaf mineral contents (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and B) were measured in five blueberry fields during 1984 and 1985. Soil pH and soil available P, K, and Mg were also assessed. The results show that the leaf mineral contents are generally adequate. However, K and Zn might be occasionally deficient when compared to the actual established standards. The available Mg in soil was significantly correlated with the leaf Mg concentration. The data also suggest that the influence of the pH following the burn pruning seems to influence the nutrition of this species.

  6. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2002-05-01

    The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work.

  7. Climates as commodities: Jean Pierre Purry and the modelling of the best climate on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Vladimir

    The paper looks at how an early eighteenth-century climatological model of the 'best climate' on Earth became a platform for political, economic, and demographic action of extraordinary significance for the colonization of new commodity environments. It analyzes the science used by an early modern business adventurer to model 'climate' as an economic tool informing imperial governance and exploitation of local resources. Jean Pierre Purry's construction of 'model climate' portrayed North Carolina's township at Yamassee River as an ideal environment geared toward mercantilist principles of trade but also as a model community based on skilled labor and optimal climatic capital. His climatological analysis was a purposeful act of policy making based on a science of colonial expansion similar to more recent calls at economic modelling of future climate impact.

  8. [Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893): a physician with multiple facets].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, Alain

    2013-12-01

    This work is registered in the year (2013) commemorating the 120 years since Jean-Martin Charcot's (1825-1893) death. Presently, the event takes place during 2013, in France, in Paris, at Hôpital de la Salpêtrière where Charcot practiced as medical chief of l'Hospice de la Vieillesse-Femmes, from 1862 until he died in 1893. The aim of the research is to show, from various examples and sources (printed and handwritten: fonds d'archives Charcot de la Salpêtrière) how talented Charcot was as a clinician, pathologist and microscopist, researcher and experimenter, teacher, artist, designer, cartoonist, polyglot and traveller), how varied his medical career was and how innovative his scientific method was. All this permitted Charcot to make an impressive number of medical discoveries in various fields which are today known as geriatrics and rheumatology, internal medicine, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry and paranormal processes. PMID:26035927

  9. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), prepares a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), prepares a sample for the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) while wearing instruments that measure upper body movement. The Torso Rotation Experiment (TRE) complements other vestibular studies that measure differences in the way human beings react physically to their surroundings in microgravity. This is a typical Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) mission scene, with several experiments being performed. Astronaut Susan J. Helms, payload commander, assists Favier in the AGHF preparations. Astronaut Richard M. Linnehan (bottom right), mission specialist, tests his muscle response with the Handgrip Dynamometer. Astronaut Thomas T. (Tom) Henricks (far background), mission commander, offers assistance.

  10. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2002-05-01

    The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work. PMID:12096759

  11. [The body and the medical knowledge in the eighteenth century: an interview with Jean Abreu].

    PubMed

    Quadros, Lucas Samuel; Gelape, Vinícius Paulo; Rosa, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The history of science is a growing and well-recognized area in Brazil, however, medicine during the colonial period is not well covered by research. Aiming to address this subject, this interview was carried out with Professor Jean Luiz Neves Abreu, an important researcher of the history of medicine during the Luso-Brazilian Empire of the eighteenth century. By speaking of his personal career, his academic experience and his involvement with the subject, Professor Abreu clarifies theoretical and methodological aspects related to the history of health sciences. He highlights the potential of medical texts and manuals as a source and discusses means of accessibility and different sources that can allow new themes and objects to be reconsidered in this area of research.

  12. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

    PubMed

    Menin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose.

  13. Rayleigh-Jeans Condensation of Pumped Magnons in Thin-Film Ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    We show that the formation of a magnon condensate in thin ferromagnetic films can be explained within the framework of a classical stochastic non-Markovian Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation where the properties of the random magnetic field and the dissipation are determined by the underlying phonon dynamics. We have numerically solved this equation for a tangentially magnetized yttrium-iron garnet film in the presence of a parallel parametric pumping field. We obtain a complete description of all stages of the nonequilibrium time evolution of the magnon gas which is in excellent agreement with experiments. Our calculation proves that the experimentally observed condensation of magnons in yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature is a purely classical phenomenon which should be called Rayleigh-Jeans rather than Bose-Einstein condensation. PMID:26550749

  14. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

    PubMed

    Menin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

  15. A NEW METHOD TO DIRECTLY MEASURE THE JEANS SCALE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM USING CLOSE QUASAR PAIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ∼100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Lyα forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ∼100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Lyα forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of

  16. Human rights assessment in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Kimberly A; Ivers, Louise C

    2010-01-01

    Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, "Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response," identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as "key indicators" for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October.

  17. Birth of modern psychiatry and the death of alienism: the legacy of Jean-Martin Charcot.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Moulin, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    At the time of Jean-Martin Charcot, Paris--the main center for studies on the nervous system and its disorders--was home to critical exchanges between the developing discipline of neurology and psychiatry. Contrary to the commonly held view, and in spite of an established tradition concerning mental diseases, emerging neurology had a much stronger influence on psychiatry ('alienism') than the reverse. This was largely due to the school built up by Jean-Martin Charcot himself, which was organized around the study and management of hysteria. Although Charcot always claimed to be uninterested in mental medicine, he stimulated the development of an original scientific approach to nervous system conditions, based on Claude Bernard's method, along with structured academic teaching. Conversely, alienism paradoxically remained stuck in organicism, after Antoine Bayle's report in 1822 of 'arachnitis' as the substratum of general paresis of the insane. Contrary to alienism, the young neurological school was capable of self-criticism, and progressively highlighted mental factors in hysteria. This led to the paradox that neurologists were active in a disease with no organic cerebral lesion, while alienists were postulating brain lesions in all mental disorders. Pushed by Charcot, the academic evolution led to the launch of a faculty chair of mental and brain diseases in 1875, which was taken over for nearly half a century by his direct pupils Benjamin Ball, Alix Joffroy and Gilbert Ballet, who held the position until 1916, supporting the development of modern psychiatry in general hospitals, while alienism progressively disappeared at the turn of the century.

  18. Jeans Analysis of the Galactic Thick Disk and the Local Dark Matter Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Flynn, Chris; de Diego, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical estimates of the mass surface density at the solar radius can be made up to a height of 4 kpc using thick disk stars as tracers of the potential. We investigate why different Jeans estimators of the local surface density lead to puzzling and conflicting results. Using the Jeans equations, we compute the vertical (Fz) and radial (FR) components of the gravitational force, as well as Γ(z), which is defined as {{Γ }}\\equiv \\partial {V}{{c}}2/\\partial R, with {V}{{c}}2\\equiv -R{F}R. If we assume that the thick disk does not flare and that all the components of the velocity dispersion tensor of the thick disk have a uniform radial scalelength of 3.5 kpc, Γ takes implausibly large negative values when using the currently available kinematical data of the thick disk. This implies that the input parameters or the model assumptions must be revised. We have explored, using a simulated thick disk, the impact of the assumption that the scalelengths of the density and velocity dispersions do not depend on the vertical height z above the midplane. In the absence of any information about how these scale radii depend on z, we define a different strategy. By using a parameterized Galactic potential, we find that acceptable fits to Fz, FR, and Γ are obtained for a flaring thick disk and a spherical dark matter (DM) halo with a local density ≳0.0064 M⊙ pc-3. Disk-like DM distributions may be also compatible with the current data of the thick disk. A precise measurement of Γ at the midplane could be very useful for discriminating between models.

  19. [Jean-Baptiste Vincent Laborde (1830-1903), forgotten neurologist and neurophysiologist].

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Jean-Baptiste Vincent Laborde (1830-1903), native of Buzet, in Gascony, undertook his medical studies in Paris and was nominated "externe" (1854) then "interne" (1858) of Paris hospitals. His main "patrons" were Alfred Velpeau (1795-1867), Auguste Nélaton (1807-1873), Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1796-1881), Pierre-Olive Rayer (1793-1867), Joseph-François Malgaigne (1806-1865), Pierre Carl Edouard Potain (1825-1901), Ernest Charles Lasègue (1816-1883) and Léon Rostan (1790-1866). In 1864 he defended his thesis on the essential paralysis of childhood. He then worked in the physiology laboratory of Professor Jules Auguste Beclard (1818-1887), and became "chef des travaux" of physiology at the Paris faculty of medicine. In 1890, he was nominated to the chair of Biological anthropology at the Paris school of anthropology. His main works focused on the rhythmic tractions of the tongue in cases of apparent death, the understanding of the etiology of brain softening he attributed to vascular occlusions by atheroma and the discovery of connections between the cranial nuclei of common (III) and external (VI) oculomotor nerves and the struggle against the use of ceruse, against tuberculosis and especially against alcoholism. In addition, he made a career in journalism: since 1874 he had been the founder, director and editor-in-chief of the weekly newspaper The Medical Tribune, whose aim was to "combine to a fair extent, science and progress with the practice of medicine." Finally, Laborde was a convinced Republican, a friend of Léon Gambetta's (1838-1882). For him, democracy was the "ideal of civilized nations" and he showed deep hatred for the "Commune of Paris". Finally, he was a determined free thinker, who ran the Society for mutual autopsy for a while and who was attached to civil funerals and cremation. PMID:25786426

  20. [Forgotten great men of medicine--Baron Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842)].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    BIOGRAPHY: Baron Dominique Jean Larrev was a French army surgeon who rose to become a surgeon-in-chief of Napoleon's Grande Armée. Many advances in the field of surgery have been attributed to him: he was one of the first to amputate at the hip-joint (1812); he pioneered the use of maggots to prevent infection in wounds; he gave the first description of a trench foot, and originated the first aid to combatants by getting stretcher-bearers to take wounded men immediately from the battlefield. EDUCATION AND CAREER: Larrey studied medicine in Paris and spent a short time in the navy before resuming his studies at the Parisian College de Chirurgie. He joined the army in 1792 and spent the rest of his active life there, taking part in 60 battles and 400 other engagements, having been wounded three times. During this time, he initiated the modern method of army surgery, field hospitals and the system of army ambulance corps. After seeing the speed with which the carriages of the French flying artillery manoeuvred across the battlefields. Larrey adapted them as Flying Ambulances for rapid transport of the wounded and staffed them with trained crews of drivers, corpsmen and litter-bearers. Larrey also increased the mobility and improved the organization of field hospitals, effectively creating a forerunner of the modern MASH (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) units. He was made a baron in 1809. He remained loyal to Napoleon even after his abdication in 1814, and followed him on his final campaign (the hundred days). At Waterloo, he was captured and sentenced to death; however, he was saved by the personal intervention of the Prussian commander Blücher. Many historians put him in the line with chemist Antoine Lavoisier and doctors Joseph Guillotin and Jean Paul Marat. PMID:21548278

  1. [Forgotten great men of medicine--Baron Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842)].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    BIOGRAPHY: Baron Dominique Jean Larrev was a French army surgeon who rose to become a surgeon-in-chief of Napoleon's Grande Armée. Many advances in the field of surgery have been attributed to him: he was one of the first to amputate at the hip-joint (1812); he pioneered the use of maggots to prevent infection in wounds; he gave the first description of a trench foot, and originated the first aid to combatants by getting stretcher-bearers to take wounded men immediately from the battlefield. EDUCATION AND CAREER: Larrey studied medicine in Paris and spent a short time in the navy before resuming his studies at the Parisian College de Chirurgie. He joined the army in 1792 and spent the rest of his active life there, taking part in 60 battles and 400 other engagements, having been wounded three times. During this time, he initiated the modern method of army surgery, field hospitals and the system of army ambulance corps. After seeing the speed with which the carriages of the French flying artillery manoeuvred across the battlefields. Larrey adapted them as Flying Ambulances for rapid transport of the wounded and staffed them with trained crews of drivers, corpsmen and litter-bearers. Larrey also increased the mobility and improved the organization of field hospitals, effectively creating a forerunner of the modern MASH (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) units. He was made a baron in 1809. He remained loyal to Napoleon even after his abdication in 1814, and followed him on his final campaign (the hundred days). At Waterloo, he was captured and sentenced to death; however, he was saved by the personal intervention of the Prussian commander Blücher. Many historians put him in the line with chemist Antoine Lavoisier and doctors Joseph Guillotin and Jean Paul Marat.

  2. HUMAN RIGHTS ASSESSMENT IN PARC JEAN MARIE VINCENT, PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kimberly A.; Ivers, Louise C.

    2014-01-01

    Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, “Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response,” identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as “key indicators” for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October. PMID:21178190

  3. Cortical State and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kenneth D.; Thiele, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Preface The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents, and attention in the primate visual system. Both processes involve a modulation of low-frequency activity fluctuations and spiking correlation, and are mediated by common receptor systems. We suggest that selective attention involves processes similar to state change, operating at a local columnar level to enhance the representation of otherwise nonsalient features while suppressing internally generated activity patterns. PMID:21829219

  4. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  5. Attention: the claustrum.

    PubMed

    Goll, Yael; Atlan, Gal; Citri, Ami

    2015-08-01

    The claustrum is a mysterious thin sheet of neurons lying between the insular cortex and the striatum. It is reciprocally connected with almost all cortical areas, including motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, limbic, associative, and prefrontal cortices. In addition, it receives neuromodulatory input from subcortical structures. A decade ago, Sir Francis Crick and Christof Koch published an influential review proposing the claustrum as the 'seat of consciousness', spurring a revival of interest in the claustrum. We review the literature on the claustrum, emphasizing recent discoveries, and develop a detailed hypothesis describing a role for the claustrum in the segregation of attention.

  6. Attentional Engagement in Infancy: The Interactive Influence of Attentional Inertia and Attentional State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Kannass, Kathleen N.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the interactive influences of attentional state and attentional inertia on infants' level of attentional engagement. We assessed infants' distraction latencies longitudinally at 6.5 and 9 months as they explored toys, and we coded both their attentional state (focused vs. casual) and how long they had been looking at the toy at each…

  7. First seismic survey of Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada): sedimentary record of the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu; Ghienne, Jean-François; Raphaël, Certain; Nicolas, Robin; Claude, Roquin; Frédéric, Bouchette; Cousineau Pierre, A.

    2015-04-01

    The general post-glacial evolution of the Lake Saint-Jean region (Canada/Québec) was, until now, only known from onshore studies (outcrops and geomorphology). Because this lake corresponds to sediment depocentre since the area is ice free (latest Pleistocene and the entire Holocene), a comprehensive sedimentary archive could be expected from this area. As a consequence, the offshore archives of Lake Saint-Jean leave a basic, but crucial, question: can the transition from glacial to post-glacial periods be deciphered? The stratigraphy of the last deglacial sequence is investigated in Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada) from 300 km of echo-sounder 2D seismic profiles. The sedimentary archive of this basin is documented from the Late Pleistocene Laurentidian ice-front recession to the present-day situation. Ten seismic units have been identified that reflect spatio-temporal variations in depositional processes characterizing different periods of the Lake Saint-Jean basin evolution. During the postglacial marine flooding, a high deposition rate of mud settling, from proglacial glacimarine and then prodeltaic plumes in the Laflamme Gulf, produced an extensive, up to 50 m thick mud sheet draping the isostatically depressed marine basin floor. Subsequently, closing of the water body due to glacio-isostatic rebound that occurred at 8.5 cal. ka BP and ice-sheet retreat outside the Saint-Jean catchment at 7.5 cal. ka BP drastically modify the hydrodynamics and sedimentation. Hyperpycnal flows appeared because fresh lake water replaced dense marine water. River sediments were transferred towards the deeper part of the lake into river-related confined lobes. The water body is also marked by the onset of a wind-driven internal circulation associating wave-related hydrodynamics and bottom currents with sedimentary features including shoreface deposits, sediment drifts, a sedimentary shelf and important erosional surfaces. The Lake Saint-Jean reveals important diversity and

  8. Joint attention and language evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  14. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  15. The origin of the initial mass function and its dependence on the mean Jeans mass in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate the dependence of stellar properties on the mean thermal Jeans mass in molecular clouds. We compare the results from the two largest hydrodynamical simulations of star formation to resolve the fragmentation process down to the opacity limit, the first of which was reported by Bate, Bonnell & Bromm. The initial conditions of the two calculations are identical except for the radii of the clouds, which are chosen so that the mean densities and mean thermal Jeans masses of the clouds differ by factors of 9 and 3, respectively. We find that the denser cloud, with the lower mean thermal Jeans mass, produces a higher proportion of brown dwarfs and has a lower characteristic (median) mass of the stars and brown dwarfs. This dependence of the initial mass function (IMF) on the density of the cloud may explain the observation that the Taurus star-forming region appears to be deficient in brown dwarfs when compared with the Orion Trapezium cluster. The new calculation also produces wide binaries (separations >20 au), one of which is a wide binary brown dwarf system. Based on the hydrodynamical calculations, we develop a simple accretion/ejection model for the origin of the IMF. In the model, all stars and brown dwarfs begin with the same mass (set by the opacity limit for fragmentation) and grow in mass until their accretion is terminated stochastically by their ejection from the cloud through dynamically interactions. The model predicts that the main variation of the IMF in different star-forming environments should be in the location of the peak (due to variations in the mean thermal Jeans mass of the cloud) and in the substellar regime. However, the slope of the IMF at high masses may depend on the dispersion in the accretion rates of protostars.

  16. "I would eagerly leave Neuchâtel ..." A 1912 letter by Jean Piaget with an introduction and notes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, F

    1986-01-01

    A 1912 letter from fifteen-year-old Jean Piaget (1896-1980) to the director of the Museum of Natural History of Geneva illustrates Piaget's precocious integration into a community of professional naturalists, and reveals his hitherto unknown plan to study medicine. It is not certain whether he actually intended to realize that plan. An essential biographical fact, however, is that he finally left natural history by turning to philosophy rather than to medicine.

  17. Two schemes of intellectual development: A comparison of development as defined by william perry and jean piaget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Bruce; Donovan, Michael P.; Kelsey, Linda J.; Paterson, John; Statkiewicz, Walter; Allen, Robert D.

    The theories of Jean Piaget and William Perry provide two different theories of intellectual development with several similiarities, but also with critical differences. In this study a comparison was made to determine whether the two theories describe operation of the same mental structures or two fundamentally different aspects of intellectual development. The results, based upon individual interviews of all participants, indicate that the two theories outline different and independent processes for assessing intellectual development.

  18. "I would eagerly leave Neuchâtel ..." A 1912 letter by Jean Piaget with an introduction and notes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, F

    1986-01-01

    A 1912 letter from fifteen-year-old Jean Piaget (1896-1980) to the director of the Museum of Natural History of Geneva illustrates Piaget's precocious integration into a community of professional naturalists, and reveals his hitherto unknown plan to study medicine. It is not certain whether he actually intended to realize that plan. An essential biographical fact, however, is that he finally left natural history by turning to philosophy rather than to medicine. PMID:11608771

  19. Jeans instability of partially-ionized self-gravitating viscous plasma with Hall effect FLR corrections and porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaothekar, Sachin; Soni, Ghanshyam D.; Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, Rajendra K.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of Jeans gravitational instability and radiative instability is investigated for partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations and formation of objects. A general dispersion relation has been derived with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations, using the normal mode analysis method. Effects of FLR corrections, radiative heat-loss function and collisions with neutrals on the Jeans criterion of self-gravitational instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity and FLR corrections for some special case. The stability of the system is discussed by using Routh-Hurwitz's criterion. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the dependence of the growth rate of the Jeans gravitational instability on the various physical parameters. The FLR corrections, viscosity, porosity, magnetic field, and neutral collision have stabilizing influence while finite electrical resistivity and permeability have a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. Our results are helpful for understanding the formation of dense molecular clouds.

  20. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  1. Health monitoring of the Saint-Jean bridge of Bordeaux, France using fiber Bragg grating extensometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, Sylvain; Boussoir, Jonathan; Rougeault, Stephane; Marty-Dewynter, Veronique; Ferdinand, Pierre; Bureau, Lionel

    2003-07-01

    Most civil engineering structures have been built in the 50's and 60's and reach similar level of degradation accelerated by loading conditions and corrosion. In Europe, National Authorities and the European Commission promote Health Monitoring concepts, instrumentation of existing structures and help in the design of new durable structures of higher performance. In this context, the CEA-List has achieved a non-exclusive industrial transfer of its Bragg grating sensing technology for civil engineering applications to Hydrolog (French SME), supported by the European Community and the french ministry of Industry. In order to check the reliability and user-friendliness of this instrumentation, eleven spectrally-multiplexed Bragg grating-based extensometers, four FBG temperature sensors and an acquisition unit have been installed into the Saint-Jean bridge in Bordeaux, France with the help of the Infrastructure Regional Direction (DRE-Aquitaine) and the Bordeaux Authority (Communaute Urbaine de Bordeaux). A standardized loading of the bridge has been performed on October 29, 1001, with the purpose of correlating its mechanical reaction to loading conditions. Moreover, the equipment has been operating for one year to take into account the winter-summer cycle.

  2. "To afford the wounded speedy assistance": Dominique Jean Larrey and Napoleon.

    PubMed

    Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Lainas, Panagiotis; Zoras, Odyseas; Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2006-08-01

    Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842) has been described as the father of modern military surgery and is considered even today as the model military surgeon. He developed a plan of rapid evacuation of wounded soldiers from the battlefield during combat, using flexible medical units which he named ambulances volantes ("flying ambulances"). He won the admiration of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who was amazed by the results of Larrey's sanitary system. Larrey spent almost 18 years with Napoleon, accompanying him in 25 campaigns, 60 battles, and more than 400 engagements. Napoleon's enormous military success was due not only to his strategy and skill but also to the medical services provided by Larrey. The surgeon became a master of wound management and limb amputation. In his vivid battlefield journals, Larrey documented the course of tetanus, the pathophysiology of cold injury, the effective control of hemorrhage, the drainage of empyema and hemothorax, the aspiration of pericardial effusion or hemopericardium, and the packing of sucking chest wounds. Larrey established a categorical rule for the triage of war casualties, treating the wounded according to the observed gravity of their injuries and the urgency for medical care, regardless of their rank or nationality.

  3. Crystallization and emplacement of the Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif (Quebec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woussen, G.; Dimroth, E.; Corriveau, L.; Archer, P.

    1981-05-01

    The Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif underlies an area of over 20,000 km2 and has been emplaced into migmatitic gneisses of the central granulite terrain of the Grenville Province of the Canadian shield. Field data and petrography in an area straddling the anorthosite-gneiss contact, close to Chicoutimi (Quebec) permits an outline of its tecto-magmatic evolution. Depositional magmatic textures in the massif reveals that it crystallized from a magma in a relatively calm tectonic environment. The absence of fusion in pelitic gneisses at the contact proves that the crystallization did not take place at the level presently exposed. The parallelism of subvertical foliation in the enveloping gneisses and the anorthosite indicates that both were deformed together. It is suggested that the deformation results from a diapiric ascent of the anorthosite massif after its consolidation at depth. The depth of consolidation of the anorthosite is estimated at ˜ 25 30 km from subsolidus reaction between plagioclase and olivine. The diapiric ascent is further substantiated by the fact that three sets of mafic dykes of different ages, intrusive into the anorthosite, have a mineralogy which indicates successively decreasing P, T conditions of emplacement from granulite fades to amphibolite facies. An evolution of the basement gneisses and the anorthosite is proposed as a working hypothesis; it relies on the fact that metabasite dyke swarms in the basement gneisses represent a period of major crustal extension and could be used as a stratigraphic subdivision of the Grenville Province.

  4. Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's 1825 treatise on the mouth and ingestion.

    PubMed

    Chong, Gabriel Tse Feng

    2012-12-01

    This article quotes and discusses Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's musings on the mouth and ingestion as described in his book The Physiology of Taste. The book was first published in France in December 1825, and is still widely read as a key work in Gastronomy today. The mouth is intimately related to the acts of chewing, swallowing and eating and it would be interesting to report an early 19th century epicurean's views on the mouth. Passages from Brillat-Savarin's book describing the functions of the teeth and tongue and the acts of tasting, chewing, and swallowing are quoted in full. Anecdotes also include one on the horrifying punishment of having one's tongue removed and another illustrating the poor oral health found among Europeans of that era. His work offers a unique glimpse into how a 19th century gastronome viewed the oral cavity and its gastronomical functions. While some of his writings may appear archaic and antediluvian to the modern reader; others relating to, for example chewing and swallowing, are surprisingly accurate by contemporary standards. Nonetheless, the gastronomic savant seemed to know a lot right about modern stomatology!

  5. Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja)1 and the Belgrade School of Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Andjus, Pavle R.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Cvijic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Summary The founder of physiology studies in the Balkans and the pioneer of research on hypothermia, Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) was born 1884 in L’Havre. Giaja gained his PhD at the Sorbonne in 1909. In 1910 he established the first Chair of Physiology in the Balkans and organized the first Serbian Institute for Physiology at the School of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade. He led this Institute for more than 40 subsequent years. His most notable papers were in the field of thermoregulation and bioenergetics. Djaja became member of the Serbian and Croatian academies of science and doctor honoris causa of Sorbonne. In 1952 for the seminal work on the behaviour of deep cooled warm blooded animals he becane associate member of the National Medical Academy in Paris. In 1955 the French Academy of Sciences elected him as associate member in place of deceased Sir Alexander Fleming. Djaja died in 1957 during a congress held in his honour. He left more than 200 scientific and other papers and the golden DaVincian credo “Nulla dies sine experimento”. His legacy was continued by several generations of researchers, the most prominent among them being Stefan Gelineo, Radoslav Andjus and Vojislav Petrović. PMID:21777022

  6. Historical perspective on pressure ulcers: the decubitus ominosus of Jean-Martin Charcot.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot was a towering figure in the French medical community in the 19th century. Among the diseases he studied was the decubitus, or pressure ulcer, as it is commonly called today. He did not believe that pressure or local irritation were causative factors for the decubitus but rather subscribed to the "neurotrophic theory," which held that damage to the central nervous system led directly to its occurrence. Charcot observed that many patients who developed eschar of the sacrum and buttocks died soon afterwards, and referred to this lesion as the decubitus ominosus, implying that its occurrence heralded impending death. His description of the evolving decubitus is extraordinarily detailed and accurate and includes complications that are seldom seen today, such as gangrenous metastases to the lung and invasion of the spinal cord. Charcot's therapeutic nihilism is largely a product of the limited medical technology of his day. The importance of risk factor assessment and timely intervention for persons at risk is now understood. In addition, it is recognized that not all pressure ulcers are unavoidable and that many ulcers, particularly those in early stages, can be reversed. Comparing Charcot's view of the decubitus with our own, insight is provided into the way medicine is practiced today.

  7. Jean Martin Charcot and aphasia: treading the line between experimental physiology and pathological anatomy.

    PubMed

    Brais, B

    1993-11-01

    During his entire career Jean Martin Charcot published or lectured on aphasia and brain localization in man. He contributed case studies during the early 1860s, while in the 1870s he became the leading French promoter of localizationism. It was in 1883 and 1884 that he summarized his thoughts on aphasia in a series of 14 lectures he delivered at the Salpêtrière Hospice. His paramount ambition was to achieve didactic clarity. His proposed "bell diagram" was widely criticized for its simplicity, but nevertheless gained considerable popularity in France. His teaching borrowed extensively from the writings of contemporary researchers and was clearly associationist in nature. Charcot's major contribution in the history of aphasiology is that he introduced the works of "diagram-makers" to the French scientific community at large. Charcot's lecture series also played a key role in renewing interest in psychology. Charcot's dismissal of experimental physiology as a legitimate means of investigating central nervous functions in man allowed him to define a separate field of research for a new psychology, one, he believed, which should depart from introspection and turn to his clinicoanatomic method for guidance.

  8. Jean-Martin Charcot's house officers at La Salpêtrière Hospital.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    From the time he became chef de service at La Salpêtrière Hospital in 1866 until his death in 1893, Jean-Martin Charcot oversaw 32 house officers. Some of them became famous, such as D.M. Bourneville, E. Brissaud, P. Marie and G. Gilles de la Tourette. Others are less well known. The fact remains that Charcot knew how to surround himself with fine students and leverage their talents in order to make the neurological discoveries by which he would become famous throughout the world. Here, we present the biographies of H. Soulier (1862), J. Cotard (1865), R. Lépine (1867), A. Gombault (1872), A. Pierret (1874), A. Pitres (1876), P. Oulmont (1877), G. Guinon (1885), P. Blocq(1887), E. Huet (1888), E. Parmentier (1890) and A. Souques(1893). Each of these men with their unique paths and interests helped lay the foundations for the birth of neurology at the end of the 19th century in Paris. As Emile Littré said: 'La science de la Médecine, si elle ne veut pas être rabaissée au rang de métier, doit s'occuper de son histoire et soigner les vieux monuments que les temps passés lui ont légués', which could be translated as 'to avoid being reduced to a trade, the science of medicine must attend to its history and take care of the old monuments handed down by time'.

  9. Jean-Charles Houzeau's Visual Magnitude Estimates from Jamaica in 1868

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-09-01

    Jean-Charles Houzeau de Lehaie (1820-1888) was a Belgian astronomer who, as an observer, covered astronomy, geography, cartography, geodesy and natural sciences. He is known for designing the ``heliometer with unequal focal lengths" for the 1882 transit of Venus, for which he organised two expeditions: one to San Antonio (Texas), and one to Santiago (Chile). Less known, but historically important from the point of view of his consistent approach to observational science, was his ``Uranométrie générale", in which he systematically recorded visual magnitudes of 5719 northern and southern stars up to mag 6.4. He carried out the visual estimates from Jamaica in less than 400 nights in 1875--76. This presentation discusses the observational approach of his project, and weighs the merit of a dataset that was produced in one throw, by one single person from one single observing site of excellent atmospheric quality, without any recourse to data produced by other observers. A proving example of the virtue of Houzeau's Uranométrie is that it has been used in the construction of the charts of the first edition of ``Norton's Star Atlas".

  10. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

  11. [A XVIth century journeyman apothecar in Montpellier: Jean Magnol (1562-1632)].

    PubMed

    Charlot, Colette

    2006-11-01

    J. Magnol came from Ardèche to Montpellier to learn how to be apothecary grocer. He is characteristics of the transition between the Middle-Ages statutes and Renaissance ones (1572/1598) in a city famous for its school of medicine. For thirteen (13) years he worked as a journeyman apothecary was like a drysalter grocer. But the 1572 statutes due to king Henry IV (the fourth), having force of law, changed the trade into an art, as highly regarded as the legal profession. Long before the 1777 nationwide statutes due to king Louis XIV (the fourteenth). To become a master, Magnol had to give four masterpieces, the formulas of which can be found in the new pharmacopoeia written by the medicine chancellor: "the pharmacopoea Monspeliensis" an alternative to the ancient one by Nicolas de Salerne. The pratical experiments were carried out by those famous apothecary masters who made up the 1572 statutes. Jean Magnol is Pierre Magnol's ancestor (1638-1715), the famous botanist whom Carl Linné dedicated the magnolia genus to. PMID:17526144

  12. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s.

  13. Weighing the galactic disc using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Moni Bidin, C.; Gibson, B. K.

    2016-03-01

    Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the `Solar' radius. Our simulation data set includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high-resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealized models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive to uncertainties in the measured disk parameters, particularly the scalelengths of the assumed double exponential density distribution, and the scalelength of the radial velocity dispersion. In addition, we show that disk structure and low number statistics can lead to significant errors in the calculated surface densities. Finally, we examine the implications of our results for previous studies of this sort, suggesting that more accurate measurements of the scalelengths may help reconcile conflicting estimates of the local dark matter density in the literature.

  14. Assessing the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion method with the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyu; Li, Ran; Mao, Shude; Xu, Dandan; Long, R. J.; Emsellem, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We assess the effectiveness of the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion (JAM) technique with a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, the Illustris project. We perform JAM modelling on 1413 simulated galaxies with stellar mass M* > 1010 M⊙, and construct an axisymmetric dynamical model for each galaxy. Combined with a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, we recover the projected root-mean-square velocity (Vrms) field of the stellar component, and investigate constraints on the stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/L, and the fraction of dark matter fDM within 2.5 effective radii (Re). We find that the enclosed total mass within 2.5 Re is well constrained to within 10 per cent. However, there is a degeneracy between the dark matter and stellar components with correspondingly larger individual errors. The 1σ scatter in the recovered M*/L is 30-40 per cent of the true value. The accuracy of the recovery of M*/L depends on the triaxial shape of a galaxy. There is no significant bias for oblate galaxies, while for prolate galaxies the JAM-recovered stellar mass is on average 18 per cent higher than the input values. We also find that higher image resolutions alleviate the dark matter and stellar mass degeneracy and yield systematically better parameter recovery.

  15. Getting the attention you need.

    PubMed

    Davenport, T H; Beck, J C

    2000-01-01

    Employees have an enormous amount of business information at their fingertips--more specifically, at their desktops. The floodgates are open; profitable possibilities abound. But having to handle all that information has pushed downsized staffs to the brink of an acute attention deficit disorder. To achieve corporate goals, business leaders need their employees' full attention--and that attention is in short supply. Authors Thomas Davenport and John Beck have studied how companies manage the attention of their employees and their site visitors. In this article, they analyze the components of attention management through three lenses--economic, psychobiological, and technological--and offer guidelines for keeping employees focused on crucial corporate tasks. Their lessons are drawn from the best practices employed by today's stickiest Web sites and by traditional attention industries such as advertising, film, and television. The authors say executives must manage attention knowing that it's a zero-sum game (there's only so much to go around). Managers should also consider capitalizing on the basic survival and competitive instincts we all have that help determine how much attention we pay to certain things. For instance, the threat of corporate demise--and the consequent loss of jobs and livelihoods--undoubtedly focuses workers' attention on the need to change. Likewise, internal competition among business units may give employees added incentive to pay attention to a profit or sales goal. Leaders today need to pay more attention to attention because it's widely misunderstood and widely mismanaged, the authors conclude. PMID:11143148

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  17. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  18. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  19. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  20. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  1. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable.

  2. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  3. Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Abbott, Robert; Osterling, Julie; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Liaw, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated social attention impairments in autism (social orienting, joint attention, and attention to another's distress) and their relations to language ability. Three- to four-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 72), 3- to 4-year-old developmentally delayed children (n = 34), and 12- to 46-month-old typically…

  4. Attention and joint attention in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Leekam, S R; López, B; Moore, C

    2000-03-01

    Three experiments examined the role of attention in explaining dyadic (child-adult) and triadic (child-adult-object) joint attention difficulties in autism. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated children's ability to orient to an adult's attention bid and to follow the direction of a human or nonhuman cue. Experiment 3 tested ability to disengage and shift attention to objects. Results showed autism-specific difficulties at both dyadic and triadic levels. Children with autism were less responsive than developmentally delayed controls in orienting to attention bids and in following a human head-turn cue yet had no difficulty in shifting attention and were faster overall in orienting to targets. Results suggest a specific developmental delay in which children with autism rely on the presence of objects in the visual field to guide action. The relation between this problem and autistic children's difficulties with human communicative signals is discussed. PMID:10749083

  5. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  6. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  7. Chapter 15: Jean-Martin Charcot and the anatomo-clinical method of neurology.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2010-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the premier clinical neurologist of the 19th century. Charcot's research was anchored in the anatomo-clinical method, a two-part methodology that linked clinical signs with anatomical lesions. The first step of this method involved the careful documentation of clinical signs with longitudinal observation. At the time of death, the second step involved autopsy examination of the brain and spinal cord. With combined clinical and anatomical data, Charcot was able to suggest concrete clinical-anatomical correlations. This method helped to define the tracts and nuclei responsible for normal and abnormal neurological signs and was pivotal to a new classification of neurological diseases based on anatomy. The best-developed example of this method was Charcot's work with motor system degenerative disorders, specifically amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These studies led to the international designation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as Charcot's disease. Other examples of the fruits of the anatomo-clinical method included several stroke syndromes and the linkage of specific signs to specific lesions in multiple sclerosis. The discipline fostered cortical localization theory, which moved neurologists away from the concept of the brain as a homogenous organ in preference to the concept that brain regions controlled specific motor, sensory and language functions. Charcot's attempts to apply his anatomo-clinical method to the knotty neurological diagnosis of hysteria led him to experiments and conclusions that drew criticism and even scorn from colleagues. These events tarnished Charcot's reputation at the close of his career. In the context of Charcot's extensive discoveries and lasting contributions, the anatomo-clinical method remains the anchor of modern neurological diagnosis and is Charcot's most important contribution to clinical neurology.

  8. Generalized Jeans' Escape of Pick-Up Ions in Quasi-Linear Relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Jeans escape is a well-validated formulation of upper atmospheric escape that we have generalized to estimate plasma escape from ionospheres. It involves the computation of the parts of particle velocity space that are unbound by the gravitational potential at the exobase, followed by a calculation of the flux carried by such unbound particles as they escape from the potential well. To generalize this approach for ions, we superposed an electrostatic ambipolar potential and a centrifugal potential, for motions across and along a divergent magnetic field. We then considered how the presence of superthermal electrons, produced by precipitating auroral primary electrons, controls the ambipolar potential. We also showed that the centrifugal potential plays a small role in controlling the mass escape flux from the terrestrial ionosphere. We then applied the transverse ion velocity distribution produced when ions, picked up by supersonic (i.e., auroral) ionospheric convection, relax via quasi-linear diffusion, as estimated for cometary comas [1]. The results provide a theoretical basis for observed ion escape response to electromagnetic and kinetic energy sources. They also suggest that super-sonic but sub-Alfvenic flow, with ion pick-up, is a unique and important regime of ion-neutral coupling, in which plasma wave-particle interactions are driven by ion-neutral collisions at densities for which the collision frequency falls near or below the gyro-frequency. As another possible illustration of this process, the heliopause ribbon discovered by the IBEX mission involves interactions between the solar wind ions and the interstellar neutral gas, in a regime that may be analogous [2].

  9. Attention function after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Robin, Donald A; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith O; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Manes, Facundo F; Mathews, Katherine; Austermann, Shannon

    2004-11-01

    We investigated attentional outcome after childhood stroke and orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or scoliosis were studied with standardized attention and neuroimaging assessments. Stroke lesions were quite varied in location and commonly involved regions implicated in Posner's model of attention networks. Children with stroke lesions performed significantly more poorly regarding attention function compared with controls. Performance on the Starry Night, a test demanding alerting and sensory-orienting but not executive attention function, was significantly associated with lesion size in the alerting and sensory-orienting networks but not the executive attention network. Furthermore, earlier age at lesion acquisition was significantly associated with poorer attention function even when lesion size was controlled. These findings support the theory of dissociable networks of attention and add to evidence from studies of children with diffuse and focal brain damage that early insults are associated with worse long-term outcomes in many domains of neuropsychological function. In addition, these results may provide clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying attention in children.

  10. Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…

  11. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  12. Focus of Attention in Groups: A Self-Attention Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on three research studies that tested the hypothesis that the focus of attention of individuals in groups varies as a function of the group composition. The populations studied were members of the Nixon White House staff, high school students, and male undergraduate students. Results supported the idea of self-focused attention as a…

  13. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  14. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Wexler, Joanna L.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD

  15. Shifting Attentional Priorities: Control of Spatial Attention through Hemispheric Competition

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Sara M.; Kastner, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attention behavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain. PMID:23516306

  16. Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Thomas

    Lack of attentional control--inability to concentrate--has often made the difference between successful and unsuccessful performance on the part of athletes. Attention is controlled neurologically by a very complex interaction of a large portion of the cerebrum and is not localized to any one structure. The mechanism involves a memory retrieval…

  17. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  18. Joint Attention and Early Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Farrar, Michael Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Findings from studies exploring role of joint attentional focus in children's acquisition of language indicated that language of 24 mothers and their 15- to 21-month-olds inside episodes of joint attentional focus involved more utterances, shorter sentences, more comments, and longer conversations than outside of episodes. Also, object references…

  19. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  20. From past to current tectonics: Thematic issue dedicated to Jean-François Stéphan (1949-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This thematic issue of Comptes rendus Geoscience has been assembled to honor the memory of our late colleague and friend Jean-François Stéphan. Jean-François was a great scientist, specialized in tectonics, and a great colleague who devoted his time for his community. His work and actions deeply imprinted both the French and the International Earth Science communities. This volume brings together contributions of colleagues of Jean-François, who were also close friends or colleagues who knew and deeply appreciated him. Naturally, tectonics is the common theme of these contributions. Some of the papers presented here focus on tectonic questions and/or regions Jean-François worked on during his career; other papers present studies Jean-François motivated or encouraged in one way or another; other papers are simply tectonic studies he would have liked. Taken together, the nine papers of this thematic issue take the reader on a beautiful trip, from past to current tectonics.

  1. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    PubMed Central

    Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

  2. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  3. Affective modulation of attentional switching.

    PubMed

    Heerebout, Bram T; Todorović, Ana; Smedinga, Hilde E; Phaf, R Hans

    2013-01-01

    Affective modulation of attentional switching may have developed early in evolution and may therefore have primacy over other affective influences. This behavioral study investigated the influence of affect on attentional switching between emotionally neutral stimuli, whether limited-capacity control processes are involved, and whether attentional flexibility should be distinguished from attentional broadening. Experiment 1 showed that suboptimally presented happy faces facilitated switching from an automatized response routine, whereas angry faces had the opposite effect. In Experiment 2, participants with a dominant global (i.e., broad) or local (i.e., narrow) spatial bias switched more easily to the opposite bias after suboptimal happy faces than after neutral primes but less easily after angry faces. Affective modulation of attentional switching was probably incorporated during evolution in many more complex forms of information processing.

  4. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    PubMed

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids.

  5. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  6. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  7. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

  8. [Neuropsychological approach to visual attention].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Visual experience depends critically on visual attention, which selects a particular aspect of a visual display. Recent clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies revealed that visual attention was divided into active and passive or top-down and bottom-up attention. Although these dichotomies are clear-cut in definition, visual attention could be modulated by many factors. Detailed observation of brain-injured patients provides with evidence for dynamic and fine control of visual attention. We observed patients with dorsal simultanagnosia and that with callosal disconnection syndrome. Patients with dorsal simultanagnosia demonstrated that extent of visual attention was dynamically changed depending on the level of visual processing. Despite the ability to read a kanji character and to describe its components correctly, a patient could not notice a component that he had just written and could not assemble individual components to make up a correct kanji character. He could point to an overlapping area of two figures. But once he started to color the overlapping area, he missed the margin of the area and colored much larger area. Another patient with dorsal simultanagnosia missed borderlines between columns of a newspaper and read letters continuously across columns. In contrast, he could point to lines between figures or meaningless patterns easily. These findings indicated that visual attention was directed automatically to meaningful characters. A patients with callosal disconnection syndrome demonstrated left unilateral spatial neglect only when he used his right hand to draw figures. Right hand movement, controlled by the left hemisphere, elicited visual attention to the right hemispace, resulting in the left unilateral spatial neglect. Thus visual attention is not simply top-down or bottom up, but is implicitly affected by the visual recognition as well as motor component of the task. PMID:17354375

  9. [Neuropsychological approach to visual attention].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Visual experience depends critically on visual attention, which selects a particular aspect of a visual display. Recent clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies revealed that visual attention was divided into active and passive or top-down and bottom-up attention. Although these dichotomies are clear-cut in definition, visual attention could be modulated by many factors. Detailed observation of brain-injured patients provides with evidence for dynamic and fine control of visual attention. We observed patients with dorsal simultanagnosia and that with callosal disconnection syndrome. Patients with dorsal simultanagnosia demonstrated that extent of visual attention was dynamically changed depending on the level of visual processing. Despite the ability to read a kanji character and to describe its components correctly, a patient could not notice a component that he had just written and could not assemble individual components to make up a correct kanji character. He could point to an overlapping area of two figures. But once he started to color the overlapping area, he missed the margin of the area and colored much larger area. Another patient with dorsal simultanagnosia missed borderlines between columns of a newspaper and read letters continuously across columns. In contrast, he could point to lines between figures or meaningless patterns easily. These findings indicated that visual attention was directed automatically to meaningful characters. A patients with callosal disconnection syndrome demonstrated left unilateral spatial neglect only when he used his right hand to draw figures. Right hand movement, controlled by the left hemisphere, elicited visual attention to the right hemispace, resulting in the left unilateral spatial neglect. Thus visual attention is not simply top-down or bottom up, but is implicitly affected by the visual recognition as well as motor component of the task. PMID:17228775

  10. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  11. Tips for Beginners: Attention Getters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldavan, Carla

    1993-01-01

    Proposes the use of humor and the personalization of word problems by inserting students' names in the problem statement as methods of gaining students' attention. Illustrates their use in a mixture problem and the Tower of Hanoi problem. (MDH)

  12. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-02-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction.

  13. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  14. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  15. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  16. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  17. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom

  18. Attention, psychomotor functions and age.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Konrad Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jeroen A J; Benton, David

    2005-12-01

    Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions. The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different facets of attention and psychomotor functions beyond fifty as well as assessment methods for attention and psychomotor performance. It also provides a review of models to explain the pattern of changes with increasing age, and discusses the problems of high performance variance and of age related confounding variables like health status. Two different approaches are discussed that analyse a performance profile and an experimentally oriented functional microanalysis of changes in performance with respect to the effects of nutrition on attention and psychomotor functions. Addressed are examples of missing age-related deficits or even age-related superiority. Caffeine and Ginseng are considered as examples to enhance performance in older persons. Results are in accordance with data on the positive role of physical fitness for mental performance in older persons. Performance of older persons can well be enhanced by functional food components or nutritional supplementation. The effects are comparable to the effects obtained in younger groups, while there is only weak evidence for specific compensatory effects in aged persons. Finally the role of nutrition for the processes of healthy aging is discussed.

  19. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bush, George

    2010-01-01

    Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

  1. Pay Attention! Demonstrating the Role of Attention in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a demonstration to illustrate the importance of knowing what is supposed to be learned before studying begins. Suggests that the exercise may be used to show the basic elements of a scientific experiment. Explains that attention's effect upon memory is shown by students' tendency to remember best what they are told to remember. (DK)

  2. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  3. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  4. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  5. NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON THE EURYTOMIDS (CHALCIDOIDEA: EURYTOMIDAE) DESCRIBED BY JEAN BRÈTHES HOUSED IN MUSEO ARGENTINO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES “BERNARDINO RIVADAVIA”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine species parasitic eurytomid wasps described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the National Insect Collection of Argentina, Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Prodecatoma parodii, Eudecatoma o...

  6. Jean Langlais (1907-91): an historical case of a blind organist with stroke-induced aphasia and Braille alexia but without amusia.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C A H; Larner, A J

    2008-11-01

    The subject of a prior report of a blind organist with aphasia and Braille alexia without amusia, published in French, has been identified as Jean Langlais. His artistic and medical history is presented, the latter via translation of the original 1987 paper.

  7. Transitory Connections: The Reception and Rejection of Jean Piaget's Psychology in the Nursery School Movement in the 1920s and 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In 1927, nursery school educator Lucy Sprague Mitchell heralded Jean Piaget's psychology as of "outstanding interest" and wrote in "Progressive Education" that it should be of "immense service" to psychologists, teachers, and parents. In 1929, psychologist Lois Meek praised Piaget's research in the National Society for the Study of Education's…

  8. Absurdity and being-in-itself. The third phase of phenomenology: Jean-Paul Sartre and existential psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    2001-08-01

    Existentialism and phenomenology are closely linked philosophies. Existentialism preceded phenomenology and is not considered a single philosophy but several schools of thought, both theist and atheist in thinking, which grew out of a reaction to traditional philosophy. The development of phenomenology is divided into three separate phases ultimately merging with existentialism. Following Second World War, the phenomenological movement gained momentum in France and encompassed many of the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merlieu-Ponty and, notably, Jean-Paul Sartre established a 'third phase' of phenomenology. This paper explores some of Sartre's ideas related to being and later applications through Medard Boss and R.D. Laing, and offers a short illustrative case vignette that shows the concepts as they might apply to nursing practice. Consideration is finally given to existential psychoanalysis as an applied research methodology

  9. Reproductive attitudes of couples having a child with cystic fibrosis in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Quebec, Canada).

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, M; Bellis, G; Rault, G; Allard, C; Milot, M; Simard, F

    2000-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) has a high incidence (1/936 live births) and carrier rate (1/15 inhabitants) in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean. One objective of a major enquiry among several subsets of individuals from this high-risk population for CF was to evaluate the reproductive behaviour of couples with a CF child attending the comprehensive CF clinic in Chicoutimi. The knowledge of the recurrence risk resulted in deciding against further progeny or in reducing the number of children. More reliable contraception methods after the birth of the CF child, but not prenatal diagnosis, were used. Although a minority of parents with a CF child would abort a CF foetus, they apparently started viewing pregnancy interruption for CF after prenatal diagnosis as an acceptable reproductive option.

  10. Jean-Martin Charcot, father of modern neurology: an homage 120 years after his death.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2013-10-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot was a pioneer in a variety of subjects, including nervous system diseases; anatomy; physiology; pathology; and diseases of ageing, joints, and lungs. His medical achievements were mainly based on his anatomopathological proficiency, his observation, and his personal thoroughness that favored the delineation of the nosology of the main neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, peroneal muscular atrophy, and hysteria/epilepsy. The link of this anatomoclinical method with iconographic representations and theatrical lessons, and the rich bibliographical documentations, carried out in a crowded barn for diseased people--Salpetrière Hospital, were the basis of his achievements, which are still discussed 120 years after his death.

  11. Application of Jean Piaget's theory of human development for nursing children in an adult intensive therapy unit.

    PubMed

    Green, A

    1991-12-01

    Piaget (1964) believed that interaction with the environment has a large part to play in human development. Matthew (1986) states that in an ideal world critically ill children should be cared for by staff trained in paediatrics, within designated paediatric intensive therapy units. Unfortunately, there are only 28 paediatric intensive therapy units in Great Britain (CMA Medical Data, 1987), consequently each year a third of children requiring intensive care are admitted to adult intensive therapy units (ITU). A knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology can therefore be beneficial to nurses in assessing which stage of development a child has reached, in order to plan the correct level of stimulation, and hence facilitate progress rather than regression in the accomplishment of developmental tasks. The psychological and social processes involved in Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) theory of human development are discussed with regard to nursing children requiring intubation and ventilation in an adult ITU.

  12. Application of Jean Piaget's theory of human development for nursing children in an adult intensive therapy unit.

    PubMed

    Green, A

    1991-12-01

    Piaget (1964) believed that interaction with the environment has a large part to play in human development. Matthew (1986) states that in an ideal world critically ill children should be cared for by staff trained in paediatrics, within designated paediatric intensive therapy units. Unfortunately, there are only 28 paediatric intensive therapy units in Great Britain (CMA Medical Data, 1987), consequently each year a third of children requiring intensive care are admitted to adult intensive therapy units (ITU). A knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology can therefore be beneficial to nurses in assessing which stage of development a child has reached, in order to plan the correct level of stimulation, and hence facilitate progress rather than regression in the accomplishment of developmental tasks. The psychological and social processes involved in Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) theory of human development are discussed with regard to nursing children requiring intubation and ventilation in an adult ITU. PMID:1765639

  13. Resolving the mass-anisotropy degeneracy of the spherically symmetric Jeans equation - II. Optimum smoothing and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakogiannis, Foivos I.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2014-09-01

    The spherical Jeans equation is widely used to estimate the mass content of stellar systems with apparent spherical symmetry. However, this method suffers from a degeneracy between the assumed mass density and the kinematic anisotropy profile, β(r). In a previous work, we laid the theoretical foundations for an algorithm that combines smoothing B splines with equations from dynamics to remove this degeneracy. Specifically, our method reconstructs a unique kinematic profile of σ _{rr}^2 and σ _{tt}^2 for an assumed free functional form of the potential and mass density (Φ, ρ) and given a set of observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion measurements, σ _los^2. In Paper I, we demonstrated the efficiency of our algorithm with a very simple example and we commented on the need for optimum smoothing of the B-spline representation; this is in order to avoid unphysical variational behaviour when we have large uncertainty in our data. In the current contribution, we present a process of finding the optimum smoothing for a given data set by using information of the behaviour from known ideal theoretical models. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods are used to explore the degeneracy in the dynamical modelling process. We validate our model through applications to synthetic data for systems with constant or variable mass-to-light ratio Υ. In all cases, we recover excellent fits of theoretical functions to observables and unique solutions. Our algorithm is a robust method for the removal of the mass-anisotropy degeneracy of the spherically symmetric Jeans equation for an assumed functional form of the mass density.

  14. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  15. Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

    2008-01-01

    Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

  16. Attention and the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  17. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  18. Attention maps in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Somers, David C.; Sheremata, Summer L.

    2014-01-01

    Over 20 distinct cerebral cortical areas contain spatial map representations of the visual field. These retinotopic, or visuotopic, cortical areas occur not only in the occipital lobe but also in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. The cognitive influences of visuospatial attention operate via these cortical maps and can support selection of multiple objects at the same time. In early visual cortical areas, spatial attention enhances responses of selected items and diminishes the responses to distracting items. In higher order cortex, the maps support a spatial indexing role, keeping track of the items to be attended. These maps also support visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations. In each hemisphere, all the known maps respond selectively to stimuli presented within the contralateral visual field. However, a hemispheric asymmetry emerges when the attentional or VSTM demands of a task become significant. In the parietal lobe, the right hemisphere visuotopic maps switch from coding only contralateral visual targets to coding memory and attention targets across the entire visual field. This emergent asymmetry has important implications for understanding hemispatial neglect syndrome, and supports a dynamic network form of the representational model of neglect. PMID:25089167

  19. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  20. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  1. Deployment of Attention on Handshakes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mowei; Yin, Jun; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Zhou, Jifan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the social structures between objects, organizing, and selecting them accordingly, is fundamental to social cognition. We report an example that demonstrates the object association learned from social interactions could impact visual attention. Particularly, when two hands approach each other to perform a handshake, they tend to be attended to as a unit because of the cooperative relationship exhibited in the action: even a cue presented on a non-target hand may facilitate a response to the targets that appear on the non-cued hand (Experiment 1), indicating that attentional shift between two hands was facilitated; furthermore, the response to a target on one hand is significantly impaired by a distractor on the other hand (Experiment 2), implying that it is difficult to selectively confine attention to a single hand. These effects were dependent on the existence of the hands when cue and target appeared (Experiment 3); neither perceptual familiarity, or physical fit can explain all the attention effects (Experiment 4). These results have bearings on the perceptual root of social cognition. PMID:27242595

  2. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  3. Attentional bias in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  4. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  5. [Professor Jean-Charles Sournia and the French Society of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Cornet, André; Dulieu, Louis; Ségal, Alain

    2002-01-01

    The authors recount the important contribution of Professor Sournia as he worked for the French Society of Medicine History for thirty-five years. As a devoted general secretary he managed in 1973 the Society officially recognised as a state-approved institution. Then in 1979 and 1980, he was the President of our Society with authority and awareness of need for some reforms. He was an attentive chief editor of the journal "Histoires des Sciences Médicales" in which many of his original papers demonstrated his wide-ranging education and the diversity of his interests: Arab Medicine and Surgery books, History of Public Health, History of Medical Jargon, the lexicography by Littré, the major epidemics included leprosy, many medical biographies etc. Thus it was not surprising that he has published his "Histoire de la Médecine et des Médecins".

  6. A Real Attention-Getter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  7. Redefinition of the Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite, Central Grenville Province, Québec, Based on Compositional, Structural, Geochronological, and Mineral Deposit Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, C.; van Breemen, O.

    2004-05-01

    The Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite was previously recognized as one of the biggest anorthositic masses in the world (20,000 km2). Recent field and geochronological work has demonstrated that this anorthositic mass is, in fact, an assemblage resulting from four temporally distinct magmatic episodes, which took place between 1327 and 1012 Ma. This discovery has required the redefinition of the Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite in terms of its component units. The 1327 ± 16 Ma De La Blache Mafic Plutonic Suite occupies the northeastern limb of the former Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite. This suite is characterized by labradorite-type anorthosite, a large volume of olivine-bearing anorthositic rocks, a wide gabbronoritic fringe, and Fe-Ti and Ni-Cu occurrences. This magmatic body is constrained by a paired, dextral and sinistral strike-slip fault system. The Lac-St.-Jean Anorthositic Suite represents that part of the former Lac St.-Jean Anorthosite that was emplaced between 1160 and 1140 Ma. The suite still occupies the largest area of any anorthositic mass in the Central Grenville Province. It is characterized by labradorite- and andesine-type anorthositic rocks, is bordered by gabbronoritic fringes along its northern and southeastern margins, and contains sizeable Ti-Fe-P and Ni-Cu occurrences. The western part of this huge anorthositic mass is undeformed, whereas the eastern part was pervasively affected by a system of thrust and strike-slip faults, which resulted in a high degree of recrystallization of the anorthositic rocks. The 1180-1160 Ma Vanel Anorthosite occupies a large part of the eastern margin of the former Lac-St.-Jean-Anorthosite. This unit is characterized by labradorite- and andesine-type anorthositic rocks containing typically pink-colored and almost ubiquitously recristallized plagioclase. It includes abundant coronitic leuconorite, orthopyroxene-bearing leucotroctolite, and norite, and contains a few Ti-Fe-P occurrences. The 1012 +6/-4 Ma Mattawa Anorthosite is an

  8. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  9. Visual attention: the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed.

  10. Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

  11. Attentive Tracking of Sound Sources.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kevin J P; McDermott, Josh H

    2015-08-31

    Auditory scenes often contain concurrent sound sources, but listeners are typically interested in just one of these and must somehow select it for further processing. One challenge is that real-world sounds such as speech vary over time and as a consequence often cannot be separated or selected based on particular values of their features (e.g., high pitch). Here we show that human listeners can circumvent this challenge by tracking sounds with a movable focus of attention. We synthesized pairs of voices that changed in pitch and timbre over random, intertwined trajectories, lacking distinguishing features or linguistic information. Listeners were cued beforehand to attend to one of the voices. We measured their ability to extract this cued voice from the mixture by subsequently presenting the ending portion of one voice and asking whether it came from the cued voice. We found that listeners could perform this task but that performance was mediated by attention-listeners who performed best were also more sensitive to perturbations in the cued voice than in the uncued voice. Moreover, the task was impossible if the source trajectories did not maintain sufficient separation in feature space. The results suggest a locus of attention that can follow a sound's trajectory through a feature space, likely aiding selection and segregation amid similar distractors. PMID:26279234

  12. The scaling of attention networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei

    2016-04-01

    We use clicks as a proxy of collective attention and construct networks to study the temporal dynamics of attention. In particular we collect the browsing records of millions of users on 1000 Web forums in two months. In the constructed networks, nodes are threads and edges represent the switch of users between threads in an hour. The investigated network properties include the number of threads N, the number of users UV, and the number of clicks, PV. We find scaling functions PV ∼ UV θ1, PV ∼N θ3, and UV ∼N θ2, in which the scaling exponents are always greater than 1. This means that (1) the studied networks maintain a self-similar flow structure in time, i.e., large networks are simply the scale-up versions of small networks; and (2) large networks are more "productive", in the sense that an average user would generate more clicks in the larger systems. We propose a revised version of Zipf's law to quantify the time-invariant flow structure of attention networks and relate it to the observed scaling properties. We also demonstrate the applied consequences of our research: forum-classification based on scaling properties.

  13. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  14. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  15. Auditory Attention Switching: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lane, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Studied the ability of 8- and 11-year olds, and college-age subjects, to allocate attention rapidly. Older subjects were better able to reallocate attention. The developmental change in the reallocation of attention appears to be continuous and quantitative. Improvement is linked to the ability to use active attentional strategies. (Author/GH)

  16. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  17. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  18. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  19. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  20. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  1. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-03-22

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors.

  2. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  3. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  4. Dominique-Jean Larrey, chief surgeon of the French Army with Napoleon in Egypt: notes and observations on Larrey's medical memoirs based on the Egyptian campaign.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mary Mendenhall

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Dominique-Jean Larrey wrote memoirs of 12 diseases he encountered while serving as chief surgeon of the French army during Napoleon's Egyptian campaign. He describes symptoms and treatments, evaluates remedies used by the Egyptians, and the effects of the climate. Of interest are his original though misguided explanations of causes of sickness or complications from wounds as well as descriptions of medications--now known to be dangerous--but all balanced by his common sense and efforts to ameliorate suffering.

  5. Jean-Martin Charcot and art: relationship of the "founder of neurology" with various aspects of art.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), the "father of neurology" in France and much beyond, was also the man who established academic psychiatry in Paris, differentiating it from clinical alienism. In his teaching, he used artistic representations from previous centuries to illustrate the historical developments of hysteria, mainly with the help of his pupil Paul Richer. Charcot liked to draw portraits (in particular, sketches of colleagues during boring faculty meetings and students' examinations), caricatures of himself and others, church sculptures, landscapes, soldiers, etc. He also used this skill in his clinical and scientific work; he drew histological or anatomic specimens, as well as patients' features and demeanor. His most daring artistic experiments were drawing under the influence of hashish. Charcot's tastes in art were conservative; he displayed no affinity for the avant-gardes of his time, including impressionism, or for contemporary musicians, such as César Franck or Hector Berlioz. Léon Daudet, son of Charcot's former friend and famous writer Alphonse Daudet, described Charcot's home as a pseudo-gothic kitsch accumulation of heteroclite pieces of furniture and materials. However, as Henry Meige wrote a few years after his mentor's death, Charcot the artist remains "inseparable from Charcot the physician." PMID:24041281

  6. Doctor Jean-Paul Marat (1743-93) and his time as a physician in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Weiner, M-F

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Paul Marat was a French revolutionary, famously murdered in his bath by Charlotte Corday in 1793. A lesser known fact is that for over ten years he lived in Britain where he practised as a doctor. During this time he visited London, Edinburgh, Dublin and Holland. Although he had no formal medical training, he published two medical papers on gleets (gonorrhoea) and diseases of the eyes and, on the recommendation of two eminent Scottish physicians, William Buchan and Hugh James, he was granted a medical degree from the University of St Andrews. Marat left no medical legacy and his related writings were forgotten for 100 years until the rediscovery of the two medical papers, which were eventually re-published in 1892 at the instigation of James Bailey, the librarian of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Biographies by F Chevremont (1880), Ashbee Spencer (1890) and A Cabanès (1891) had rekindled interest in this intriguing revolutionary. A study of his time in Britain and his medical works and training provide an interesting insight into the mind of a revolutionary and how his sojourn may have shaped his future political career upon his return to France in 1777.

  7. Jean-Martin Charcot and art: relationship of the "founder of neurology" with various aspects of art.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), the "father of neurology" in France and much beyond, was also the man who established academic psychiatry in Paris, differentiating it from clinical alienism. In his teaching, he used artistic representations from previous centuries to illustrate the historical developments of hysteria, mainly with the help of his pupil Paul Richer. Charcot liked to draw portraits (in particular, sketches of colleagues during boring faculty meetings and students' examinations), caricatures of himself and others, church sculptures, landscapes, soldiers, etc. He also used this skill in his clinical and scientific work; he drew histological or anatomic specimens, as well as patients' features and demeanor. His most daring artistic experiments were drawing under the influence of hashish. Charcot's tastes in art were conservative; he displayed no affinity for the avant-gardes of his time, including impressionism, or for contemporary musicians, such as César Franck or Hector Berlioz. Léon Daudet, son of Charcot's former friend and famous writer Alphonse Daudet, described Charcot's home as a pseudo-gothic kitsch accumulation of heteroclite pieces of furniture and materials. However, as Henry Meige wrote a few years after his mentor's death, Charcot the artist remains "inseparable from Charcot the physician."

  8. Unsupervised classification of lidar-based vegetation structure metrics at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kranenburg, Christine J.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Woodman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Traditional vegetation maps capture the horizontal distribution of various vegetation properties, for example, type, species and age/senescence, across a landscape. Ecologists have long known, however, that many important forest properties, for example, interior microclimate, carbon capacity, biomass and habitat suitability, are also dependent on the vertical arrangement of branches and leaves within tree canopies. The objective of this study was to use a digital elevation model (DEM) along with tree canopy-structure metrics derived from a lidar survey conducted using the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) to capture a three-dimensional view of vegetation communities in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana. The EAARL instrument is a raster-scanning, full waveform-resolving, small-footprint, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar system designed to map coastal bathymetry, topography and vegetation structure simultaneously. An unsupervised clustering procedure was then applied to the 3-dimensional-based metrics and DEM to produce a vegetation map based on the vertical structure of the park's vegetation, which includes a flotant marsh, scrub-shrub wetland, bottomland hardwood forest, and baldcypress-tupelo swamp forest. This study was completed in collaboration with the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program's Gulf Coast Network. The methods presented herein are intended to be used as part of a cost-effective monitoring tool to capture change in park resources.

  9. "Mathematics made no contribution to the public weal": why Jean Fernel (1497-1558) became a physician.

    PubMed

    Henry, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a caution that emphasis upon the importance of mathematics in recent historiography is in danger of obscuring the historical fact that, for the most part, mathematics was not seen as important in the pre-modern period. The paper proceeds by following a single case study, and in so doing offers the first account of the mathematical writings of Jean Fernel (1497-1558), better known as a leading medical innovator of the 16th century. After establishing Fernel's early commitment to mathematics, and attempt to forge a career as a cosmographer, it goes on to explain his abandonment of mathematics for a career in medicine. The 'mathematization of the world picture' is usually explained in terms of the perceived usefulness of mathematics, but Fernel's case shows that for many pre-modern thinkers, mathematics was not regarded as a useful pursuit. The paper should serve as a reminder, therefore, that the take-up of mathematics by natural philosophers was by no means inevitable, but had to be carefully managed by early modern mathematical practitioners. The case of Fernel indicates that perhaps he was not the only would-be mathematical practitioner to abandon mathematics in favor of a calling that was more appreciated by contemporaries.

  10. Attention theory and training research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  11. The Speed of Feature-Based Attention: Attentional Advantage Is Slow, but Selection Is Fast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…

  12. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  13. Everyday attention failures: an individual differences investigation.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational contexts (in class or while studying). Latent variable techniques were used to perform analyses, and the results suggested that individual differences in working memory capacity and attention control were related to some but not all everyday attention failures. Furthermore, everyday attention failures predicted SAT scores and partially accounted for the relation between cognitive abilities and SAT scores. These results provide important evidence for individual differences in everyday attention failures as well as for the ecological validity of laboratory measures of working memory capacity and attention control.

  14. Infant Visual Attention and Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Greg D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. PMID:25596333

  15. Superior Colliculus and Visual Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Krauzlis, Richard J.; Lovejoy, Lee P.; Zénon, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention. PMID:23682659

  16. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  17. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled “general attention.” The third component was labeled “auditory attention,” as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as “spatial orienting” and “spatial conflict,” respectively—they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task—all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific. PMID:26635709

  18. Context-Dependent Control over Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of a salient item capturing attention is dependent on the "attentional set" an individual employs in a given situation. The instantiation of an attentional set is often viewed as a strategic, voluntary process, relying on working memory systems that represent immediate task priorities.…

  19. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  20. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  1. Target Predictability, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Leonie; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed a number detection task for 37.3 min using either a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (TFT; high No-Go low Go) response…

  2. Behold: Silence and Attention in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David

    2014-01-01

    Educators continually ask about the best means to engage students and how best to capture attention. These concerns often make the problematic assumption that students can directly govern their own attention. In order to address the role and limits of attention in education, some theorists have sought to recover the significance of silence or…

  3. Separable Attentional Predictors of Language Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda; Panneton, Robin K.; Colombo, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the combined influences of infants' attention and use of social cues in the prediction of their language outcomes. This longitudinal study measured infants' visual attention on a distractibility task (11 months), joint attention (14 months), and language outcomes (word-object association, 14 months;…

  4. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  5. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  6. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  7. Attention to Affect in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jane

    2011-01-01

    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect…

  8. The What and Where of Visual Attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tirin; Zirnsak, Marc

    2015-11-18

    The selective processing of sensory input during attention is known to take many forms, and different forms of attention likely reflect varying underlying neural mechanisms. Bichot and colleagues (2015) identify neurons that appear specialized for the control of feature-based visual attention. PMID:26590339

  9. Mental Attention in Gifted and Nongifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Ramiro, Pedro; Lopez, Jose M.; Aguilar, Manuel; Acosta, Manuel; Montero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the construct of mental attention and "giftedness" is not well established. Gifted individuals could make effective use of their executive functions and this could be related to their mental attentional capacity. The dialectic constructivist model developed by Pascual-Leone introduced the concept of mental attention or…

  10. An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per

    2005-01-01

    Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology. Research in this area has progressed mainly outside of behavior analysis, and behavior-analytic research and theory has tended to ignore the work on joint attention. It is argued here, on the one…

  11. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  12. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl. PMID:27189265

  14. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  15. Selective attention skills of experienced sonar operators.

    PubMed

    Merrill, L L; Lewandowski, L J; Kobus, D A

    1994-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of sonar training and experience on the selective attention of experienced and inexperienced operators. The Stroop task was selected as a measure of general selective attention, similar in certain task requirements (attentional allocation) to sonar operation. Across two samples (ns = 32 and 36) and four repeated test sessions groups did not differ significantly in speed or accuracy of Stroop performance. The data suggest that experienced operators do not seem to have developed extraordinary attentional skills and that any attentional skills developed through sonar experience do not generalize to other tasks such as the Stroop.

  16. Consciousness and Attention: On Sufficiency and Necessity

    PubMed Central

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of “complete” absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG, and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention. PMID:21833272

  17. Feature- and category-specific attentional control settings are differently affected by attentional engagement in contingent attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Liu, Xiaoyue; Fu, Shimin

    2016-07-01

    A distractor can capture attention and impair target processing when it shares a target-defining property and matches specific attentional control settings (ACS). We studied how feature-specific ACS (fACS) and category-specific ACS (cACS) operate in a conjunction search task and how they are influenced by attentional engagement. The feature- and category-matching level and temporal lags between the distractor and target were manipulated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The N2pc component and impairment of target identification, which are associated with attentional allocation at an earlier stage and response selection at a later stage, respectively, were measured as markers of attentional capture. The interaction of two ACSs was observed in behavioral data, but disappeared in N2pc data, suggesting two-stage processing of multiple ACSs during a conjunction search, including an early independent and a late integrated stage. Moreover, a reliable N2pc was observed for fACS regardless of the sufficiency of attentional engagement, whereas the N2pc for cACS was only observed with sufficient attentional engagement, but disappeared when the attentional engagement was insufficient. This suggests that cACS demands sufficient attentional engagement, while fACS does not. In conclusion, fACS and cACS can be activated independently at an earlier stage, but they are integrated at a later stage during a conjunction search task and are differently influenced by attentional engagement.

  18. Attention deficits in stroke patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Korda, R J; Douglas, J M

    1997-08-01

    Attentional capacity and sustained attention were investigated in 21 aphasic stroke patients and 21 non-brain-damaged patients. Attentional capacity was assessed using a series of reaction time (RT) tasks. The aphasic patients demonstrated impaired attentional capacity as shown by slower processing speed than the non-brain-damaged group (p < .01) and greater increases in RT with increased processing load (p < .05). Similar patterns were found for both verbal and spatial material. There was no significant relationship between severity of auditory comprehension deficits and attentional capacity. Sustained attention was assessed using a cognitive vigilance task requiring identification of a target letter presented infrequently over 32 minutes. Both the aphasic and the non-brain-damaged group demonstrated a decline in performance with time on task as shown by a steady increase in RTs (p < .0001), but the decline was equivalent across the groups. Thus, the aphasic group did not show a specific deficit in the ability to sustain attention. PMID:9342688

  19. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention.

  20. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we manipulated whether participants performed the secondary attention-demanding task concurrently in the early or late phase of visuomotor learning. Recall performance was enhanced when the attentional states between recall and the early phase of visuomotor learning were consistent. However, it reverted to untrained levels when tested under the attentional state of the late-phase learning. This suggests that attentional state is primarily encoded during the early phase of learning before motor errors decrease and reach an asymptote. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when divided and undivided attentional states were mixed during visuomotor adaptation, only divided attention was encoded as an internal cue for memory retrieval. Therefore, a single attentional state appears to be primarily integrated with visuomotor memory while motor error reduction is in progress during learning. PMID:26114683

  1. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  2. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. PMID:26036712

  3. Object continuity enhances selective auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Best, Virginia; Ozmeral, Erol J; Kopco, Norbert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2008-09-01

    In complex scenes, the identity of an auditory object can build up across seconds. Given that attention operates on perceptual objects, this perceptual buildup may alter the efficacy of selective auditory attention over time. Here, we measured identification of a sequence of spoken target digits presented with distracter digits from other directions to investigate the dynamics of selective attention. Performance was better when the target location was fixed rather than changing between digits, even when listeners were cued as much as 1 s in advance about the position of each subsequent digit. Spatial continuity not only avoided well known costs associated with switching the focus of spatial attention, but also produced refinements in the spatial selectivity of attention across time. Continuity of target voice further enhanced this buildup of selective attention. Results suggest that when attention is sustained on one auditory object within a complex scene, attentional selectivity improves over time. Similar effects may come into play when attention is sustained on an object in a complex visual scene, especially in cases where visual object formation requires sustained attention.

  4. Attention and curiosity in museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koran, John J., Jr.; Morrison, Laura; Lehman, Jeffrey R.; Koran, Mary Lou; Gandara, Luisa

    Two hundred and thirty-four museum visitors of all ages were observed as they entered the Object Gallery area of the Florida State Museum. Visitors were observed under conditions where objects were available for close inspection but could not be manipulated (baseline data) and later when the same objects were placed on tables and were available for visitors to touch, move, and use a variety of senses to inspect them (intervention data). Data were recorded on the sex, age, and number of subjects in these areas under each of the above conditions. The results obtained show a significant increase in the number of visitors entering this section of the museum when manipulatable objects were available. Baseline data showed that 58.5% of the people who entered the Object Gallery went into the drawer section. However, when manipulatable objects were made available this increased to 82.3%. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether the presence of manipulatable objects in the area increased the number of people who entered the area. It did (p < 0.05). Chi-square analysis was also used to determine whether entering the drawer section depended on age or sex. It was found that more children entered the drawer section than adults (p < 0.05) and significantly more female children and female adults entered as a result of intervention (p < 0.05). At the same time, more male children than adults entered after intervention (p < 0.05) than before. These data are supported by considerable curiosity research indicating that both children and adults are attracted to novel as well as complex stimuli which can be manipulated in both formal and free-choice environments. The data also support the growing movement to hands-on exhibits in natural history museums and science centers around the country, as well as hands-on classroom activities from the perspective of their attention attracting and holding power and their curiosity evoking characteristics. Whether these positive factors

  5. Low attentional engagement makes attention network activity susceptible to emotional interference.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Pickard, Natasha; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ogawa, Keith H; Knight, Robert T; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2014-09-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether emotion-attention interaction depends on attentional engagement. To investigate emotional modulation of attention network activation, we used a functional MRI paradigm consisting of a visuospatial attention task with either frequent (high-engagement) or infrequent (low-engagement) targets and intermittent emotional or neutral distractors. The attention task recruited a bilateral frontoparietal network with no emotional interference on network activation when the attentional engagement was high. In contrast, when the attentional engagement was low, the unpleasant stimuli interfered with the activation of the frontoparietal attention network, especially in the right hemisphere. This study provides novel evidence for low attentional engagement making attention control network activation susceptible to emotional interference.

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY DARK MATTER HALO FROM JEANS EQUATIONS APPLIED TO SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Loebman, Sarah R.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Brooks, Alyson M.; Christensen, Charlotte R.; Juric, Mario

    2012-10-10

    We search for evidence of dark matter in the Milky Way by utilizing the stellar number density distribution and kinematics measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to heliocentric distances exceeding {approx}10 kpc. We employ the cylindrically symmetric form of Jeans equations and focus on the morphology of the resulting acceleration maps, rather than the normalization of the total mass as done in previous, mostly local, studies. Jeans equations are first applied to a mock catalog based on a cosmologically derived N-body+SPH simulation, and the known acceleration (gradient of gravitational potential) is successfully recovered. The same simulation is also used to quantify the impact of dark matter on the total acceleration. We use Galfast, a code designed to quantitatively reproduce SDSS measurements and selection effects, to generate a synthetic stellar catalog. We apply Jeans equations to this catalog and produce two-dimensional maps of stellar acceleration. These maps reveal that in a Newtonian framework, the implied gravitational potential cannot be explained by visible matter alone. The acceleration experienced by stars at galactocentric distances of {approx}20 kpc is three times larger than what can be explained by purely visible matter. The application of an analytic method for estimating the dark matter halo axis ratio to SDSS data implies an oblate halo with q{sub DM} = 0.47 {+-} 0.14 within the same distance range. These techniques can be used to map the dark matter halo to much larger distances from the Galactic center using upcoming deep optical surveys, such as LSST.

  7. A New Jeans Resolution Criterion for (M)HD Simulations of Self-gravitating Gas: Application to Magnetic Field Amplification by Gravity-driven Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Sur, Sharanya; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2011-04-01

    Cosmic structure formation is characterized by the complex interplay between gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. The processes by which gravitational energy is converted into turbulent and magnetic energies, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we show with high-resolution, adaptive-mesh simulations that MHD turbulence is efficiently driven by extracting energy from the gravitational potential during the collapse of a dense gas cloud. Compressible motions generated during the contraction are converted into solenoidal, turbulent motions, leading to a natural energy ratio of E sol/E tot ≈ 2/3. We find that the energy injection scale of gravity-driven turbulence is close to the local Jeans scale. If small seeds of the magnetic field are present, they are amplified exponentially fast via the small-scale dynamo process. The magnetic field grows most efficiently on the smallest scales, for which the stretching, twisting, and folding of field lines, and the turbulent vortices are sufficiently resolved. We find that this scale corresponds to about 30 grid cells in the simulations. We thus suggest a new minimum resolution criterion of 30 cells per Jeans length in (magneto)hydrodynamical simulations of self-gravitating gas, in order to resolve turbulence on the Jeans scale, and to capture minimum dynamo amplification of the magnetic field. Due to numerical diffusion, however, any existing simulation today can at best provide lower limits on the physical growth rates. We conclude that a small, initial magnetic field can grow to dynamically important strength on timescales significantly shorter than the free-fall time of the cloud.

  8. The role of attention in visual processing.

    PubMed Central

    Maunsell, John H R; Cook, Erik P

    2002-01-01

    Attention to a visual stimulus typically increases the responses of cortical neurons to that stimulus. Because many studies have shown a close relationship between the performance of individual neurons and behavioural performance of animal subjects, it is important to consider how attention affects this relationship. Measurements of behavioural and neuronal performance taken from rhesus monkeys while they performed a motion detection task with two attentional states show that attention alters the relationship between behaviour and neuronal response. Notably, attention affects the relationship differently in different cortical visual areas. This indicates that a close relationship between neuronal and behavioural performance on a given task persists over changes in attentional state only within limited regions of visual cortex. PMID:12217174

  9. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    D. P., Spiegel; T., Linford; B., Thompson; M. A., Petoe; K., Kobayashi; C. M., Stinear; G. D., Searchfield

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect. PMID:26020589

  10. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  11. Paying attention to MMN in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Damaso, Karlye A M; Michie, Patricia T; Todd, Juanita

    2015-11-11

    The aim of this review is to explore the phenomenon of reduced mismatch negativity (MMN) in persons with schizophrenia and the possible relationship it has with attention impairments. In doing so we discuss (i) the prediction error account of MMN, (ii) reduced MMN as a faulty predictive processing system in persons with schizophrenia, (iii) the role of these systems in relevance filtering and attentional resource protection, (iv) attentional impairments in persons with schizophrenia, and (v) research that has explored MMN and attention in schizophrenia groups. Our review of the literature suggests that no study has appropriately examined the functional impact of smaller MMN in schizophrenia on the performance of a concurrent attention task. We conclude that future research should explore this notion further in the hope that it might embed MMN findings within outcomes of functional significance to individuals with the illness and those providing treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  12. Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) and John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911): neurology in France and England in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Silvester, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In 1862 Jean Martin Charcot was appointed Physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, and simultaneously John Hughlings Jackson was appointed as assistant physician at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London. Both men made significant contributions to the development of neurology, many of which remain important to contemporary neurologists. The achievements and the work of Charcot and Hughlings Jackson are considered in the light of their respective localities and medical education, and the structure of hospital institutions and political allegiances are compared in the late 19th century in France and Britain.

  13. [Comment on “Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?” by Jean-Claude Mareschal] Development of plate tectonics theory: The missing piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    The recent article by Jean-Claude Mareschal (“Plate Tectonics: Scientific Revolution or Scientific Program?” in Eos, May 19, 1987, p. 529) adds to the interesting literature on the evolution of the theory of plate tectonics. It is curious that an aspect of the general theory that seems to be little considered and mentioned by Mareschal or others who write about the history of development of the theory, but that was vitally important in my own acceptance of the theory, was the discovery of subduction and, to a lesser extent, abduction.

  14. Synthetic computational models of selective attention.

    PubMed

    Raffone, Antonino

    2006-11-01

    Computational modeling plays an important role to understand the mechanisms of attention. In this framework, synthetic computational models can uniquely contribute to integrate different explanatory levels and neurocognitive findings, with special reference to the integration of attention and awareness processes. Novel combined experimental and computational investigations can lead to important insights, as in the revived domain of neural correlates of attention- and awareness-related meditation states and traits.

  15. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  16. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kairalla, I C J; Mattos, P E L; Hoexter, M Q; Bressan, R A; Mari, J J; Shirakawa, I

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE). On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min), the second for alternating attention (5 min), and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min). The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  17. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  18. Attention Stabilizes Representations in the Human Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-02-01

    Attention and memory are intricately linked, but how attention modulates brain areas that subserve memory, such as the hippocampus, is unknown. We hypothesized that attention may stabilize patterns of activity in human hippocampus, resulting in distinct but reliable activity patterns for different attentional states. To test this prediction, we utilized high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel "art gallery" task. On each trial, participants viewed a room containing a painting, and searched a stream of rooms for a painting from the same artist (art state) or a room with the same layout (room state). Bottom-up stimulation was the same in both tasks, enabling the isolation of neural effects related to top-down attention. Multivariate analyses revealed greater pattern similarity in all hippocampal subfields for trials from the same, compared with different, attentional state. This stability was greater for the room than art state, was unrelated to univariate activity, and, in CA2/CA3/DG, was correlated with behavior. Attention therefore induces representational stability in the human hippocampus, resulting in distinct activity patterns for different attentional states. Modulation of hippocampal representational stability highlights the far-reaching influence of attention outside of sensory systems.

  19. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A; Dunne, John D; Davidson, Richard J

    2008-04-01

    Meditation can be conceptualized as a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of well-being and emotional balance. Among these various practices, there are two styles that are commonly studied. One style, focused attention meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object. The other style, open monitoring meditation, involves nonreactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment. The potential regulatory functions of these practices on attention and emotion processes could have a long-term impact on the brain and behavior.

  20. Attentional processes and choking under pressure.

    PubMed

    Schücker, Linda; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    The self-focus theory of choking under pressure explains decreases in performance of well-learned motor tasks with an increase in skill-focused attention. This shift in attentional focus has been demonstrated; however, specific propositions about the processes in pressure-induced attentional shift are yet to be developed. This study assesses whether specific aspects of movement execution attract more attention than others when movements are executed under pressure. Such elements are important in conscious movement control before execution becomes automated through practice; under pressure, attention may be redirected to these elements. Basketball free throws were executed by 22 junior national team members in a low and high pressure situation. Two dual task/focus conditions (related to different aspects of the movement) were implemented in each pressure condition. This dual task paradigm was used as a direct and detailed measure of skill focused attention, suitable to show specific pressure induced shifts of attention that lead to performance decrements. Pressure was induced by telling players that their performance would be evaluated by coaches. Players were defined as chokers if their performance decreased under this pressure. Chokers showed differences with regard to their attentional focus on movement execution in the pressure conditions compared to the players defined as non-chokers. The findings suggest that attentional shifts during choking can be related to specific aspects of movement execution.

  1. First observations of the second solar spectrum with spatial resolution at the Lunette Jean Rösch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, J.-M.; Moity, J.; Arnaud, J.; Roudier, Th.

    2007-02-01

    Context: A new polarimeter has been installed at the focus of the 50 cm refractor of the Lunette Jean Rösch (LJR), previously known as Turret Dome, Pic du Midi, France, for spectroscopic observations of weak solar magnetic fields. Fields can be derived through the Hanle effect from the depolarization of the second solar spectrum (i.e. the linearly polarized spectrum at the limb). Aims: We present the first observations with spatial resolution based on the new device performed with the large 8 m Echelle spectrograph, or recorded in imagery mode through narrow band filters. The observations started in April 2004, especially in the blue part of the spectrum where our instrumentation has a particularly good efficiency. The capabilities and the characteristics of the new instrument are briefly described. We observed several lines of the second solar spectrum with the slit of the spectrograph orthogonal to the limb to study the polarization as a function of limb distance (which is related to altitude in the atmosphere), and several spectral windows in imagery to determine the average continuum polarization. Methods: The polarimeter uses Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) technology at the primary focus of the refractor, in spectroscopic or imagery mode. Results: A continuous polarization profile through the limb is presented for the photospheric SrI 460.7 nm line, the low chromospheric BaII 455.4 nm line, and the CaI 422.7 nm line within a distance of 120´´, together with measurements of the mean continuum polarization obtained in imagery mode. Preliminary results of the polarization of the SrI 460.7 nm line are also shown at 40´´ from the limb, as a function of the brightness of structures visible in the continuum (granulation). They reveal a tendency for the polarization to be weaker in dark features (intergranules) than in bright ones (granules), suggesting a stronger magnetic field in intergranular lanes. As example the enigmatic and weak polarization signal in the

  2. Case presentation: Jean.

    PubMed

    Libbey, M

    1989-01-01

    This symposium was devoted to the consideration of Dr. Mary Libbey's treatment of a 22-year-old woman. The unfolding of the analysand's symbiotic attachment to her mother, the devastating sequelae of her having been the stable center of a pathological family that devoted itself to the care of a severely handicapped sibling, and her immersion in unresolved mourning form the center of this richly detailed and carefully reported case study. In addition, four verbatim sessions are reported, one from each year of the first two years of treatment, and two from the third year of treatment. Dr. Epstein's discussion, praising Dr. Libbey's therapeutic skill, makes note of the issues in the patient's family of origin that served to prepare her to feel endangered in the treatment. Dr. Epstein's view is that the analyst has created an analytic situation that, because it is minimally impinging, allows the patient to become increasingly aware of her unmet needs in a way that is tolerable and minimally "destabilizing to the symbiotically based organization of her internal self and object world." In the climate of safety created in the treatment, the patient can begin to complete the work of mourning for her sister, friend, and aunt, a process of mourning that would be impossible in the context of her nuclear family, centered as it is on a mother who cannot tolerate separation. Limit-setting in the treatment is seen to be reassuring to the patient, facilitating as it does the analyst's commitment to maintaining the integrity of the analytic situation. Dr. Schafer's discussion, while in agreement with Dr. Epstein in recognizing the excellence of the presentation and the sensitivity and hard work that had gone into both the treatment and the clinical presentation, included some specific and focused observations about the transference and countertransference situations prevailing in this treatment and also some suggestions for creating a more consistently safe analytic atmosphere for this particular patient and others like her. Dr. Schafer proposes that the therapist acknowledge to herself and accept as well as possible the inevitable feeling of helplessness such patients provoke. In a more concrete vein, he advocates talking in the first person declarative as much as possible, preferring "I don't understand" to the more standard "What do you mean?" or "Why?" The therapist is encouraged to eschew interpreting what the patient says about the therapeutic relationship for a long time, and, further, he suggests not quickly connecting or easily reducing the therapeutic relationship to childhood prototypes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2516334

  3. [Jean-martin charcot].

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Manabu

    2014-11-01

    Charcot created a system for the classification and diagnosis of neurological patients in the 1850s. His methodology consisted of listening to a patient's family history and present history, observing the patient scrupulously, and confirming lesions by autopsy once the patient was dead. He compared two different diseases in order to make their differences clear. Once he understood the fundamental form of a disease, he proceeded to study less perfect forms that had a single symptom. By this process, Charcot developed many new symptomatologies in Neurology.

  4. Training of attention functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Kaumann, Gesa; König, Sebastian; Lange, Katharina M; Stasik, Dorota; Streather, Zoe; Engelschalk, Tobias; Lange, Klaus W

    2011-09-01

    Pharmacological treatment of children with ADHD has been shown to be successful; however, medication may not normalize attention functions. The present study was based on a neuropsychological model of attention and assessed the effect of an attention training program on attentional functioning of children with ADHD. Thirty-two children with ADHD and 16 healthy children participated in the study. Children with ADHD were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions, i.e., an attention training program which trained aspects of vigilance, selective attention and divided attention, or a visual perception training which trained perceptual skills, such as perception of figure and ground, form constancy and position in space. The training programs were applied in individual sessions, twice a week, for a period of four consecutive weeks. Healthy children did not receive any training. Alertness, vigilance, selective attention, divided attention, and flexibility were examined prior to and following the interventions. Children with ADHD were assessed and trained while on ADHD medications. Data analysis revealed that the attention training used in the present study led to significant improvements of various aspects of attention, including vigilance, divided attention, and flexibility, while the visual perception training had no specific effects. The findings indicate that attention training programs have the potential to facilitate attentional functioning in children with ADHD treated with ADHD drugs. PMID:21597880

  5. Ambiguity Produces Attention Shifts in Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadillo, Miguel A.; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference…

  6. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  7. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated that approximately 7.8 percent of U.S. children ages 4-17 are currently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For decades, most educators, physicians, psychologists, and parents have thought of ADD/ADHD as…

  8. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  9. An Economics of Attention: The Pure State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for human attention in an information economy to shift from data to information, or information to knowledge, and suggests it be called an economics of attention. Considers implications for higher education and how it will change the history of American higher education. (LRW)

  10. There's Little Return for Attentional Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Janice J.; Schmidt, William C.; Kingstone, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a delay in response time (RT) to targets appearing at a previously cued location. The prevailing view is that IOR reflects visual-motor inhibition. The "attentional momentum" account rejects this idea, and instead proposes that IOR reflects an automatic shift of attention away from the cued location resulting…

  11. The Attentional Boost Effect and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Smith, S. Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors--the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is…

  12. Accuracy of Information Processing under Focused Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper reports the results of an experiment on the accuracy of information processing during attention focused arousal under two conditions: single estimation and double estimation. The attention of 187 college students was focused by a task requiring high level competition for a monetary prize ($10) under severely limited time conditions. The…

  13. Categorically Defined Targets Trigger Spatiotemporal Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…

  14. Taking Control of Reflexive Social Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ristic, Jelena; Kingstone, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Attention is shifted reflexively to where other people are looking. It has been argued by a number of investigators that this social attention effect reflects the obligatory bottom-up activation of domain-specific modules within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are specialized for processing face and gaze information. However, it is also the…

  15. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  16. Object-Based Attention and Cognitive Tunneling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmasz, Jerzy; Herdman, Chris M.; Johannsdottir, Kamilla Run

    2005-01-01

    Simulator-based research has shown that pilots cognitively tunnel their attention on head-up displays (HUDs). Cognitive tunneling has been linked to object-based visual attention on the assumption that HUD symbology is perceptually grouped into an object that is perceived and attended separately from the external scene. The present research…

  17. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  18. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position.

  19. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention. Whenever an inmate worker is injured while in the...

  20. Noise and Attentional Selectivity: A Reproducible Phenomenon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Peter M.; Grierson, Arthur T.

    1978-01-01

    Four pursuit-tracking experiments were conducted in an attempt to replicate with adults, Hockey's findings that loud noise increases attentional selectivity. Neither attentional selectivity nor masking of auditory feedback was found to be significant. For Hockey's reply and the authors' rejoinder, see p499-506 of this issue. (SJL)

  1. Attention, Scholastic Achievement and Timing of Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Studied the time of day of optimal attention for 204 5th graders and 202 10th graders who varied in their aptitude for mathematics. Attention levels of fifth graders were especially high in the afternoon, but 10th graders reported increased concentration in the morning hours. Among 10th graders, there was significant interaction between…

  2. Temporal Processing, Attention, and Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Willburger, Edith

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample (N = 439) of literacy impaired and unimpaired elementary school children the predictions of the temporal processing theory of dyslexia were tested while controlling for (sub)clininal attentional deficits. Visual and Auditory Temporal Order Judgement were administered as well as three subtests of a standardized attention test. The…

  3. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

  4. Multielement Visual Tracking: Attention and Perceptual Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yantis, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Presents 7 experiments with 118 undergraduates tracking multiple randomly moving visual elements under various conditions. Observers spontaneously grouped the target elements and directed attention toward this coherent nonrigid virtual object. Results support object-based theories of attention and show that perceptual grouping, a purely…

  5. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648

  6. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention. Whenever an inmate worker is injured while in the...

  7. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary...

  8. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention. Whenever an inmate worker is injured while in the...

  9. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary...

  10. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention. Whenever an inmate worker is injured while in the...

  11. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary...

  12. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary...

  13. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. PMID:27038756

  14. Is It Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayer, Harvey L.; And Others

    This brief paper addresses the referral of students for psychoeducational evaluation of problems with attention control and overactivity, and provides a checklist to assist teachers in the determination of possible hypotheses to consider prior to formal referral. The paper and checklist emphasize the variety of possible causes of attentional and…

  15. Attention and Communication in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Antonietti, Alessandro; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    The study of selective attention and its influence on communication in patients with Rett Syndrome (RS), in which communication abilities are impaired is particularly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse attention and communication abilities in RS. A sample of 20 children (10 girls with RS and 10 control girls, matched on mental age)…

  16. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  17. Attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of humans and other animals to provide appropriate responses to stimuli anticipating motivationally significant events is exemplified by instrumental conditioning. Interestingly, in humans instrumental conditioning can occur also for subliminal outcome-predicting stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning to take place. In two experiments, human participants had to learn to collect rewards (monetary gains) while avoiding punishments (monetary losses), on the basis of subliminal outcome-predicting cues. We found that instrumental conditioning can proceed subconsciously only if spatial attention is aligned with the subliminal cue. Conversely, if spatial attention is briefly diverted from the subliminal cue, then instrumental conditioning is blocked. In humans, attention but not awareness is therefore mandatory for instrumental conditioning, thus revealing a dissociation between awareness and attention in the control of motivated behavior. PMID:26257144

  18. Holistic processing from learned attention to parts.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Attention helps us focus on what is most relevant to our goals, and prior work has shown that aspects of attention can be learned. Learned inattention to parts can abolish holistic processing of faces, but it is unknown whether learned attention to parts is sufficient to cause a change from part-based to holistic processing with objects. We trained subjects to individuate nonface objects (Greebles) from 2 categories: Ploks and Glips. Diagnostic information was in complementary halves for the 2 categories. Holistic processing was then tested with Plok-Glip composites that combined the kind of part that was diagnostic or nondiagnostic during training. Exposure to Greeble parts resulted in general failures of selective attention for nondiagnostic composites, but face-like holistic processing was only observed for diagnostic composites. These results demonstrated a novel link between learned attentional control and the acquisition of holistic processing.

  19. Visual Attention and Applications in Multimedia Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Le Callet, Patrick; Niebur, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Making technological advances in the field of human-machine interactions requires that the capabilities and limitations of the human perceptual system are taken into account. The focus of this report is an important mechanism of perception, visual selective attention, which is becoming more and more important for multimedia applications. We introduce the concept of visual attention and describe its underlying mechanisms. In particular, we introduce the concepts of overt and covert visual attention, and of bottom-up and top-down processing. Challenges related to modeling visual attention and their validation using ad hoc ground truth are also discussed. Examples of the usage of visual attention models in image and video processing are presented. We emphasize multimedia delivery, retargeting and quality assessment of image and video, medical imaging, and the field of stereoscopic 3D images applications. PMID:24489403

  20. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Marte

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear. PMID:26900957

  1. The Goldilocks effect in infant auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention, and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. This work utilizes model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012). The present results demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to nonsocial auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. These findings provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants.

  2. Attention in dichoptic and binocular vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Rubin, Yifat; Gopher, Daniel; Raij, David

    1989-01-01

    The ability of human subjected to mobilize attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic and binocular viewing was investigated in an experiment employing a target search task. Subjects were required to search for a target at either the global level, the local level, or at both levels of a compound stimulus. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye/field (under dichoptic and binocular viewings, respectively) and to ignore the stimulus presented to the irrelevant eye/field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes/fields. Subjects' performance was affected mainly by attention conditions which interacted with task requirements, rather than by viewing situation. An interesting effect of viewing was found for the local-directed search task in which the cost of dividing attention was higher under binocular than under dichoptic viewing.

  3. Value-driven attentional capture in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P; Vaidya, Jatin G

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of both opportunity and vulnerability. Numerous clinical conditions, including substance-use disorders, often emerge during adolescence. These maladaptive behaviors have been linked to problems with cognitive control, yet few studies have investigated how rewards differentially modulate attentional processes in adolescents versus adults. Here, we trained adults and adolescents on a visual task to establish stimulus-reward associations. Later, we assessed learning in an extinction task in which previously rewarded stimuli periodically appeared as distractors. Both age groups initially demonstrated value-driven attentional capture; however, the effect persisted longer in adolescents than in adults. The results could not be explained by developmental differences in visual working memory. Given the importance of attentional control to daily behaviors and clinical conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these results reveal that cognitive control failures in adolescence may be linked to a value-based attentional-capture effect. PMID:25210012

  4. Attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of humans and other animals to provide appropriate responses to stimuli anticipating motivationally significant events is exemplified by instrumental conditioning. Interestingly, in humans instrumental conditioning can occur also for subliminal outcome-predicting stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning to take place. In two experiments, human participants had to learn to collect rewards (monetary gains) while avoiding punishments (monetary losses), on the basis of subliminal outcome-predicting cues. We found that instrumental conditioning can proceed subconsciously only if spatial attention is aligned with the subliminal cue. Conversely, if spatial attention is briefly diverted from the subliminal cue, then instrumental conditioning is blocked. In humans, attention but not awareness is therefore mandatory for instrumental conditioning, thus revealing a dissociation between awareness and attention in the control of motivated behavior. PMID:26257144

  5. Attentional functions of parietal and frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Peers, Polly V; Ludwig, Casimir J H; Rorden, Chris; Cusack, Rhodri; Bonfiglioli, Claudia; Bundesen, Claus; Driver, Jon; Antoun, Nagui; Duncan, John

    2005-10-01

    A model of normal attentional function, based on the concept of competitive parallel processing, is used to compare attentional deficits following parietal and frontal lobe lesions. Measurements are obtained for visual processing speed, capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), spatial bias (bias to left or right hemifield) and top-down control (selective attention based on task relevance). The results show important differences, but also surprising similarities, in parietal and frontal lobe patients. For processing speed and VSTM, deficits are selectively associated with parietal lesions, in particular lesions of the temporoparietal junction. We discuss explanations based on either grey matter or white matter lesions. In striking contrast, measures of attentional weighting (spatial bias and top-down control) are predicted by simple lesion volume. We suggest that attentional weights reflect competition between broadly distributed object representations. Parietal and frontal mechanisms work together, both in weighting by location and weighting by task context.

  6. [The adventures of doctor Jean Matuszinski, friend of Frédéric Chopin, from Warsaw in 1808 to Paris in 1842].

    PubMed

    Hazard, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Jean Matuszinski, a Pole born in Warsaw, happened to be the student of a Frenchman who had emigrated to Poland: Nicolas Chopin. French was still widely spoken at that time in Matuszinski's native land. For a while, Matsuzinski was even a boarder in Warsaw, lived with this Franco-Polish family and became a close friend to Nicolas' son, Frederic Chopin. He was the only one who kept in touch with Chopin, despite the many international dramatic events of the time: an insurrection in Poland rapidly squashed by the Russians. Paris became the heart of the intellectual and artistic life for Polish citizens who took refuge there. After spending some time in Germany where Jean Matuszinski received a doctorate in medicine from the university of Tubingen in 1834, he went to Paris where he was delighted to meet again with Frederic Chopin, and received another doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine of Paris. During his short medical career, he was able to observe several forms of tuberculsis: an acute that killed Frederic's younger sister, and a chronic one that affected Frederic for more than fifteen years. But Matuszinski could take care of Chopin only during the first six years of the latter's illness because himself died from a severe subacute form of tuberculosis, when he was only 33 years old.

  7. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  8. Preschool teacher attachment and attention skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attention underlies and energizes all cognitive and behavioral activities. Many studies showed that the quality of child attachment (both to parental and non parental figures) influences cognitive functions and attention. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among attachment to preschool teachers and attention in a sample of preschoolers. In particular, the study analyzed whether child attachment security to preschool teachers influences the different aspects of their attention skills. In addition, gender- and age-related differences in attention and teacher attachment were explored. Research was conducted using two standardized instruments: the Attention and Concentration Battery, and the Attachment Q Sort. Participants were 279 children (147 male, 132 female) who attended two preschools in a town in Southern Italy. Descriptive analyses, t-tests analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Findings highlighted several interesting points concerning the relationships that occur among attachment to preschool teachers and attention. Children with secure attachments presented higher reaction time and better auditory, visual, and visual spatial selectivity and maintenance.

  9. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  10. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s. PMID:26848852

  11. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s. PMID:26848852

  12. Pupil Diameter Tracks Lapses of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small. However, these observations were primarily driven by the joint effects of time-on-task on baseline pupil diameter and task performance. The linear relationships disappeared when we statistically controlled for time-on-task effects and were replaced by consistent inverted U-shaped relationships between baseline pupil diameter and each of the task performance measures, such that most false alarms and the longest and most variable response times occurred when pupil diameter was both relatively small and large. Finally, we observed strong linear relationships between the temporal derivative of pupil diameter and task performance measures, which were largely independent of time-on-task. Our results help to reconcile contradicting findings in the literature on pupil-linked changes in attentional state, and are consistent with the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function. Moreover, they suggest that the derivative of baseline pupil diameter is a potentially useful psychophysiological marker that could be used in the on-line prediction and prevention of attentional lapses. PMID:27768778

  13. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  14. Hemispheric modulations of the attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Alfredo; Martella, Diana; Fuentes, Luis J; Marotta, Andrea; Casagrande, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Although several recent studies investigated the hemispheric contributions to the attentional networks using the Attention Network Test (ANT), the role of the cerebral hemispheres in modulating the interaction among them remains unclear. In this study, two lateralized versions of this test (LANT) were used to investigate theal effects on the attentional networks under different conflict conditions. One version, the LANTI-A, presented arrows as target and flankers, while the other version, the LANTI-F, had fruits as target and flankers. Data collected from forty-seven participants confirmed well-known results on the efficiency and interactions among the attentional networks. Further, a left visual field advantage was found when a target occurred in an unattended location (e.g. invalid trials), only with the LANTI-F, but not with LANTI-A. The present study adds more evidence to the hemispheric asymmetry of the orienting of attention, and further reveals patterns of interactions between the attentional networks and the visual fields across different conflicting conditions, underlying the dynamic control of attention in complex environments.

  15. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  16. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  17. Hemispheric modulations of the attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Alfredo; Martella, Diana; Fuentes, Luis J; Marotta, Andrea; Casagrande, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Although several recent studies investigated the hemispheric contributions to the attentional networks using the Attention Network Test (ANT), the role of the cerebral hemispheres in modulating the interaction among them remains unclear. In this study, two lateralized versions of this test (LANT) were used to investigate theal effects on the attentional networks under different conflict conditions. One version, the LANTI-A, presented arrows as target and flankers, while the other version, the LANTI-F, had fruits as target and flankers. Data collected from forty-seven participants confirmed well-known results on the efficiency and interactions among the attentional networks. Further, a left visual field advantage was found when a target occurred in an unattended location (e.g. invalid trials), only with the LANTI-F, but not with LANTI-A. The present study adds more evidence to the hemispheric asymmetry of the orienting of attention, and further reveals patterns of interactions between the attentional networks and the visual fields across different conflicting conditions, underlying the dynamic control of attention in complex environments. PMID:27566000

  18. Spatial and temporal attention in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Ruffino, Milena; Gori, Simone; Boccardi, Daniela; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Although the dominant view posits that developmental dyslexia (DD) arises from a deficit in phonological processing, emerging evidence suggest that DD could result from a more basic cross-modal letter-to-speech sound integration deficit. Letters have to be precisely selected from irrelevant and cluttering letters by rapid orienting of visual attention before the correct letter-to-speech sound integration applies. In the present study the time-course of spatial attention was investigated measuring target detection reaction times (RTs) in a cuing paradigm, while temporal attention was investigated by assessing impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked visual objects. Spatial and temporal attention were slower in dyslexic children with a deficit in pseudoword reading (N = 14) compared to chronological age (N = 43) and to dyslexics without a deficit in pseudoword reading (N = 18), suggesting a direct link between visual attention efficiency and phonological decoding skills. Individual differences in these visual attention mechanisms were specifically related to pseudoword reading accuracy in dyslexics. The role of spatial and temporal attention in the graphemic parsing process might be related to a basic oscillatory “temporal sampling” dysfunction. PMID:24904371

  19. There is no Such Thing as Attention

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Britt

    2011-01-01

    Given that the core issues of attention research have been recognized for millenia, we do not know as much about attention as we should. I argue that the reasons for this failure are (1) we create spurious dichotomies, (2) we reify attention, treating it as a cause, when it is an effect, and (3) we equate a collection of facts with a theory. In order to correct these errors, we need a new technical vocabulary that allows for attentional effects to be continuously distributed, rather than merely present or absent, and that provides a basis for quantitative behavioral predictions that map onto neural substrates. The terminology of the Bayesian decision process has already proved useful for structuring conceptual discussions in other psychological domains, such as perception and decision making under uncertainty, and it had demonstrated early success in the domain of attention. By rejecting a reified, causal conception of attention, in favor of theories that produce attentional effects as consequences, psychologists will be able to conduct more definitive experiments. Such conceptual advances will then enhance the productivity of neuroscientists by allowing them to concentrate their data collection efforts on the richest soil. PMID:21977019

  20. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    PubMed

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  1. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  2. Treating Attention in Mild Aphasia: Evaluation of Attention Process Training-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.; Keeton, R. Jessica; Karcher, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether attention processing training-II [Sohlberg, M. M., Johnson, L., Paule, L., Raskin, S. A., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). "Attention Process Training-II: A program to address attentional deficits for persons with mild cognitive dysfunction" (2nd ed.). Wake Forest, NC: Lash & Associates.; APT-II], when applied in the context of…

  3. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  4. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  5. Saccade Preparation Is Required for Exogenous Attention but Not Endogenous Attention or IOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel T.; Schenk, Thomas; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye movements, but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study, we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or…

  6. ATTENTION DIRECTING TECHNIQUES USED BY TEACHERS, ATTENTION AS A VARIABLE IN TEACHING RESEARCH. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LYONS, THOMAS; SJOGREN, DOUGLAS

    RESEARCH LITERATURE ON ATTENTION WAS REVIEWED, APPROACHES TO THE MEASUREMENT OF ATTENTION IN A CLASSROOM SETTING WERE STUDIED, AND CLASSROOM EXPERIMENTS IN WHICH ATTENTION WOULD BE STUDIED AS A DEPENDENT OR INDEPENDENT VARIABLE WERE DESIGNED. THE RESEARCH LITERATURE INDICATES THAT NOVELTY, VARIETY, CHANGE, AND COMPLEXITY ARE VARIABLES RELATED TO…

  7. Multiple measures of visual attention predict novice motor skill performance when attention is focused externally.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Ryan W; Elliott, James C; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the control of attention and motor skill performance are related. Athletes of various skill levels differ in terms of their control over the focus of attention and directing athletes to adopt an internal or external focus of attention modulates performance. However, it is unclear (a) whether the relationship between skill level and attentional control arises from preexisting individual differences in attention or from practice of the motor skill and (b) whether the effect of adopting an internal or external focus of attention on motor performance is influenced by individual differences in attention. To address these issues, individuals were measured on three distinct attention functions - orienting, alerting, and executive - prior to engaging in a novel golf-putting task performed with either external or internal focus instructions. The results indicated that, on average, attentional functioning and putting performance were related but that the strong relationships with orienting and executive attention were only present in the group given external focus instructions. These findings suggest that individual differences in attentional abilities are predictive of novel skill performance under an external focus of attention and they shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of focus instructions during motor performance. PMID:22516836

  8. How Long Can Students Pay Attention in Class? A Study of Student Attention Decline Using Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Diane M.; Flens, Elizabeth A.; Neiles, Kelly Y.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in three levels of general chemistry self-reported their attention decline during both lecture and other teaching approaches via personal response devices (clickers). Students report attention declines of 1 min or less more often than longer attention lapses. The data suggest that student engagement alternates between attention…

  9. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  10. Conscious attention, meditation, and bilateral information transfer.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr; Zimmerman, Elizabeth M; Hamilton, Elizabeth A; Sheftel, Jenna G; Bajo, Stephanie D; Raboch, Jiri; Golla, Megan; Konopka, Lukasz M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that conscious attention is related to large-scale information integration of various brain regions, including both hemispheres, that enables integration of parallel distributed modalities of processed information. There is also evidence that the level of information transference related to integration or splitting among brain regions, and between hemispheres, establishes a certain level of efficiency of the information processing. The level of information transference also may have modulatory influences on attentional capacity that are closely linked to the emotional arousal and autonomic response related to a stimulus. These findings suggest a hypothesis that changes in conscious attention, specifically during meditation could be reflected in the autonomic activity as the left-right information transference calculated from bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). With the aim to compare conscious attention during meditation with other attentional states (resting state, Stroop task, and memory task), we performed bilateral EDA measurement in 7 healthy persons during resting state, Stroop task, neurofeedback memory test, and meditation. The results indicate that the information transference (ie, transinformation) is able to distinguish those attentional states, and that the highest level of the transinformation has been found during attentional processing related to meditation, indicating higher level of connectivity between left and right sides. Calculations other than pointwise transinformation (PTI) performed on EDA records, such as mean skin conductance level or laterality index, were not able to distinguish attentional states. The results suggest that PTI may present an interesting method useful for the assessment of information flow, related to neural functioning, that in the case of meditation may reflect typical integrative changes in the autonomic nervous system related to brain functions and focused attentional processing.

  11. Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Spatial terms such as “above”, “in front of”, and “on the left of” are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as “The box is above the sausage”. To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener’s visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts “against the grain” of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders’ visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial’s verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

  12. Attention, biological motion, and action recognition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Interacting with others in the environment requires that we perceive and recognize their movements and actions. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have indicated that a number of brain regions, particularly the superior temporal sulcus, are involved in a number of processes essential for action recognition, including the processing of biological motion and processing the intentions of actions. We review the behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggesting that while some aspects of action recognition might be rapid and effective, they are not necessarily automatic. Attention is particularly important when visual information about actions is degraded or ambiguous, or if competing information is present. We present evidence indicating that neural responses associated with the processing of biological motion are strongly modulated by attention. In addition, behavioral and neuroimaging evidence shows that drawing inferences from the actions of others is attentionally demanding. The role of attention in action observation has implications for everyday social interactions and workplace applications that depend on observing, understanding and interpreting actions. PMID:21640836

  13. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  14. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  15. Prefrontal contributions to visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Squire, Ryan F; Noudoost, Behrad; Schafer, Robert J; Moore, Tirin

    2013-07-01

    The faculty of attention endows us with the capacity to process important sensory information selectively while disregarding information that is potentially distracting. Much of our understanding of the neural circuitry underlying this fundamental cognitive function comes from neurophysiological studies within the visual modality. Past evidence suggests that a principal function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is selective attention and that this function involves the modulation of sensory signals within posterior cortices. In this review, we discuss recent progress in identifying the specific prefrontal circuits controlling visual attention and its neural correlates within the primate visual system. In addition, we examine the persisting challenge of precisely defining how behavior should be affected when attentional function is lost.

  16. Adverse effects of differential parental attention1

    PubMed Central

    Sajwaj, Thomas E.; Pinkston, Susan; Cordua, Glenn; Jackson, Carolyn; Herbert, Emily W.; Pinkston, Elsie M.; Hayden, M. Loeman

    1973-01-01

    In two independent parent training projects (Kansas and Mississippi), mothers of deviant young children were observed to follow almost all child behaviors with attention. The mothers were then trained to use differential attention procedures to increase their child's appropriate behaviors and to decrease deviant behaviors. Contrary to expectations, the differential attention procedure produced substantial increases in deviant behavior for four of the children. This adverse effect was maintained over many sessions and was replicated in single organism, reversal designs. A fifth child showed no change. A sixth child showed some improvement. However, this effect was not recovered in a second application of differential attention, and the child became worse. The results underline the importance of subject generality in applied behavior analysis and strongly suggest that service programs using operant techniques must carefully evaluate their effects on behavior. PMID:16795386

  17. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  18. Attentive Turkers: MTurk participants perform better on online attention checks than do subject pool participants.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Participant attentiveness is a concern for many researchers using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Although studies comparing the attentiveness of participants on MTurk versus traditional subject pool samples have provided mixed support for this concern, attention check questions and other methods of ensuring participant attention have become prolific in MTurk studies. Because MTurk is a population that learns, we hypothesized that MTurkers would be more attentive to instructions than are traditional subject pool samples. In three online studies, participants from MTurk and collegiate populations participated in a task that included a measure of attentiveness to instructions (an instructional manipulation check: IMC). In all studies, MTurkers were more attentive to the instructions than were college students, even on novel IMCs (Studies 2 and 3), and MTurkers showed larger effects in response to a minute text manipulation. These results have implications for the sustainable use of MTurk samples for social science research and for the conclusions drawn from research with MTurk and college subject pool samples.

  19. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5±2.6years) emmetropes (n=17; group SE: +0.19±0.32D) and myopes (n=25; group SE: -3.74±1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p<0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. PMID:27264028

  20. Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention.

    PubMed

    Jha, Amism P; Krompinger, Jason; Baime, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or enhance specific aspects of attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but overlapping attentional subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring. Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the Attention Network Test. Two types of mindfulness training (MT) programs were examined, and behavioral testing was conducted on participants before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) training. One training group consisted of individuals naive to mindfulness techniques who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course that emphasized the development of concentrative meditation skills. The other training group consisted of individuals experienced in concentrative meditation techniques who participated in a 1-month intensive mindfulness retreat. Performance of these groups was compared with that of control participants who were meditation naive and received no MT. At Time 1, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated improved conflict monitoring performance relative to those in the MBSR and control groups. At Time 2, the participants in the MBSR course demonstrated significantly improved orienting in comparison with the control and retreat participants. In contrast, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated altered performance on the alerting component, with improvements in exogenous stimulus detection in comparison with the control and MBSR participants. The groups did not differ in conflict monitoring performance at Time 2. These results suggest that mindfulness training may improve attention-related behavioral responses by enhancing functioning of specific subcomponents of attention. Whereas participation in the MBSR course improved the ability to endogenously orient attention, retreat participation appeared to allow for the development and

  1. Asymmetric attention networks: the case of children.

    PubMed

    Yaakoby-Rotem, Sarit; Geva, Ronny

    2014-04-01

    Visuospatial attention-networks are represented in both hemispheres, with right-hemisphere dominance in adults. Little is known about the lateralization of the attentional-networks in children. To assess the lateralization of attentional-networks in children aged 5 years, performance on a Lateralized-Attention-Network-Test specifically designed for children (LANT-C) was compared with performance on the Attention-Network-Test for children (ANT-C). Participants were 82 children, aged 5-6 years (55% boys, middle-class, mainstream schooling). They were examined with both the ANT-C and the LANT-C along with evaluation of intelligence and attention questionnaires. Multiple analysis of variance showed a main effect for network, with high efficiency for orienting and lower executive efficiency (accuracy; p < .001; η2 = .282). An effect for procedure, elucidated higher efficiency in the ANT-C relatively to the LANT-C (accuracy; p < .01; η2 = .097). A procedure × network interaction effect was also found, showing that this procedure difference is present in the alerting and executive networks (accuracy; p < .05; η2 = .096). LANT-C analysis showed a left visual-field advantage in alerting, (accuracy; p < .05; η2 = .066), while executing with the right hand benefitted executive performance (response-time; p < .05; η2 = .06). Results extend previous findings manifesting a right-hemisphere advantage in children's alerting-attention, pointing to the importance of lateralization of brain function to the understanding of the integrity of attention-networks in children.

  2. Taking control of reflexive social attention.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Jelena; Kingstone, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Attention is shifted reflexively to where other people are looking. It has been argued by a number of investigators that this social attention effect reflects the obligatory bottom-up activation of domain-specific modules within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are specialized for processing face and gaze information. However, it is also the case that top-down factors may modulate the activation of IT cells. Here we examined behaviorally whether reflexive social orienting is purely automatic or sensitive to top-down modulation. Participants were shown an ambiguous stimulus that could be perceived either as representing EYES or a CAR. In we demonstrated between groups that an automatic shift of attention, equivalent to that triggered by a schematic FACE, occurred only when the stimulus was referred to as possessing EYES. In all participants received the EYES and CAR conditions. When the stimulus was first referred to as a CAR and then as EYES, an attentional shift was only present for the EYES condition. However, when the stimulus was first referred to as possessing EYES, and then later as a CAR, attentional shifts were observed for both conditions. These data indicate that the emergence of a reflexive social attention effect is influenced by top-down mechanisms but in an asymmetrical manner. Top-down processes appear to be effective for triggering IT involvement, that is, for perceiving a stimulus as a face, which produces the social attention effect. But top-down mechanisms are ineffective once IT involvement has been triggered. That is, once a stimulus has been seen as having eyes, it continues to be seen that way, and accordingly, the social attention effect persists. PMID:15617667

  3. Does Involuntary Attentional Capture Curtail Stimulus Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McLean, John P.; Folk, Charles L.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Under certain conditions uninformative visual cues at non-target locations increase target RTs. The typical explanation is that visual attention has been involuntarily summoned to the cued location and is unavailable when needed at the target location. Here we present evidence that capture has not just oriented attention away from the target location, but has lead to the processing of stimuli at the location of the uninformative cue.

  4. The left parietal cortex and motor attention.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, M F; Nixon, P D; Renowden, S; Wade, D T; Passingham, R E

    1997-09-01

    The posterior parietal cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, is crucially important for covert orienting; lesions impair the ability to disengage the focus of covert orienting attention from one potential saccade target to another (Posner, M. I. et al., Journal of Neuroscience, 1984, 4, 1863-1874). We have developed a task where precues allow subjects to covertly prepare subsequent cued hand movements, as opposed to an orienting or eye movement. We refer to this process as motor attention to distinguish it from orienting attention. Nine subjects with lesions that included the left parietal cortex and nine subjects with lesions including the right parietal cortex were compared with control subjects on the task. The left hemisphere subjects showed the same ability as controls to engage attention to a movement when they were forewarned by a valid precue. The left hemisphere subjects, however, were impaired in their ability to disengage the focus of motor attention from one movement to another when the precue was incorrect. The results support the existence of two distinct attentional systems allied to the orienting and limb motor systems. Damage to either system causes analogous problems in disengaging from one orienting/movement target to another. The left parietal cortex, particularly the supramarginal gyrus, is associated with motor attention. All the left hemisphere subjects had ideomotor apraxia and had particular problems performing sequences of movements. We suggest that the well documented left hemisphere and apraxic impairment in movement sequencing is the consequence of a difficulty in shifting the focus of motor attention from one movement in a sequence to the next. PMID:9364496

  5. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5±2.6years) emmetropes (n=17; group SE: +0.19±0.32D) and myopes (n=25; group SE: -3.74±1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p<0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision.

  6. Spatial attention in written word perception

    PubMed Central

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words (HFWs), low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of HFWs was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition. PMID:24574990

  7. The effects of presession attention on tacting.

    PubMed

    Cengher, Mirela; Jones, Emily A; Fienup, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of presession attention on tacting. Presession intervals of deprivation and satiation of attention were followed by a progressive-ratio assessment in which the number of tacts was measured. For 2 participants, deprivation resulted in increased tacting compared to satiation. The 3rd participant showed no differential responding. These results suggest that antecedent-based interventions could increase the efficiency of tact training.

  8. Attention and autonomic self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Sedlacek, K

    1983-06-01

    To examine how various aspects of attentional functioning are affected by autonomic self-regulation procedures, this study compared the effect of two treatment programs (EMG and thermal biofeedback used in conjunction with various somatic and cognitive relaxation/self-regulation strategies, and Benson's Relaxation Response procedure) and a Waiting List control group for essential hypertensive adults on three, perhaps overlapping, attentional dimensions: the capacity to disembed figure from ground (Embedded Figures Test, Block Design, and Picture Completion WAIS subtests); the capacity to voluntarily deploy attention (Digit Span subtest of the WAIS), and capacity to sustain attention or become absorbed (as measured by the Tellegen Absorption Scale). Thirty essential hypertensive men and women were randomly placed in one of the three groups. Attentional dimensions were assessed before and after the 10-week treatment program (or waiting period) and the relationship between blood pressure and attentional changes were assessed. The only group to evidence significant blood pressure reduction, the "Biofeedback Group," became significantly more Field Independent as measured by the EFT (p less than 0.001) and the Block Design measure (p less than 0.01) and evidenced a strong trend in the same direction on the Picture Completion measure (p less than 0.052, NS). No other significant pre-post attentional changes were found. A Pearson product correlation revealed that changes in diastolic blood pressure were significantly correlated with changes in EFT (r = 0.54, p less than 0.0001) and the Picture Completion measure (r = 0.32, p less than 0.05). The cognitive effect of autonomic self-regulation is discussed. In addition, the possible role of attention in autonomic self-regulation is examined.

  9. Altered orienting of attention in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Franchetti, Lorena; Carli, Lorenza; Todisco, Patrizia; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-09-30

    The study of cognitive processes in anorexia nervosa (AN) is largely unexplored, although recent evidence suggests the presence of impairments in both social cognition and attention processing. Here we investigated AN patients' ability to orient attention in response to social and symbolic visual stimuli. AN patients and matched controls performed a task in which gaze and pointing gestures acted as social directional cues for spatial attention. Arrows were also included as symbolic cue. On each trial, a centrally-placed cue appeared oriented rightwards or leftwards. After either 200 or 700ms, a lateralized neutral target (a letter) requiring a discrimination response appeared in a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with the directional cue. Controls showed a reliable orienting irrespective of both temporal interval and cue type. AN patients showed a reliable orienting at both temporal intervals only in response to pointing gestures. Both gaze and arrow cues failed to orient attention at the short temporal interval, that is when attention is under reflexive control, whereas a reliable orienting emerged at the long temporal interval. These results provide preliminary evidence of altered reflexive orienting of attention in AN patients that does not extend to body-related cues such as pointing gestures.

  10. Neural correlates of object-based attention.

    PubMed

    Pei, Francesca; Pettet, Mark W; Norcia, Anthony M

    2002-01-01

    Much research has been directed toward disentangling the "units" of attention: Is attention directed to locations in space, visual objects, or to individual features of an object? Moreover, there is considerable interest in whether attention increases the gain of neural mechanisms (signal enhancement) or acts by other means, such as reducing noise or narrowing channel tuning. To address these questions, we used a direct measure of signal strength: the amplitude of visual evoked potentials and a task in which selection could be based on a depth order cue but not on location. Attended and nonattended stimuli were presented at different temporal frequencies, and, thus, responses to the two stimuli could be analyzed separately even though they were presented simultaneously. Attention increased the amplitude of the second harmonic component of the response, but not the fourth harmonic. In addition, responses measured at the second harmonic, but not at the fourth harmonic, were larger for stimuli seen as behind. The results are consistent with the fourth harmonic being generated at a stage of processing that is not accessible to attention and where depth order has not been extracted. The second harmonic, on the other hand, is modifiable by attention and shows evidence for differential encoding of depth order.

  11. Feeling more together: group attention intensifies emotion.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy; Hirsh, Jacob B; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Larsen, Jeff T; Galinsky, Adam D; Roese, Neal J

    2014-12-01

    The idea that group contexts can intensify emotions is centuries old. Yet, evidence that speaks to how, or if, emotions become more intense in groups remains elusive. Here we examine the novel possibility that group attention--the experience of simultaneous coattention with one's group members--increases emotional intensity relative to attending alone, coattending with strangers, or attending nonsimultaneously with one's group members. In Study 1, scary advertisements felt scarier under group attention. In Study 2, group attention intensified feelings of sadness to negative images, and feelings of happiness to positive images. In Study 3, group attention during a video depicting homelessness led to greater sadness that prompted larger donations to charities benefiting the homeless. In Studies 4 and 5, group attention increased the amount of cognitive resources allocated toward sad and amusing videos (as indexed by the percentage of thoughts referencing video content), leading to more sadness and happiness, respectively. In all, these effects could not be explained by differences in physiological arousal, emotional contagion, or vicarious emotional experience. Greater fear, gloom, and glee can thus result from group attention to scary, sad, and happy events, respectively. PMID:25151520

  12. Attention, Uncertainty, and Free-Energy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Harriet; Friston, Karl J.

    2010-01-01

    We suggested recently that attention can be understood as inferring the level of uncertainty or precision during hierarchical perception. In this paper, we try to substantiate this claim using neuronal simulations of directed spatial attention and biased competition. These simulations assume that neuronal activity encodes a probabilistic representation of the world that optimizes free-energy in a Bayesian fashion. Because free-energy bounds surprise or the (negative) log-evidence for internal models of the world, this optimization can be regarded as evidence accumulation or (generalized) predictive coding. Crucially, both predictions about the state of the world generating sensory data and the precision of those data have to be optimized. Here, we show that if the precision depends on the states, one can explain many aspects of attention. We illustrate this in the context of the Posner paradigm, using the simulations to generate both psychophysical and electrophysiological responses. These simulated responses are consistent with attentional bias or gating, competition for attentional resources, attentional capture and associated speed-accuracy trade-offs. Furthermore, if we present both attended and non-attended stimuli simultaneously, biased competition for neuronal representation emerges as a principled and straightforward property of Bayes-optimal perception. PMID:21160551

  13. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365

  14. Attentional orienting to own and others' hands.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Daniel; Madrid, Eduardo; Aranda, Clara; Ruz, María

    2015-08-01

    High-density electroencephalographic recordings were used to investigate the level of analysis at which attentional expectations modulate the processing of specific stimuli from the same perceptual category but differentiated in terms of a particular non-perceptual feature: body ownership. We used a task in which colour cues predicted whether a picture of a hand stimulus belonged to the participant or to somebody else. Participants were instructed to respond whether the target was a left or a right hand. Results revealed that the ERP pattern depended on stimulus ownership and attention orienting, which influenced the visual processing of own and someone else's hands differentially. Larger amplitude for others' than for own hands was shown at the N1 deflection (at the right hemisphere). Attentional effects were found at the P2 and P3 potentials. The P2 reflected an interaction between stimulus ownership and attentional orienting, due to a larger validity effect for others' hands. At the P3 level, the data showed a significant validity effect only for self-hand stimuli. In sum, our results suggest that (1) differences as a function of stimulus ownership can be detected at early levels of stimulus processing; (2) endogenous attention can be directed to exemplars within the same category, hand stimuli in this case; (3) the effects of attention are modulated by ownership. PMID:25953649

  15. Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

  16. Attentional Set-Shifting Across Species.

    PubMed

    Brown, Verity J; Tait, David S

    2016-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting, as a measure of executive flexibility, has been a staple of investigations into human cognition for over six decades. Mediated by the frontal cortex in mammals, the cognitive processes involved in forming, maintaining and shifting an attentional set are vulnerable to dysfunction arising from a number of human neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases) and other neurological disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Our understanding of these diseases and disorders, and the cognitive impairments induced by them, continues to advance, in tandem with an increasing number of tools at our disposal. In this chapter, we review and compare commonly used attentional set-shifting tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and Intradimensional/Extradimensional tasks) and their applicability across species. In addition to humans, attentional set-shifting has been observed in a number of other animals, with a substantial body of literature describing performance in monkeys and rodents. We consider the task designs used to investigate attentional set-shifting in these species and the methods used to model human diseases and disorders, and ultimately the comparisons and differences between species-specific tasks, and between performance across species. PMID:26873018

  17. Interactions of attention, emotion and motivation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Although successful visually guided action begins with sensory processes and ends with motor control, the intervening processes related to the appropriate selection of information for processing are especially critical because of the brain's limited capacity to handle information. Three important mechanisms--attention, emotion and motivation--contribute to the prioritization and selection of information. In this chapter, the interplay between these systems is discussed with emphasis placed on interactions between attention (or immediate task relevance of stimuli) and emotion (or affective evaluation of stimuli), and between attention and motivation (or the predicted value of stimuli). Although numerous studies have shown that emotional stimuli modulate mechanisms of selective attention in humans, little work has been directed at exploring whether such interactions can be reciprocal, that is, whether attention can influence emotional response. Recent work on this question (showing that distracting information is typically devalued upon later encounters) is reviewed in the first half of the chapter. In the second half, some recent experiments exploring how prior value-prediction learning (i.e., learning to associate potential outcomes, good or bad, with specific stimuli) plays a role in visual selection and conscious perception. The results indicate that some aspects of motivation act on selection independently of traditionally defined attention and other aspects interact with it.

  18. Fluvio-deltaic progradation in forced regressive deglacial succession: lessons from the Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada, late Quaternary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutz, Alexis; Ghienne, Jean-François; Schuster, Mathieu; Roquin, Claude; Dietrich, Pierre; Bouchette, Frédéric; Cousineau, Pierre A.

    2015-04-01

    Deltas simultaneously respond to modifications in water discharge, sediment supply and base-level change. As a consequence, they provide accurate archive for deciphering environmental change through times. In this contribution, a Late Quaternary deglacial sequence is documented from Lake Saint-Jean basin (Québec, Canada) where sediments have recorded the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) retreat accompanied by the invasion of marine waters (Laflamme Gulf) from ca. 12.9 cal. ky BP. Subsequently, fluvio-deltaic and then coastal prograding wedges emplaced following the base level fall induced by the glacio-isostatic rebound. The related succession, representing a transition from glacial to post-glacial periods within a previously glaciated area, was investigated through recent geological mapping, preserved landforms, facies analysis, and new optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon (14C) dates. Three basin-scale geological sections are presented focusing on the architectures and facies of fluvio-deltaic progradations emplaced from 12.9 cal. ka BP to present-day in Lake Saint-Jean. Overlying the bedrock, isolated ice-contact fan deposits are capped by glacimarine muds. Above, fluvio-deltaic and coastal prograding systems were deposited following four major evolutions through time: (i) deltaic systems progressively increased in width, (ii) coastal influence on sedimentation increased, (iii) hydrographic drainage systems became more organised, and (iv) delta graded from steep (Gilbert delta) to low-angle foresets (mouth-bar delta). These evolutions in fluvio-deltaic systems are attributed to the modifications in water discharge, sediment supply and rate of base level fall driven by the deglaciation. The presented succession is considered as representative of the sedimentological signature of fluvial progradations in forced regressive deglacial sequences. Derived from the Lake Saint-Jean basin, this study provides new elements for the recognition and interpretation

  19. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; Post, Ruben A G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness: Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18, 2003]. Attention and consciousness converge when conscious visual percepts are attended and hence become available for conscious report. In such a view, a lack of reportability can have two causes: the absence of attention or the absence of a conscious percept. This raises an important question in the field of perceptual learning. It is known that learning can occur in the absence of reportability [Gutnisky, D. A., Hansen, B. J., Iliescu, B. F., & Dragoi, V. Attention alters visual plasticity during exposure-based learning. Current Biology, 19, 555-560, 2009; Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61, 700-707, 2009; Seitz, A. R., & Watanabe, T. Is subliminal learning really passive? Nature, 422, 36, 2003; Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848, 2001], but it is unclear which of the two ingredients-consciousness or attention-is not necessary for learning. We presented textured figure-ground stimuli and manipulated reportability either by masking (which only interferes with consciousness) or with an inattention paradigm (which only interferes with attention). During the second session (24 hr later), learning was assessed neurally and behaviorally, via differences in figure-ground ERPs and via a detection task. Behavioral and neural learning effects were found for stimuli presented in the inattention paradigm and not for masked stimuli. Interestingly, the behavioral learning effect only became apparent when performance feedback was given on the task to measure learning

  20. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; Post, Ruben A G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness: Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18, 2003]. Attention and consciousness converge when conscious visual percepts are attended and hence become available for conscious report. In such a view, a lack of reportability can have two causes: the absence of attention or the absence of a conscious percept. This raises an important question in the field of perceptual learning. It is known that learning can occur in the absence of reportability [Gutnisky, D. A., Hansen, B. J., Iliescu, B. F., & Dragoi, V. Attention alters visual plasticity during exposure-based learning. Current Biology, 19, 555-560, 2009; Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61, 700-707, 2009; Seitz, A. R., & Watanabe, T. Is subliminal learning really passive? Nature, 422, 36, 2003; Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848, 2001], but it is unclear which of the two ingredients-consciousness or attention-is not necessary for learning. We presented textured figure-ground stimuli and manipulated reportability either by masking (which only interferes with consciousness) or with an inattention paradigm (which only interferes with attention). During the second session (24 hr later), learning was assessed neurally and behaviorally, via differences in figure-ground ERPs and via a detection task. Behavioral and neural learning effects were found for stimuli presented in the inattention paradigm and not for masked stimuli. Interestingly, the behavioral learning effect only became apparent when performance feedback was given on the task to measure learning

  1. Moving to Capture Children's Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Liam J B; Coats, Rachel O; Mushtaq, Faisal; Williams, Justin H G; Aucott, Lorna S; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Attention underpins many activities integral to a child's development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children's attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of 'Visual Motor Attention' (VMA)-a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method's core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus) and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults' attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action). PMID:27434198

  2. S-ketamine influences strategic allocation of attention but not exogenous capture of attention.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Isabella; Ansorge, Ulrich; Huber-Huber, Christoph; Höflich, Anna; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether s-ketamine differentially affects strategic allocation of attention. In Experiment 1, (1) a less visible cue was weakly masked by the onsets of competing placeholders or (2) a better visible cue was not masked because it was presented in isolation. Both types of cue appeared more often opposite of the target (75%) than at target position (25%). With this setup, we tested for strategic attention shifts to the opposite side of the cues and for exogenous attentional capture toward the cue's side in a short cue-target interval, as well as for (reverse) cueing effects in a long cue-target interval after s-ketamine and after placebo treatment in a double-blind within-participant design. We found reduced strategic attention shifts after cues presented without placeholders for the s-ketamine compared to the placebo treatment in the short interval, indicating an early effect on the strategic allocation of attention. No differences between the two treatments were found for exogenous attentional capture by less visible cues, suggesting that s-ketamine does not affect exogenous attentional capture in the presence of competing distractors. Experiment 2 confirmed that the competing onsets of the placeholders prevented the strategic cueing effect. Taken together, the results indicate that s-ketamine affects strategic attentional capture, but not exogenous attentional capture. The findings point to a more prominent role of s-ketamine during top-down controlled forms of attention that require suppression of automatic capture than during automatic capture itself.

  3. Baseline Shifts do not Predict Attentional Modulation of Target Processing During Feature-Based Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Fannon, Sean P.; Saron, Clifford D.; Mangun, George R.

    2007-01-01

    Cues that direct selective attention to a spatial location have been observed to increase baseline neural activity in visual areas that represent a to-be-attended stimulus location. Analogous attention-related baseline shifts have also been observed in response to attention-directing cues for non-spatial stimulus features. It has been proposed that baseline shifts with preparatory attention may serve as the mechanism by which attention modulates the responses to subsequent visual targets that match the attended location or feature. Using functional MRI, we localized color- and motion-sensitive visual areas in individual subjects and investigated the relationship between cue-induced baseline shifts and the subsequent attentional modulation of task-relevant target stimuli. Although attention-directing cues often led to increased background neural activity in feature specific visual areas, these increases were not correlated with either behavior in the task or subsequent attentional modulation of the visual targets. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that attention-related shifts in baseline neural activity result in selective sensory processing of visual targets during feature-based selective attention. PMID:18958221

  4. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

  5. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peiteng; Huang, Xiaohan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jiang; Deng, Su; Wu, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of Internet and WWW, “information overload” has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery). 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc.) attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users) locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by “S”-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation. PMID:26325390

  6. Nomenclatural notes on the Eurytomids (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) described by Jean Brèthes housed in Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia".

    PubMed

    Gates, Michael W

    2014-04-16

    Ten Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera) parasitic wasp species described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales in Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Decatoma cecidosiphaga Brèthes, Prodecatoma parodii Brèthes, Eudecatoma opposita Brèthes, and Eurytoma caridei Brèthes. One new generic synonymy, Xanthosomodes Brèthes with Tetramesa Walker, n. syn., and five new combinations are proposed: Tetramesa albiangulata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Phylloxeroxenus caridei (Brèthes), n. comb.; Aximopsis vulgata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Proseurytoma parodii (Brèthes), n. comb.; and Bruchophagus opposita (Brèthes), n. comb. Sycophila paranensis Brèthes is declared incertae sedis.

  7. Jean Decima Jacomb (1894-1988), matron of The London Clinic, 20 Devonshire Place, London W1 from 1938 to 1949.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Miss Jean Jacomb born into a wealthy family, was at the age of 22 a student nurse at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London in 1917 where she nursed convalescent soldiers from World War I. Her midwifery training was in the slums around Whitechapel where a nurses uniform and medical bag provided a safe passage in the East End of London. For a while she worked in South Africa and India and returning to UK in 1923 she progressed to appointment as matron at the now re-named Royal Marsden Hospital in Chelsea. In 1938 she was appointed matron to The London Clinic during the years of World War II following which in 1949 she retired at the age of 55. She then travelled the world extensively by ship, always first class. She died in 1988. PMID:24944046

  8. Historical sources about diseases, death and embalming regarding the family of Jean Antoine Michel Agar, Minister of Finance of Gioacchino Murat.

    PubMed

    Marinozzi, S; Gazzaniga, V; Giuffra, V; Fornaciari, G

    2011-06-01

    Among the mummies preserved in the Basilica of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples, there are the bodies of the wife and three children of Jean Antoine Michel Agar, Minister of Finance of Naple's Kingdom during the Monarchy of Joachim Murat (1808-1815). Between 1983 and 1987 paleopathological analyses were performed; in particular, X-ray examination allowed investigation of the health status of the Agar family members and reconstruction of the embalming processes used to preserve the bodies. In addition, an analysis of the historical and archival documents was carried out, to formulate hypotheses about the causes of death, demonstrating how these sources could become important instruments to obtain diagnoses and pathological histories.

  9. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. I. DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS OF THE RAYLEIGH-JEANS COLOR EXCESS METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Nidever, David L. E-mail: gz2n@virginia.edu

    2011-09-20

    The Milky Way (MW) remains a primary laboratory for understanding the structure and evolution of spiral galaxies, but typically we are denied clear views of MW stellar populations at low Galactic latitudes because of extinction by interstellar dust. However, the combination of Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) near-infrared (NIR) and Spitzer-IRAC mid-infrared (MIR) photometry enables a powerful method for determining the line-of-sight reddening to any star: the sampled wavelengths lie in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the spectral energy distribution of most stars, where, to first order, all stars have essentially the same intrinsic color. Thus, changes in stellar NIR-MIR colors due to interstellar reddening are readily apparent, and (under an assumed extinction law) the observed colors and magnitudes of stars can be easily and accurately restored to their intrinsic values, greatly increasing their usefulness for Galactic structure studies. In this paper, we explore this 'Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess' (RJCE) method and demonstrate that use of even a simple variant of the RJCE method based on a single reference color, (H -[4.5{mu}]), can rather accurately remove dust effects from previously uninterpretable 2MASS color-magnitude diagrams of stars in fields along the heavily reddened Galactic midplane, with results far superior to those derived from application of other dereddening methods. We also show that 'total' Galactic midplane extinction looks rather different from that predicted using 100{mu} emission maps from the IRAS/ISSA and COBE/DIRBE instruments as presented by Schlegel et al. Instead, the Galactic midplane extinction strongly resembles the distribution of {sup 13}CO (J = 1{yields}0) emission. Future papers will focus on refining the RJCE method and applying the technique to understand better not only dust and its distribution but also the distribution of stars intermixed with the dust in the low-latitude Galaxy.

  10. Visual attention to features by associative learning.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Moskowitz, Joshua B; Pratt, Jay

    2014-11-01

    Expecting a particular stimulus can facilitate processing of that stimulus over others, but what is the fate of other stimuli that are known to co-occur with the expected stimulus? This study examined the impact of learned association on feature-based attention. The findings show that the effectiveness of an uninformative color transient in orienting attention can change by learned associations between colors and the expected target shape. In an initial acquisition phase, participants learned two distinct sequences of stimulus-response-outcome, where stimuli were defined by shape ('S' vs. 'H'), responses were localized key-presses (left vs. right), and outcomes were colors (red vs. green). Next, in a test phase, while expecting a target shape (80% probable), participants showed reliable attentional orienting to the color transient associated with the target shape, and showed no attentional orienting with the color associated with the alternative target shape. This bias seemed to be driven by learned association between shapes and colors, and not modulated by the response. In addition, the bias seemed to depend on observing target-color conjunctions, since encountering the two features disjunctively (without spatiotemporal overlap) did not replicate the findings. We conclude that associative learning - likely mediated by mechanisms underlying visual object representation - can extend the impact of goal-driven attention to features associated with a target stimulus. PMID:25173722

  11. Attention, self-regulation and consciousness.

    PubMed Central

    Posner, M I; Rothbart, M K

    1998-01-01

    Consciousness has many aspects. These include awareness of the world, feelings of control over one's behaviour and mental state (volition), and the notion of continuing self. Focal (executive) attention is used to control details of our awareness and is thus closely related to volition. Experiments suggest an integrated network of neural areas involved in executive attention. This network is associated with our voluntary ability to select among competing items, to correct error and to regulate our emotions. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that these various functions involve separate areas of the anterior cingulate. We have adopted a strategy of using marker tasks, shown to activate the brain area by imaging studies, as a means of tracing the development of attentional networks. Executive attention appears to develop first to regulate distress during the first year of life. During later childhood the ability to regulate conflict among competing stimuli builds upon the earlier cingulate anatomy to provide a means of cognitive control. During childhood the activation of cingulate structures relates both to the child's success on laboratory tasks involving conflict and to parental reports of self-regulation and emotional control. These studies indicate a start in understanding the anatomy, circuitry and development of executive attention networks that serve to regulate both cognition and emotion. PMID:9854264

  12. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  13. Standardization of Tests of Attention and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan; Rao, Shobini L.; Devi, B. Indira

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to standardize tests of attention and inhibition for adults in the age range of 16–30 years, who had 1–10 years of formal education. The objectives were to develop normative data for the tests of attention and inhibition, to establish the reliability of the tests of attention and inhibition, and to establish the validity of the tests of attention and inhibition. Materials and Methods: The tests studied were figural visual scanning test (FVST), auditory target detection test (ATDT), stop signal test, and go/no-go (GNG) test. The four tests were given to a normal sample of 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females). Reliability of the tests was determined by retesting 20 individuals, (10 subjects from each group) from the sample after an interval of 1 month. The tests were given to a matched clinical sample of patients with unilateral focal lesions, and the results were compared to test discriminant validity. Means, standard deviations, t-test, correlations, and percentiles were used to analyze the data. Results and Conclusion: Results indicated that FVST and ATDT were reliable and valid tests of attention and stop signal test and GNG test were reliable and valid measures of inhibition of motor processes. PMID:27570343

  14. MAOA Influences the Trajectory of Attentional Development.

    PubMed

    Lundwall, Rebecca A; Rasmussen, Claudia G

    2016-01-01

    Attention is vital to success in all aspects of life (Meck and Benson, 2002; Erickson et al., 2015), hence it is important to identify biomarkers of later attentional problems early enough to intervene. Our objective was to determine if any of 11 genes (APOE, BDNF, HTR4, CHRNA4, COMT, DRD4, IGF2, MAOA, SLC5A7, SLC6A3, and SNAP25) predicted the trajectory of attentional development within the same group of children between infancy and childhood. We recruited follow up participants from children who participated as infants in visual attention studies and used a similar task at both time points. Using multilevel modeling, we associated changes in the participant's position in the distribution of scores in infancy to his/her position in childhood with genetic markers on each of 11 genes. While all 11 genes predicted reaction time (RT) residual scores, only Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) had a significant interaction including time point. We conclude that the MAOA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1137070 is useful in predicting which girls are likely to develop slower RTs on an attention task between infancy and childhood. This early identification is likely to be helpful in early intervention. PMID:27610078

  15. The activation of interactive attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Bin; Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Spagna, Alfredo; Wu, Tingting; Tian, Yanghua; Hof, Patrick R; Fan, Jin

    2016-04-01

    Attention can be conceptualized as comprising the functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although the independence of these functions has been demonstrated, the neural mechanisms underlying their interactions remain unclear. Using the revised attention network test and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined cortical and subcortical activity related to these attentional functions and their interactions. Results showed that areas in the extended frontoparietal network (FPN), including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields (FEF), areas near and along the intraparietal sulcus, anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, basal ganglia, and thalamus were activated across multiple attentional functions. Specifically, the alerting function was associated with activation in the locus coeruleus (LC) in addition to regions in the FPN. The orienting functions were associated with activation in the superior colliculus (SC) and the FEF. The executive control function was mainly associated with activation of the FPN and cerebellum. The interaction effect of alerting by executive control was also associated with activation of the FPN, while the interaction effect of orienting validity by executive control was mainly associated with the activation in the pulvinar. The current findings demonstrate that cortical and specific subcortical areas play a pivotal role in the implementation of attentional functions and underlie their dynamic interactions.

  16. Orienting attention to instants in time.

    PubMed

    Nobre, A C

    2001-01-01

    My colleagues and I have investigated whether the temporal framework can be used to guide selective attention, and have applied non-invasive methodology to reveal the brain systems and mechanisms involved. Our findings show that we are able to orient attention selectively to different points in time, enhancing behavioral performance. These effects are mediated by a left-hemisphere dominant parietal-frontal system, which partially overlaps with the networks involved in spatial orienting. The neural system for temporal orienting also includes brain areas associated with motor preparation and anticipation, suggesting that sensorimotor areas with different specializations can contribute to attentional orienting depending on the stimulus attributes guiding selection. The optimization of behavior by temporal orienting involves enhancement of the latency and amplitude of event-related potentials that are associated with motor responses and decisions. The effects are distinct from those during visual spatial attention, indicating that behavioral advantages can be conferred by multiple types of neural mechanisms. Taken together, the findings illustrate the flexibility of attentional functions in the human brain. PMID:11566314

  17. MAOA Influences the Trajectory of Attentional Development

    PubMed Central

    Lundwall, Rebecca A.; Rasmussen, Claudia G.

    2016-01-01

    Attention is vital to success in all aspects of life (Meck and Benson, 2002; Erickson et al., 2015), hence it is important to identify biomarkers of later attentional problems early enough to intervene. Our objective was to determine if any of 11 genes (APOE, BDNF, HTR4, CHRNA4, COMT, DRD4, IGF2, MAOA, SLC5A7, SLC6A3, and SNAP25) predicted the trajectory of attentional development within the same group of children between infancy and childhood. We recruited follow up participants from children who participated as infants in visual attention studies and used a similar task at both time points. Using multilevel modeling, we associated changes in the participant’s position in the distribution of scores in infancy to his/her position in childhood with genetic markers on each of 11 genes. While all 11 genes predicted reaction time (RT) residual scores, only Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) had a significant interaction including time point. We conclude that the MAOA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1137070 is useful in predicting which girls are likely to develop slower RTs on an attention task between infancy and childhood. This early identification is likely to be helpful in early intervention. PMID:27610078

  18. Fear generalization gradients in visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Emma Wu; Mitroff, Stephen R; LaBar, Kevin S

    2016-10-01

    Fear learning can be adaptively advantageous, but only if the learning is integrated with higher-order cognitive processes that impact goal-directed behaviors. Recent work has demonstrated generalization (i.e., transfer) of conditioned fear across perceptual dimensions and conceptual categories, but it is not clear how fear generalization influences other cognitive processes. The current study investigated how associative fear learning impacts higher-order visuospatial attention, specifically in terms of attentional bias toward generalized threats (i.e., the heightened assessment of potentially dangerous stimuli). We combined discriminative fear conditioning of color stimuli with a subsequent visual search task, in which targets and distractors were presented inside colored circles that varied in perceptual similarity to the fear-conditioned color. Skin conductance responses validated the fear-conditioning manipulation. Search response times indicated that attention was preferentially deployed not just to the specific fear-conditioned color, but also to similar colors that were never paired with the aversive shock. Furthermore, this attentional bias decreased continuously and symmetrically from the fear-conditioned value along the color spectrum, indicating a generalization gradient based on perceptual similarity. These results support functional accounts of fear learning that promote broad, defensive generalization of attentional bias toward threat. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Two systems drive attention to rewards.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Christopher K; Sutterer, Matthew J; Rushia, Sara N; Teriakidis, Adrianna; Jenison, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    How options are framed can dramatically influence choice preference. While salience of information plays a central role in this effect, precisely how it is mediated by attentional processes remains unknown. Current models assume a simple relationship between attention and choice, according to which preference should be uniformly biased towards the attended item over the whole time-course of a decision between similarly valued items. To test this prediction we considered how framing alters the orienting of gaze during a simple choice between two options, using eye movements as a sensitive online measure of attention. In one condition participants selected the less preferred item to discard and in the other, the more preferred item to keep. We found that gaze gravitates towards the item ultimately selected, but did not observe the effect to be uniform over time. Instead, we found evidence for distinct early and late processes that guide attention according to preference in the first case and task demands in the second. We conclude that multiple time-dependent processes govern attention during choice, and that these may contribute to framing effects in different ways.

  20. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107