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Sample records for 216-z-1a tile field

  1. Results of 1998 spectral gamma-ray monitoring of boreholes at the 216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-12 crib

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.G.; Randall, R.R.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the results of fiscal year 1998 vadose zone monitoring of three inactive liquid waste disposal facilities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant: the 216-Z-1A tile field, the 216-Z-9 trench, and the 216-Z-12 crib. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray logging of 21 boreholes. This work was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in conjunction with Three Rivers Scientific and Waste management Federal Services, inc. Northwest Operations. These three liquid waste disposal facilities were chosen for monitoring because they were identified as containing some of the most significant sources of radioactive contamination in the Hanford Site vadose zone. The basic question addressed by this logging activity is ``Has the configuration of subsurface contamination changed since it was last measured?`` Previous borehole logging and laboratory analyses provide the baseline data to help answer this question.

  2. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2006-10-31

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.

  3. Small form factor full parallax tiled light field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpaslan, Zahir Y.; El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.

    2015-03-01

    With the recent introduction of Ostendo's Quantum Photonic Imager (QPI) display technology, a very small pixel pitch, emissive display with high brightness and low power consumption became available. We used QPI's to create a high performance light field display tiles with a very small form factor. Using 8 of these QPI light field displays tiled in a 4x2 array we created a tiled full parallax light field display. Each individual light field display tile combines custom designed micro lens array layers with monochrome green QPIs. Each of the light field display tiles can address 1000 x 800 pixels placed under an array of 20 x 16 lenslets with 500 μm diameters. The light field display tiles are placed with small gaps to create a tiled display of approximately 46 mm (W) x 17 mm (H) x 2 mm (D) in mechanical dimensions. The prototype tiled full parallax light field display demonstrates small form factor, high resolution and focus cues.

  4. Heterogeneous solute transport in a tile-drained field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, A.; Comegna, A.; Coppola, A.; Hassan, S.; Haikal, M. A.; Kassab, M.; Lamaddalena, N.

    2009-04-01

    Preferential flow and its diverse attributes: i) macropore flow; ii) fingered flow; iii) funnel flow, cannot be described by a single process hypothesis and are unpredictable from a priori analysis of field characteristics due to the inability of sampling methods to capture minute features triggering such flows. Most solute transport techniques are expensive and require extensive soil disturbance. Moreover, solute transport in heterogeneous porous media cannot always be conceptualized as being either a convective-dispersive or a stochastic-convective process. One approach to predict subsurface leaching could be the coupling of near surface measurements with a generalized transport model. A steady state field tracer experiment was conducted on a tile-drained "Terra Rossa" plot located in Valenzano (Bari - Italy), to test whether TDR BTCs measured 1 m a part along a transect of 40 m can be used in such a way for accurate prediction of tile's BTC. A Generalized Transfer Function (GTF) (Zhang, 2000) was fitted to the observed concentration a three depths for each site along the transect to identify the transfer function parameters. To account for vertical transport in the unsaturated zone and lateral divergence near the tile, these parameters were used in a 2D model (Utermann, 1990) to predict earlier breakthrough of tile flux concentration. The 2D model predictions of the flux concentrations were similar to the observed values, nearly reproducing the channel-like nature of solute flow.

  5. Tiled-grating compressor with uncompensated dispersion for near-field-intensity smoothing.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Kessler, Terrance

    2007-07-01

    A tiled-grating compressor, in which the spatial dispersion is not completely compensated, reduces the near-field-intensity modulation caused by tiling gaps and provides near-field spatial filtering of the input laser beam, thus reducing the laser damage to the final optics. PMID:17603592

  6. Nitrate and Pesticide Transport From Tile-Drained Fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, K. L.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Dragila, M. I.; Peachey, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Tile drainage affects the hydrology and thus the solute transport on agricultural fields by increasing the volume of water that drains from the subsurface. Previous NAWQA studies have shown elevated nitrate levels in wells and high detection frequencies for selected pesticides in Willamette Valley streams. As a substantial area of Willamette Valley agricultural land is tile-drained, it is important to determine the role of tile drains in surface water and ground water pollution. Four fields in the Willamette Valley were instrumented to monitor tile effluent for two winter seasons. On two fields, surface runoff was also monitored for the second season. Field areas ranged from 3 to 30 acres and were cropped in grass, corn, or a grass/corn rotation. Tile effluent nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded 10 ppm on some fields. Flow-weighted averages for each field were 0.87 ppm and 1.36 ppm for two established grass fields, and 8.1 ppm and 14.4 ppm for grass fields that had recently grown corn. Mass losses ranged from 1.15%-6.45% of the applied nitrate through the tile drains. Diuron, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos were tested in selected surface runoff and tile effluent samples. On one field, Metolachlor concentrations were similar in the tile drains and surface runoff. Concentrations in both sources were 10 times lower than the drinking water advisory for Metolachlor. In a second field, Chlorpyrifos concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than drinking water advisories in both sources. On the same field, Diuron concentrations were significantly higher in the surface runoff than in the tile effluent. Diuron concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher during the first precipitation events after application in the surface runoff. On a third field, Diuron was at least 10 times lower than drinking water advisories in the tile effluent, with the highest concentrations found in samples collected within 21 days of pesticide application.

  7. In-Field Bioreactor for Removing Nitrate from Tile Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate in water leaving subsurface drain ('tile') systems often exceeds the 10 mg-N L-1 maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the U.S. EPA for drinking water and has been implicated in contributing to the hypoxia problem within the Gulf of Mexico. Much of the NO3 from agricultural lands impacting ...

  8. Two-dimensional modeling of preferential water flow and pesticide transport from a tile-drained field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preferential flow through soil macropores in tile-drained soils can significantly increase the risk of pollution of surface water bodies by agricultural chemicals such as pesticides. While many field studies have shown the importance of preferential flow in tile-drained fields, few have included det...

  9. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  10. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fields of eastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madison, Allison M.; Ruark, Matthew D.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Lara W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric T.

    2014-11-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn-soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66-96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L-1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  11. Modeling water outflow from tile-drained agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovski, Vladimir; Trajanov, Aneta; Leprince, Florence; Džeroski, Sašo; Debeljak, Marko

    2015-02-01

    The estimation of the pollution risk of surface and ground water with plant protection products applied on fields depends highly on the reliable prediction of the water outflows over (surface runoff) and through (discharge through sub-surface drainage systems) the soil. In previous studies, water movement through the soil has been simulated mainly using physically-based models. The most frequently used models for predicting soil water movement are MACRO, HYDRUS-1D/2D and Root Zone Water Quality Model. However, these models are difficult to apply to a small portion of land due to the information required about the soil and climate, which are difficult to obtain for each plot separately. In this paper, we focus on improving the performance and applicability of water outflow modeling by using a modeling approach based on machine learning techniques. It allows us to overcome the major drawbacks of physically-based models e.g., the complexity and difficulty of obtaining the information necessary for the calibration and the validation, by learning models from data collected from experimental fields that are representative for a wider area (region). We evaluate the proposed approach on data obtained from the La Jaillière experimental site, located in Western France. This experimental site represents one of the ten scenarios contained in the MACRO system. Our study focuses on two types of water outflows: discharge through sub-surface drainage systems and surface runoff. The results show that the proposed modeling approach successfully extracts knowledge from the collected data, avoiding the need to provide the information for calibration and validation of physically-based models. In addition, we compare the overall performance of the learned models with the performance of existing models MACRO and RZWQM. The comparison shows overall improvement in the prediction of discharge through sub-surface drainage systems, and partial improvement in the prediction of the surface

  12. Efficient Receptive Field Tiling in Primate V1.

    PubMed

    Nauhaus, Ian; Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M

    2016-08-17

    The primary visual cortex (V1) encodes a diverse set of visual features, including orientation, ocular dominance (OD), and spatial frequency (SF), whose joint organization must be precisely structured to optimize coverage within the retinotopic map. Prior experiments have only identified efficient coverage based on orthogonal maps. Here we used two-photon calcium imaging to reveal an alternative arrangement for OD and SF maps in macaque V1; their gradients run parallel but with unique spatial periods, whereby low-SF regions coincide with monocular regions. Next we mapped receptive fields and found surprisingly precise micro-retinotopy that yields a smaller point-image and requires more efficient inter-map geometry, thus underscoring the significance of map relationships. While smooth retinotopy is constraining, studies suggest that it improves both wiring economy and the V1 population code read downstream. Altogether, these data indicate that connectivity within V1 is finely tuned and precise at the level of individual neurons. PMID:27499086

  13. Tiling strategies for optical follow-up of gravitational-wave triggers by telescopes with a wide field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shaon; Bloemen, Steven; Nelemans, Gijs; Groot, Paul J.; Price, Larry R.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: Binary neutron stars are among the most promising candidates for joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy. The goal of this work is to investigate various observing strategies that telescopes with wide field of view might incorporate while searching for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave triggers. Methods: We examined various strategies of scanning the gravitational-wave sky localizations on the mock 2015-16 gravitational-wave events. First, we studied the performance of the sky coverage using a naive tiling system that completely covers a given confidence interval contour using a fixed grid. Then we propose the ranked-tiling strategy where we sample the localization in discrete two-dimensional intervals that are equivalent to the telescope's field of view and rank them based on their sample localizations. We then introduce an optimization of the grid by iterative sliding of the tiles. Next, we conducted tests for all the methods on a large sample of sky localizations that are expected in the first two years of operation of the Laser interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors. We investigated the performance of the ranked-tiling strategy for telescope arrays and compared their performance against monolithic telescopes with a giant field of view. Finally, we studied the ability of optical counterpart detection by various types of telescopes. Results: Our analysis reveals that the ranked-tiling strategy improves the localization coverage over the contour-covering method. The improvement is more significant for telescopes with larger fields of view. We also find that while optimizing the position of the tiles significantly improves the coverage compared to contour-covering tiles. For ranked-tiles the same procedure leads to negligible improvement in the coverage of the sky localizations. We observed that distributing the field of view of the telescopes into arrays of multiple telescopes significantly

  14. Nitrate transport and fluxes during storm-event discharge from a 12 ha tile-drained dryland agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Brooks, E. S.; Smith, J. L.; Orr, C. H.; Evans, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Tile drains shortcut natural soil hydrology and decrease the capacity of soils to buffer water and nutrient fluxes during storm events. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA. found seasonal patterns for nutrient and water fluxes, larger during the winter and smaller during the summer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects storm events have on tile-drain water and nutrient fluxes from a dryland agricultural field. Our first hypothesis is that winter storm events activate shallow soil-water flow paths, resulting in rapid transport of precipitation and younger soil pore-water through the tile-drain system. These storm-event flow paths result in a decrease in tile-drain water electrical conductivity from a baseline of approximately 260 μS/cm to as low as 20 μS/ cm. Data suggest that storm events increase hydraulic conductivities in the upper profile as soil approaches saturation, increasing the contributions of relatively young soil water and possibly current storm-event precipitation to tile-drain discharge. Our second hypothesis is that the observed increase in discharge during storm events does not decrease nitrate concentrations in discharged water, because the storm-event flow paths also transport additional nitrate from the upper soil profile through the tile-drain system. If this hypothesis is correct, during storm events nitrate fluxes should increase, indicating rapid mobilization and potential flushing of soil nutrients through the vadose zone and tile-drain. If nitrate fluxes remain constant during storm events, then decreased tile-drain nitrate concentrations may be caused by the addition of low-nitrate or nitrate-free water. This would suggest that the nitrate leached from the system is present at the depth of the tile-drain and is not transported from near the soil surface to the tile-drain during storm-events, indicating flushing of soil nutrients from the rooting zone is not occurring at these temporal scales

  15. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  16. An Explicit 3-Dimensional Model for Reactive Transport of Nitrogen in Tile Drained Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Hudson, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Midwest because of its link to surface water eutrophication, especially in the Gulf of Mexico. The vast majority of this nitrate is the product of biologically mediated transformation of fertilizers containing ammonia in the vadose zone of agricultural fields. For this reason, it is imperative that mathematical models, which can serve as useful tools to evaluate both the impact of agricultural fertilizer applications and nutrient-reducing management practices, are able to specifically address transport in the vadose zone. The development of a 3-dimensional explicit numerical model to simulate the movement and transformation of nitrogen species through the subsurface on the scale of an individual farm plot will be presented. At this scale, nitrogen fate and transport is controlled by a complex coupling among hydrologic, agricultural and biogeochemical processes. The nitrogen model is a component of a larger modeling effort that focuses upon conditions typical of those found in agricultural fields in Illinois. These conditions include non-uniform, multi-dimensional, transient flow in both saturated and unsaturated zones, geometrically complex networks of tile drains, coupled surface-subsurface-tile flow, and dynamic levels of dissolved oxygen in the soil profile. The advection-dispersion-reaction equation is solved using an operator-splitting approach, which is a flexible and straightforward strategy. Advection is modeled using a total variation diminishing scheme, dispersion is modeled using an alternating direction explicit method, and reactions are modeled using rate law equations. The model's stability and accuracy will be discussed, and test problems will be presented.

  17. Nitrate-nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios for identification of nitrate sources and dominant nitrogen cycle processes in a tile-drained dryland agricultural field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems are a leading source of reactive nitrogen to aquatic and atmospheric ecosystems. Natural d15Nnitrate and d18Onitrate are used to identify the dominant nitrogen cycle processes and sources of NO3- leached from a tile-drained, dryland agricultural field. Tile-drain water discharge...

  18. Modeling nitrous oxide emissions from tile-drained winter wheat fields in Central France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiangxin; Loustau, Denis; Hénault, Catherine; Li, Changsheng; Rochette, Philippe; Cellier, Pierre; Nicoullaud, Bernard; Grossel, Agnes; Richard, Guy

    2013-04-01

    The process-based DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model has been validated for nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and regulated variables in a broad range of agroecosystems but rarely under tile-drained condition. In this study, we tested DNDC (version 9.5) at seventeen sites cropped with winter wheat across a tile-drained landscape (around 30-km2) in Central France. To compare the ability of simulating N2O flux between models, we applied the outputs of DNDC such as soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-) content in topsoil (0-20 cm) to a simplified process model, Nitrous Oxide Emission (NOE), and a developed version of NOE by incorporating effects of soil WFPS and clay content on N2O reduction (NOEred). Sharing the same algorithm of nitrification and denitrification with NOE, NOEred accounts the N2O loss as a dynamic proportion to each process rather than fixed ratio as NOE does. With modification on soil field capacity and wilting point and crop growth parameters according to the field measurement, DNDC predicted the soil WFPS and crop yields with reasonable accuracy. As compared to the observation, the DNDC-predicted NH4+ and NO3- content declined much slower during the post-fertilization period at all sites, indicating the underestimation of their consumption. As a result of the overestimation of NH4+, the NOE-predicted cumulative nitrification rate was averagely 4.9 (ranging from 3.9 to 6.6) times greater than the prediction of DNDC. Despite the overestimation of NO3-, DNDC and NOE generated similar cumulative denitrification rate at most sites. All three models were capable of simulating the fertilizer-induced N2O emission peaks, in which NOEred captured 34% of the variations in daily N2O flux across space and time (p<0.001, n=256) with positive model efficiency (0.31) and moderate underestimation (5%). Only the prediction of NOEred yielded positive model efficiency (0.03) for cumulative N2O emissions, explaining

  19. Water quality modeling of fertilizer management impacts on nitrate losses in tile drains at the field scale.

    PubMed

    Nangia, V; Gowda, P H; Mulla, D J; Sands, G R

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate losses from subsurface tile drained row cropland in the Upper Midwest U.S. contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Strategies are needed to reduce nitrate losses to the Mississippi River. This paper evaluates the effect of fertilizer rate and timing on nitrate losses in two (East and West) commercial row crop fields located in south-central Minnesota. The Agricultural Drainage and Pesticide Transport (ADAPT) model was calibrated and validated for monthly subsurface tile drain flow and nitrate losses for a period of 1999-2003. Good agreement was found between observed and predicted tile drain flow and nitrate losses during the calibration period, with Nash-Sutcliffe modeling efficiencies of 0.75 and 0.56, respectively. Better agreements were observed for the validation period. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the effects of rate and timing of fertilizer application on nitrate losses with a 50-yr climatic record (1954-2003). Significant reductions in nitrate losses were predicted by reducing fertilizer application rates and changing timing. A 13% reduction in nitrate losses was predicted when fall fertilizer application rate was reduced from 180 to 123 kg/ha. A further 9% reduction in nitrate losses can be achieved when switching from fall to spring application. Larger reductions in nitrate losses would require changes in fertilizer rate and timing, as well as other practices such as changing tile drain spacings and/or depths, fall cover cropping, or conversion of crop land to pasture. PMID:18268291

  20. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  1. Treatment of phosphorus transported from tile and ditch-drained agricultural fields using sorption materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many flat, poorly drained soils, such as the Delmarva Peninsula, the upper Midwest, and certain areas of Europe such as Denmark and Netherlands, have been extensively drained through the construction of artificial drainage ditches and tiles to allow agriculture and other human activities. In additi...

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    This case study by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Building Science Corporation is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, Florida; zone 2A), insulated with air-permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass).

  3. Spectrally resolved and phase-sensitive far-field measurement for the coherent addition of laser pulses in a tiled grating compressor.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Marco; Bödefeld, Ragnar; Kessler, Alexander; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2010-06-15

    We describe a method that can be used for the coherent addition of laser pulses. As different laser pulses are initially generated in a laser-pulse compressor equipped with a tiled grating, such a coherent addition is indispensable in order to maximize the intensity in the laser far field. We present measurements in this context where, up to now, an unavoidable difference in the grating constants between the phased gratings reduced the maximum achievable intensity. The method significantly facilitates the high-precision alignment of a tiled grating compressor and could also be used for a coherent addition of laser pulses. PMID:20548390

  4. Water quality modeling of fertilizer management impacts on nitrate losses in tile drains at the field scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage system is one of the major carriers of nitrate-N from cropland to river systems. Consequently, tile drained row cropland in the upper Midwest United States is one of the major contributors to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Strategies to reduce nitrate-N loadings to the G...

  5. Parallel molecular computation of modular-multiplication with two same inputs over finite field GF(2(n)) using self-assembly of DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongnan; Xiao, Limin; Ruan, Li

    2014-06-01

    Two major advantages of DNA computing - huge memory capacity and high parallelism - are being explored for large-scale parallel computing, mass data storage and cryptography. Tile assembly model is a highly distributed parallel model of DNA computing. Finite field GF(2(n)) is one of the most commonly used mathematic sets for constructing public-key cryptosystem. It is still an open question that how to implement the basic operations over finite field GF(2(n)) using DNA tiles. This paper proposes how the parallel tile assembly process could be used for computing the modular-square, modular-multiplication with two same inputs, over finite field GF(2(n)). This system could obtain the final result within less steps than another molecular computing system designed in our previous study, because square and reduction are executed simultaneously and the previous system computes reduction after calculating square. Rigorous theoretical proofs are described and specific computing instance is given after defining the basic tiles and the assembly rules. Time complexity of this system is 3n-1 and space complexity is 2n(2). PMID:24534382

  6. Occurrence and movement of antibiotic resistant bacxteria, in tile-drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might accelerate the transport of pathogen indicators such as e...

  7. Efficient Tiled Loop Generation: D-Tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daegon; Rajopadhye, Sanjay

    Tiling is an important loop optimization for exposing coarse-grained parallelism and enhancing data locality. Tiled loop generation from an arbitrarily shaped polyhedron is a well studied problem. Except for the special case of a rectangular iteration space, the tiled loop generation problem has been long believed to require heavy machinery such as Fourier-Motzkin elimination and projection, and hence to have an exponential complexity. In this paper we propose a simple and efficient tiled loop generation technique similar to that for a rectangular iteration space. In our technique, each loop bound is adjusted only once, syntactically and independently. Therefore, our algorithm runs linearly with the number of loop bounds. Despite its simplicity, we retain several advantages of recent tiled code generation schemes - unified generation for fixed, parameterized and hybrid tiled loops, scalability for multi-level tiled loop generation with the ability to separate full tiles at any levels, and compact code. We also explore various schemes for multi-level tiled loop generation. We formally prove the correctness of our scheme and experimentally validate that the efficiency of our technique is comparable to existing parameterized tiled loop generation approaches. Our experimental results also show that multi-level tiled loop generation schemes have an impact on performance of generated code. The fact that our scheme can be implemented without sophisticated machinery makes it well suited for autotuners and production compilers.

  8. Preassembly Of Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.; Rosario, T.

    1988-01-01

    Concept for preassembling high-temperature insulating tiles speeds and simplifies installation and repair and reduces damage from handling. Preassembly concept facilitates placement of tiles on gently contoured surfaces as well as on flat ones. Tiles bonded to nylon mesh with room-temperature-vulcanizing silicon rubber. Spacing between tiles is 0.03 in. Applications include boilers, kilns, and furnaces.

  9. Interlocking wettable ceramic tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Tabereaux, Jr., Alton T.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Groat, Eric; Mroz, Thomas; Ulicny, Alan; Walker, Mark F.

    2005-03-08

    An electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum having a layer of interlocking cathode tiles positioned on a cathode block. Each tile includes a main body and a vertical restraining member to prevent movement of the tiles away from the cathode block during operation of the cell. The anode of the electrolytic cell may be positioned about 1 inch from the interlocking cathode tiles.

  10. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  11. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. PMID:26854839

  12. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE FLOOR, TILE WAINSCOT AND SHOWER SURROUND, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAICPATTERN TILE FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAIC-PATTERN TILE FLOOR. CERAMIC TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type H, 208 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi–Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  15. Handmade Tile Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

  16. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following surface spreading and injection of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, D R

    2009-07-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids can be a source of environmental contamination by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined PPCP concentrations/temporally discrete mass loads in agricultural tile drainage systems where two applications of biosolids had previously taken place. The field plots received liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) in the fall of 2005 at an application rate of approximately 93,500 L ha (-1), and a second land application was conducted using dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) applied at a rate of approximately 8Mg dw ha (-1) in the summer of 2006 [corrected].The DMB land application treatments consisted of direct injection (DI) of the DMB beneath the soil surface at a nominal depth of approximately 0.11 m, and surface spreading (SS) plus subsequent tillage incorporation of DMB in the topsoil (approximately 0.10 m depth). The PPCPs examined included eight pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and two antibacterial personal care products triclosan and triclocarban. Residues of naproxen, cotinine, atenolol and triclosan originating from the fall 2005 LMB application were detected in tile water nearly nine months after application (triclocarban was not measured in 2005). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in PPCP mass loads among the two DMB land application treatments (i.e., SS vs. DI); although, average PPCP mass loads late in the study season (>100 days after application) were consistently higher for the DI treatment relative to the SS treatment. While the concentration of triclosan (approximately 14,000 ng g(-1) dw) in DMB was about twice that of triclocarban (approximately 8000 ng g(-1) dw), the average tile water concentrations for triclosan were much higher (43+/-5 ng L(-1)) than they were for triclocarban (0.73+/-0.14 ng L(-1)). Triclosan concentrations (maximum observed in 2006

  17. Quantifying the impact of preferential flow on solute transport to tile drains in a sandy field soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M. H.; Jarvis, N. J.; Torstensson, G.; Kasteel, R.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of preferential finger flow on solute leaching to tile drains and shallow groundwater in a water repellent sandy soil. Measurements of site hydrology and bromide movement were made during a six-month period following application in autumn 1994 to a 900 m 2 plot. A dye tracing study was also conducted and this confirmed the presence of finger flow in the water repellent topsoil. Water flow and bromide transport was simulated using a mobile-immobile concept, in which a fraction of the soil volume is assumed not to participate in transport. With calibration of 'difficult' parameters (e.g. the fractional mobile volume), and accounting for significant water inflows to the plot from the surroundings, there was a good agreement between simulated and observed hydrology and solute transport patterns at the site. Mass balance calculations showed that ca. 46% of the bromide application was lost to the tile drains in the winter period following application, while 16% was lost in shallow lateral groundwater flow. Comparisons between one- and two-domain simulations showed that preferential flow reduced soil water contents and increased drainflow in the early autumn, leading to a more rapid bromide transport to depth. Nevertheless, the impact of preferential finger flow on leaching was minor for the non-reactive tracer bromide in this experiment, presumably because it was applied to relatively wet soil. However, scenario simulations for autumn application of a short half-life pesticide showed more significant effects, with leaching increased by ca. 80% because of preferential flow (from 1.2% to 2.2% of the applied amount).

  18. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry. PMID:26594960

  19. Development of Tiled Imaging CZT Detectors for Sensitive Wide-Field Hard X-Ray Surveys to EXIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 sq cm close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2 x 2 x 0.5 cubic cm. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8 x 8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October. 2009, as the ProtoEX1STl payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtcEXIST2. with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32 x 32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  20. Development of tiled imaging CZT detectors for sensitive wide-field hard X-ray surveys to EXIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-10-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 cm 2 close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2×2×0.5 cm 3. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8×8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October, 2009, as the ProtoEXIST1 payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtoEXIST2, with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32×32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  1. Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

  2. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    PubMed

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. PMID:25787148

  3. Penrose tilings as model sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, A. V.; Maleev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The Baake construction, based on generating a set of vertices of Penrose tilings as a model set, is refined. An algorithm and a corresponding computer program for constructing an uncountable set of locally indistinguishable Penrose tilings are developed proceeding from this refined construction. Based on an analysis of the parameters of tiling vertices, 62 versions of rhomb combinations at the tiling center are determined. The combinatorial structure of Penrose tiling worms is established. A concept of flip transformations of tilings is introduced that makes it possible to construct Penrose tilings that cannot be implemented in the Baake construction.

  4. Voronoi spiral tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio

    2015-04-01

    The parameter set of Voronoi spiral tilings gives a dual of van Iterson's bifurcation diagram for phyllotactic spirals. We study the Voronoi tilings for the Bernoulli spiral site sets, as the simplest spirals in the centric representation with similarity symmetry. Their parameter set is composed of a family of real algebraic curves in the complex plane, with the Farey sequence structure. This naturally extends to the parameter set for multiple tilings, i.e., the tilings of the covering spaces of the punctured plane. We show the denseness of the parameters z = reiθ for quadrilateral Voronoi spiral multiple tilings. The techniques of dynamical systems are applied to the group of similarity symmetry. The parastichy numbers and the distortion of the Voronoi regions depend on the rational approximations of θ/2π. We consider the limit set of the shapes of the quadrilateral tiles by taking the limit as r → 1, with θ fixed. If θ/2π is a quadratic irrational number, then the limit set is a finite set of rectangles. In particular, if θ/2π is linearly equivalent to the golden section, then the limit is the square.

  5. Effect of tile effluent on nutrient concentration and retention efficiency in agricultural drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is a common water management practice in many agricultural landscapes in the Midwestern United States. Drainage ditches regularly receive water from agricultural fields through these tile drains. This field-scale study was conducted to determine the impact of tile discharge on ambient ...

  6. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:23669532

  7. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:24029911

  8. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  9. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Davis Austin

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons), 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)

  10. Molecular random tilings as glasses

    PubMed Central

    Garrahan, Juan P.; Stannard, Andrew; Blunt, Matthew O.; Beton, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that p-terphenyl-3,5,3′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid adsorbed on graphite self-assembles into a two-dimensional rhombus random tiling. This tiling is close to ideal, displaying long-range correlations punctuated by sparse localized tiling defects. In this article we explore the analogy between dynamic arrest in this type of random tilings and that of structural glasses. We show that the structural relaxation of these systems is via the propagation–reaction of tiling defects, giving rise to dynamic heterogeneity. We study the scaling properties of the dynamics and discuss connections with kinetically constrained models of glasses. PMID:19720990

  11. Quasiperiodic tilings generated by matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Nagaraja S.; Suryanarayan, E. R.

    1994-02-01

    Using the inflation method, Watanabe, Ito and Soma [3], Clark and Suryanarayan [4] and Balagurusamy, Ramesh and Gopal [5] have obtained nonperiodic tilings of the plane with n-fold rotational symmetry, n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, using two unit prototiles. Fortunately, there is an easier way to generate a more general class of nonperiodic tilings which contains the above-mentioned tilings as special cases. We do this by specifying two matrices of order two which define the two classes of tilings; thus, our approach uses the basic techniques from linear algebra in the study of quasiperiodic tilings and the method can be generalized to obtain tilings that have more than two prototiles. The tilings generated are fractals and their dimensions and the rate of growth are determined.

  12. Computer-controlled optical scanning tile microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Shumyatsky, P; Zeng, F; Zevallos, M; Alfano, R R

    2006-02-20

    A new type of computer-controlled optical scanning, high-magnification imaging system with a large field of view is described that overcomes the commonly believed incompatibility of achieving both high magnification and a large field of view. The new system incorporates galvanometer scanners, a CCD camera, and a high-brightness LED source for the fast acquisition of a large number of a high-resolution segmented tile images with a magnification of 800x for each tile. The captured segmented tile images are combined to create an effective enlarged view of a target totaling 1.6 mm x 1.2 mm in area. The speed and sensitivity of the system make it suitable for high-resolution imaging and monitoring of a small segmented area of 320 microm x 240 microm with 4 microm resolution. Each tile segment of the target can be zoomed up without loss of the high resolution. This new microscope imaging system gives both high magnification and a large field of view. This microscope can be utilized in medicine, biology, semiconductor inspection, device analysis, and quality control. PMID:16523776

  13. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons),more » 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)« less

  14. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  15. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, B.

    1995-04-11

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow there between. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow. 8 figures.

  16. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Blake

    1995-01-01

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow therebetween. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow.

  17. Covering the Plane with Rep-Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaugh, Linda S.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use geometric figures, rep-tiles, to design a tile floor. Rep-tiles are geometric figures of which copies can fit together to form a larger similar figure. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  18. Mosaic tile model to compute gravitational field for infinitely thin non axisymmetric objects and its application to preliminary analysis of gravitational field of M74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Using the analytical expressions of the Newtonian gravitational potential and the associated acceleration vector for an infinitely thin uniform rectangular plate, we developed a method to compute the gravitational field of a general infinitely thin object without assuming its axial symmetry when its surface mass density is known at evenly spaced rectangular grid points. We utilized the method in evaluating the gravitational field of the HI gas, dust, red stars, and blue stars components of M74 from its THINGS, 2MASS, PDSS1, and GALEX data. The non axisymmetric feature of M74 including an asymmetric spiral structure is seen from (i) the contour maps of the determined gravitational potential, (ii) the vector maps of the associated acceleration vector, and (iii) the cross section views of the gravitational field and the surface mass density along different directions. An x-mark pattern in the gravitational field is detected at the core of M74 from the analysis of its dust and red stars components. Meanwhile, along the east-west direction in the central region of the angular size of 1', the rotation curve derived from the radial component of the acceleration vector caused by the red stars component matches well with that observed by the VENGA project. Thus the method will be useful in studying the dynamics of particles and fluids near and inside spiral galaxies with known photometry data. Electronically available are the table of the determined gravitational fields of M74 on its galactic plane as well as the Fortran 90 programs to produce them.

  19. Mosaic tile model to compute gravitational field for infinitely thin non-axisymmetric objects and its application to preliminary analysis of gravitational field of M74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Using the analytical expressions of the Newtonian gravitational potential and the associated acceleration vector for an infinitely thin uniform rectangular plate, we developed a method to compute the gravitational field of a general infinitely thin object without assuming its axial symmetry when its surface mass density is known at evenly spaced rectangular grid points. We utilized the method in evaluating the gravitational field of the H I gas, dust, red stars, and blue stars components of M74 from its THINGS, 2MASS, PDSS1, and GALEX data. The non-axisymmetric feature of M74 including an asymmetric spiral structure is seen from (i) the contour maps of the determined gravitational potential, (ii) the vector maps of the associated acceleration vector, and (iii) the cross-section views of the gravitational field and the surface mass density along different directions. An x-mark pattern in the gravitational field is detected at the core of M74 from the analysis of its dust and red stars components. Meanwhile, along the east-west direction in the central region of the angular size of 1 arcmin, the rotation curve derived from the radial component of the acceleration vector caused by the red stars component matches well with that observed by the VENGA project. Thus the method will be useful in studying the dynamics of particles and fluids near and inside spiral galaxies with known photometry data. Electronically available are the table of the determined gravitational fields of M74 on its galactic plane as well as the FORTRAN 90 programs to produce them.

  20. Tiles for Reo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, Farhad; Bruni, Roberto; Clarke, Dave; Lanese, Ivan; Montanari, Ugo

    Reo is an exogenous coordination model for software components. The informal semantics of Reo has been matched by several proposals of formalization, exploiting co-algebraic techniques, constraint-automata, and coloring tables. We aim to show that the Tile Model offers a flexible and adequate semantic setting for Reo, such that: (i) it is able to capture context-aware behavior; (ii) it is equipped with a natural notion of behavioral equivalence which is compositional; (iii) it offers a uniform setting for representing not only the ordinary execution of Reo systems but also dynamic reconfiguration strategies.

  1. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency. PMID:24794259

  2. Methods of Data Collection, Sample Processing, and Data Analysis for Edge-of-Field, Streamgaging, Subsurface-Tile, and Meteorological Stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm in Wisconsin, 2001-7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Owens, David W.; Hall, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms (Discovery Farms) and UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm (Pioneer Farm) programs were created in 2000 to help Wisconsin farmers meet environmental and economic challenges. As a partner with each program, and in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Sand County Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center (WWSC) installed, maintained, and operated equipment to collect water-quantity and water-quality data from 25 edge-offield, 6 streamgaging, and 5 subsurface-tile stations at 7 Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm. The farms are located in the southern half of Wisconsin and represent a variety of landscape settings and crop- and animal-production enterprises common to Wisconsin agriculture. Meteorological stations were established at most farms to measure precipitation, wind speed and direction, air and soil temperature (in profile), relative humidity, solar radiation, and soil moisture (in profile). Data collection began in September 2001 and is continuing through the present (2008). This report describes methods used by USGS WWSC personnel to collect, process, and analyze water-quantity, water-quality, and meteorological data for edge-of-field, streamgaging, subsurface-tile, and meteorological stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm from September 2001 through October 2007. Information presented includes equipment used; event-monitoring and samplecollection procedures; station maintenance; sample handling and processing procedures; water-quantity, waterquality, and precipitation data analyses; and procedures for determining estimated constituent concentrations for unsampled runoff events.

  3. Chirped-pulse amplification system based on chirp reversal and near-field spatial reversal with common tiled grating pair as stretcher and compressor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wei, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yao; Zeng, Xiaoming; Zuo, Yanlei; Hao, Xin; Zhou, Kainan; Xie, Na; Zhang, Ying

    2012-08-10

    Chirped-pulse amplification system based on chirp reversal in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The operation of this system can be described as negative stretching-temporal chirp reversal-energy amplification-negative compression, in which the pulse is stretched and compressed with the same gratings. Stand-alone stretcher adopting lenses or concave mirrors with large aperture can be omitted. Simulations showed that this work mode can also increase the cut-off band-pass of the whole system and increase the output energy by 15-17%. In addition, the stability of a tiled-grating compressor can be improved with this work mode. PMID:22885574

  4. Repairing high-temperature glazed tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.; Schomburg, C.

    1981-01-01

    Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) mixture fills chips and cracks in glazed tile surface. Filler is made by mixing hydrolyzed TEOS, silicon tetraboride powder, and pulverized tile material. Repaired tiles survived testing by intense acoustic emissions, arc jets, and intense heat radiation. Repair is reliable and rapid, performed in 1-1 1/2 hours with tile in any or orientation.

  5. Lozenge Tilings and Hurwitz Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    We give a new proof of the fact that, near a turning point of the frozen boundary, the vertical tiles in a uniformly random lozenge tiling of a large sawtooth domain are distributed like the eigenvalues of a GUE random matrix. Our argument uses none of the standard tools of integrable probability. In their place, it uses a combinatorial interpretation of the Harish-Chandra/Itzykson-Zuber integral as a generating function for desymmetrized Hurwitz numbers.

  6. Using stable isotope tracers to assess flow pathways for P transport in tile-drained landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; King, K.; Ford, W. I., III; Buda, A. R.; Kennedy, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Midwestern US and other poorly drained agricultural regions, phosphorus (P) transport in tile drainage is of increasing environmental concern. Significant P loads are often measured in subsurface drainage water despite the normally high P adsorption capacity of subsoils, which suggest that the high P loadings observed in tile drainage water during storm events are the result of P bypassing the soil matrix via macropore flow. The objectives of this study were to quantify event water delivery to tile drains via macropore flow paths during storm events and to determine the effect of tillage practices on event water and P delivery to tiles. Tile discharge, total dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) concentrations, and stable oxygen and deuterium isotopic signatures were measured from two adjacent tile-drained fields in Ohio, USA during seven spring storms. Fertilizer was surface-applied to both fields and disk tillage was used to incorporate the fertilizer on one field while the other remained in no-till. Results showed that event water accounted for between 26 and 69% of total tile discharge from both fields, with tillage substantially reducing the maximum contributions of event water. Following fertilizer application, median DP concentration was significantly greater in the no-tilled fields (1.19 mg/L) compared to the tilled field (0.66 mg/L). Concentrations remained significantly greater in the no-tilled field compared to the tilled field for the five monitored storms (>1 month) after fertilizer application. Both DP and TP concentrations in the no-tilled fields were significantly related to event water contributions to tile discharge, while only TP concentration was significantly related to event water in the tilled field. Collectively, results suggest that macropore flow is an important flow pathway in tile-drained landscapes and that incorporating surface-applied fertilizers has the potential to substantially reduce the risk of P loss from tile

  7. FITS Tile Compression in the NOAO DMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stobie, E.; Seaman, R.; Barg, I.

    2009-09-01

    The NOAO Data Management system (DMS) captures data from eleven NOAO and partner telescopes and transports these data from three mountaintops to replicate them between three data centers both North and South of the equator. Image files are annotated, remediated, ingested, and persisted through interfaces of the NOAO Science Archive. Wide-field optical and infrared images flow out of the archive, through the NOAO High Performance Pipeline creating several new data products that flow back into the archive. Raw, pipeline-reduced, and survey data products, both proprietary and post-proprietary, are made available through the NOAO Portal using VO standards and services. Each of these several steps requires access to both image data and metadata in the form of image header keywords. Measures of storage efficiency and throughput characterize performance, cost, schedule, and risk in a matrix across all telescopes and all subsystems. Anything that impedes access to data or metadata diminishes throughput, thus slowing schedules, increasing costs, revealing risks, and adversely affecting performance. The familiar gzip compression algorithm is often used to increase data storage efficiency. However, gzip actually reduces throughput due to initial and recurring overhead of compression and later uncompression. For example, if metadata for an image require remediation, the whole image must be compressed, uncompressed, and compressed again. By contrast, the FITS tile convention using the Rice algorithm achieves about 40% better compression than gzip in just one-third the time. Image headers remain readable such that images often need never be uncompressed at all; metadata can be simply edited in place. Further, a library such as CFITSIO can support tile compression as a native image format. The pixel tiling feature means that for applications such as a cutout service, only the tiles overlapping the desired image section need be uncompressed.

  8. High Resolution Modeling of Tile-Drained Controls on Ecohydrologic Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Woo, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tile drains are widely used in the Midwestern United States to improve the productivity of poorly drained agricultural fields. Since tile drain reduces vadose zone soil moisture by lowering the water table, and its outlets feed directly into streams and ditches, tile flow can affect various hydrologic, biotic and biogeochemical processes in the watershed. However, the effects of tile flow on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics at scales dominated by microtopographic variability, such as depression and roadside ditches, remain poorly understood. Here we present an explicit model of tile flow and incorporate into the integrated ecohydrologic-flow model, MLCan-GCSFlow, to investigate the impacts of tile drain on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics in intensively managed agricultural fields at lidar-resolution scales. Explicit coupling between subsurface and tile flow is obtained by modifications of variably saturated Richards equation to capture the impacts of tile drain on soil moisture. The coupling between subsurface and overland flow is obtained by prescribing a boundary condition switching approach at the top surface of the computational domain. Model results for study sites in Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) show the significance of tile drain flow on the vertical and spatial soil moisture distribution and coupled surface - sub-surface flow dynamics.

  9. Image Composition Engine for Tiles

    2011-08-22

    The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. It is designed to be used in parallel applications requiring rendering. The primary purpose of IceT is to be integrated into parallel visualization applications such as ParaView to provide parallel rendering capabilities. The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. IceT uses a "sort-Iasf' approach to rendering. Each process in a parallel application independently rendersmore » a local piece of geometry. The resulting images are given to IceT, and IceT combines the images together to form a single cohesive image. Ice T is also capable of driving tiled displays, largeformat displays comprising an array of smaller displays. To this end IceT can collect the smaller tile images and organize them such that the entire tiled display can be driven. Ice T takes advantage of spatial coherence in geometry by identifying empty regions of the display and reducing the overall required work.« less

  10. Image Composition Engine for Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, Kenneth

    2011-08-22

    The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. It is designed to be used in parallel applications requiring rendering. The primary purpose of IceT is to be integrated into parallel visualization applications such as ParaView to provide parallel rendering capabilities. The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. IceT uses a "sort-Iasf' approach to rendering. Each process in a parallel application independently renders a local piece of geometry. The resulting images are given to IceT, and IceT combines the images together to form a single cohesive image. Ice T is also capable of driving tiled displays, largeformat displays comprising an array of smaller displays. To this end IceT can collect the smaller tile images and organize them such that the entire tiled display can be driven. Ice T takes advantage of spatial coherence in geometry by identifying empty regions of the display and reducing the overall required work.

  11. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R.; Frame, Barbara J.

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  12. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  13. Nutrient Transport in Tile-Fed Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches receive water and associated contaminants from agricultural fields via surface runoff or sub-surface tile drains. Little consideration has been given to the processes affecting nutrient transport once in surface water. The objective of this research was to evaluate the nutrient fa...

  14. Contributions of systematic tile drainage to watershed scale phosphorus transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) transport from agricultural fields continues be a focal point for addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) and nuisance algae in freshwater systems throughout the world. In humid, poorly drained regions, attention has turned to P delivery through subsurface tile drainage. Research on th...

  15. Algebraic properties of basic isohedral marked tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Gabriele H.

    2006-05-01

    In 1977 Grünbaum and Shephard described all possible 93 types of isohedral marked tilings of the plane; 46 of them are called basic, since their induced tile group is trivial. The aim of this paper is to give an algebraic description of all basic tilings. A purely algebraic characterization of the adjacency symmetries of tiles of the 46 basic tilings is presented. Moreover, 46 related abstract definitions of two-dimensional crystallographic groups supplement and extend those of the well-known book Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups by Coxeter and Moser.

  16. Fractal tiles associated with shift radix systems.

    PubMed

    Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang; Surer, Paul; Thuswaldner, Jörg M

    2011-01-15

    Shift radix systems form a collection of dynamical systems depending on a parameter r which varies in the d-dimensional real vector space. They generalize well-known numeration systems such as beta-expansions, expansions with respect to rational bases, and canonical number systems. Beta-numeration and canonical number systems are known to be intimately related to fractal shapes, such as the classical Rauzy fractal and the twin dragon. These fractals turned out to be important for studying properties of expansions in several settings. In the present paper we associate a collection of fractal tiles with shift radix systems. We show that for certain classes of parameters r these tiles coincide with affine copies of the well-known tiles associated with beta-expansions and canonical number systems. On the other hand, these tiles provide natural families of tiles for beta-expansions with (non-unit) Pisot numbers as well as canonical number systems with (non-monic) expanding polynomials. We also prove basic properties for tiles associated with shift radix systems. Indeed, we prove that under some algebraic conditions on the parameter r of the shift radix system, these tiles provide multiple tilings and even tilings of the d-dimensional real vector space. These tilings turn out to have a more complicated structure than the tilings arising from the known number systems mentioned above. Such a tiling may consist of tiles having infinitely many different shapes. Moreover, the tiles need not be self-affine (or graph directed self-affine). PMID:24068835

  17. Effect of tillage on macropore flow and phosphorus transport to tile drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark R.; King, Kevin W.; Ford, William; Buda, Anthony R.; Kennedy, Casey D.

    2016-04-01

    Elevated phosphorus (P) concentrations in subsurface drainage water are thought to be the result of P bypassing the soil matrix via macropore flow. The objectives of this study were to quantify event water delivery to tile drains via macropore flow paths during storm events and to determine the effect of tillage practices on event water and P delivery to tiles. Tile discharge, total dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) concentrations, and stable oxygen and deuterium isotopic signatures were measured from two adjacent tile-drained fields in Ohio, USA during seven spring storms. Fertilizer was surface-applied to both fields and disk tillage was used to incorporate the fertilizer on one field while the other remained in no-till. Median DP concentration in tile discharge prior to fertilizer application was 0.08 mg L-1 in both fields. Following fertilizer application, median DP concentration was significantly greater in the no-tilled field (1.19 mg L-1) compared to the tilled field (0.66 mg L-1), with concentrations remaining significantly greater in the no-till field for the remainder of the monitored storms. Both DP and TP concentrations in the no-till field were significantly related to event water contributions to tile discharge, while only TP concentration was significantly related to event water in the tilled field. Event water accounted for between 26 and 69% of total tile discharge from both fields, but tillage substantially reduced maximum contributions of event water. Collectively, these results suggest that incorporating surface-applied fertilizers has the potential to substantially reduce the risk of P transport from tile-drained fields.

  18. Beautiful math, part 2: aesthetic patterns based on fractal tilings.

    PubMed

    Peichang Ouyang; Fathauer, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A fractal tiling (f-tiling) is a tiling whose boundary is fractal. This article presents two families of rare, infinitely many f-tilings. Each f-tiling is constructed by reducing tiles by a fixed scaling factor, using a single prototile, which is a segment of a regular polygon. The authors designed invariant mappings to automatically produce appealing seamless, colored patterns from such tilings. PMID:24808170

  19. Developing tiled projection display systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Judson, I. R.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R. L.

    2000-06-08

    Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing high-resolution semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation [EVL, PowerWall]. In this way, they complement other technologies such as the CAVE [Cruz-Niera92] or ImmersaDesk, [Czernuszenko97], which by design give up pure resolution in favor of width of view and stereo. However, the largest impact may well be in using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple displays in building ''information'' or ''active'' spaces that surround the user with diverse ways of interacting with data and multimedia information flows [IPSI, Childers00, Raskar98, ROME, Stanford, UNC]. These environments may prove to be the ultimate successor of the desktop metaphor for information technology work.

  20. Geometrical Tile Design for Complex Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a “tall” von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 × 5 “filled” rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 × (2k + 1) rectangle. PMID:19956398

  1. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle. PMID:19956398

  2. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  3. Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2014-02-01

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA ‘sub-tile’ strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs.

  4. Optimizing Tile Concentrations to Minimize Errors and Time for DNA Tile Self-assembly Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ho-Lin; Kao, Ming-Yang

    DNA tile self-assembly has emerged as a rich and promising primitive for nano-technology. This paper studies the problems of minimizing assembly time and error rate by changing the tile concentrations because changing the tile concentrations is easy to implement in actual lab experiments. We prove that setting the concentration of tile T i proportional to the square root of N i where N i is the number of times T i appears outside the seed structure in the final assembled shape minimizes the rate of growth errors for rectilinear tile systems. We also show that the same concentrations minimize the expected assembly time for a feasible class of tile systems. Moreover, for general tile systems, given tile concentrations, we can approximate the expected assembly time with high accuracy and probability by running only a polynomial number of simulations in the size of the target shape.

  5. Fast Glazing of Alumina/Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creedon, J. F.; Gzowski, E. R.; Wheeler, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for applying ceramic coating to fibrous silica/alumina insulation tiles prevents cracks and substantially reduces firing time. To reduce thermal stresses in tile being coated, high-temperature, shorttime firing schedule implemented. Such schedule allows coating to mature while substrate remains at relatively low temperature, reducing stress differential between coating and substrate. Technique used to repair tiles with damaged coatings and possibly used in heat-treating objects made of materials having different thermal-expansion coefficients.

  6. C∗-algebras of Penrose hyperbolic tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyono-Oyono, Hervé; Petite, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    Penrose hyperbolic tilings are tilings of the hyperbolic plane which admit, up to affine transformations a finite number of prototiles. In this paper, we give a complete description of the C∗-algebras and of the K-theory for such tilings. Since the continuous hull of these tilings have no transversally invariant measure, these C∗-algebras are traceless. Nevertheless, harmonic currents give rise to 3-cyclic cocycles and we discuss in this setting a higher-order version of the gap-labeling.

  7. Global Swath and Gridded Data Tiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Charles K.

    2012-01-01

    This software generates cylindrically projected tiles of swath-based or gridded satellite data for the purpose of dynamically generating high-resolution global images covering various time periods, scaling ranges, and colors called "tiles." It reconstructs a global image given a set of tiles covering a particular time range, scaling values, and a color table. The program is configurable in terms of tile size, spatial resolution, format of input data, location of input data (local or distributed), number of processes run in parallel, and data conditioning.

  8. Multilayer Impregnated Fibrous Thermal Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Szalai, Christine e.; Hsu, Ming-ta; Carroll, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    The term "secondary polymer layered impregnated tile" ("SPLIT") denotes a type of ablative composite-material thermal- insulation tiles having engineered, spatially non-uniform compositions. The term "secondary" refers to the fact that each tile contains at least two polymer layers wherein endothermic reactions absorb considerable amounts of heat, thereby helping to prevent overheating of an underlying structure. These tiles were invented to afford lighter-weight alternatives to the reusable thermal-insulation materials heretofore variously used or considered for use in protecting the space shuttles and other spacecraft from intense atmospheric-entry heating.

  9. Parametric Multi-Level Tiling of Imperfectly Nested Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Hartono, Albert; Baskaran, Muthu M.; Bastoul, Cedric; Cohen, Albert; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Norris, Boyana; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2009-05-18

    Tiling is a critical loop transformation for generating high-performance code on modern architectures. Efficient generation of multilevel tiled code is essential to exploit several levels of parallelism and/or to maximize data reuse in deep memory hierarchies. Tiled loops with parameterized tile sizes (not compile time constants) facilitate runtime feedback and dynamic optimizations used in iterative compilation and automatic tuning. The existing parametric multilevel tiling approach has focused on transformation for perfectly nested loops, where all assignment statements are contained inside the innermost loop of a loop nest. Previous solutions to tiling for imperfect loop nests are limited to the case where tile sizes are fixed. In this paper, we present an approach to parameterized multilevel tiling for imperfectly nested loops. Our tiling algorithm generates loops that iterate over full rectangular tiles that are amenable for potential compiler optimizations such as register tiling. Experimental results using a number of computational benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our tiling approach.

  10. Thermal Characterization of TPS Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kacmar, C. J.; LaCivita, K. J.; Jata, K. V.; Sathish, S.

    2006-03-06

    The Thermal Protection System (TPS) used on space shuttles protects the metallic structure from the large amounts of heat created during travel through the atmosphere, both on takeoff and reentry. The shuttle experiences high thermo-acoustic loading and impact damage from micro-meteorites, which can cause disbonds, delaminations, chips, cracks, and other defects to the TPS system. To enhance durability and damage tolerance, new TPS tiles with an added protective ceramic-matrix-composite layer are being developed. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermography as a quick, diverse, non-destructive technique, to characterize the TPS system. The pulsed thermography images obtained are presented and analyzed.

  11. Using Nitrate N and O Isotope Ratios to Identify Nitrate Sources and Dominant Nitrogen Cycling Processes in a 12ha Tile Drained Dryland Agricultural Field in the Palouse Basin of Eastern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Evans, R. D.; Orr, C. H.; Smith, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural systems are a leading source of reactive nitrogen to aquatic and atmospheric ecosystem. Understanding how anthropogenic nitrogen sources are cycled during transport from agricultural systems to aquatic and atmospheric systems is essential to identify the sink(s) of missing nitrogen and improve nitrogen management. Here we use natural nitrate 15N and 18O isotope abundances to determine the timing of nitrogen cycling process and to identify the source of nitrate discharged from a tile drained section of the WSU Cook Agronomy Farm. Previous research at the Cook Farm has shown that 5% to 20% of fertilizer nitrogen leaves the system as nitrate through the tile-drain. Identifying the timing of nitrogen cycling events and identifying the source(s) of tile drain nitrate is the first step to reduce nitrogen loss to aquatic systems bordering agricultural land. Throughout the 5 year study period δ18Onitrate averaged -1.26±1.48‰, indicating that nitrate-oxygen isotopes were not being enriched. Tile drain nitrate δ15N varied seasonally from -0.48‰ in the winter to +9.24‰ during the summer with an average of +3.19±2.62‰. The lack of nitrate-oxygen enrichment during the study period indicates that nitrification is the dominant nitrogen cycling process in the tile drained soil. The expected δ18Onitrate from nitrification based on the nitrification equation is -2.0‰, also supporting the claim that nitrification is the dominant nitrogen cycling process in the soil drained by the tile drain system. The large range of nitrate δ15N overlaps the expected isotope values for nitrate from nitrified synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and soil organic nitrogen. Nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate-oxygen isotope abundances have shown that nitrate in high nitrate concentration TD discharge originates from nitrification of reduced nitrogen fertilizers and nitrate in low nitrate concentration TD discharge originates from nitrification of; 1) soil organic nitrogen, 2) biotically

  12. Proposed dynamic phase difference method for the detection of tile debonding from the space shuttle orbiter. [recertification techniques for the orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noncontracting, semi-global, dynamic technique was developed for detecting loose tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. In laboratory tests on a single tile, the substrate was excited into lateral motion at a constant frequency and amplitude of 2g. The phase relationship between the motions of tile and substrate was examined by noncontacting probes in order to relate the dynamic properties of the tile SIP system to its fatigue history; by a visual technique using a stroboscope and split screen video monitor for practical application in the field. When the substrate is excited at an appropriate frequency (between 30 and 60 Hz), a good tile moves in phase and a loose tile out of phase with the substrate. The out of phase motion is readily observable in the form of a "beat" between the tile and a reference marker on the substrate.

  13. Shaving Ceramic Tiles To Final Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest

    1992-01-01

    Combination of template and routing tool cuts ceramic tiles to final dimensions. Template guides router along precisely defined planes to accurately and uniformly shave chamfers on edge of tiles. Legs of template temporarily bonded to workpiece by double-backed adhesive tape. Adaptable to in-situ final machining of other nominally flat, narrow surfaces.

  14. Bonding Heat-Resistant Fabric to Tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Acid etching, densification, and silica cement ensure strong bond. Key step in preparation for bonding to glazed tile is etching quartz fabric and tile with acid. This increases adhesion of silica cement used to form bond. Procedures use high-temperature materials exclusively and therefore suitable for securing flexible seals and heat barriers around doors and viewing ports in furnaces and kilns.

  15. Wind-Resistant Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, J.; Quigley, I. A.; Callahan, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Filler developed for gaps between insulating tiles on Space Shuttle finds application in industries that use tiles for thermal or environmental protection. Filler consists of tight-fitting ceramic tubes and fibrous alumina. Combination resists high wind loads while providing requisite heat protection. Quartz-thread stitching holds envelope together.

  16. Fibonacci words, hyperbolic tilings and grossone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margenstern, Maurice

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we study the contribution of the theory of grossone to the study of infinite Fibonacci words, combining this tool with the help of a particular tiling of the hyperbolic plane: the tiling { 7, 3 } , called the heptagrid. With the help of the numeral system based on grossone, we obtain a richer family of infinite Fibonacci words compared with the traditional approach.

  17. The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

  18. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Moreno, P.; Valero, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived to receive and process the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as to configure it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  19. Emittance measurements of RCG coated Shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouslog, Stanley A.; Cunnington, George R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral and total normal emittance of the Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) coating used on Shuttle tiles has been measured for surface temperatures of 300 to 1905 K. These measurements were made on two virgin and two flown Shuttle tile samples. Room temperature directional emittance data were also obtained and used to determine the total hemispherical emittance of RCG as a function of temperature. The data obtained from this calculation indicate that the total hemispherical emittance decreases from a room temperature value of 0.83 to a value of 0.76 at 1905 K. The flown Shuttle tiles exhibited a change in the spectral distribution of emittance compared to that of the virgin tile, but no significant trends in the total emittance from a virgin to a flown tile could be established.

  20. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  1. Instrumentation techniques for the automatic alignment of large, tiled fixed matrix displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-09-01

    Modern display systems for simulation applications, be they for aviation, naval, automotive or even large visualization and educational/entertainment systems, are all using a tiled approach to achieve high resolution and large fields of view. The aviation applications are particularly demanding, as the fidelity of the matching and blending between the tiled segments needs to be of a high order for flight simulation. This paper looks at the measurement instrumentation techniques that can be used in order to align such large and critical systems. Ultimately such measurement systems allow a fully automatic alignment of color, color uniformity, blending between tiles and gamma to be made. While front- or rear-projected systems are the main references for the analysis, much, if not most, of the principles outlined can apply to tiled large flat panel displays as well.

  2. Penrose Tilings as Jammed Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    Penrose tilings form lattices, exhibiting fivefold symmetry and isotropic elasticity, with inhomogeneous coordination much like that of the force networks in jammed systems. Under periodic boundary conditions, their average coordination is exactly four. We study the elastic and vibrational properties of rational approximants to these lattices as a function of unit-cell size NS and find that they have of order √NS zero modes and states of self-stress and yet all their elastic moduli vanish. In their generic form, obtained by randomizing site positions, their elastic and vibrational properties are similar to those of particulate systems at jamming with a nonzero bulk modulus, vanishing shear modulus, and a flat density of states.

  3. On the structure of quadrilateral brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Brane tilings provide the most general framework in string and M-theory for matching toric Calabi-Yau singularities probed by branes with superconformal fixed points of quiver gauge theories. The brane tiling data consists of a bipartite tiling of the torus which encodes both the classical superpotential and gauge-matter couplings for the quiver gauge theory. We consider the class of tilings which contain only tiles bounded by exactly four edges and present a method for generating any tiling within this class by iterating combinations of certain graph-theoretic moves. In the context of D3-branes in IIB string theory, we consider the effect of these generating moves within the corresponding class of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories in four dimensions. Of particular interest are their effect on the superpotential, the vacuum moduli space and the conditions necessary for the theory to reach a superconformal fixed point in the infrared. We discuss the general structure of physically admissible quadrilateral brane tilings and Seiberg duality in terms of certain composite moves within this class.

  4. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  5. Acousto-optic signature analysis for inspection of the orbiter thermal protection tile bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Julio G.; Tow, D. M.; Barna, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a viable NDE technique for the inspection of orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tile bonds. Phase 2, discussed here, concentrated on developing an empirical understanding of the bonded and unbonded vibration signatures of acreage tiles. Controlled experiments in the laboratory have provided useful information on the dynamic response of TPS tiles. It has been shown that several signatures are common to all the pedigree tiles. This degree of consistency in the tile-SIP (strain isolation pad) dynamic response proves that an unbond can be detected for a known tile and establish the basis for extending the analysis capability to arbitrary tiles for which there are no historical data. The field tests of the noncontacting laser acoustic sensor system, conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), investigated the vibrational environment of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and its effect on the measurement and analysis techniques being developed. The data collected showed that for orbiter locations, such as the body flap and elevon, the data analysis scheme, and/or the sensor, will require modification to accommodate the ambient motion. Several methods were identified for accomplishing this, and a solution is seen as readily achievable. It was established that the tile response was similar to that observed in the laboratory. Of most importance, however, is that the field environment will not affect the physics of the dynamic response that is related to bond condition. All of this information is fundamental to any future design and development of a prototype system.

  6. Acousto-optic signature analysis for inspection of the orbiter thermal protection tile bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.G.; Tow, D.M.; Barna, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a viable, on contacting NDE technique for the inspection of orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tile bonds. Phase 2, discussed here, concentrated on developing an empirical understanding of the b onded and unbonded vibration signatures of acreage tiles. Controlled experiments in the laboratory have provided useful information on the dynamic response of TPS tiles. It has been shown that several signatures are common to all the pedigree'' tiles. This degree of consistency in the tile-SIP (strain isolation pad) dynamic response proves that an unbond can be detected for a known tile and established the basis for extending the analysis capability to arbitrary tiles for which there are no historical data. The field tests of the noncontacting laser acoustic sensor system, conducted at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), investigated the vibrational environment of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and its effect on the measurement and analysis techniques being developed. The data collected showed that for orbiter locations, such as the body flap and elevon, the data analysis scheme, and/or the sensor, will require modification to accommodate the ambient motion. Several methods have been identified for accomplishing this, and a solution is seen as readily achievable. It was established that the tile response was similar to that observed in the laboratory. Of most importance, however, is that the field environment will not affect the physics of the dynamic response that is related to bond condition. All of this information is fundamental to any future design and development of a prototype system. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Aerogel: Tile Composites Toughen a Brittle Superinsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Pure aerogels, though familiar in the laboratory for decades as exotic lightweight insulators with unusual physical properties, have had limited industrial applications due to their low strength and high brittleness. Composites formed of aerogels and the ceramic fiber matrices like those used as space shuttle tiles bypass the fragility of pure aerogels and can enhance the performance of space shuttle tiles in their harsh operating environment. Using a layer of aerogel embedded in a tile may open up a wide range of applications where thermal insulation, gas convection control and mechanical strength matter.

  8. The TileCal Laser Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangiobbe, Vincent; On Behalf Of The Atlas Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector operating at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter whose active material is made of scintillating plastic tiles. Scintillation light is read by photomultipliers. A Laser system is used to monitor their gain stability. During dedicated calibration runs the Laser system sends via long optical fibers, a monitored amount of light simultaneously to all the ≈10000 photomultipliers of TileCal. This note describes two complementary methods to measure the stability of the photomultipliers gain using the Laser calibration runs. The results of validation tests are presented for both methods and theirrespective performances and limitations are discussed.

  9. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOEpatents

    Gallix, R.

    1987-12-09

    U-shaped tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners have two rods which engage L-shaped slots. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the wall. Resilient contact strips under the parallel sides of the U-shaped tile assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall. 6 figs.

  10. The challenging scales of the bird: Shuttle tile structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C.; Miller, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The principal design issues, tests, and analyses required to solve the tile integrity problem on the space shuttle orbiters are addressed. Proof testing of installed tiles is discussed along with an airflow test of special tiles. Orbiter windshield tiles are considered in terms of changes necessary to ensure acceptable margins of safety for flight.

  11. High-Strength, Low-Shrinkage Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of refractory fibers and whiskers to insulating tiles composed primarily of fibrous silica, such as those used on the skin of Space Shuttle orbiter, greatly improves properties. New composition suitable for lightweight, thermally-stable mirror blanks and as furnace and kiln insulation. Improved tiles made with current tile-fabrication processes. For given density, tiles containing silicon carbide and boron additives stronger in flexure than tiles made from silica alone. In addition, tiles with additives nearly immune to heat distortion, whereas pure-silica tiles shrink and become severely distorted.

  12. Directed enzymatic activation of 1-D DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sudhanshu; Chandran, Harish; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; LaBean, Thomas H; Reif, John

    2015-02-24

    The tile assembly model is a Turing universal model of self-assembly where a set of square shaped tiles with programmable sticky sides undergo coordinated self-assembly to form arbitrary shapes, thereby computing arbitrary functions. Activatable tiles are a theoretical extension to the Tile assembly model that enhances its robustness by protecting the sticky sides of tiles until a tile is partially incorporated into a growing assembly. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a simplified version of the Activatable tile assembly model. In particular, we demonstrate the simultaneous assembly of protected DNA tiles where a set of inert tiles are activated via a DNA polymerase to undergo linear assembly. We then demonstrate stepwise activated assembly where a set of inert tiles are activated sequentially one after another as a result of attachment to a growing 1-D assembly. We hope that these results will pave the way for more sophisticated demonstrations of activated assemblies. PMID:25625898

  13. A family of ternary decagonal tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Nobuhisa

    2010-04-01

    A new family of decagonal quasiperiodic tilings are constructed by the use of generalized point substitution processes, which is a new substitution formalism developed by the author [N. Fujita, Acta Cryst. A 65, 342 (2009)]. These tilings are composed of three prototiles: an acute rhombus, a regular pentagon and a barrel shaped hexagon. In the perpendicular space, these tilings have windows with fractal boundaries, and the windows are analytically derived as the fixed sets of the conjugate maps associated with the relevant substitution rules. It is shown that the family contains an infinite number of local isomorphism classes which can be grouped into several symmetry classes (e.g., C10, D5, etc.). The member tilings are transformed into one another through collective simpleton flips, which are associated with the reorganization in the window boundaries.

  14. Radioactivity in zircon and building tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Deng; Kaizhen Tian; Daifu Chen; Yiyun Zhang

    1997-08-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) is commonly used in The manufacture of glazed tiles. In this study we found high concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}tH, {sup 40}k in zircon sand. The average radium equivalent (A{sub Ra} + 1.26 A{sub Th} + 0.086 A{sub k}) in zircon sand is 17,500 Bq kg{sup -1}, which is 106 times as much as that in ordinary building materials. The external radiation ({gamma} + {beta}) dose rates from 1.1 to 4.9 x 10{sup -2} mGy h{sup -1} with an average of 2.1 x 10{sup -2} mGy h{sup -1}. Although no elevated {gamma}-ray radiation or radon exhalation rate was detected in rooms decorated with glazed tiles, which is characteristic of combined {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} emitting thin materials, the average {gamma} radiation dose rate at the surface of the tile stacks in shops is 1.5 times as much as the indoor background level. The average area density of total {beta} emitting radionuclides in glazed floor tiles and glazed wall tiles is 0.30 Bq cm{sup -2} and 0.28 Bq cm{sup -2}, respectively. It was estimated that the average {beta} dose rates in tissue at a depth 7 mg cm{sup -2} with a distance 20-100 cm from the floor tiles were 3.2 to 0.9 x 10{sup -7} Gy h{sup -1}. The study indicates that the {beta}-rays from glazed tiles might be one of the main factors leading to an increase in ionizing radiation received by the general public. Workers in glazed tile manufacturing factories and in tile shops or stores may be exposed to elevated levels of both {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays from zircon sand or glazed tile stacks. No elevated radiation from unglazed tiles was detected. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  16. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  17. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Hnat, James G.; Mathur, Akshay; Simpson, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  18. Tile-based parallel coordinates and its application in financial visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsakran, Jamal; Zhao, Ye; Zhao, Xinlei

    2010-01-01

    Parallel coordinates technique has been widely used in information visualization applications and it has achieved great success in visualizing multivariate data and perceiving their trends. Nevertheless, visual clutter usually weakens or even diminishes its ability when the data size increases. In this paper, we first propose a tile-based parallel coordinates, where the plotting area is divided into rectangular tiles. Each tile stores an intersection density that counts the total number of polylines intersecting with that tile. Consequently, the intersection density is mapped to optical attributes, such as color and opacity, by interactive transfer functions. The method visualizes the polylines efficiently and informatively in accordance with the density distribution, and thus, reduces visual cluttering and promotes knowledge discovery. The interactivity of our method allows the user to instantaneously manipulate the tiles distribution and the transfer functions. Specifically, the classic parallel coordinates rendering is a special case of our method when each tile represents only one pixel. A case study on a real world data set, U.S. stock mutual fund data of year 2006, is presented to show the capability of our method in visually analyzing financial data. The presented visual analysis is conducted by an expert in the domain of finance. Our method gains the support from professionals in the finance field, they embrace it as a potential investment analysis tool for mutual fund managers, financial planners, and investors.

  19. Response and Uniformity Studies of Directly Coupled Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-04-02

    A finely-segmented scintillator-based calorimeter which capitalizes on the marriage of proven detection techniques with novel solid-state photo-detector devices such as Multi-pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) is an interesting calorimetric system from the point of view of future detector design. A calorimeter system consisting of millions of channels will require a high degree of integration. The first steps towards this integration have already been facilitated by the small size and magnetic field immunity of the MPPCs. The photo-conversion occurs right at the tile, thus obviating the need for routing of long clear fibers. Similar considerations apply to the presence of wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers inside the tiles which couple it to the photo-detectors. Significant simplification in construction and assembly ensue if the MPPCs can be coupled directly to the scintillator tiles. Equally importantly, the total absence of fibers would offer greater flexibility in the choice of the transverse segmentation while enhancing the electro-mechanical integrability of the design. The NIU high-energy physics group has been studying the fiberless or direct-coupling option for some time now. Encouraging results on response and response uniformity have been obtained using radioactive sources. This MOU seeks to set up a framework to extend these tests using beams at the MTBF. The results will be relevant to high granularity scintillator/crystal electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The tests involve a set of small directly-coupled tile counters fabricated at NIU which will be placed in the beam to study their response and response uniformity as a function of the incident position of the particles passing through them.

  20. Are Tiled Display Walls Needed for Astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Bernard F.; Fluke, Christopher J.; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O.

    2014-08-01

    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now generated by modern astronomical instruments. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non-astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. Our experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment than SDDs for searching for small targets in large images. They also show that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when employing physical navigation as opposed to virtual navigation, and that the combination of two non-astronomers using a TDW rivals the experience of a single astronomer. However, there is also a large distribution in aptitude amongst the participants and the nature of the content also plays a significant role in success.

  1. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Keith E.; Helmers, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes.

  2. Tiled WMS/KML Server V2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

  3. Approximation of virus structure by icosahedral tilings.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, D G; Indelicato, G; Cermelli, P; Keef, T; Twarock, R

    2015-07-01

    Viruses are remarkable examples of order at the nanoscale, exhibiting protein containers that in the vast majority of cases are organized with icosahedral symmetry. Janner used lattice theory to provide blueprints for the organization of material in viruses. An alternative approach is provided here in terms of icosahedral tilings, motivated by the fact that icosahedral symmetry is non-crystallographic in three dimensions. In particular, a numerical procedure is developed to approximate the capsid of icosahedral viruses by icosahedral tiles via projection of high-dimensional tiles based on the cut-and-project scheme for the construction of three-dimensional quasicrystals. The goodness of fit of our approximation is assessed using techniques related to the theory of polygonal approximation of curves. The approach is applied to a number of viral capsids and it is shown that detailed features of the capsid surface can indeed be satisfactorily described by icosahedral tilings. This work complements previous studies in which the geometry of the capsid is described by point sets generated as orbits of extensions of the icosahedral group, as such point sets are by construction related to the vertex sets of icosahedral tilings. The approximations of virus geometry derived here can serve as coarse-grained models of viral capsids as a basis for the study of virus assembly and structural transitions of viral capsids, and also provide a new perspective on the design of protein containers for nanotechnology applications. PMID:26131897

  4. Nematic colloidal tilings as photonic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dontabhaktuni, J.; Cancula, M.; Zumer, S.

    2014-02-01

    Colloidal platelets are explored as elementary building blocks for the shape-controlled assembly of crystalline and quasicrystalline tilings. Using three-dimensional (3D) numerical modelling based on the minimization of Landau-de Gennes free energy for modelling of colloids combined with Finite Difference Time Domain calculations for optics, we demonstrate the self-assembly and optical (transmission) properties of triangular, square and pentagonal sub-micrometer sized platelets in a thin layer of nematic liquid crystal. Interactions between platelets are explored, providing an insight into the assembly process. Two-dimensional tilings of various-shaped colloidal platelets are demonstrated, and their use as diffraction layers is explored by using FDTD simulations. Designing symmetry-breaking surface anchoring profiles on pentagonal platelets opens also a possibility to achieve interactions that could lead to tilings with non-crystalline symmetry.

  5. Fiber-tile optical studies at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.; Morgan, D.J.; Proudfoot, J.

    1991-07-23

    In support of a fiber-tile calorimeter for SDC, we have done studies on a number of topics. The most basic problems were light output and uniformity of response. Using a small electron beam, we have studied fiber placement, tile preparation, wrapping and masking, fiber splicing, fiber routing, phototube response, and some degradation factors. We found two configurations which produced more light output than the others and reasonably uniform response. We have chosen one of these to go into production for the EM test module on the basis of fiber routing for ease of assembly of the calorimeter. We have also applied some of the tools we developed to CDF end plug tile uniformity, shower max testing and development for a couple of detectors, and development of better techniques for radiation damage studies. 18 figs.

  6. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Simon , Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    U-shaped limiter tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners secured to a wall have two rods which engage L-shaped slots in the runners. The short receiving legs of the L-shaped slots are perpendicular to the wall and open away from the wall, while long retaining legs are parallel to and adjacent the wall. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the runners. Resilient contact strips between the parallel arms of the U-shaped tiles and the wall assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall.

  7. Random and ordered phases of off-lattice rhombus tiles.

    PubMed

    Whitelam, Stephen; Tamblyn, Isaac; Beton, Peter H; Garrahan, Juan P

    2012-01-20

    We study the covering of the plane by nonoverlapping rhombus tiles, a problem well studied only in the limiting case of dimer coverings of regular lattices. We go beyond this limit by allowing tiles to take any position and orientation on the plane, to be of irregular shape, and to possess different types of attractive interactions. Using extensive numerical simulations, we show that at large tile densities there is a phase transition from a fluid of rhombus tiles to a solid packing with broken rotational symmetry. We observe self-assembly of broken-symmetry phases, even at low densities, in the presence of attractive tile-tile interactions. Depending on the tile shape and interactions, the solid phase can be random, possessing critical orientational fluctuations, or crystalline. Our results suggest strategies for controlling tiling order in experiments involving "molecular rhombi." PMID:22400760

  8. Random and ordered phases of off-lattice rhombus tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Tamblyn, Isaac; Beton, Peter; Garrahan, Juan

    2012-02-01

    We study the covering of the plane by non-overlapping rhombus tiles, a problem well-studied only in the limiting case of dimer coverings of regular lattices. We go beyond this limit by allowing tiles to take any position and orientation on the plane, to be of irregular shape, and to possess different types of attractive interactions. Using extensive numerical simulations we show that at large tile densities there is a phase transition from a fluid of rhombus tiles to a solid packing with broken rotational symmetry. We observe self-assembly of broken-symmetry phases, even at low densities, in the presence of attractive tile-tile interactions. Depending on tile shape and interactions the solid phase can be random, possessing critical orientational fluctuations, or crystalline. Our results suggest strategies for controlling tiling order in experiments involving ``molecular rhombi.''

  9. Random and Ordered Phases of Off-Lattice Rhombus Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Tamblyn, Isaac; Beton, Peter H.; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the covering of the plane by nonoverlapping rhombus tiles, a problem well studied only in the limiting case of dimer coverings of regular lattices. We go beyond this limit by allowing tiles to take any position and orientation on the plane, to be of irregular shape, and to possess different types of attractive interactions. Using extensive numerical simulations, we show that at large tile densities there is a phase transition from a fluid of rhombus tiles to a solid packing with broken rotational symmetry. We observe self-assembly of broken-symmetry phases, even at low densities, in the presence of attractive tile-tile interactions. Depending on the tile shape and interactions, the solid phase can be random, possessing critical orientational fluctuations, or crystalline. Our results suggest strategies for controlling tiling order in experiments involving “molecular rhombi.”

  10. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

  11. Dynamical implications of Viral Tiling Theory.

    PubMed

    ElSawy, K M; Taormina, A; Twarock, R; Vaughan, L

    2008-05-21

    The Caspar-Klug classification of viruses whose protein shell, called viral capsid, exhibits icosahedral symmetry, has recently been extended to incorporate viruses whose capsid proteins are exclusively organised in pentamers. The approach, named 'Viral Tiling Theory', is inspired by the theory of quasicrystals, where aperiodic Penrose tilings enjoy 5-fold and 10-fold local symmetries. This paper analyses the extent to which this classification approach informs dynamical properties of the viral capsids, in particular the pattern of Raman active modes of vibrations, which can be observed experimentally. PMID:18353372

  12. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Primoz; Hocevar, Ana

    2009-03-01

    We study 2D polygonal tilings as models of the en-face structure of single-layer biological tissues. Using numerical simulations, we explore the phase diagram of equilibrium tilings of equal-area, equal-perimeter convex polygons whose energy is independent of their shape. We identify 3 distinct phases, which are all observed in simple epithelial tissues: The disordered phase of polygons with 4-9 sides, the hexatic phase, and the hexagonal phase with perfect 6-fold coordination. We quantify their structure using Edwards' statistical mechanics of cellular systems.

  13. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple. PMID:17433656

  14. Installation of Ceramic Tile: Residential Thin-Set Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Sam

    This curriculum guide contains materials for use in teaching a course on residential thin-set methods of tile installation. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: the tile industry; basic math; tools; measurement; safety in tile setting; installation materials and guidelines for their use; floors; counter tops and backsplashes;…

  15. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  16. WATER TABLE LEVEL AS INFLUENCED BY TILING METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sections of the research farm were tiled in the fall of 1979. The primary reason for the tiling was to provide a good soil environment for large tillage trial plots that had been previously established. This was also used as an opportunity to install a comparison of tile installation with a conven...

  17. 21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  18. 90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  19. Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tile. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.N.; Clayton, M.E.

    1981-12-01

    The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 45/sup 0/ intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired tiles were subjected to standard ceramic testing procedures to determine: flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. These data were compared with the same data for commercial fired tiles from the same batch of raw materials. The glazed tile surfaces were compared with commercially fired tile for reflectance and color match. The major problems encountered were: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity also failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions. An alternate air heat exchanger system is recommended to fire the tile by convection rather than direct radiation.

  20. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  1. CFD-Predicted Tile Heating Bump Factors Due to Tile Overlay Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Victor R.

    2006-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics investigation of the Orbiter's Tile Overlay Repair (TOR) is performed to assess the aeroheating Damage Assessment Team's (DAT) existing heating correlation method for protuberance interference heating on the surrounding thermal protection system. Aerothermodynamic heating analyses are performed for TORs at the design reference damage locations body points 1800 and 1075 for a Mach 17.9 and a=39deg STS-107 flight trajectory point with laminar flow. Six different cases are considered. The computed peak heating bump factor on the surrounding tiles are below the DAT's heating bump factor values for smooth tile cases. However, for the uneven tiles cases the peak interference heating is shown to be considerably higher than the existing correlation prediction.

  2. High Temperature Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Wang, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Gaps between ceramic tiles filled with ceramic-coated fabric that withstands temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees F (1,300 degrees C). Reusable high-temperature gap filler is made of fabric coated with ceramic slurry and bonded in place with room-temperature-vulcanized adhesive. Procedure used in kilns and furnaces.

  3. L-Tromino Tiling of Multilated Chessboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "n" x "n" chessboard is called deficient if one square is missing from any spot on the board. Can all deficient boards with a number of cells divisible by 3 be tiled by bent (or L-shaped) trominoes? The answer is yes, with exception of the order-5 board. This paper deals with the general problem plus numerous related puzzles and proofs…

  4. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  6. Movement of pesticides and nutrients into tile drainage water. Final report, 22 September 1985-22 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Van Scoyoc, G.E.; Kladivko, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern about contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals has increased in the last five years. The objectives of this study were to determine field-scale pesticide and nutrient losses to tile drains over a 3-year period on a low-organic-matter, poorly structured silt loam soil under typical agricultural management practices. A tile-drainage spacing study was instrumented to measure water outflow rates and to continuously collect tile outflow samples on a flow-proportional basis. Two replicates of 3 tile spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) were included in the study. Water samples were analyzed for all applied pesticides (atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos) as well as major nutrients (N,P,K) and sediment.

  7. Transport of Salmonella spp. and indicator bacteria to drainage tile waters under cornfields receiving poultry manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface water, however, the transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from manure application fields and the correlation of these indicators to pathogens in this setting is poorly understood. Salmonella spp. is prevalent in poul...

  8. Phosphorus doesn’t move through sub-surface tile, right?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional wisdom suggests that phosphorus does not leach, therefore, many farmers, technical service providers and even experts in the field of water quality believe that P losses through subsurface tile are insufficient to induce water quality problems. Long-term water quality monitoring of the ...

  9. Rye Cover Crop and Gamagrass Strip Effects on NO3 Concentration and Load in Tile Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of the nitrate(NO3) from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or tiles. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainag...

  10. Reconnecting tile drainage to riparian buffer hydrology for enhanced nitrate removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffers are a proven practice for removing NO3 from both overland flow and shallow groundwater. However, in landscapes with artificial subsurface (tile) drainage most of the subsurface flow leaving fields is passed through the buffers in drainage pipes leaving little opportunity for NO3 rem...

  11. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  12. Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

  13. Phosphorus transport pathways to streams in tile-drained agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Gentry, L E; David, M B; Royer, T V; Mitchell, C A; Starks, K M

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is a major nonpoint source of phosphorus (P) in the Midwest, but how surface runoff and tile drainage interact to affect temporal concentrations and fluxes of both dissolved and particulate P remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the dominant form of P in streams (dissolved or particulate) and identify the mode of transport of this P from fields to streams in tile-drained agricultural watersheds. We measured dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) concentrations and loads in stream and tile water in the upper reaches of three watersheds in east-central Illinois (Embarras River, Lake Fork of the Kaskaskia River, and Big Ditch of the Sangamon River). For all 16 water year by watershed combinations examined, annual flow-weighted mean TP concentrations were >0.1 mg L(-1), and seven water year by watershed combinations exceeded 0.2 mg L(-1). Concentrations of DRP and particulate P (PP) increased with stream discharge; however, particulate P was the dominant form during overland runoff events, which greatly affected annual TP loads. Concentrations of DRP and PP in tiles increased with discharge, indicating tiles were a source of P to streams. Across watersheds, the greatest DRP concentrations (as high as 1.25 mg L(-1)) were associated with a precipitation event that followed widespread application of P fertilizer on frozen soils. Although eliminating this practice would reduce the potential for overland runoff of P, soil erosion and tile drainage would continue to be important transport pathways of P to streams in east-central Illinois. PMID:17255628

  14. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  15. Anosov Diffeomorphisms and {γ}-Tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, João P.; Pinto, Alberto A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a toral Anosov automorphism {G_γ:{mathbb{T}}_γto{mathbb{T}}_γ} given by {G_γ(x,y)=(ax+y,x)} in the { < v,w > } base, where {ainmathbb{N} backslash\\{1\\}}, {γ=1/(a+1/(a+1/ldots))}, {v=(γ,1)} and {w=(-1,γ)} in the canonical base of {{mathbb{R}}^2} and {{mathbb{T}}_γ={mathbb{R}}^2/(v{mathbb{Z}} × w{mathbb{Z}})}. We introduce the notion of {γ}-tilings to prove the existence of a one-to-one correspondence between (i) marked smooth conjugacy classes of Anosov diffeomorphisms, with invariant measures absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure, that are in the isotopy class of {G_γ}; (ii) affine classes of {γ}-tilings; and (iii) {γ}-solenoid functions. Solenoid functions provide a parametrization of the infinite dimensional space of the mathematical objects described in these equivalences.

  16. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  17. On Some New Properties of Binary Tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviram, Ira; Kleman, Maurice

    1996-05-01

    We show that one of the binary tilings introduced by Lançon & Billard (LB1) tends asymptotically towards an “universal” random tiling of decagonal symmetry, whatever the starting tiling may be, after an infinite sequence of random decorations preserving the LB1 structural properties; the successive steps of the sequence are described in terms of random substitution matrices. The universal character of the asymptotic tiling reveals in particular in: the existence of a well-defined intensive variable α_infty which measures the proportion of pairs of nearest neighbors of atoms of different species which belong to pairs o contiguous “fat” tiles F, its very characteristic Fourier transform, and finite size fluctuations. Our results rely on a series of extensive Monte-Carlo simulations and on analytic calculations of the statistics of the tilings (e.g. α_n) at different stages n of the substitution process. All these calculations concerns the sole entropy properties, which simplification is justified by the well known fact that binary tilings are degenerate for Lennard-Jones interactions between nearest-neighbors. A direct calculation of the entropy yields a value of α_infty slightly different from the value obtained by the analytic method above, by an amount of ≈ 1%. We suggest that the difference is due to long-range correlations which are not taken into account in the direct calculation as well as some specific ergodicity properties of our “microcanonical” ensemble of tilings realizations, which reveal for example in the non-abelian properties of the finite size fluctuations, and which remain to be studied in any case. Nous montrons que l'un des pavages binaires de Lançon & Billard (LB1) a une limite asymptotique “universelle”, c'est-à-dire ne dépendant pas du pavage de départ, sous l'effet d'une séquence infinie de substitutions aléatoires (décrites par une matrice de transfert aléatoire) qui préservent son caractère LB1. Le caract

  18. Firing ceramic tiles in solar energy equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyi, V.V.; Berezhetskaya, V.Ya.; Chop, Yu.I.; Kashket, G.I.

    1987-03-01

    In the interest of satisfying the growing demand for glazed ceramic tiles and conserving the natural gas ordinarily used to fire them, the authors assess the feasibility of using a solar kiln for the process. Their design incorporates a parabolic reflector and a tracking system to continuously focus radiant solar energy on the tile. Their energy analysis includes such factors as solar thermal input, radiant heat transfer, and heat flow, the relationship between the firing time and the heat flow density, and the surface quality of the glaze and colorizer. Their results indicate that when the heat flow density rises above a level at which the specific expenditure of heat is no longer dependent on the color of the pigment, this expenditure or input comes to a quarter of what is currently needed using existing technologies and fuels.

  19. The DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Small angle TIle Calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region for the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. A veto system composed of two scintillator layers allows to trigger on single photon events and provides e{minus}{gamma} separation. The authors present here some results of extensive measurements performed on part of the calorimeter and the veto system in the CERN test beams prior to installation and report on the performance achieved during the 1994 LEP run.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephe

    2013-04-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section (0 < |η| < 1.7) of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons decaying hadronically, and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 4900 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser, and electronic charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions acquired during 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance will be presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities. These results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter is performing well within the design requirements and is giving essential input to the physics results.

  1. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  2. Interference Lattice-based Loop Nest Tilings for Stencil Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    A common method for improving performance of stencil operations on structured multi-dimensional discretization grids is loop tiling. Tile shapes and sizes are usually determined heuristically, based on the size of the primary data cache. We provide a lower bound on the numbers of cache misses that must be incurred by any tiling, and a close achievable bound using a particular tiling based on the grid interference lattice. The latter tiling is used to derive highly efficient loop orderings. The total number of cache misses of a code is the sum of (necessary) cold misses and misses caused by elements being dropped from the cache between successive loads (replacement misses). Maximizing temporal locality is equivalent to minimizing replacement misses. Temporal locality of loop nests implementing stencil operations is optimized by tilings that avoid data conflicts. We divide the loop nest iteration space into conflict-free tiles, derived from the cache miss equation. The tiling involves the definition of the grid interference lattice an equivalence class of grid points whose images in main memory map to the same location in the cache-and the construction of a special basis for the lattice. Conflicts only occur on the boundaries of the tiles, unless the tiles are too thin. We show that the surface area of the tiles is bounded for grids of any dimensionality, and for caches of any associativity, provided the eccentricity of the fundamental parallelepiped (the tile spanned by the basis) of the lattice is bounded. Eccentricity is determined by two factors, aspect ratio and skewness. The aspect ratio of the parallelepiped can be bounded by appropriate array padding. The skewness can be bounded by the choice of a proper basis. Combining these two strategies ensures that pathologically thin tiles are avoided. They do not, however, minimize replacement misses per se. The reason is that tile visitation order influences the number of data conflicts on the tile boundaries. If two

  3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

  4. Design, fabrication, and tests of a metallic shell tile thermal protection system for space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1989-01-01

    A thermal protection tile for earth-to-orbit transports is described. The tiles consist of a rigid external shell filled with a flexible insulation. The tiles tend to be thicker than the current Shuttle rigidized silica tiles for the same entry heat load but are projected to be more durable and lighter. The tiles were thermally tested for several simulated entry trajectories.

  5. Influence of tile-drainage on groundwater flow and nitrate transport in heterogeneous geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schepper, G.; Therrien, R.; Refsgaard, J.

    2012-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a common agricultural practice in poorly drained production fields to guarantee the productivity of crops and to reduce flooding risks. The impact of shallow tile-drainage networks on groundwater flow patterns and associated nitrate transport from the surface needs to be quantified for adequate agricultural management. A challenge is to represent tile-drain networks in numerical models, at the field scale, while accounting for the influence of subsurface heterogeneities on flow and transport. A numerical model of a tile-drainage system has been developed with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model for the Lillebaek agricultural catchment, Denmark. The Lillebaek catchment is an experimental study area where hydraulic heads, stream and drain discharges, as well as groundwater and surface water nitrate concentrations are regularly measured. This catchment includes various tile-drainage networks that are monitored on a daily basis; the one we have been focusing on is about 5 ha within a 34 ha model domain. The Lillebaek catchment subsurface is made of about 30 m thick Quaternary deposits which consist of a local sandy aquifer with upper and lower clayey till units, confining the aquifer in the upper part. The main modelling objective is to assess the influence of tile drains on the water flow pattern within the confining clayey till unit with and on the nitrate reduction zone depth, also known as the redox-interface, while accounting for local geological heterogeneities. Using the national-scale geological model for Denmark combined with available local data, a hydrogeological model at field scale has been generated. A proper representation of the tile-drains geometry is essential to calibrate and validate the water flow model associated with nitrate transport. HydroGeoSphere can represent drains directly into a model as one-dimensional features, which however requires a very fine mesh discretization that limits the size of the simulation

  6. 55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED THE CUTTERS INTO SLABS OF CLAY, LIFTED THEM ONTO DRYING BOARDS AND PRESSED THE PLUNGERS TO RELEASE THE CUT TILES. REPRODUCTIONS CUTTERS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. WOODEN FORMS FOR PRODUCING CLAY SLABS WITH ROLLING PINS REST AGAINST THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  7. Design optimization methods for genomic DNA tiling arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Paul; Trifonov, Valery; Rozowsky, Joel S.; Schubert, Falk; Emanuelsson, Olof; Karro, John; Kao, Ming-Yang; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A recent development in microarray research entails the unbiased coverage, or tiling, of genomic DNA for the large-scale identification of transcribed sequences and regulatory elements. A central issue in designing tiling arrays is that of arriving at a single-copy tile path, as significant sequence cross-hybridization can result from the presence of non-unique probes on the array. Due to the fragmentation of genomic DNA caused by the widespread distribution of repetitive elements, the problem of obtaining adequate sequence coverage increases with the sizes of subsequence tiles that are to be included in the design. This becomes increasingly problematic when considering complex eukaryotic genomes that contain many thousands of interspersed repeats. The general problem of sequence tiling can be framed as finding an optimal partitioning of non-repetitive subsequences over a prescribed range of tile sizes, on a DNA sequence comprising repetitive and non-repetitive regions. Exact solutions to the tiling problem become computationally infeasible when applied to large genomes, but successive optimizations are developed that allow their practical implementation. These include an efficient method for determining the degree of similarity of many oligonucleotide sequences over large genomes, and two algorithms for finding an optimal tile path composed of longer sequence tiles. The first algorithm, a dynamic programming approach, finds an optimal tiling in linear time and space; the second applies a heuristic search to reduce the space complexity to a constant requirement. A Web resource has also been developed, accessible at http://tiling.gersteinlab.org, to generate optimal tile paths from user-provided DNA sequences. PMID:16365382

  8. NASA TileWorld manual (system version 2.2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew B.; Bresina, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The commands are documented of the NASA TileWorld simulator, as well as providing information about how to run it and extend it. The simulator, implemented in Common Lisp with Common Windows, encodes a particular range in a spectrum of domains, for controllable research experiments. TileWorld consists of a two dimensional grid of cells, a set of polygonal tiles, and a single agent which can grasp and move tiles. In addition to agent executable actions, there is an external event over which the agent has not control; this event correspond to a 'gust of wind'.

  9. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  10. Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

    Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was

  11. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  12. Complex tiling patterns in liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tschierske, C.; Nürnberger, C.; Ebert, H.; Glettner, B.; Prehm, M.; Liu, F.; Zeng, X.-B.; Ungar, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this account recent progress in enhancing the complexity of liquid crystal self-assembly is highlighted. The discussed superstructures are formed mainly by polyphilic T-shaped and X-shaped molecules composed of a rod-like core, tethered with glycerol units at both ends and flexible non-polar chain(s) in lateral position, but also related inverted molecular structures are considered. A series of honeycomb phases composed of polygonal cylinders ranging from triangular to hexagonal, followed by giant cylinder honeycombs is observed for ternary T-shaped polyphiles on increasing the size of the lateral chain(s). Increasing the chain size further leads to new modes of lamellar organization followed by three-dimensional and two-dimensional structures incorporating branched and non-branched axial rod-bundles. Grafting incompatible chains to opposite sides of the rod-like core leads to quaternary X-shaped polyphiles. These form liquid crystalline honeycombs where different cells are filled with different material. Projected on an Euclidian plane, all honeycomb phases can be described either by uniformly coloured Archimedean and Laves tiling patterns (T-shaped polyphiles) or as multi-colour tiling patterns (X-shaped polyphiles). It is shown that geometric frustration, combined with the tendency to segregate incompatible chains into different compartments and the need to find a periodic tiling pattern, leads to a significant increase in the complexity of soft self-assembly. Mixing of different chains greatly enhances the number of possible ‘colours’ and in this way, periodic structures comprising up to seven distinct compartments can be generated. Relations to biological self-assembly are discussed shortly. PMID:24098852

  13. Method to realize real-time monitoring and control of a tiled-grating compressor for the XGIII laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhilin; Wang, Xiao; Mu, Jie; Zhu, Qihua; Su, Jingqin; Zhou, Kainan; Zhang, Junwei; Yan, Wei; Wu, Zhaohui; Zuo, Yanlei; Liu, Hongzhong

    2015-02-01

    In a high-energy chirped-pulse-amplified laser system, grating tiling technology provides an effective means to increase the aperture of the gratings and to scale the energy and irradiance of short-pulse lasers. The difficulties lie in controlling tiling errors accurately between the sub-gratings and keeping long time stability. In this paper, a two-pass full-tiled grating-compressor (TGC) with real- time control unit is developed for the first time. The far-field distributions of the 0th order and -1 st order diffracted beams of the two pairs of tiled gratings are monitored by the same CCD system, with the main laser chain being not disturbed. In this way, we realize online real-time control of tiling errors. Through a method of locking the far-field image to compensating the temporal drift, we can realize the automation of the assembly. The TGC has successfully applied in the multi-function XGIII laser facility, and focusing focal spot and output pulse width are obtained.

  14. Symmetries and color symmetries of a family of tilings with a singular point.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Imogene F; Felix, Rene P; Loquias, Manuel Joseph C

    2015-11-01

    Tilings with a singular point are obtained by applying conformal maps on regular tilings of the Euclidean plane and their symmetries are determined. The resulting tilings are then symmetrically colored by applying the same conformal maps on colorings of regular tilings arising from sublattice colorings of the centers of the tiles. In addition, conditions are determined in order that the coloring of a tiling with singularity that is obtained in this manner is perfect. PMID:26522407

  15. 49. TILE PACKING AREA AND APPRENTICE WORKSPACE, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. TILE PACKING AREA AND APPRENTICE WORKSPACE, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH END OF EAST WING. THE SKYLIGHT, ADDED IN 1976. COVERS A ROOF OPENING LEFT FOR THE CHIMNEY OF A POSSIBLE THIRD BISCUIT KILN. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  16. Highly Symmetric and Congruently Tiled Meshes for Shells and Domes

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Muhibur; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe the generation of all possible shell and dome shapes that can be uniquely meshed (tiled) using a single type of mesh face (tile), and following a single meshing (tiling) rule that governs the mesh (tile) arrangement with maximal vertex, edge and face symmetries. Such tiling arrangements or congruently tiled meshed shapes, are frequently found in chemical forms (fullerenes or Bucky balls, crystals, quasi-crystals, virus nano shells or capsids), and synthetic shapes (cages, sports domes, modern architectural facades). Congruently tiled meshes are both aesthetic and complete, as they support maximal mesh symmetries with minimal complexity and possess simple generation rules. Here, we generate congruent tilings and meshed shape layouts that satisfy these optimality conditions. Further, the congruent meshes are uniquely mappable to an almost regular 3D polyhedron (or its dual polyhedron) and which exhibits face-transitive (and edge-transitive) congruency with at most two types of vertices (each type transitive to the other). The family of all such congruently meshed polyhedra create a new class of meshed shapes, beyond the well-studied regular, semi-regular and quasi-regular classes, and their duals (platonic, Catalan and Johnson). While our new mesh class is infinite, we prove that there exists a unique mesh parametrization, where each member of the class can be represented by two integer lattice variables, and moreover efficiently constructable. PMID:27563368

  17. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  18. Low-Density, Aerogel-Filled Thermal-Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Maryann; Heng, Vann; Barney, Andrea; Oka, Kris; Droege, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Aerogel fillings have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop low-density thermal-insulation tiles that, relative to prior such tiles, have greater dimensional stability (especially less shrinkage), equal or lower thermal conductivity, and greater strength and durability. In preparation for laboratory tests of dimensional and thermal stability, prototypes of aerogel-filled versions of recently developed low-density tiles have been fabricated by impregnating such tiles to various depths with aerogel formations ranging in density from 1.5 to 5.6 lb/ft3 (about 53 to 200 kg/cu m). Results available at the time of reporting the information for this article showed that the thermal-insulation properties of the partially or fully aerogel- impregnated tiles were equivalent or superior to those of the corresponding non-impregnated tiles and that the partially impregnated tiles exhibited minimal (<1.5 percent) shrinkage after multiple exposures at a temperature of 2,300 F (1,260 C). Latest developments have shown that tiles containing aerogels at the higher end of the density range are stable after multiple exposures at the said temperature.

  19. Improving Efficiency of 3-SAT-Solving Tile Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Yuriy

    The tile assembly model has allowed the study of the nature's process of self-assembly and the development of self-assembling systems for solving complex computational problems. Research into this model has led to progress in two distinct classes of computational systems: Internet-sized distributed computation, such as software architectures for computational grids, and molecular computation, such as DNA computing. The design of large complex tile systems that emulate Turing machines has shown that the tile assembly model is Turing universal, while the design of small tile systems that implement simple algorithms has shown that tile assembly can be used to build private, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed software systems and robust molecular machines. However, in order for these types of systems to compete with traditional computing devices, we must demonstrate that fairly simple tile systems can implement complex and intricate algorithms for important problems. The state of the art, however, requires vastly complex tile systems with large tile sets to implement such algorithms.

  20. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  1. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  2. Creative Tiling: A Story of 1000-and-1 Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Darwish, Nasir

    2012-01-01

    We describe a procedure that utilizes symmetric curves for building artistic tiles. One particular curve was found to mesh nicely with hundreds other curves, resulting in eye-catching tiling designs. The results of our work serve as a good example of using ideas from 2-D graphics and algorithms in a practical web-based application.

  3. METHOD FOR EVALUATING MOLD GROWTH ON CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method to extract mold spores from porous ceiling tiles was developed using a masticator blender. Ceiling tiles were inoculated and analyzed using four species of mold. Statistical analysis comparing results obtained by masticator extraction and the swab method was performed. T...

  4. Nutrient and Pesticide Removal From Laboratory Simulated Tile Drainage Discharge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess nutrient and pesticide transport through subsurface tile drainage is well documented. One approach receiving consideration for reducing the amount of nutrients and pesticides in subsurface drainage waters is end-of-tile filters. The filters are often comprised of industrial wastes or by-produ...

  5. Introduction to building projection-based tiled display systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Judson, I. R.; Stevens, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

    2000-07-01

    This tutorial introduces the concepts and technologies needed to build projector-based display systems. Tiled displays offer scalability, high resolution, and large formats for various applications. Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation. The largest impact may well arise from using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple displays in building information or active spaces that surround the user with diverse ways of interacting with data and multimedia information flows. These environments may prove the ultimate successor to the desktop metaphor for information technology work. Several fundamental technological problems must be addressed to make tiled displays practical. These include: the choice of screen materials and support structures; choice of projectors, projector supports, and optional fine positioners; techniques for integrating image tiles into a seamless whole; interface devices for interaction with applications; display generators and interfaces; and the display software environment.

  6. Tools Developed to Prepare and Stabilize Reactor Spent Fuel for Retrieval from Tile Holes - 12251

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Michael; Clough, Malcolm

    2012-07-01

    Spent fuel from the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear reactors is stored in the waste management areas on site. This fuel is contained within carbon steel spent fuel cans that are stored inside vertical carbon steel lined concrete pipes in the ground known as tile holes. The fuel cans have been stored in the tile holes for greater than 30 years. Some of the fuel cans have experienced corrosion which may have affected their structural integrity as well as the potential to form hydrogen gas. In addition to these potential hazards, there was a need to clean contaminated surfaces inside of and around the exposed upper surface of the tile holes. As part of the site waste management remediation plan spent fuel will be retrieved from degraded tile holes, dried, and relocated to a new purpose built above ground storage facility. There have been a number of tools that are required to be developed to ensure spent fuel cans are in a safe condition prior to retrieval and re-location. A series of special purpose tools have been designed and constructed to stabilize the contents of the tile holes, to determine the integrity of the fuel containers and to decontaminate inside and around the tile holes. Described herein are the methods and types of tools used. Tools that have been presented here have been used, or will be used in the near future, in the waste management areas of the CRL Site in preparation for storage of spent fuel in a new above ground facility. The stabilization tools have been demonstrated on mock-up facilities prior to successful use in the field to remove hydrogen gas and uranium hydrides from the fuel cans. A lifting tool has been developed and used successfully in the field to confirm the integrity of the fuel cans for future relocation. A tool using a commercial dry ice blaster has been developed and is ready to start mock-up trials and is scheduled to be used in the field during the summer of 2012. (authors)

  7. Uncertainty in nutrient loads from tile-drained landscapes: Effect of sampling frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark R.; King, Kevin W.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Ford, William; Van Esbroeck, Chris; Brunke, Richard I.; English, Michael C.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2015-11-01

    Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of nutrient load estimates in large, naturally drained watersheds, few studies have focused on tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds. The objective of this study was to quantify uncertainty in annual dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) load estimates from four tile-drained fields and two small tile-drained headwater watersheds in Ohio, USA and Ontario, Canada. High temporal resolution datasets of discharge (10-30 min) and nutrient concentration (2 h to 1 d) were collected over a 1-2 year period at each site and used to calculate a reference nutrient load. Monte Carlo simulations were used to subsample the measured data to assess the effects of sample frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy on the uncertainty of load estimates. Results showed that uncertainty in annual DRP and NO3-N load estimates was influenced by both the sampling interval and the load estimation algorithm. Uncertainty in annual nutrient load estimates increased with increasing sampling interval for all of the load estimation algorithms tested. Continuous discharge measurements and linear interpolation of nutrient concentrations yielded the least amount of uncertainty, but still tended to underestimate the reference load. Compositing strategies generally improved the precision of load estimates compared to discrete grab samples; however, they often reduced the accuracy. Based on the results of this study, we recommended that nutrient concentration be measured every 13-26 h for DRP and every 2.7-17.5 d for NO3-N in tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds to accurately (±10%) estimate annual loads.

  8. Removal of nutrient and pesticides from tile drainage discharge using an end-of-tile cartridge approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient transport from subsurface tile drainage is pretty well documented. One approach receiving consideration for reducing the amount of nutrients and pesticides in subsurface drainage waters is end-of-tile filters. The filters are often comprised of industrial wastes or by-products that have a s...

  9. De novo design of an RNA tile that self-assembles into a homo-octameric nanoprism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2015-01-01

    Rational, de novo design of RNA nanostructures can potentially integrate a wide array of structural and functional diversities. Such nanostructures have great promises in biomedical applications. Despite impressive progress in this field, all RNA building blocks (or tiles) reported so far are not geometrically well defined. They are generally flexible and can only assemble into a mixture of complexes with different sizes. To achieve defined structures, multiple tiles with different sequences are needed. In this study, we design an RNA tile that can homo-oligomerize into a uniform RNA nanostructure. The designed RNA nanostructure is characterized by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy imaging. We believe that development along this line would help RNA nanotechnology to reach the structural control that is currently associated with DNA nanotechnology.

  10. Metolachlor and its metabolites in tile drain and stream runoff in the canajoharie creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Eckhardt, D.A.; Vanhoesen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid) can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200 1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were always below 0.6 ??g/L except during a November storm, when concentrations reached 0.85 ??g/L. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA in the stream were 2 45 times higher than those of metolachlor, reflecting the greater relative concentrations of metolachlor in surface water runoff than in tile drain runoff. These results are consistent with findings in other studies that acetanilide herbicide degredates are found in much higher concentrations than parent compounds in both surface water and groundwater.Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid)-can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200-1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were

  11. Tile-in-ONE: A web platform which integrates Tile Calorimeter data quality and calibration assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivolella, A.; Ferreira, F.; Maidantchik, C.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Burghgrave, B.; Smirnov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter collaboration assesses the quality of calibration data in order to ensure its proper operation. A number of tasks is then performed by executing several tools and accessing web systems, which were independently developed to meet distinct collaboration's requirements and do not necessarily are connected with each other. Thus, to attend the collaboration needs, several programs are usually implemented without a global perspective of the detector, requiring basic software features. In addition, functionalities may overlap in their objectives and frequently replicate resources retrieval mechanisms. Tile-in-ONE is a designed and implemented platform that assembles various web systems used by the calorimeter community through a single framework and a standard technology. It provides an infrastructure to support the code implementation, avoiding duplication of work while integrating with an overall view of the detector status. Database connectors smooth the process of information access since developers do not need to be aware of where records are placed and how to extract them. Within the environment, a dashboard stands for a particular Tile operation aspect and gets together plug-ins, i.e. software components that add specific features to an existing application. A server contains the platform core, which represents the basic environment to deal with the configuration, manage user settings and load plug-ins at runtime. A web middleware assists users to develop their own plug-ins, perform tests and integrate them into the platform as a whole. Backends are employed to allow that any type of application is interpreted and displayed in a uniform way. This paper describes Tile-in-ONE web platform.

  12. Floor tile and mastic removal project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A test program was developed and coordinated with State and Federal Regulators and carried out at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. This program was carefully designed to create the worst conditions in order to evaluate whether asbestos fibers are released when asbestos containing floor tile and mastic are removed. There were over 1,000 samples taken and analyzed during the execution of the program. The conclusions reached were based upon analysis of the critical samples using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) technology. Additionally, the TEM procedures were used to evaluate personnel samples to determine whether those fibers found were asbestos or other materials. Most of the (TEM) samples were analyzed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  13. Tile-Compressed FITS Kernel for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a ubiquitously supported standard of the astronomical community. Similarly, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is a widely used astronomical data reduction package. IRAF supplies compatibility with FITS format data through numerous tools and interfaces. The most integrated of these is IRAF's FITS image kernel that provides access to FITS from any IRAF task that uses the basic IMIO interface. The original FITS kernel is a complex interface of purpose-built procedures that presents growing maintenance issues and lacks recent FITS innovations. A new FITS kernel is being developed at NOAO that is layered on the CFITSIO library from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The simplified interface will minimize maintenance headaches as well as add important new features such as support for the FITS tile-compressed (fpack) format.

  14. Local growth of icosahedral quasicrystalline tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Connor T.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals (IQCs) with extremely high degrees of translational order have been produced in the laboratory and found in naturally occurring minerals, yet questions remain about how IQCs form. In particular, the fundamental question of how locally determined additions to a growing cluster can lead to the intricate long-range correlations in IQCs remains open. In answer to this question, we have developed an algorithm that is capable of producing a perfectly ordered IQC yet relies exclusively on local rules for sequential, face-to-face addition of tiles to a cluster. When the algorithm is seeded with a special type of cluster containing a defect, we find that growth is forced to infinity with high probability and that the resultant IQC has a vanishing density of defects. The geometric features underlying this algorithm can inform analyses of experimental systems and numerical models that generate highly ordered quasicrystals.

  15. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  16. Nucleosome positioning from tiling microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Yassour, Moran; Kaplan, Tommy; Jaimovich, Ariel; Friedman, Nir

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: The packaging of DNA around nucleosomes in eukaryotic cells plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression, and other DNA-related processes. To better understand the regulatory role of nucleosomes, it is important to pinpoint their position in a high (5–10 bp) resolution. Toward this end, several recent works used dense tiling arrays to map nucleosomes in a high-throughput manner. These data were then parsed and hand-curated, and the positions of nucleosomes were assessed. Results: In this manuscript, we present a fully automated algorithm to analyze such data and predict the exact location of nucleosomes. We introduce a method, based on a probabilistic graphical model, to increase the resolution of our predictions even beyond that of the microarray used. We show how to build such a model and how to compile it into a simple Hidden Markov Model, allowing for a fast and accurate inference of nucleosome positions. We applied our model to nucleosomal data from mid-log yeast cells reported by Yuan et al. and compared our predictions to those of the original paper; to a more recent method that uses five times denser tiling arrays as explained by Lee et al.; and to a curated set of literature-based nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that by applying our algorithm to the same data used by Yuan et al. our fully automated model traced 13% more nucleosomes, and increased the overall accuracy by about 20%. We believe that such an improvement opens the way for a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression, and how they are encoded in the DNA. Contact: nir@cs.huji.ac.il PMID:18586706

  17. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  18. Tiling and demand-driven evaluation for picture processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horain, Patrick J.; Dogaru, Victor

    1995-08-01

    We propose a software architecture for picture processing that allows efficient memory management when algorithms with many operators are applied to large images, and that allows automated parallelization. This architecture relies on image tiling and operators with a call back function that evaluates image tiles on demand. Several tiling strategies with and without overlapping are discussed. The compexity of this evaluation strategy is hidden to application programs. This is shown with a sample program. This architecture is well suited for neighborhood operators such as convolutions and mathematical morphology operators.

  19. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  20. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter: simulation and validation of the response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltova, Jana; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is readout by wavelength shifting fibers and transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being further transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. Detailed simulations are described in this contribution, ranging from the implementation of the geometrical elements to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, including specific noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Special attention is given to the improved optical signal propagation and the validation with the real particle data.

  1. Navigating the socio-bio-geo-chemistry and engineering of nitrogen management in two illinois tile-drained watersheds.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Flint, Courtney G; Gentry, Lowell E; Dolan, Mallory K; Czapar, George F; Cooke, Richard A; Lavaire, Tito

    2015-03-01

    Reducing nitrate loads from corn and soybean, tile-drained, agricultural production systems in the Upper Mississippi River basin is a major challenge that has not been met. We evaluated a range of possible management practices from biophysical and social science perspectives that could reduce nitrate losses from tile-drained fields in the Upper Salt Fork and Embarras River watersheds of east-central Illinois. Long-term water quality monitoring on these watersheds showed that nitrate losses averaged 30.6 and 23.0 kg nitrate N ha yr (Embarras and Upper Salt Fork watersheds, respectively), with maximum nitrate concentrations between 14 and 18 mg N L. With a series of on-farm studies, we conducted tile monitoring to evaluate several possible nitrate reduction conservation practices. Fertilizer timing and cover crops reduced nitrate losses (30% reduction in a year with large nitrate losses), whereas drainage water management on one tile system demonstrated the problems with possible retrofit designs (water flowed laterally from the drainage water management tile to the free drainage system nearby). Tile woodchip bioreactors had good nitrate removal in 2012 (80% nitrate reduction), and wetlands had previously been shown to remove nitrate (45% reductions) in the Embarras watershed. Interviews and surveys indicated strong environmental concern and stewardship ethics among landowners and farmers, but the many financial and operational constraints that they operate under limited their willingness to adopt conservation practices that targeted nitrate reduction. Under the policy and production systems currently in place, large-scale reductions in nitrate losses from watersheds such as these in east-central Illinois will be difficult. PMID:26023956

  2. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. Using Homemade Algebra Tiles To Develop Algebra and Prealgebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitze, Annette Ricks; Kitt, Nancy A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use homemade tiles, sketches, and the box method to reach a broader group of students for successful algebra learning. Provides a list of concepts appropriate for such an approach. (KHR)

  4. 44. Everett Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN, FROM LOGGIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Everett Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN, FROM LOGGIA LOOKING EAST ACROSS RECEPTION HALL - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION HALL LOOKING EAST ACROSS ARRIVAL LOBBY FLOOR - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. VIEW OF COMPASS ROSE TILE INLAY IN FLOOR OF LOBBY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPASS ROSE TILE INLAY IN FLOOR OF LOBBY, BUILDING 1, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Administration & Brig Building, Bounded by Nevada & Colorado Streets, Reeves & Richardson Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 12. FIREPLACE: TILES AND CARVED WOOD PANEL. IN THE LATTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIREPLACE: TILES AND CARVED WOOD PANEL. IN THE LATTER READS THE WORDS OF THE MORRIS FAMILY'S HOMES: CEDAR GROVE, A.D. 1774 AND COMPTON, A.D. 1887. - Compton, Meadowbrook Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling at the former main entrance. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Self-glazing ceramic tiles based on acidic igneous glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Merkin, A.P.; Nanazashvili, V.I.

    1988-07-01

    A technology was derived to produce self-glazing ceramic tiles based on single-component systems of acidic igneous (volcanic) glasses. A weakly alkaline solution of NaOH or KOH was used as the sealing water to activate the sintering process. Tests conducted on the self-glazing ceramic tiles showed that their water absorption amounts to 2.5-8%, linear shrinkage is 3.2-7%, and frost resistance amounts to 35-70 cycles. The application of acidic igneous glasses as the main raw material for the production of ceramic facing tiles made it possible to widen the raw material base and simplify the technology for fabricating ceramic facing tiles at lower cost. The use of waste products when processing perlite-bearing rocks, when carrying out mining and cutting of tuffs, slags, and tuff breccia for recovering cut materials was recommended.

  10. Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile over wood floor/basement ceiling - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Interference Heating to Cavities Between Simulated RSI Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Test results for full scale simulated surface insulation tiles on both the tunnel wall and in the free stream, for in-line and staggered tile orientations, are summarized as follows: (1) The staggered tile orientation has heating on the forward face which is a factor of 4.5 times higher than the heating to the forward face of the in-line tile orientation; (2) the longitudinal gap heating was the highest for the 0.3175 cm gap and the lowest for the 0.1587 cm gap; and (3) there was an order of magnitude decrease in the heating on the forward face of a spanwise gap when the gap size was decreased from 0.3175 cm to 0.1587 cm.

  12. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá Alberich, L.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010-2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  13. 56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS APPROXIMATELY 6,000 PLASTER MOLDS OF VARIOUS TYPES, INCLUDING THE DEEP CAVITY MOLDS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE MOLDS PRODUCED ALLEGORICAL FIGURES TO BE INSTALLED AROUND THE CORNICES OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  14. No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R.

    1988-11-01

    Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is no inherent glassiness in the Penrose tiling. Thermodynamic quantities measured are completely reversible, displaying no observable hysterisis, and the system may be easily cooled from a highly disordered configuration into its lowest energy state. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Ceramic tile grout removal & sealing using high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Work has been conducted using a Nd:YAG laser, a CO{sub 2} laser and a high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility of removing contaminated tile grout from the void between adjoining vitrified ceramic tiles, and to seal the void permanently with a material having an impermeable surface glaze. Reported on in the paper are; the basic process phenomena, the process effectiveness, suitable vitrifiable material development, a heat affect study and a morphological and compositional analysis.

  16. Spatial chaos of Wang tiles with two symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jie; Hu, Wen-Guei; Lin, Song-Sun

    2016-02-01

    This investigation completely classifies the spatial chaos problem in plane edge coloring (Wang tiles) with two symbols. For a set of Wang tiles B , spatial chaos occurs when the spatial entropy h ( B ) is positive. B is called a minimal cycle generator if P ( B ) ≠ 0̸ and P ( B ' ) = 0̸ whenever B ' ⫋ B , where P ( B ) is the set of all periodic patterns on ℤ2 generated by B . Given a set of Wang tiles B , write B = C 1 ∪ C 2 ∪ ⋯ ∪ C k ∪ N , where Cj, 1 ≤ j ≤ k, are minimal cycle generators and B contains no minimal cycle generator except those contained in C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Then, the positivity of spatial entropy h ( B ) is completely determined by C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Furthermore, there are 39 equivalence classes of marginal positive-entropy sets of Wang tiles and 18 equivalence classes of saturated zero-entropy sets of Wang tiles. For a set of Wang tiles B , h ( B ) is positive if and only if B contains a MPE set, and h ( B ) is zero if and only if B is a subset of a SZE set.

  17. Image tiling for a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Russell M.; Pradhan, Ranjit D.; Aye, Tin M.; Chua, Kang-Bin; Tengara, Indra; Tun, Nay; Win, Tin; Holmstedt, Jason; Schindler, Axel; Hergert, Steffen

    2005-05-01

    Head-mounted or helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have long proven invaluable for many military applications. Integrated with head position, orientation, and/or eye-tracking sensors, HMDs can be powerful tools for training. For such training applications as flight simulation, HMDs need to be lightweight and compact with good center-of-gravity characteristics, and must display realistic full-color imagery with eye-limited resolution and large field-of-view (FOV) so that the pilot sees a truly realistic out-the-window scene. Under bright illumination, the resolution of the eye is ~300 μr (1 arc-min), setting the minimum HMD resolution. There are several methods of achieving this resolution, including increasing the number of individual pixels on a CRT or LCD display, thereby increasing the size, weight, and complexity of the HMD; dithering the image to provide an apparent resolution increase at the cost of reduced frame rate; and tiling normal resolution subimages into a single, larger high-resolution image. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) is developing a 5120 × 4096 pixel HMD covering 1500 × 1200 mr with resolution of 300 μr by tiling 20 subimages, each of which has a resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels, in a 5 × 4 array. We present theory and results of our preliminary development of this HMD, resulting in a 4k × 1k image tiled from 16 subimages, each with resolution 512 × 512, in an 8 × 2 array.

  18. Tiled fuzzy Hough transform for crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaheesan, Kanapathippillai; Chandrakumar, Chanjief; Mathavan, Senthan; Kamal, Khurram; Rahman, Mujib; Al-Habaibeh, Amin

    2015-04-01

    Surface cracks can be the bellwether of the failure of any component under loading as it indicates the component's fracture due to stresses and usage. For this reason, crack detection is indispensable for the condition monitoring and quality control of road surfaces. Pavement images have high levels of intensity variation and texture content, hence the crack detection is difficult. Moreover, shallow cracks result in very low contrast image pixels making their detection difficult. For these reasons, studies on pavement crack detection is active even after years of research. In this paper, the fuzzy Hough transform is employed, for the first time to detect cracks on any surface. The contribution of texture pixels to the accumulator array is reduced by using the tiled version of the Hough transform. Precision values of 78% and a recall of 72% are obtaining for an image set obtained from an industrial imaging system containing very low contrast cracking. When only high contrast crack segments are considered the values move to mid to high 90%.

  19. Tiling solutions for optimal biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems, from cells to organisms, must respond to the ever-changing environment in order to survive and function. This is not a simple task given the often random nature of the signals they receive, as well as the intrinsically stochastic, many-body and often self-organized nature of the processes that control their sensing and response and limited resources. Despite a wide range of scales and functions that can be observed in the living world, some common principles that govern the behavior of biological systems emerge. Here I review two examples of very different biological problems: information transmission in gene regulatory networks and diversity of adaptive immune receptor repertoires that protect us from pathogens. I discuss the trade-offs that physical laws impose on these systems and show that the optimal designs of both immune repertoires and gene regulatory networks display similar discrete tiling structures. These solutions rely on locally non-overlapping placements of the responding elements (genes and receptors) that, overall, cover space nearly uniformly. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  1. Phase change material in floor tiles for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy Sarah

    Traditional passive solar systems have relied on sensible heat storage for energy savings. Recent research has investigated taking advantage of latent heat storage for additional energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change material into building materials used in traditional passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. This research introduces a new flooring material that incorporates a phase change material ready for commercial manufacture. An agglomerate floor tile containing 20% by mass of encapsulated octadecane has been manufactured. Flexural and compressive strength of 7.4 MPa and 24.5 MPa respectively, were measured for the tile. Peak melting transition temperature was determined to be 27.2°C with a latent heat of 33.9 J/g of tile. Structural and thermal performance of the tile surpassed that of a typical ceramic tile. Each tile was composed of quartz, resin and phase change material. Statistical modeling was performed to analyze the response of flexural and compressive strength on varying amounts of quartz, resin and phase change material. Resulting polynomials described the effect of adding phase change material into the tile. With as little as 10% by mass of phase change material, the strength was reduced to less than 50% of tile without phase change material. It was determined that the maximum phase change material content to attain structural integrity greater than ceramic tile was 20% by mass. The statistical analysis used for this research was based on mixture experiments. A procedure was developed to simplify the selection of data points used in the fit of the polynomials to describe the response of flexural and compressive strengths. Analysis of energy savings using this floor tile containing 20% by mass of phase change material was performed as an addendum to this research. A known static simulation method, SLR (solar load ratio), was adapted to include

  2. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the STS-107 Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2004-01-01

    Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA/Contractor investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. The authors formed a working subgroup within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the Orbiter's tiles and of the Tank's foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working subgroups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three-dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the main body of LI-900 insulation, the densified lower layer of LI-900, the Nomex felt mounting layer, and the Aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with Southwest Research Institute foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger foam projectiles on the examples of tile systems used on the Orbiter. Results for impacts on the main landing gear door are presented in this paper, including effects of impacts at several angles, and of rapidly rotating projectiles. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rotation up to 17 rps failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases

  3. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  4. Construction of 2D quasi-periodic Rauzy tiling by similarity transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, V. G.; Maleev, A. V.

    2009-05-15

    A new approach to constructing self-similar fractal tilings is proposed based on the construction of semigroups generated by a finite set of similarity transformations. The Rauzy tiling-a 2D analog of 1D Fibonacci tiling generated by the golden mean-is used as an example to illustrate this approach. It is shown that the Rauzy torus development and the elementary fractal boundary of Rauzy tiling can be constructed in the form of a set of centers of similarity semigroups generated by two and three similarity transformations, respectively. A centrosymmetric tiling, locally dual to the Rauzy tiling, is constructed for the first time and its parameterization is developed.

  5. Reappraisal of flow to tile drains III. Drains with limited flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; Rushton, K. R.

    1996-09-01

    This third paper of the series on the reappraisal of flow to tile drains considers the time-variant situations in tile drain drainage systems when the quantity of water carried by tile drains is limited due to the capacity of the drains or the pumping equipment. Two categories of problem are analysed in this paper: (i) a series of parallel tile drains with a maximum specified flow and (ii) interceptor drains in the vicinity of canals. Complete details for satisfying the maximum specified flow conditions in tile drains are given. The effect of different capacities of tile drains on the performance of drainage system is explored.

  6. Multitracer Study of Flow to Tile Drains in Irrigated Macroporous Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. M.; Callaghan, M. V.; Cey, E.; Bentley, L. R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple tracer experiments have been conducted to test the effectiveness of using irrigation along with a tile drain system for salt remediation in west central Alberta, Canada. The experiments were designed to characterize the shallow flow system as part of a salt flushing pilot study and to determine the role of macroporosity in groundwater flow and transport. Soils at the site are primarily silty glaciolacustrine material underlain by a relatively impermeable till layer at approximately 2.5 m below ground surface. A 20 m by 20 m infiltration test plot is underlain by two tile drains at 2 m depth that are separated by 10 m. The test plot contains a drip irrigation system and has been irrigated regularly in the summer months over the past three seasons (2008-2010). Two reportedly conservative tracers, 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid [2,6-DFBA] and pentafluorobenzoic acid [PFBA], have been used on the plot and the pre-existing soil salinity was also used as a tracer. In August of 2009 a 2,6-DFBA solution (865g/L) was applied to the surface of the plot. Irrigation of the study plot continued after tracer application on a schedule that averaged roughly 12mm/day, applied 3 days a week. During the 2010 field season, a PFBA solution (at 4.2 g/L) was injected into two separate monitoring wells. One monitoring well is situated 0.5 m directly above the north tile drain (in which samples were collected regularly). The other well is situated at 2 m depth in the center of the study plot and samples were collected from a down gradient well. Tracer concentrations in the subsurface were monitored through sampling of tile drain effluent and monitoring wells in and around the plot, in addition to soil core extractions taken at several locations within the test plot at the end of the 2009 field season. Initial breakthrough of the DFBA in the tile drains occurred 24 hours after application and remained in all subsequent water samples at concentrations of 2 to 6 mg/L. Results from the DFBA

  7. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  8. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss. PMID:27332841

  9. Microwave versus conventional sintering of silicon carbide tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Forrester, S.C.; Akerman, A.

    1997-05-07

    Silicon carbide is being evaluated as an armor material because of its lightweight, high-hardness, and excellent armor efficiency. However, one of the problems associated with silicon carbide is the high cost associated with achieving fully dense tiles. Full density requires either hot pressing and sintering or reaction bonding. Past efforts have shown that hot pressed tiles have a higher armor efficiency than those produced by reaction bonded sintering. An earlier stuy showed that the acoustic properties of fully-dense silicon carbide tiles were enhanced through the use of post-sintered microwave heat treatments. One of the least expensive forming techniques is to isostatically press-and-sinter. In this study, the authors have used microwave energy to densify silicon carbide green bodies. Microwave sintering has been demonstrated to be a very quick way to sinter ceramics such as alumina to exceptionally high densities. Previous work has shown that microwave post treatment of fully-dense reaction bonded silicon carbide tiles significantly improves the acoustic properties of the tiles. These properties include Poisson`s ratio, Young`s modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus.

  10. Interlaced Particle Systems and Tilings of the Aztec Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Benjamin J.; Forrester, Peter J.

    2011-02-01

    Motivated by the problem of domino tilings of the Aztec diamond, a weighted particle system is defined on N lines, with line j containing j particles. The particles are restricted to lattice points from 0 to N, and particles on successive lines are subject to an interlacing constraint. It is shown that this particle system is exactly solvable, to the extent that not only can the partition function be computed exactly, but so too can the marginal distributions. These results in turn are used to give new derivations within the particle picture of a number of known fundamental properties of the tiling problem, for example that the number of distinct configurations is 2 N( N+1)/2, and that there is a limit to the GUE minor process, which we show at the level of the joint PDFs. It is shown too that the study of tilings of the half Aztec diamond—not known from earlier literature—also leads to an interlaced particle system, now with successive lines 2 n-1 and 2 n ( n=1,…, N/2-1) having n particles. Its exact solution allows for an analysis of the half Aztec diamond tilings analogous to that given for the Aztec diamond tilings.

  11. Analysis of Thick Sandwich Shells with Embedded Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Smith, C.; Lumban-Tobing, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) is an advanced technology demonstrator of an all-composite ground combat vehicle. The CAV upper hull is made of a tough light-weight S2-glass/epoxy laminate with embedded ceramic tiles that serve as armor. The tiles are bonded to a rubber mat with a carefully selected, highly viscoelastic adhesive. The integration of armor and structure offers an efficient combination of ballistic protection and structural performance. The analysis of this anisotropic construction, with its inherent discontinuous and periodic nature, however, poses several challenges. The present paper describes a shell-based 'element-layering' technique that properly accounts for these effects and for the concentrated transverse shear flexibility in the rubber mat. One of the most important advantages of the element-layering technique over advanced higher-order elements is that it is based on conventional elements. This advantage allows the models to be portable to other structural analysis codes, a prerequisite in a program that involves the computational facilities of several manufacturers and government laboratories. The element-layering technique was implemented into an auto-layering program that automatically transforms a conventional shell model into a multi-layered model. The effects of tile layer homogenization, tile placement patterns, and tile gap size on the analysis results are described.

  12. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, A.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; González, V.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Sanchís, E.; Solans, C.; Torres, J.; Valls, J. A.

    2011-02-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  13. Calibration of the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, Djamel; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The TileCal provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by means of wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read by two PMTs. A brief description of the individual calibration systems (Cs radioactive source, laser, charge injection, minimum bias) is provided. Their combination allows to calibrate each part of the data acquisition chain (optical part, photomultiplier, readout electronics) and to monitor its stability to better than 1%. The procedure for setting and preserving the electromagnetic energy scale during Run 1 data taking is discussed. The issues of linearity and stability of the response, as well as the timing adjustment are also shown.

  14. The ATLAS tile calorimeter performance at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented here assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The ensemble of the results demonstrates a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is proved to be well within the design expectations. (authors)

  15. Spectroscopic study of energetic helium-ion irradiation effects on nuclear graphite tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Wan; Lee, K. W.; Choi, D. M.; Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2016-02-01

    Helium ion-irradiation effects on the nuclear graphite tiles were studied in order to understand the structural modifications and damages that can be produced by fusion reaction in tokamaks. The surface morphological changes due to increasing dose of the irradiation were examined by the field-effect scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy elucidated the changes in the shallow surface bonding configurations caused by the energetic irradiation. Raman spectroscopy revealed the structural defects and diamond-like carbon sites that increased with increasing irradiation dose, and the average inter-defect distance was found from the Raman peak intensities as a function of the irradiation dose.

  16. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles. PMID:16540298

  17. Identification of Low PT Muon with the Atlas Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, G.

    2005-02-01

    A method for the identification of muons with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented and its efficiency and mis-tagging fraction are discussed. It is demonstrated that the Tile Calorimeter can identify muons with good efficiency down to 2 GeV/c transverse momentum, where the stand-alone Muon Spectrometer has zero efficiency. This kinematic region is important for study of B meson physics and in the particular for the CP violating decay channels. The effectiveness of this method is tested, in particular, in the case of bbar {b} events at low LHC luminosity (1033cm-1s-2) with full simulation of experimental conditions. The muon identification with the Tile Calorimeter is fast and can be used for muon selection at the trigger level. A method of exploiting the information available in other ATLAS sub-detectors in order to reduce spurious muon-tag and measure the candidate muon momentum is discussed.

  18. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  19. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  20. Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Khan, Izhar U H; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Lapen, David R

    2015-11-01

    This work investigated chlortetracycline, tylosin, and tetracycline (plus transformation products), and DNA-based quantitative Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tetracycline antibiotic resistant genes (tet(O)) in tile drainage, groundwater, and soil before and following a liquid swine manure (LSM) application on clay loam plots under controlled (CD) and free (FD) tile drainage. Chlortetracycline/tetracycline was strongly bound to manure solids while tylosin dominated in the liquid portion of manure. The chlortetracycline transformation product isochlortetracycline was the most persistent analyte in water. Rhodamine WT (RWT) tracer was mixed with manure and monitored in tile and groundwater. RWT and veterinary antibiotic (VA) concentrations were strongly correlated in water which supported the use of RWT as a surrogate tracer. While CD reduced tile discharge and eliminated application-induced VA movement (via tile) to surface water, total VA mass loading to surface water was not affected by CD. At both CD and FD test plots, the biggest 'flush' of VA mass and highest VA concentrations occurred in response to precipitation received 2d after application, which strongly influenced the flow abatement capacity of CD on account of highly elevated water levels in field initiating overflow drainage for CD systems (when water level <0.3m below surface). VA concentrations in tile and groundwater became very low within 10d following application. Both Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) genes were present in groundwater and soil prior to application, and increased thereafter. Unlike the VA compounds, Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) gene loadings in tile drainage were reduced by CD, in relation to FD. PMID:26065824

  1. Thermal contact conductance measurements on Doublet III armor tile graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, D.W.; Reis, E.

    1983-12-01

    Several tests were performed on the Doublet III wall armor tiles to determine the cool-down rate and to evaluate improvements made by changing the conditions at the interface between the graphite tile and the stainless steel backing plate. Thermal diffusivity tests were performed in vacuum on both TiC coated and bare graphite tiles with and without 0.13 mm (.005'') thick silver foil at the interface. The results of the armor tile cool-down tests showed improvement when a 0.13 mm (0.005'') silver foil is used at the interface. At 2.1 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (30 psi) contact pressure, the e-folding cool-down times for a TiC coated tile, bare graphite and bare graphite with a 0.06 mm (0.0035'') silver shim were 10 min., 5.0 min., and 4.1 min., respectively. Tests using high contact pressures showed that the cool-down rates converged to approx. 4.0 min. At this limit, the conduction path along the backing plate to the two cooling tubes controls the heat flow, and no further improvement could be expected. Thermal diffusivity measurements confirmed the results of the cool-down test showing that by introducing a silver foil at the interface, the contact conductance between Poco AXF-5Q graphite and 316 stainless steel could be improved by a factor of three to eight. The tests showed an increasing improvement over a range of temperatures from 25/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C. The data provides a technical basis for further applications of graphite tiles to cooled backing plates.

  2. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  3. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  4. Comparative study of WLS fibres for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A.; David, M.; Henriques, A.; Maio, A.

    1998-02-01

    The Wave Length Shifting (WLS) fibres are one of the most important components of the ATLAS barrel hadronic tile calorimeter (Tilecal). The fibres collect the hght produced in the injection molded scintillating tiles and transport it to the photomultipliers. Parameters like attenuation length and light yield are important, as well as flexibility and radiation hardness. Comparative results of WLS fibres produced by Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech are presented. The performance of the fibres BCF91A from Bicron and S048 from Pol.Hi.Tech was significatively improved, but the most performant are still the double clad Y11 fibres from Kuraray.

  5. Comparative study of WLS fibres for the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A.; David, M.; Henriques, A.; Maio, A.

    1997-02-01

    The Wave Length Shifting (WLS) fibres are one of the most important components of the ATLAS barrel hadronic tile calorimeter (Tilecal). The fibres collect the light produced in the injection molded scintillating tiles and transport it to the photomultipliers. Parameters like attenuation length and light yield are important, as well as flexibility and radiation hardness. Comparative results of WLS fibres produced by Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech are presented. The performance of the fibres BCF91A from Bicron and S048 from Pol.Hi.Tech was significatively improved, but the most performant are still the double clad Y11 fibres from Kuraray.

  6. Cesium monitoring system for ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starchenko, E.; Blanchot, G.; Bosman, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kopikov, S.; Miagkov, A.; Nessi, M.; Shalimov, A.; Shalanda, N.; Soldatov, M.; Solodkov, A.; Soloviev, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Zaitsev, A.

    2002-11-01

    A system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter (TileCal) is under construction at CERN Laboratory. A movable radioactive source driven by a liquid flow travels through the calorimeter body deposing a known energy to the calorimeter cells. Extensive R&D studies have been carried out and the main system parameters are evaluated. The prototypes are currently used for quality check and inter-calibration of the TileCal modules. A distributed control system, hardware as well as corresponding on-line and off-line software is developed.

  7. High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight simulators. It serves Web Map Service (WMS) requests that comply with a given request grid from an existing tile dataset. It also generates the KML super-overlay configuration files required to access the WMS image tiles.

  8. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  9. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  10. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    PubMed

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. PMID:26024280

  11. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2003-01-01

    Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA-wide investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. Our team was to apply rigorous, physics-based analysis techniques to help determine parameters of interest for an experimental test program, utilize validated codes to investigate the full range of impact scenarios, and use analysis derived models to predict aero-thermal-structural responses to entry conditions. We were to operate on a non-interference basis with the j Team, and were to supply significant findings to that team and to the Orbiter Vehicle Engineering Working Group, being responsive to any solicitations for support from these entities. The authors formed a working sub-group within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the LI-900 TPS tiles and of the BX-250 foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working sub-groups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three- dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the densified lower layer of LI-900 insulation, the Nomex felt Strain Isolation Pad (SIP) mounting layer, and the underlying aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger ET foam projectiles on the TPS tile systems used

  12. Topological Invariants and CW Complexes of Cartesian Product and Hexagonal Tiling Paces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Juan García

    2011-09-01

    The cohomology of a class of cartesian product tiling spaces in N dimensions when the inflation factor is a Pisot-Vijayaraghavan unit is analyzed. A CW complex for an hexagonal tiling space is defined in terms of collared tiles for the study of its topological invariants.

  13. A scintillating tile/fiber system for the CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aota, S.; Asakawa, T.; Hara, K.; Hayashi, E.; Kim, S.; Kondo, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Miyashita, S.; Nakada, H.; Nakano, I.; Seiya, Y.; Takikawa, K.; Toyoda, H.; Uchida, T.; Yasuoka, K.; Mishina, M.; Iwai, J.; Albrow, M.; Freeman, J.; Limon, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    The plug calorimeter of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) [1] will be upgraded, replacing the existing gas calorimeter by a scintillating tile/fiber calorimeter. We have completed R&D for the CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter. We describe the results of the R&D leading to the final design of the tile/fiber system for the calorimeter. Kuraray SCSN38, Kuraray Y11 and PET film (E65) were chosen as materials for scintillating tiles, wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers and a surface reflector on tiles, respectively, in view of obtaining large light yield and uniform response from a tile/fiber system. We decided fiber groove path in a tile, groove cross-sectional shape and groove depth for each tile to get uniform response from a tile/fiber. For the tile/fiber system of the final design, the average light yield was larger than 3.0 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle (MIP), the response uniformity in a tile was less than 2.5% and a total cross talk from a tile to the adjacent tiles was less than 2.0%. These results satisfied our requirements.

  14. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  15. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile...

  16. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile...

  17. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

    1995-01-01

    This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

  18. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

    1995-05-01

    This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

  19. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  20. REACTOR CANAL AFTER IT HAS BEEN TILED. WATER FILLS CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR CANAL AFTER IT HAS BEEN TILED. WATER FILLS CANAL PART WAY TO TOP. CAMERA FACES WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3993-A. Unknown Photographer, 12/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  2. Kinetics of the clay roofing tile convection drying

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S. . Faculty of Food Technology); Skansi, D. . Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology); Sokele, M. . Telecommunications Center)

    1993-01-01

    Kinetics of the convection drying process of flat tile has been investigated experimentally in an industrial tunnel dryer. Several velocities of wet tile movement through the dryer were tested to obtain maximum allowable drying rate curve. As there are various models to describe the kinetics of convection drying, finding a model that would fairly well approximate the kinetics of the whole drying process was part of the research. Especially the polynomial and exponential models were tested. It was found that exponential model of the type: B(t) = (a[minus]B[sub e])[center dot]EXP([minus]bt[sup 2])+B[sub e], ([minus]dB(t)/dt) = 2bt(B(t)[minus]B[sub e]) significantly correlates the kinetics of the whole tile drying process. Applying the maximum allowable drying rate curve obtained for flat tile in the first period of drying, a grapho-analytic model for the optimal conducting of the process has been developed.

  3. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. mplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at RH...

  4. A design rationale for NASA TileWorld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Drummond, Mark E.; Bresina, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Automated systems that can operate in unrestricted real-world domains are still well beyond current computational capabilities. This paper argues that isolating essential problem characteristics found in real-world domains allows for a careful study of how particular control systems operate. By isolating essential problem characteristics and studying their impact on autonomous system performance, we should be able to more quickly deliver systems for practical real-world problems. For our research on planning, scheduling, and control, we have selected three particular domain attributes to study: exogenous events, uncertain action outcome, and metric time. We are not suggesting that studies of these attributes in isolation are sufficient to guarantee the obvious goals of good methodology, brilliant architectures, or first-class results; however, we are suggesting that such isolation facilitates the achievement of these goals. To study these attributes, we have developed the NASA TileWorld. We describe the NASA TileWorld simulator in general terms, present an example NASA TileWorld problem, and discuss some of our motivations and concerns for NASA TileWorld.

  5. A novel surface defect inspection algorithm for magnetic tile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luofeng; Lin, Lijun; Yin, Ming; Meng, Lintao; Yin, Guofu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a defect extraction method for magnetic tile images based on the shearlet transform. The shearlet transform is a method of multi-scale geometric analysis. Compared with similar methods, the shearlet transform offers higher directional sensitivity and this is useful to accurately extract geometric characteristics from data. In general, a magnetic tile image captured by CCD camera mainly consists of target area, background. Our strategy for extracting the surface defects of magnetic tile comprises two steps: image preprocessing and defect extraction. Both steps are critical. After preprocessing the image, we extract the target area. Due to the low contrast in the magnetic tile image, we apply the discrete shearlet transform to enhance the contrast between the defect area and the normal area. Next, we apply a threshold method to generate a binary image. To validate our algorithm, we compare our experimental results with Otsu method, the curvelet transform and the nonsubsampled contourlet transform. Results show that our algorithm outperforms the other methods considered and can very effectively extract defects.

  6. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  7. Increasing the frost resistance of facade glazed tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, V.M.; Zotov, S.N.; Romanova, G.P.

    1986-09-01

    The authors investigate the protective properties of a coating of boron oxides and zirconium oxides applied as a glaze to ceramic tiles by conducting a series of tests to determine the frost resistance, the propensity to absorb water, the moisture expansion coefficient, the fracture behavior, and the effect of thermal cycling on the oxides. Results are graphed and tabulated.

  8. Water Quality from Grass-Based Dairy Farm Tile Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface water quality from agricultural systems varies with the type of system and management. Systems with high inputs from fertilizer and/or manure may have high nutrient levels, e.g. NO3-N, in subsurface water. This study investigates the water quality from tile lines on grass-based dairy fa...

  9. Tiled architecture of a CNN-mostly IP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaanenburg, Lambert; Malki, Suleyman

    2009-05-01

    Multi-core architectures have been popularized with the advent of the IBM CELL. On a finer grain the problems in scheduling multi-cores have already existed in the tiled architectures, such as the EPIC and Da Vinci. It is not easy to evaluate the performance of a schedule on such architecture as historical data are not available. One solution is to compile algorithms for which an optimal schedule is known by analysis. A typical example is an algorithm that is already defined in terms of many collaborating simple nodes, such as a Cellular Neural Network (CNN). A simple node with a local register stack together with a 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism has been proposed. Though the basic CNN allows for a tiled implementation of a tiled algorithm on a tiled structure, a practical CNN system will have to disturb this regularity by the additional need for arithmetical and logical operations. Arithmetic operations are needed for instance to accommodate for low-level image processing, while logical operations are needed to fork and merge different data streams without use of the external memory. It is found that the 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism still handles such mechanisms without the need for global control. Overall the CNN system provides for a practical network size as implemented on a FPGA, can be easily used as embedded IP and provides a clear benchmark for a multi-core compiler.

  10. Direct readout of gaseous detectors with tiled CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visschers, J. L.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; van der Graaf, H.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Timmermans, J.

    2007-03-01

    A coordinated design effort is underway, exploring the three-dimensional direct readout of gaseous detectors by an anode plate equipped with a tiled array of many CMOS pixel readout ASICs, having amplification grids integrated on their topsides and being contacted on their backside.

  11. Heat as a Tracer for Estimation of Soil Drainage Following Irrigation Above a Tile Drain System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, M. V.; Bentley, L. R.; Cey, E. E.

    2009-05-01

    Salt-affected soil is one of the most common environmental issues facing the petroleum hydrocarbon industry. Large quantities of brines are often co-produced with gas and oil and have been introduced into the environment through, for example, flare pits, drilling operations and pipe line breaks. Salt must be flushed from the soil and tile drain systems can be used to collect salt water which is then be routed for disposal. An accelerated remediation experiment by soil flushing over a 2 m deep tile drain system was monitored by tensiometers, and thermocouples. Water table elevation was monitored with pressure transducers. A 20 m by 20 m experimental plot was irrigated with 10 m3 of water on each of three consecutive days for an approximate total of 75 mm of water. The irrigation event was repeated three times over a period of 4 weeks. Due to a lack of access to the individual tile drains, direct measurement of drainage rates was not possible. One component of evaluating the success of the accelerated remediation experiment is the fraction of applied irrigation water that infiltrated to depth. Drainage rates beneath the irrigated plot were estimated by heat transport modeling using HYDRUS-1D, a numerical code for the solution of Richards unsaturated flow equation and the heat equation. Temperature and soil matric potential time series were recorded beneath the irrigated plot and at a control location at four depths, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 m, at 15 minute intervals. Data was recorded for the duration of the irrigation period and for 8 weeks following. The temperature time series beneath the irrigated plot shows a broad increase relative to the control and shorter duration increases in direct response to the irrigation events. Heat modelling results are compared to field measurements.

  12. Fixed tile rate codec for bandwidth saving in video processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dinh, Chon-Tam Le; Le, Dinh Kha; Wong, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an image compression circuit for bandwidth saving in video display processors. This is intra frame tile based compression algorithm offering visually lossless quality for compression rates between 1.5 and 2.5. RGB and YCbCr (4:4:4, 4:2:2 and 4:2:0) video formats are supported for 8/10 bits video signals. The Band Width Compressor (BWC) consists of Lossless Compressor (LC) and Quantization Compressor (QC) that generate output bit streams for tiles of pixels. Size of output bit stream generated for a tile by the LC may be less or greater than a required size of output memory block. The QC generates bit stream that always fits output memory block of the required size. The output bit stream generated by the LC is transmitted if its size is less than the required size of the output memory block. Otherwise, the output bit stream generated by the QC is transmitted. The LC works on pixel basis. A difference between original and predicted pixel's values for each pixel of a tile is encoded as prefix and suffix. The prefix is encoded by means of variable length code, and suffix is encoded as is. The QC divides a tile of pixels on a set of blocks and quantizes pixels of each block independently of the other blocks. The number of quantization bits for all pixels of a block depends on standard deviation calculated over the block. A difference between pixel's value and average value over the block is quantized and transmitted.

  13. Substructure procedure for including tile flexibility in stress analysis of shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A substructure procedure to include the flexibility of the tile in the stress analysis of the shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is described. In this procedure, the TPS is divided into substructures of (1) the tile which is modeled by linear finite elements and (2) the SIP which is modeled as a nonlinear continuum. This procedure was applied for loading cases of uniform pressure, uniform moment, and an aerodynamic shock on various tile thicknesses. The ratios of through-the-thickness stresses in the SIP which were calculated using a flexible tile compared to using a rigid tile were found to be less than 1.05 for the cases considered.

  14. Evaluation of the Hooghoudt and Kirkham tile drain equations in SWAT to simulate tile flow and nitrate-nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drains in agricultural systems of Midwest U.S. are a major contributor of nitrate-N (NO3-N) loadings to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. Existing soil moisture retention parameter computation algorithm in the widely used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is known t...

  15. Tile-in-ONE An integrated framework for the data quality assessment and database management for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, R.; Solans, C.; Sivolella, A.; Ferreira, F.; Maidantchik, C.

    2014-06-01

    In order to ensure the proper operation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter and assess the quality of data, many tasks are performed by means of several tools which have been developed independently. The features are displayed into standard dashboards, dedicated to each working group, covering different areas, such as Data Quality and Calibration.

  16. Design and assessment of a wide FOV and high-resolution optical tiled head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Song, Weitao; Cheng, Dewen; Deng, Zhaoyang; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-10-01

    It has always been a challenge to break the resolution/field-of-view (FOV) invariant to design a large FOV and high-resolution optical system, especially for a head-mounted display (HMD) system. In this study, a tiled HMD using two compact rotationally symmetrical eyepieces was designed and developed. Some issues on exit pupil and eye relief were analyzed in detail and taken into consideration during the design procedure. The overall optical system is compact with high performance. The system volume is smaller than 30  mm×35  mm×30  mm. Based on two 0.61 in. microdisplay devices, the overall tiled system demonstrates an FOV of 66°(H)×32°(V) with a 7.5 mm exit pupil diameter and a 15.7 mm eye relief. PMID:26479645

  17. Inferring the interconnections between surface water bodies, tile-drains and an unconfined aquifer-aquitard system: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Di Giuseppe, D.; Faccini, B.; Ferretti, G.; Mastrocicco, M.; Coltorti, M.

    2016-06-01

    Shallow lenses in reclaimed coastal areas are precious sources of freshwater for crop development, but their seasonal behaviour is seldom known in tile-drained fields. In this study, field monitoring and numerical modelling provide a robust conceptual model of these complex environments. Crop and meteorological data are used to implement an unsaturated flow model to reconstruct daily recharge. Groundwater fluxes and salinity, water table elevation, tile-drains' discharge and salinity are used to calibrate a 2D density-dependent numerical model to quantify non-reactive solute transport within the aquifer-aquitard system. Results suggest that lateral fluxes in low hydraulic conductivity sediments are limited, while water table fluctuation is significant. The use of depth-integrated monitoring to calibrate the model results in poor efficiency, while multi-level soil profiles are crucial to define the mixing zone between fresh and brackish groundwater. Measured fluxes and chloride concentrations from tile-drains not fully compare with calculated ones due to preferential flow through cracks.

  18. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam and Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and its protective acreage heat tiles. Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing millimeter wave images of the anomalies in SOFI panel and heat tiles. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in two SOFI panels and a set of heat tiles. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The results clearly illustrate the utility of these methods for this purpose.

  19. Analytical solutions for two-dimensional groundwater flow with subsurface drainage tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiuyu; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith E.

    2015-02-01

    The tile drainage problem in an unconfined aquifer was investigated. A mathematical model was established that describes two-dimensional groundwater flow in an unconfined aquifer near a river with a linearized Boussinesq equation, time-dependent sources and a sloped tile. Analytical solutions for groundwater level and discharge were derived and used to compare hydrologic conditions in a system with and without tile (natural drainage). We found that the spatial and temporal variations of groundwater level and discharge were significantly altered by the presence of drainage tile. In an aquifer with tile drainage, the groundwater level was lower and total groundwater discharge to the river increased compared to an aquifer with no tile. Application of the solutions to a synthetic case demonstrates that the analytical solutions derived can be used to quantify effect of tiles on nitrate loads in the baseflow of a river and assess the effectiveness of various conservation practices.

  20. Life considerations of the shuttle orbiter densified-tile thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Sawyer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle orbiter themal protection system (TPS) incorporates ceramic reusable surface insulation tiles bonded to the orbiter substructure through a strain isolation pad. Densification of the bonding surface of the tiles increases the static strength of the tiles. The densification proces does not, however, necessarily lead to an equivalent increase in fatigue strength. Investigation of the expected lifetime of densified tile TPS under both sinusoidal loading and random loading simulating flight conditions indicates that the strain isolation pads are the weakest components of the TPS under fatigue loading. The felt pads loosen under repetitive loading and, in highly loaded regions, could possibly cause excessive step heights between tiles causing burning of the protective insulation between tiles. A method of improving the operational lifetime of the TPS by using a strain isolation pad with increased stiffness is presented as is the consequence of the effect of increased stiffness on the tile inplane strains and transverse stresses.

  1. Towards Optimal Filtering on ARM for ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Mitchell A.

    2015-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN generates enormous amounts of raw data which presents a serious computing challenge. After planned upgrades in 2022, the data output from the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will increase by 200 times to over 40 Tb/s. Advanced and characteristically expensive Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are currently used to process this quantity of data. It is proposed that a cost- effective, high data throughput Processing Unit (PU) can be developed by using several ARM System on Chips in a cluster configuration to allow aggregated processing performance and data throughput while maintaining minimal software design difficulty for the end-user. ARM is a cost effective and energy efficient alternative CPU architecture to the long established x86 architecture. This PU could be used for a variety of high-level algorithms on the high data throughput raw data. An Optimal Filtering algorithm has been implemented in C++ and several ARM platforms have been tested. Optimal Filtering is currently used in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end for basic energy reconstruction and is currently implemented on DSPs.

  2. Large-scale testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-03-18

    A summary of large-scale cyclic static tests of structural clay tile infilled frames is given. In-plane racking tests examined the effects of varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Sequential in-plane and out-of-plane loadings were performed to determine the effects of orthogonal damage and degradation on both strength and stiffness. A combined out-of-plane inertial and in-plane racking test was conducted to investigate the interaction of multi-directional loading. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  3. Inspection of magnetic tile internal cracks based on impact acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luofeng; Huang, Qinyuan; Zhao, Yue; Yin, Guofu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic system is developed for internal cracks detection in magnetic tiles based on the impact acoustics, using wavelet packet transform (WPT), principal component analysis (PCA) and hidden Markov model (HMM). In this system, the detecting device is considered as core part to collect and analyse the impact sounds. The original impact sounds are first decomposed up to six levels based on WPT to extract the features. PCA is then performed for dimension reduction and clustering analysis. By adopting the features extracted based on WPT and optimised by PCA as inputs, an HHM classifier is developed for automatic inspection. The results of classification show that the accuracy rate is 100%, demonstrating that the system has significant potential in detecting magnetic tile internal cracks.

  4. Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data acquisition systems. This paper describes the detailed simulation of this large scale calorimeter from the implementation of the geometrical elements down to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, the special noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Recently improved description of the optical and electronic signal propagation is highlighted and the validation with the real particle data is presented.

  5. An integrated approach for assessing the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles to phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M L; Miller, A Z; Rogerio-Candelera, M A; Mirão, J; Cerqueira Alves, L; Veiga, J P; Águas, H; Pereira, S; Lyubchyk, A; Macedo, M F

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-based methodology was designed to assess the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles. The experimental set-up consisted of multiple steps: manufacturing of pristine and artificially aged glazed tiles, enrichment of phototrophic microorganisms, inoculation of phototrophs on glazed tiles, incubation under optimal conditions and quantification of biomass. In addition, tile intrinsic properties were assessed to determine which material properties contributed to tile bioreceptivity. Biofilm growth and biomass were appraised by digital image analysis, colorimetry and chlorophyll a analysis. SEM, micro-Raman and micro-particle induced X-ray emission analyses were carried out to investigate the biodeteriorating potential of phototrophic microorganisms on the glazed tiles. This practical and multidisciplinary approach showed that the accelerated colonization conditions allowed different types of tile bioreceptivity to be distinguished and to be related to precise characteristics of the material. Aged tiles showed higher bioreceptivity than pristine tiles due to their higher capillarity and permeability. Moreover, biophysical deterioration caused by chasmoendolithic growth was observed on colonized tile surfaces. PMID:26900634

  6. Dual Poisson-Disk Tiling: an efficient method for distributing features on arbitrary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Lo, Kui-Yip; Leung, Man-Kang; Fu, Chi-Wing

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel surface-modeling method to stochastically distribute features on arbitrary topological surfaces. The generated distribution of features follows the Poisson disk distribution, so we can have a minimum separation guarantee between features and avoid feature overlap. With the proposed method, we not only can interactively adjust and edit features with the help of the proposed Poisson disk map, but can also efficiently re-distribute features on object surfaces. The underlying mechanism is our dual tiling scheme, known as the Dual Poisson-Disk Tiling. First, we compute the dual of a given surface parameterization, and tile the dual surface by our specially-designed dual tiles; during the pre-processing, the Poisson disk distribution has been pre-generated on these tiles. By dual tiling, we can nicely avoid the problem of corner heterogeneity when tiling arbitrary parameterized surfaces, and can also reduce the tile set complexity. Furthermore, the dual tiling scheme is non-periodic, and we can also maintain a manageable tile set. To demonstrate the applicability of this technique, we explore a number of surface-modeling applications: pattern and shape distribution, bump-mapping, illustrative rendering, mold simulation, the modeling of separable features in texture and BTF, and the distribution of geometric textures in shell space. PMID:18599912

  7. DNA triangles and self-assembled hexagonal tilings.

    PubMed

    Chelyapov, Nickolas; Brun, Yuriy; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Reishus, Dustin; Shaw, Bilal; Adleman, Leonard

    2004-11-01

    We have designed and constructed DNA complexes in the form of triangles. We have created hexagonal planar tilings from these triangles via self-assembly. Unlike previously reported structures self-assembled from DNA, our structures appear to involve bending of double helices. Bending helices may be a useful design option in the creation of self-assembled DNA structures. It has been suggested that DNA self-assembly may lead to novel materials and efficient computational devices. PMID:15506744

  8. A hollow clay tile wall seismic performance program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Jones, W.D.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1992-02-25

    An overview of a multiyear hollow clay tile wall (HCTW) program being conducted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, for the US Department of Energy is presented. The purpose of the HCTW program is to determine the load capacity of unreinforced infilled HCTW buildings when subjected to earthquakes. Progress to date tends to indicate that extensive retrofit of such structures may not be warranted in low-to-moderate seismic zones.

  9. Towards a DNA Nanoprocessor: Reusable Tile-Integrated DNA Circuits.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2016-08-22

    Modern electronic microprocessors use semiconductor logic gates organized on a silicon chip to enable efficient inter-gate communication. Here, arrays of communicating DNA logic gates integrated on a single DNA tile were designed and used to process nucleic acid inputs in a reusable format. Our results lay the foundation for the development of a DNA nanoprocessor, a small and biocompatible device capable of performing complex analyses of DNA and RNA inputs. PMID:27430161

  10. The geometry of the 37-tile microwave antenna support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The geometry of the support structure for a proposed parabolic shaped microwave antenna is examined. The surface of the antenna is comprised of 37 hexagonal shaped tiles, each connected to a truss module. The units are joined together to form a rigidized, faceted, concave parabolic surface. The geometry specifications are described through an explanation of the structural components which make up the antenna, a description of the coordinate system devised to identify the structure, and a presentation of the nondimensional results.

  11. An Automated Approach to Agricultural Tile Drain Detection and Extraction Utilizing High Resolution Aerial Imagery and Object-Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Richard A.

    Subsurface drainage from agricultural fields in the Maumee River watershed is suspected to adversely impact the water quality and contribute to the formation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie. In early August of 2014, a HAB developed in the western Lake Erie Basin that resulted in over 400,000 people being unable to drink their tap water due to the presence of a toxin from the bloom. HAB development in Lake Erie is aided by excess nutrients from agricultural fields, which are transported through subsurface tile and enter the watershed. Compounding the issue within the Maumee watershed, the trend within the watershed has been to increase the installation of tile drains in both total extent and density. Due to the immense area of drained fields, there is a need to establish an accurate and effective technique to monitor subsurface farmland tile installations and their associated impacts. This thesis aimed at developing an automated method in order to identify subsurface tile locations from high resolution aerial imagery by applying an object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach utilizing eCognition. This process was accomplished through a set of algorithms and image filters, which segment and classify image objects by their spectral and geometric characteristics. The algorithms utilized were based on the relative location of image objects and pixels, in order to maximize the robustness and transferability of the final rule-set. These algorithms were coupled with convolution and histogram image filters to generate results for a 10km2 study area located within Clay Township in Ottawa County, Ohio. The eCognition results were compared to previously collected tile locations from an associated project that applied heads-up digitizing of aerial photography to map field tile. The heads-up digitized locations were used as a baseline for the accuracy assessment. The accuracy assessment generated a range of agreement values from 67.20% - 71.20%, and an average

  12. Effects of thermal blooming on systems comprised of tiled subapertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakeas, Charles L.; Bartell, Richard J.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Whiteley, Matthew R.

    2010-04-01

    Laser weapon systems comprise of tiled subapertures are rapidly emerging in the directed energy community. The Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT/CDE), under sponsorship of the HEL Joint Technology Office has developed performance models of such laser weapon system configurations consisting of tiled arrays of both slab and fiber subapertures. These performance models are based on results of detailed waveoptics analyses conducted using WaveTrain. Previous performance model versions developed in this effort represent system characteristics such as subaperture shape, aperture fill factor, subaperture intensity profile, subaperture placement in the primary aperture, subaperture mutual coherence (piston), subaperture differential jitter (tilt), and beam quality wave-front error associated with each subaperture. The current work is a prerequisite for the development of robust performance models for turbulence and thermal blooming effects for tiled systems. Emphasis is placed on low altitude tactical scenarios. The enhanced performance model developed will be added to AFIT/CDE's HELEEOS parametric one-on-one engagement level model via the Scaling for High Energy Laser and Relay Engagement (SHaRE) toolbox.

  13. Orion EFT-1 Catalytic Tile Experiment Overview and Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and results of a surface catalysis flight experiment flown on the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). Similar to previous Space Shuttle catalytic tile experiments, the present test consisted of a highly catalytic coating applied to an instrumented TPS tile. However, the present catalytic tile experiment contained significantly more instrumentation in order to better resolve the heating overshoot caused by the change in surface catalytic efficiency at the interface between two distinct materials. In addition to collecting data with unprecedented spatial resolution of the "overshoot" phenomenon, the experiment was also designed to prove if such a catalytic overshoot would be seen in turbulent flow in high enthalpy regimes. A detailed discussion of the results obtained during EFT1 is presented, as well as the challenges associated with data interpretation of this experiment. Results of material testing carried out in support of this flight experiment are also shown. Finally, an inverse heat conduction technique is employed to reconstruct the flight environments at locations upstream and along the catalytic coating. The data and analysis presented in this work will greatly contribute to our understanding of the catalytic "overshoot" phenomenon, and have a significant impact on the design of future spacecraft.

  14. Biofilm formation on the surface of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Sessa, R; Di Pietro, M; Zamparelli, M; Schiavoni, G; Del Piano, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the formation of biofilm on the surface of ceramic tiles, widely present in public and private buildings, using six parallel flow chambers. Our flow system was conceived and made to compare biofilm results by parallel distributed rectangular tiles. The tiles, divided into two identical A and B sections, were placed within the flow chambers. Biofilm formation was performed after 72 h and was quantified by viable counts of bacteria. Average viable counts ranged from 1.1x10(7) to 7.3x10(7) cfu cm(-2) and from 1.1x10(7) to 5.8x10(7) cfu cm(-2) respectively for biofilm A and B sections. As statistical analysis does not show significant differences, we can conclude that biofilms obtained were so similar to each other that they confirmed the system reproducibility. Our next step will be to use our system to study Legionella pneumophila and to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial agents. PMID:11061629

  15. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  16. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils.

    PubMed

    Hruby, C E; Soupir, M L; Moorman, T B; Shelley, M; Kanwar, R S

    2016-04-15

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest United States. Tile-waters have the potential to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters. This 3-year study (2010-2012) was designed to evaluate the impacts of manure management and tillage practices on bacteria losses to drainage tiles under a wide range of field conditions. PM was applied annually in spring, prior to planting corn, at application rates ranging from 5 to 40 kg/ha to achieve target rates of 112 and 224 kg/ha nitrogen (PM1 and PM2). Control plots received no manure (PM0). Each treatment was replicated on three chisel-plowed (CP) plots and one no-till (NT) plot. Tile-water grab samples were collected weekly when tiles were flowing beginning 30 days before manure application to 100 days post application, and additional grab samples were obtained to target the full spectrum of flow conditions. Manure and tile-water samples were analyzed for the pathogen, Salmonella spp. (SALM), and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli (EC), and enterococci (ENT). All three bacterial genera were detected more frequently, and at significantly higher concentrations, in tile-waters draining NT plots compared to CP plots. Transport of bacteria to NT tiles was most likely facilitated by macropores, which were significantly more numerous above tiles in NT plots in 2012 as determined by smoke-testing. While post-manure samples contained higher concentrations of bacteria than pre-manure samples, significant differences were not seen between low (PM1) and high (PM2) rates of PM application. The highest concentrations were observed under the NT PM2 plot in 2010 (6.6 × 10(3) cfu/100 mL EC, 6.6 × 10(5) cfu/100 mL ENT, and 2.8 × 10(3) cfu/100 mL SALM). Individual and 30-day geometric mean ENT concentrations correlated more strongly to SALM than EC; however, SALM were present in samples with little or no FIB

  17. Coverage percentage and raman measurement of cross-tile and scaffold cross-tile based DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Ahn, Sang Jung; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Jang Ah; Amin, Rashid; Mitta, Sekhar Babu; Vellampatti, Srivithya; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Yun, Kyusik; LaBean, Thomas H; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-11-01

    We present two free-solution annealed DNA nanostructures consisting of either cross-tile CT1 or CT2. The proposed nanostructures exhibit two distinct structural morphologies, with one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes for CT1 and 2D nanolattices for CT2. When we perform mica-assisted growth annealing with CT1, a dramatic dimensional change occurs where the 1D nanotubes transform into 2D nanolattices due to the presence of the substrate. We assessed the coverage percentage of the 2D nanolattices grown on the mica substrate with CT1 and CT2 as a function of the concentration of the DNA monomer. Furthermore, we fabricated a scaffold cross-tile (SCT), which is a new design of a modified cross-tile that consists of four four-arm junctions with a square aspect ratio. For SCT, eight oligonucleotides are designed in such a way that adjacent strands with sticky ends can produce continuous arms in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The SCT was fabricated via free-solution annealing, and self-assembled SCT produces 2D nanolattices with periodic square cavities. All structures were observed via atomic force microscopy. Finally, we fabricated divalent nickel ion (Ni(2+))- and trivalent dysprosium ion (Dy(3+))-modified 2D nanolattices constructed with CT2 on a quartz substrate, and the ion coordinations were examined via Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26340356

  18. Filler bar heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Patten, A. B.; Hamilton, H. H., II

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to investigate the excessive heating in the tile to tile gaps of the Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System due to stepped tiles. The excessive heating was evidence by visible discoloration and charring of the filler bar and strain isolation pad that is used in the attachment of tiles to the aluminum substrate. Two tile locations on the Shuttle orbiter were considered, one on the lower surface of the fuselage and one on the lower surface of the wing. The gap heating analysis involved the calculation of external and internal gas pressures and temperatures, internal mass flow rates, and the transient thermal response of the thermal protection system. The results of the analysis are presented for the fuselage and wing location for several step heights. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot gas flow in the tile gaps are also presented.

  19. Generalized Penrose tiling as a quasilattice for decagonal quasicrystal structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Chodyn, Maciej; Kuczera, Pawel; Wolny, Janusz

    2015-03-01

    The generalized Penrose tiling is, in fact, an infinite set of decagonal tilings. It is constructed with the same rhombs (thick and thin) as the conventional Penrose tiling, but its long-range order depends on the so-called shift parameter (s ∈ 〈0; 1)). The structure factor is derived for the arbitrarily decorated generalized Penrose tiling within the average unit cell approach. The final formula works in physical space only and is directly dependent on the s parameter. It allows one to straightforwardly change the long-range order of the refined structure just by changing the s parameter and keeping the tile decoration unchanged. This gives a great advantage over the higher-dimensional method, where every change of the tiling (change in the s parameter) requires the structure model to be built from scratch, i.e. the fine division of the atomic surfaces has to be redone. PMID:25727864

  20. Modal analysis and dynamic stresses for acoustically excited Shuttle insulation tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Ogilvie, P. I.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle consists of thousands of separate insulation tiles, of varying thicknesses, bonded to the orbiter's surface through a soft strain-isolation pad which is bonded, in turn, to the vehicle's stiffened metallic skin. A modal procedure for obtaining the acoustically induced RMS stress in these comparatively thick tiles is described. The modes employed are generated by a previously developed iterative procedure which converges rapidly for the combined system of tiles and primary structure considered. Each tile is idealized by several hundred three-dimensional finite elements and all tiles on a given panel interact dynamically. Acoustic response results from the present analyses are presented. Comparisons with other analytical results and measured modal data for a typical Shuttle panel, both with and without tiles, are made, and the agreement is good.

  1. CAD Tools for Creating Space-filing 3D Escher Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Sequin, Carlo H.

    2009-04-10

    We discuss the design and implementation of CAD tools for creating decorative solids that tile 3-space in a regular, isohedral manner. Starting with the simplest case of extruded 2D tilings, we describe geometric algorithms used for maintaining boundary representations of 3D tiles, including a Java implementation of an interactive constrained Delaunay triangulation library and a mesh-cutting algorithm used in layering extruded tiles to create more intricate designs. Finally, we demonstrate a CAD tool for creating 3D tilings that are derived from cubic lattices. The design process for these 3D tiles is more constrained, and hence more difficult, than in the 2D case, and it raises additional user interface issues.

  2. Radiation hardness of 3HF-tile/O2-WLS-fiber calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.W.; Hu, L.D.; Liu, N.Z.

    1993-11-01

    The radiation hardness of a 3HF-tile/O2-WLS-fiber calorimeter with two different tile/fiber patterns has been studied. Two calorimeter modules were irradiated up to 10 Mrad with the BEPC 1.3 GeV electron beam. The radiation damage of these modules is compared with our previous measurements from SCSN81-tile/BCF91A-WLS-fiber modules. The longitudinal damage profiles are fitted as a function of depth.

  3. Study of tile/fiber systems manufactured from Kharkov injection molded and Kuraray SCSN-81 scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemashkalo, A.; Popov, V.; Rubashkin, A.; Sorokin, P.; Zatserklianiy, A.; Borisenko, A.; Senchishin, V.; Skrebtsov, O.; Bolotov, V.

    1998-12-01

    We present the measurements of light output, light yield uniformity, and recovery after radiation damage of the tile/fiber systems made from the Kharkov injection molded and Kuraray SCSN-81 scintillators. The tiles were trapezoidal in shape, 131×90×122 mm3, with a Kuraray Y11 multiclad WLS read-out. The results are compared with those obtained using the tile/fiber systems manufactured from the Kuraray SCSN-81 scintillator and tested under the same conditions.

  4. Optimization of the light yield properties from scintillator tiles read out directly by silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Mironov, D.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskiy, E.

    2016-02-01

    The research of the light yield from the scintillator tiles with direct readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) has been performed. The tile size is 30 x 30 x 3 mm3 as planned for the AHCAL of the ILD at the ILC. The different tile geometries were studied. The uniformity of light yield has been optimized and one geometry has been selected. The results are compared to the studies on the same topic, performed by another groups.

  5. Numerical investigation of the spatial scale and time dependency of tile drainage contribution to stream flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas W.; Arenas, Antonio A.; Schilling, Keith E.; Weber, Larry J.

    2016-07-01

    Tile drainage systems are pervasive in the Central U.S., significantly altering the hydrologic system. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of tile drainage systems on streamflow. A physically based coupled hydrologic model was applied to a 45 km2 agricultural Iowa watershed. Tile drainage was incorporated though an equivalent porous medium approach, calibrated though numerical experimentation. Experimental results indicated that a significant increase in hydraulic conductivity of the equivalent medium layer was needed to achieve agreement in total outflow with an explicit numerical representation of a tiled system. Watershed scale analysis derived the tile drainage contribution to stream flow (QT/Q) from a numerical tracer driven analysis of instream surface water. During precipitation events tile drainage represented 30% of stream flow, whereas during intervals between precipitations events, 61% of stream flow originated from the tile system. A division of event and non-event periods produced strong correlations between QT/Q and drainage area, positive for events, and negative for non-events. The addition of precipitation into the system acted to saturate near surface soils, increase lateral soil water movement, and dilute the relatively stable instream tile flow. Increased intensity precipitation translated the QT/Q relationship downward in a consistent manner. In non-event durations, flat upland areas contributed large contributions of tile flow, diluted by larger groundwater (non-tile) contribution to stream flow in the downstream steeper portion of the watershed. Study results provide new insights on the spatiotemporal response of tile drainage to precipitation and contributions of tile drainage to streamflow at a watershed scale, with results having important implications for nitrate transport.

  6. Image Tiling for Profiling Large Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Ajit; Schock, Harold; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional surface measurements of large objects arc required in a variety of industrial processes. The nature of these measurements is changing as optical instruments arc beginning to replace conventional contact probes scanned over the objects. A common characteristic of the optical surface profilers is the trade off between measurement accuracy and field of view. In order to measure a large object with high accuracy, multiple views arc required. An accurate transformation between the different views is needed to bring about their registration. In this paper, we demonstrate how the transformation parameters can be obtained precisely by choosing control points which lie in the overlapping regions of the images. A good starting point for the transformation parameters is obtained by having a knowledge of the scanner position. The selection of the control points arc independent of the object geometry. By successively recording multiple views and obtaining transformation with respect to a single coordinate system, a complete physical model of an object can be obtained. Since all data arc in the same coordinate system, it can thus be used for building automatic models for free form surfaces.

  7. Thermal Structure Analysis of SIRCA Tile for X-34 Wing Leading Edge TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe in detail thermal/structural analyses of SIRCA tiles which were performed at NASA Ames under the The Tile Analysis Task of the X-34 Program. The analyses used the COSMOS/M finite element software to simulate the material response in arc-jet tests, mechanical deflection tests, and the performance of candidate designs for the TPS system. Purposes of the analysis were to verify thermal and structural models for the SIRCA tiles, to establish failure criteria for stressed tiles, to simulate the TPS response under flight aerothermal and mechanical load, and to confirm that adequate safety margins exist for the actual TPS design.

  8. Tethers as Debris: Simulating Impacts of Tether Fragments on Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    The SPHC hydrodynamic code was used to simulate impacts of Kevlar and aluminum projectiles on a model of the LI-900 type insulating tiles used on Space Shuffle Orbiters The intent was to examine likely damage that such tiles might experience if impacted by orbital debris consisting of tether fragments. Projectile speeds ranged from 300 meters per second to 10 kilometers per second. Damage is characterized by penetration depth, tile surface-hole diameter, tile body-cavity diameter, coating fracture diameter, tether and cavity wall material phases, and deformation of the aluminum backwall.

  9. Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (premature transition at 800 sec) were used as reentry heat inputs. The TPS missing or eroded site is assumed to be located at the center or corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of missing TPS tiles, under the original STS-5 heating, the orbiter can afford to lose only one TPS tile at the center or two TPS tiles at the corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. Under modified STS-5 heating, the orbiter cannot afford to lose even one TPS tile at the center or at the corner of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of eroded TPS tiles, the aluminum skin temperature rises relatively slowly with the decreasing thickness of the eroded central or corner TPS tile until most of the TPS tile is eroded away, and then increases exponentially toward the missing tile case.

  10. Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

  11. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Austin H.

    1998-11-09

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation.

  12. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, A.H.

    1998-11-01

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Assembly of a tile-based multilayered DNA nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Junyoung; Lee, Junywe; Tandon, Anshula; Kim, Byeonghoon; Yoo, Sanghyun; Lee, Chang-Won; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-04-01

    The Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA is exploited to construct periodically patterned nanostructures, and we herein demonstrate tile-based three dimensional (3D) multilayered DNA nanostructures that incorporate two design strategies: vertical growth and horizontal layer stacking with substrate-assisted growth. To this end, we have designed a periodically holed double-double crossover (DDX) template that can be used to examine the growth of the multilayer structures in both the vertical and horizontal directions. For vertical growth, the traditional 2D double crossover (DX) DNA lattice is seeded and grown vertically from periodic holes in the DDX template. For horizontal stacking, the DDX layers are stacked by binding the connector tiles between each layer. Although both types of multilayers exhibited successful formation, the observations with an atomic force microscope indicated that the DDX layer growth achieved with the horizontal stacking approach could be considered to be slightly better relative to the vertical growth of the DX layers in terms of uniformity, layer size, and discreteness. In particular, the newly designed DDX template layer provided a parallel arrangement between each domain with substrate-assisted growth. This kind of layer arrangement suggests a possibility of using our design scheme in the construction of other periodic structures.The Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA is exploited to construct periodically patterned nanostructures, and we herein demonstrate tile-based three dimensional (3D) multilayered DNA nanostructures that incorporate two design strategies: vertical growth and horizontal layer stacking with substrate-assisted growth. To this end, we have designed a periodically holed double-double crossover (DDX) template that can be used to examine the growth of the multilayer structures in both the vertical and horizontal directions. For vertical growth, the traditional 2D double crossover (DX) DNA lattice is seeded and grown

  14. Dissolved organic carbon losses from tile drained agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ruark, Matthew D; Brouder, Sylvie M; Turco, Ronald F

    2009-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage is commonly used in midwestern agriculture and drainage losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from such systems are an under-quantified portion of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of common agricultural management practices on DOC losses from subsurface tile drains and to assess patterns of loss as a function of year, time of year, and drainflow. Daily drainflow was collected across six water years (1999-2004) from a restored prairie grass system and cropping systems which include continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations fertilized with urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN) or swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent. The DOC concentrations in tile drainflow were low, typically <2 mg L(-1). Yearly DOC losses, which ranged from 1.78 to 8.61 kg ha(-1), were not affected by management practices and were small compared to organic C inputs. Spring application of lagoon effluent increased yearly flow-weighted (FW)-DOC concentrations relative to other cropping systems in three of the years and increased monthly FW-DOC concentrations when drainflow occurred within 1 mo of application. Drainflow was significantly and positively correlated with DOC loss. Drainflow also affected DOC concentrations as greater 6-yr cumulative drainflow was associated with lower 6-yr FW-DOC concentrations and greater daily drainflow was associated with higher daily DOC concentrations. Our results indicate that lagoon effluent application and fertilizer N rates do not affect long-term losses of DOC from tile drains and that drainflow is the main driver of DOC losses. PMID:19398518

  15. Ballistic performance of polyurea-coated armor grade ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiee, Ahsan; Isaacs, Jon; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2010-04-01

    The use of ceramics as energy absorbents has been studied by many researchers and some improvements in the ballistic performance of ceramic tiles have been made by coating them with different classes of materials (e.g. E-glass/epoxy, carbon-fiber/epoxy, etc.). Using ceramics for energy absorbing applications leads to a significant weight reduction of the system. Therefore, any modification to the ceramic configuration in the system which leads to more energy absorption with the same or less areal density is significant. On the other hand, polyurea has been proved to be an excellent energy dissipating agent in many applications. Inspired by this, we are studying the effect of coating ceramics with polyurea and other materials, on the energy absorption and ballistic performance of the resulting ceramic-based composites. In this study, we investigate the effect of polyurea on ballistic efficiency of ceramic tiles. To this end, we have performed a set of penetration tests on polyurea-ceramic composites. In our experiments, a high velocity projectile is propelled to impact and perforate the ceramic-polyurea composite. The velocity and mass of the projectile are measured before and after the penetration. The change in the kinetic energy of the projectile is evaluated and compared for different polyurea-ceramic configurations (e.g., polyurea on front face, polyurea on back face, polyurea between two ceramic tiles, etc.). The experimental results suggest that polyurea is not as effective as other restraining materials such as E-glass/epoxy and carbon-fiber/epoxy.

  16. Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.

  17. New family of tilings of three-dimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra.

    PubMed

    Conway, John H; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that two regular tetrahedra can be combined with a single regular octahedron to tile (complete fill) three-dimensional Euclidean space . This structure was called the "octet truss" by Buckminster Fuller. It was believed that such a tiling, which is the Delaunay tessellation of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, and its closely related stacking variants, are the only tessellations of that involve two different regular polyhedra. Here we identify and analyze a unique family comprised of a noncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of whose smallest repeat tiling unit consists of one regular octahedron and six smaller regular tetrahedra. We first derive an extreme member of this unique tiling family by showing that the "holes" in the optimal lattice packing of octahedra, obtained by Minkowski over a century ago, are congruent tetrahedra. This tiling has 694 distinct concave (i.e., nonconvex) repeat units, 24 of which possess central symmetry, and hence is distinctly different and combinatorically richer than the fcc tetrahedra-octahedra tiling, which only has two distinct tiling units. Then we construct a one-parameter family of octahedron packings that continuously spans from the fcc to the optimal lattice packing of octahedra. We show that the "holes" in these packings, except for the two extreme cases, are tetrahedra of two sizes, leading to a family of periodic tilings with units composed four small tetrahedra and two large tetrahedra that contact an octahedron. These tilings generally possess 2,068 distinct concave tiling units, 62 of which are centrally symmetric. PMID:21690370

  18. New family of tilings of three-dimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra

    PubMed Central

    Conway, John H.; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that two regular tetrahedra can be combined with a single regular octahedron to tile (complete fill) three-dimensional Euclidean space . This structure was called the “octet truss” by Buckminster Fuller. It was believed that such a tiling, which is the Delaunay tessellation of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, and its closely related stacking variants, are the only tessellations of that involve two different regular polyhedra. Here we identify and analyze a unique family comprised of a noncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of whose smallest repeat tiling unit consists of one regular octahedron and six smaller regular tetrahedra. We first derive an extreme member of this unique tiling family by showing that the “holes” in the optimal lattice packing of octahedra, obtained by Minkowski over a century ago, are congruent tetrahedra. This tiling has 694 distinct concave (i.e., nonconvex) repeat units, 24 of which possess central symmetry, and hence is distinctly different and combinatorically richer than the fcc tetrahedra-octahedra tiling, which only has two distinct tiling units. Then we construct a one-parameter family of octahedron packings that continuously spans from the fcc to the optimal lattice packing of octahedra. We show that the “holes” in these packings, except for the two extreme cases, are tetrahedra of two sizes, leading to a family of periodic tilings with units composed four small tetrahedra and two large tetrahedra that contact an octahedron. These tilings generally possess 2,068 distinct concave tiling units, 62 of which are centrally symmetric. PMID:21690370

  19. A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lami

    2004-08-12

    The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

  20. Effect of strain isolator pad modulus on inplane strain in Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal protection system used on the Space Shuttle orbiter to determine strains in the reusable surface insulation tiles under simulated flight loads was investigated. The effects of changes in the strain isolator pad (SIP) moduli on the strains in the tile were evaluated. To analyze the SIP/tile system, it was necessary to conduct tests to determine inplane tension and compression modulus and inplane failure strain for the densified layer of the tiles. It is shown that densification of the LI-900 tile material increases the modulus by a factor of 6 to 10 and reduces the failure strain by about 50%. It is indicated that the inplane strain levels in the Shuttle tiles in the highly loaded regions are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than the failure strain of the material. It is concluded that most of the LI-900 tiles on the Shuttle could be mounted on a SIP with tensile and shear stiffnesses 10 times those of the present SIP without inplane strain failure in the tile.

  1. Tritium distributions on tungsten and carbon tiles used in the JET divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Y.; Yumizuru, K.; Likonen, J.; Koivuranta, S.; Ikonen, J.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Tritium distributions on the W-coated divertor tiles used with Be wall in JET 2011-2012 ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) campaign were measured using an imaging plate (IP) technique. The high intensity of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) from IP was observed at the regions covered by deposited Be layers. However, the PSL intensity was not simply proportional to the thickness of the deposited Be layers; the shadowed region of Tile 4 showed the highest PSL intensity though the thickness of deposited Be layer on this region was smaller than that on Tile 0 and the apron of Tile 1 by an order of magnitude. These observations indicated the influence of impurities such as oxygen on tritium retention in the deposited Be layers. The C tiles used in the 2007-2009 JET carbon wall (JET-C) campaign were also examined. The high PSL intensity was observed for the regions covered with deposited C layers in this case. The area of tile surfaces covered by the deposited tritium-rich layers on the W-coated-tiles used in the JET-ILW campaign was significantly smaller than that on the C tiles used in the JET-C campaign.

  2. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  3. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  4. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  5. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  6. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  7. Preferential flow estimates to an agricultural tile drain with implications for glyphosate transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, W.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural subsurface drains, commonly referred to as tile drains, are potentially significant pathways for the movement of fertilizers and pesticides to streams and ditches in much of the Midwest. Preferential flow in the unsaturated zone provides a route for water and solutes to bypass the soil matrix and reach tile drains faster than predicted by traditional displacement theory. This paper uses chloride concentrations to estimate preferential flow contributions to a tile drain during two storms in May 2004. Chloride, a conservative anion, was selected as the tracer because of differences in chloride concentrations between the two sources of water to the tile drain, preferential and matrix flow. A strong correlation between specific conductance and chloride concentration provided a mechanism to estimate chloride concentrations in the tile drain throughout the storm hydrographs. A simple mixing analysis was used to identify the preferential flow component of the storm hydrograph. During two storms, preferential flow contributed 11 and 51% of total storm tile drain flow; the peak contributions, 40 and 81%, coincided with the peak tile drain flow. Positive relations between glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] concentrations and preferential flow for the two storms suggest that preferential flow is an important transport pathway to the tile drain. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  8. Tiling analysis of melting in strongly-coupled dusty plasma*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suranga Ruhunusiri, W. D.; Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; Goree, John

    2010-11-01

    A dusty plasma is an ionized gas containing micron-size particles of solid matter, which collect electrons and ions and become negatively charged. Due to large Coulomb interparticle potential energies, the microparticles represent a strongly-coupled plasma. In the absence of an external disturbance, the microparticles self-organize, arranging themselves in a crystalline lattice, due to their Coulomb interaction. If kinetic energy is added, the arrangement of microparticles becomes disordered, like atoms in a liquid. This melting process can be characterized by a proliferation of defects, which previous experimenters measured using Voronoi analysis. Here we use another method, tiling [1] to quantify defects. We demonstrate this method, which until now has been used only in simulations, in a dusty plasma experiment. A single layer of 4.83 μm polymer microparticles was electrically levitated in a glow discharge argon plasma. The lattice was melted by applying random kicks to the micoparticles from rastered laser beams. We imaged the particle positions and computed the corresponding tiling for both the crystalline lattice and liquid states. [1] Matthew A. Glaser, Phys. Rev A 41, 4585 (1990) ^*Work supported by NSF and NASA.

  9. Emergence of limit-periodic order in tiling models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoux, Catherine; Byington, Travis W.; Qian, Zongjin; Charbonneau, Patrick; Socolar, Joshua E. S.

    2014-07-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) lattice model defined on a triangular lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions based on the Taylor-Socolar monotile is known to have a limit-periodic ground state. The system reaches that state during a slow quench through an infinite sequence of phase transitions. We study the model as a function of the strength of the next-nearest-neighbor interactions and introduce closely related 3D models with only nearest-neighbor interactions that exhibit limit-periodic phases. For models with no next-nearest-neighbor interactions of the Taylor-Socolar type, there is a large degenerate class of ground states, including crystalline patterns and limit-periodic ones, but a slow quench still yields the limit-periodic state. For the Taylor-Socolar lattic model, we present calculations of the diffraction pattern for a particular decoration of the tile that permits exact expressions for the amplitudes and identify domain walls that slow the relaxation times in the ordered phases. For one of the 3D models, we show that the phase transitions are first order, with equilibrium structures that can be more complex than in the 2D case, and we include a proof of aperiodicity for a geometrically simple tile with only nearest-neighbor matching rules.

  10. Close-up of Shuttle Thermal Tiles in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission's third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter's heat-shielding tiles located on the craft's underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This particular photo was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, whose shadow is visible on the thermal protection tiles, and a portion of the Canadian built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm and the Nile River is visible at the bottom.

  11. Non isothermal drying process optimisation - Drying of clay tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2015-11-01

    In our previous studies we have developed a model for determination of the variable effective diffusivity and identification of the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms. The next goal was to develop a drying regime which could in advance characterize the real non isothermal process of drying clay tiles. In order to do this four isothermal experiments were recorded. Temperature and humidity were maintained at 350C / 75%; 450C / 70%; 450C / 60% and 500C / 60%; respectively in each experiment. All experimentally collected data were analyzed and the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms were detected. Characteristic drying period (time) for each isothermal drying mechanism was also detected. The real, non-isothermal drying process was approximated by 5 segments. In each of these segments approximately isothermal drying condition were maintained. Temperature and humidity of the drying air, in the first four segments, was maintained on the same level as in recorded isothermal experiments while in the fifth segment, it were maintained at 700C / 40%. The duration of the first four segments were calculated from the diagrams Deff - t respectively for each experiment. The clay tile in experiment five was dried without cracking using the proposed non isothermal drying regime.

  12. Numerical methods for analysis of clay tile infills

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-10-20

    Recent Department of Energy requirements have led to a comprehensive evaluation of the industrial facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The structures consist of simply connected steel frames infilled with structural clay tile walls. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the stability of the unreinforced infills, and whether they provide the lateral capacity necessary to resist the moderate seismic hazard at the site. Due to lack of information on the behavior of structural clay tile infills, various large-scale tests were performed to investigate the in-plane, out-of-plane and combined in-plane and out-of-plane behavior. The results of these tests are briefly summarized, and the development of analytical guidelines based on these tests is given. Little interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane loads was observed, both in terms of stiffness and strength. Out-of-plane stability can be examined panel by panel based on arching action. Inter-story drift does not appear to present a stability problem for the type of infill construction investigated. In-plane behavior may be adequately modeled with a nonlinear compression strut. A typical building is chosen for an illustrative application. The methodology and results of the seismic analysis are presented for this structure.

  13. Surface analysis of 1984/85 TFTR limiter tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Wampler, W.R.; Mills, B.E.; Doyle, B.L.; Wright, A.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Fukuda, S.

    1985-01-01

    Bare POCO AXF-5Q graphite titles were installed as the plasma-facing surface of the TFTR movable limiter for a series of approx.2700 high power discharges (600 with up to 6 MW neutral beams). During this operating phase, erosion and deposition processes modified the surface of the limiter. In the regions of the most intense plasma contact, which reached temperatures over 2400C, only small amounts of metallic impurities (<5 x 10 W atoms/cmS) are observed during subsequent beta backscattering and proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Also observed in these regions are several small areas of surface crazing, and scattered droplets of metals (approx.1 mm diameter) presumed to originate from melted internal hardware. In regions more removed from direct plasma contact, thicker metallic deposits are observed (approx.2 x 10 Y atoms/cmS). Surface roughness measured outside the intense plasma contact region is much more than the original POCO AXF-5Q graphite whereas within the plasma contact region, tile surfaces are somewhat smoother than they were initially. Two of the tiles in high heat flux regions broke during operation. The resulting geometry change led to areas of enhanced erosion and nearby redeposition of carbon. 5 figs.

  14. Self-Replication of Nanoscale tiles and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We want to make a ``non-biological'' system which can self-replicate. The idea is to design particles with specific and reversible and irreversible interactions, introduce seed motifs, and cycle the system in such a way that a copy is made. Repeating the cycle would double the number of offspring in each generation leading to exponential growth. Using the chemistry of DNA either on colloids or on DNA tiles makes the specific recognition part easy. In the case of DNA tiles we have in fact replicated the seed at least to the third generation. The DNA linkers can also be self-protected so that particles don't interact unless they are held together for sufficient time -- a nano-contact glue. Chemical modification of the DNA allows us to permanently crosslink hybridized strands for irreversible bonds and a new type of photolithography. We have also designed and produced colloidal particles that use novel ``lock and key'' geometries to get specific and reversible physical interactions.[4pt] With Tong Wang, Ruojie Sha, Remi Dreyfus, Mirjam E. Leunissen, Corinna Maass, David J. Pine, and Nadrian C. Seeman.

  15. Size-Topology Correlations and Crystallization in Tilings and Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-03-01

    Ever since its empirical formulation in 1928, Lewis`s law has intrigued scientists, postulating a linear correlation between the average in-plane area and the number of neighbors in a two-dimensional tiling. Many supporting and dissenting results have been reported in systems as diverse as foams, Voronoi tilings in glass models, and nanocrystals. A strong size-topology correlation is consistently observed, but it is often pronouncedly nonlinear. Recently, a variant of the granocentric model explained numerous cases of nonlinear correlations, but cannot account for the linear version of the law. We revisit Lewis's original work by conducting more extensive experiments on cucumber epidermis tissue. The data confirms the linear law, but also shows that the individual cells have a pronounced anisotropy, not present in systems with nonlinear correlation laws. We demonstrate how the granocentric model can be modified taking into account the cell anisotropy, and how this feature is capable of reproducing the linear Lewis law, as well as other characteristic differences in size-topology statistical quantities. The model should be generally applicable to jammed, plane-filling systems and identifies domain anisotropy as an important ingredient in their statistical description.

  16. The sROD module for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; Fiorini, L.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Mellado, B.; March, L.; Moreno, P.; Reed, R.; Solans, C.; Valero, A.; Valls, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main upgrade of the LHC to increase the instantaneous luminosity is scheduled for 2022. The High Luminosity LHC, also called upgrade Phase-II, will imply a complete redesign of the read-out electronics in TileCal. In the new read-out architecture, the front-end electronics aims to transmit full digitized information to the back-end system in the counting rooms. Thus, the back-end system will also provide digital calibrated information with enhanced precision and granularity to the first level trigger to improve the trigger efficiencies. The demonstrator project is envisaged to qualify this new proposed architecture. A reduced part of the detector, 1/256 of the total, will be equipped with the new electronics during 2014 to evaluate the proposed architecture in real conditions. The upgraded Read-Out Driver (sROD) will be the core element of the back-end electronics in Phase-II. The sROD module is designed on a double mid-size AMC format and will operate under an AdvancedTCA framework. The module includes two Xilinx Series 7 Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for data receiving and processing, as well as the implementation of embedded systems. Related to optical connectors, the sROD uses 4 QSFPs to receive and transmit data from the front-end electronics and 1 Avago MiniPOD to send preprocessed data to the first level trigger system. An SFP module maintains the compatibility with the existing hardware. A complete description of the sROD module for the demonstrator including the main functionalities, circuit design and the control software and firmware will be presented.

  17. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non-tiled

  18. Simulating Sustainable P Management Practices in Tile-Drained Landscapes of Central Ohio Using the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, W. I., III; King, K.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite extensive application of conservation practices to minimize sediment P delivery to streams, hypoxic conditions and harmful algal blooms persist in receiving water bodies. Tile-drainage networks are a focal point for reducing soluble P in the food-producing Midwestern United States in that they promote higher connectivity between upland soils and stream channels which decreases soil contact time, and biogeochemical alterations. A critical next step to reduce the environmental impact and maintain sustainable agriculture is to implement best management practices (BMPs) under a holistic framework that considers adverse effects to water resources and crop production, while maintaining economic feasibility. The objective of this study was to apply a robust numerical model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), in a tile-drained landscape in Central Ohio in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of BMPs on soluble and particulate P delivery to stream channels. The model was applied and evaluated at two adjacent edge-of-field sites with similar soil, topographic and management characteristics (except for tillage and tile installation on the south field in 2012, preceded by more than 20 years of no-till operations). Three years of daily discharge, total suspended solids, soluble P, soluble N (NO3 and NH4), total P, total N, and crop yields were utilized to verify the model performance. Prevalent BMPs simulated within the modeling framework included drainage water management, tillage and crop rotations, the 4Rs framework (right fertilizer source, rate, time, and placement), and bioreactors. Results of the study quantify the ability of the numerical model to simulate hydrology and P transport for surface runoff and subsurface tile drainage and highlight modifications that improve model performance. Further, results highlight BMPs that effectively reduce P loads to streams while maintaining crop yields, which can later be used to inform BMPs

  19. Aerodynamic heating in large cavities in an array of RSI tiles. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A large panel of reusable surface insulation (RSI) tiles including lost tile cavities was aerothermally tested in the Langley 8 foot high temperature structures tunnel to determine both the heat load within the cavities and the structural performance of the RSI surrounding the cavities. Tests were conducted with a turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free stream Mach number of 6.6, a total temperature of 1800 K, a Reynolds number per meter of 5 million, and a dynamic pressure of 62 kPa. The maximum aerodynamic heating to the floor of the cavity was two to three times the normal surface heating. The cavity heating rates agreed with data from other facilities and were successfully correlated with an empirical equation. A zippering failure occurred to a tile downstream of a double tile cavity when the separated flow attached to the floor of the cavity and forced the tile from its position.

  20. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-01

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  1. Advanced Modeling Strategies for the Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    1999-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the deformation mechanisms in tile-reinforced armored components was conducted to develop the most efficient modeling strategies for the structural analysis of large components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The limitations of conventional finite elements with respect to the analysis of tile-reinforced structures were examined, and two complementary optimal modeling strategies were developed. These strategies are element layering and the use of a tile-adhesive superelement. Element layering is a technique that uses stacks of shear deformable shell elements to obtain the proper transverse shear distributions through the thickness of the laminate. The tile-adhesive superelement consists of a statically condensed substructure model designed to take advantage of periodicity in tile placement patterns to eliminate numerical redundancies in the analysis. Both approaches can be used simultaneously to create unusually efficient models that accurately predict the global response by incorporating the correct local deformation mechanisms.

  2. Tony Rollins prepares a new tile for the Space Shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Tile Fabrication Shop, Tony Rollins, with United Space Alliance, cuts a High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tile on a gun stock contour milling machine. About 70 percent of a Space Shuttle orbiter's external surface is shielded from heat by a network of more than 24,000 tiles formed from a silica fiber compound. HRSI tiles cover the lower surface of the orbiter, areas around the forward windows, upper body flap, the base heat shield, the 'eyeballs' on the front of the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods, and the leading and trailing edges of the vertical stabilizer and the rudder speed brake. They are generally 6 inches square, but may also be as large as 12 inches square in some areas, and 1 to 5 inches thick. More advanced materials such as Flexible Insulation Blankets have replaced tiles on some upper surfaces of the orbiter.

  3. Porosity detection in ceramic armor tiles via ultrasonic time-of-flight

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-23

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  4. K-Theory of Crossed Products of Tiling C*-Algebras by Rotation Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starling, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Let Ω be a tiling space and let G be the maximal group of rotations which fixes Ω. Then the cohomology of Ω and Ω/ G are both invariants which give useful geometric information about the tilings in Ω. The noncommutative analog of the cohomology of Ω is the K-theory of a C*-algebra associated to Ω, and for translationally finite tilings of dimension 2 or less, the K-theory is isomorphic to the direct sum of cohomology groups. In this paper we give a prescription for calculating the noncommutative analog of the cohomology of Ω/ G, that is, the K-theory of the crossed product of the tiling C*-algebra by G. We also provide a table with some calculated K-groups for many common examples, including the Penrose and pinwheel tilings.

  5. Terahertz NDE Application for Corrosion Detection and Evaluation under Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Stephen W.; Lomness, Janice K.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Winfree, William P.; Russell, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect for possible corrosion under Space Shuttle Tiles. Other methods such as ultrasonics, infrared, eddy current and microwave technologies have demonstrable shortcomings for tile NDE. This work applies Terahertz NDE, in the frequency range between 50 GHz and 1 THz, for the inspection of manufactured corrosion samples. The samples consist of induced corrosion spots that range in diameter (2.54 to 15.2 mm) and depth (0.036 to 0.787 mm) in an aluminum substrate material covered with tiles. Results of these measurements are presented for known corrosion flaws both covered and uncovered and for blind tests with unknown corrosion flaws covered with attached tiles. The Terahertz NDE system is shown to detect all artificially manufactured corrosion regions under a Shuttle tile with a depth greater than 0.13 mm.

  6. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. PMID:23673956

  7. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of DNA Tile-Based Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shuoxing

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has emerged as an attractive building material for creating complex architectures at the nanometer scale that simultaneously affords versatility and modularity. Particularly, the programmability of DNA enables the assembly of basic building units into increasingly complex, arbitrary shapes or patterns. With the expanding complexity and functionality of DNA toolboxes, a quantitative understanding of DNA self-assembly in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, will provide researchers with more subtle design guidelines that facilitate more precise spatial and temporal control. This dissertation focuses on studying the physicochemical properties of DNA tile-based self-assembly process by recapitulating representative scenarios and intermediate states with unique assembly pathways. First, DNA double-helical tiles with increasing flexibility were designed to investigate the dimerization kinetics. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles result from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. Next, the thermodynamics and kinetics of single tile attachment to preformed "multitile" arrays were investigated to test the fundamental assumptions of tile assembly models. The results offer experimental evidences that double crossover tile attachment is determined by the electrostatic environment and the steric hindrance at the binding site. Finally, the assembly of double crossover tiles within a rhombic DNA origami frame was employed as the model system to investigate the competition between unseeded, facet and seeded nucleation. The results revealed that preference of nucleation types can be tuned by controlling the rate-limiting nucleation step. The works presented in this dissertation will be helpful for refining the DNA tile assembly model for future designs and simulations. Moreover, The works presented here could also be

  8. Classification of Voronoi and Delone tiles in quasicrystals: I. General method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masáková, Z.; Patera, J.; Zich, J.

    2003-02-01

    A new general method is presented which allows one to find all distinct Voronoi and Delone tiles in any quasicrystal from a large family. This includes the tiles which may be present with arbitrarily low density >0. At all stages, the method requires only consideration of a (possibly large) finite number of cases. Our method is applicable, in principle, to quasicrystals in any dimension and with any irrationality. This is the first of three papers where the Voronoi and Delone tilings are studied. Two-dimensional point sets, 'quasicrystals', arising from the A4-root lattice by means of the standard projection to a two-dimensional plane with the irrationality tau = 1/2(1 + surd5), are considered. In general, we require that the acceptance window be bounded with non-empty interior. Specific results are provided here for rhombic acceptance windows of any size oriented along the direction of simple roots of the Coxeter group H2. Within one quasicrystal the tiles are distinguished by their shape, size and orientation. The rhombic window case is indispensable for subsequent classification of Voronoi and Delone tiles in quasicrystals with general shape of the acceptance window. Voronoi and Delone tiles of quasicrystals with circular and decagonal windows of any size are given in subsequent papers. Let VT denote the set of distinct Voronoi tiles making up a quasicrystal with a given acceptance window. There are three VT sets of the 'generic' type and three of the 'singular' type. The latter occur for one precise value of the size of the acceptance window. Any other VT set is a uniform scaling of the tiles listed here. Similar results, differing in detail, are provided for the sets of distinct Delone tiles DT. Altogether there are four different sets DT of Delone tiles.

  9. Comparison of export dynamics of nutrients and animal-borne estrogens from a tile-drained Midwestern agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gall, Heather E; Sassman, Stephen A; Jenkinson, Byron; Lee, Linda S; Jafvert, Chad T

    2015-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are known to be a source of nutrients and hormones found in surface water bodies around the world. While the fate and transport of nutrients have been studied for decades, much less research has been conducted on the fate and transport of hormones. To facilitate a comparison of nutrient and hormone export dynamics from farm fields, nitrate + nitrite (N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), 17α- and 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3) were monitored in a tile drain and receiving ditch for one year on a working farm in north central Indiana. Repeated animal waste applications led to high frequency detection of hormones (>50% in tile drain; >90% in the ditch) and nutrients (>70% for DRP; 100% for N). Hydrologic variability was found to be a dominant factor controlling export of N, DRP, and E1 to the drain and ditch. Of the estrogens, the temporal trend in E1 export was most similar to that of DRP. Differences in temporal export between P and the other estrogens likely were due to differences in the biogeochemical processes that affect their fate and transport within the agroecosystem. During short periods when the flowrate exceeded the 80(th) percentile for the year, over 70% of the total mass export of DRP and E1 occurred for the year in both the tile drain and ditch, demonstrating the importance of high-flow events. Therefore, best management practices must be effective during large flow events to substantially reduce transport to downstream locations. PMID:25241950

  10. Temperature and Substrate Control Woodchip Bioreactor Performance in Reducing Tile Nitrate Loads in East-Central Illinois.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Gentry, Lowell E; Cooke, Richard A; Herbstritt, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Tile drainage is the major source of nitrate in the upper Midwest, and end-of-tile removal techniques such as wood chip bioreactors have been installed that allow current farming practices to continue, with nitrate removed through denitrification. There have been few multiyear studies of bioreactors examining controls on nitrate removal rates. We evaluated the nitrate removal performance of two wood chip bioreactors during the first 3 yr of operation and examined the major factors that regulated nitrate removal. Bioreactor 2 was subject to river flooding, and performance was not assessed. Bioreactor 1 had average monthly nitrate removal rates of 23 to 44 g N m d in Year 1, which decreased to 1.2 to 11 g N m d in Years 2 and 3. The greater N removal rates in Year 1 and early in Year 2 were likely due to highly degradable C in the woodchips. Only late in Year 2 and in Year 3 was there a strong temperature response in the nitrate removal rate. Less than 1% of the nitrate removed was emitted as NO. Due to large tile inputs of nitrate (729-2127 kg N) at high concentrations (∼30 mg nitrate N L) in Years 2 and 3, overall removal efficiency was low (3 and 7% in Years 2 and 3, respectively). Based on a process-based bioreactor performance model, Bioreactor 1 would have needed to be 9 times as large as the current system to remove 50% of the nitrate load from this 20-ha field. PMID:27136147

  11. Automation Of Shuttle Tile Inspection: Engineering Methodology For Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C.

    1987-10-01

    The Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was initiated in late 1986 as a cooperative applications research effort between Stanford University, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC). One of the major initial SIORA tasks was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. This effort has adobted a systems engineering approach consisting of an integrated set of rapid prototyping testbeds in which a government/university/industry team of users, technologists, and engineers test and evaluate new concepts and technologies within the operational world of Shuttle. These integrated testbeds include speech recognition and synthesis, laser imaging inspection systems, distributed Ada programming environments, distributed relational database architectures, distributed computer network architectures, multi-media workbenches, and human factors considerations.

  12. Topology-aware Tile Mapping for Clusters of SMPs

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2006-05-01

    We propose a technique to optimize the performance of applications using distributed dense arrays and characterized by a nearest-neighbor communication profile by exploiting the topology of SMP clusters. The topological information is exploited for mapping array tiles to processors to reduce the network communication and improve utilization of shared memory for inter-process communication. The potential benefits of using the SMP-aware mapping are demonstrated through a simulation, as well as a real application solving a wind-driven ocean circulation model on an IBM SP. On 128 processors, the execution time was reduced by almost 20 percent without any changes to the original application source code. The proposed mapping approach is applicable to multiple programming models and distributed array management systems.

  13. Automation of Shuttle Tile Inspection - Engineering methodology for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was initiated in late 1986 as a cooperative applications research effort between Stanford University, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Lockheed Space Operations Company. One of the major initial SIORA tasks was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. This effort has adopted a systems engineering approach consisting of an integrated set of rapid prototyping testbeds in which a government/university/industry team of users, technologists, and engineers test and evaluate new concepts and technologies within the operational world of Shuttle. These integrated testbeds include speech recognition and synthesis, laser imaging inspection systems, distributed Ada programming environments, distributed relational database architectures, distributed computer network architectures, multimedia workbenches, and human factors considerations.

  14. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  15. Complex Multicolor Tilings and Critical Phenomena in Tetraphilic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiangbing; Kieffer, Robert; Glettner, Benjamin; Nürnberger, Constance; Liu, Feng; Pelz, Karsten; Prehm, Marko; Baumeister, Ute; Hahn, Harald; Lang, Heinrich; Gehring, Gillian A.; Weber, Christa H. M.; Hobbs, Jamie K.; Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2011-03-01

    T-shaped molecules with a rod-like aromatic core and a flexible side chain form liquid crystal honeycombs with aromatic cell walls and a cell interior filled with the side chains. Here, we show how the addition of a second chain, incompatible with the first (X-shaped molecules), can form honeycombs with highly complex tiling patterns, with cells of up to five different compositions (“colors”) and polygonal shapes. The complexity is caused by the inability of the side chains to separate cleanly because of geometric frustration. Furthermore, a thermoreversible transition was observed between a multicolor (phase-separated) and a single-color (mixed) honeycomb phase. This is analogous to the Curie transition in simple and frustrated ferro- and antiferromagnets; here spin flips are replaced by 180° reorientations of the molecules.

  16. In-flight investigation of shuttle tile pressure orifice installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1990-09-01

    To determine shuttle orbiter wing loads during ascent, wing load instrumentation was added to Columbia (OV-102). This instrumentation included strain gages and pressure orifices on the wing. The loads derived from wing pressure measurements taken during STS 61-C did not agree with those derived from strain gage measurements or with the loads predicted from the aerodynamic database. Anomalies in the surface immediately surrounding the pressure orifices in the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles were one possible cause of errors in the loads derived from wing pressure measurements. These surface anomalies were caused by a ceramic filler material which was installed around the pressure tubing. The filler material allowed slight movement of the TPS tile and pressure tube as the airframe flexed and bent under aerodynamic loads during ascent and descent. Postflight inspection revealed that this filler material had protruded from or receeded beneath the surface, causing the orifice to lose its flushness. Flight tests were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility to determine the effects of any anomaly in surface flushness of the orifice installation on the measured pressures at Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.4. An F-104 aircraft with a flight test fixture mounted beneath the fuselage was used for these flights. Surface flushness anomalies typical of those on the orbiter after flight (STA 61-C) were tested. Also, cases with excessive protrusion and recession of the filler material were tested. This report shows that the anomalies in STS 61-C orifice installations adversely affected the pressure measurements. But the magnitude of the affect was not great enough to account for the discrepancies with the strain gage measurements and the aerodynamic predictions.

  17. In-flight investigation of shuttle tile pressure orifice installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    To determine shuttle orbiter wing loads during ascent, wing load instrumentation was added to Columbia (OV-102). This instrumentation included strain gages and pressure orifices on the wing. The loads derived from wing pressure measurements taken during STS 61-C did not agree with those derived from strain gage measurements or with the loads predicted from the aerodynamic database. Anomalies in the surface immediately surrounding the pressure orifices in the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles were one possible cause of errors in the loads derived from wing pressure measurements. These surface anomalies were caused by a ceramic filler material which was installed around the pressure tubing. The filler material allowed slight movement of the TPS tile and pressure tube as the airframe flexed and bent under aerodynamic loads during ascent and descent. Postflight inspection revealed that this filler material had protruded from or receeded beneath the surface, causing the orifice to lose its flushness. Flight tests were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility to determine the effects of any anomaly in surface flushness of the orifice installation on the measured pressures at Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.4. An F-104 aircraft with a flight test fixture mounted beneath the fuselage was used for these flights. Surface flushness anomalies typical of those on the orbiter after flight (STA 61-C) were tested. Also, cases with excessive protrusion and recession of the filler material were tested. This report shows that the anomalies in STS 61-C orifice installations adversely affected the pressure measurements. But the magnitude of the affect was not great enough to account for the discrepancies with the strain gage measurements and the aerodynamic predictions.

  18. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Srinka; Hirsch, Heather A; Sekinger, Edward A; Kapranov, Philipp; Struhl, Kevin; Gingeras, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. Results We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function – to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. Conclusion The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value < 0.003; it is most significant at the 5' end of genes, at a p-value < 10-13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1]. PMID:17892592

  19. Nondeterministic self-assembly of two tile types on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoro, S.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembly is ubiquitous in nature, particularly in biology, where it underlies the formation of protein quaternary structure and protein aggregation. Quaternary structure assembles deterministically and performs a wide range of important functions in the cell, whereas protein aggregation is the hallmark of a number of diseases and represents a nondeterministic self-assembly process. Here we build on previous work on a lattice model of deterministic self-assembly to investigate nondeterministic self-assembly of single lattice tiles and mixtures of two tiles at varying relative concentrations. Despite limiting the simplicity of the model to two interface types, which results in 13 topologically distinct single tiles and 106 topologically distinct sets of two tiles, we observe a wide variety of concentration-dependent behaviors. Several two-tile sets display critical behaviors in the form of a sharp transition from bound to unbound structures as the relative concentration of one tile to another increases. Other sets exhibit gradual monotonic changes in structural density, or nonmonotonic changes, while again others show no concentration dependence at all. We catalog this extensive range of behaviors and present a model that provides a reasonably good estimate of the critical concentrations for a subset of the critical transitions. In addition, we show that the structures resulting from these tile sets are fractal, with one of two different fractal dimensions.

  20. Analytical and experimental evaluations of Space Shuttle TPS tile vibration response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical studies and laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the vibration response of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles due to the intense rocket generated acoustic noise during lift-off. The TPS tiles are mounted over the exterior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter structure through Strain Isolation Pads (SIP) which protect the tiles from thermal induced shear loads at their interface. The analytical predictions indicate that the response of a typical tile is governed by the structural vibration inputs through the SIP under the tile at frequencies below 250 Hz, and by the direct acoustic excitation over the exterior surface of the tile at frequencies above 250 Hz. An evaluation of the laboratory test data for this same tile, in which conditioned (partial) coherent output spectral analysis procedures were used, leads to exactly the same conclusion. The results demonstrate the power of conditioned spectral analysis procedures in identifying vibration response mechanisms when two or more of the inputs are highly correlated.

  1. Duplication of a Single Neuron in C. elegans Reveals a Pathway for Dendrite Tiling by Mutual Repulsion.

    PubMed

    Yip, Zhiqi Candice; Heiman, Maxwell G

    2016-06-01

    Simple cell-cell interactions can give rise to complex cellular patterns. For example, neurons of the same type can interact to create a complex patchwork of non-overlapping dendrite arbors, a pattern known as dendrite tiling. Dendrite tiling often involves mutual repulsion between neighboring neurons. While dendrite tiling is found across nervous systems, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a relatively simple nervous system with few opportunities for tiling. Here, we show that genetic duplication of a single neuron, PVD, is sufficient to create dendrite tiling among the resulting ectopic neurons. We use laser ablation to show that this tiling is mediated by mutual repulsion between neighbors. Furthermore, we find that tiling requires a repulsion signal (UNC-6/Netrin and its receptors UNC-40/DCC and UNC-5) that normally patterns the PVD dendrite arbor. These results demonstrate that an apparently complex cellular pattern can emerge in a simple nervous system merely by increasing neuron number. PMID:27239028

  2. Conduction in a two-phase plane with diamond-shaped tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsing, Johan; Grimvall, Göran; Bao, Ke-da

    1991-07-01

    The effective conductivity of a two-phase two-dimensional composite with diamond-shaped tiling is considered. This analysis, based on a projection of the boundary conditions on linear combinations of solutions to the electrostatic equation that are orthonormal on the boundary, generalizes results by Keller [J. Math. Phys. 28, 2516 (1987)] and others. Numerical results are given for several conductivity ratios of the two phases and for varying obtuse angles of the tiles. Special emphasis is given to very large and very small conductivity differences, and very elongated tiles.

  3. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  4. Electrospun SiO2 "necklaces" on unglazed ceramic tiles: a planarizing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Alessandro; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-05-01

    Silica based nanofibres have been deposited on unglazed ceramic tiles by combining electrospinning and sol-gel processes. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) alcoholic solutions and commercial spin on glass (Accuglass) mixtures have been used to obtain composite fibrous non-woven mats totally converted, after thermal annealing at 600 °C, to SiO2 microsphere "necklaces". The possibility to get an uniform fibres coverage onto the tile surface confirms the validity of electrospinning (easily scalable to large surface samples) as coating strategy to cover the macroscopic defects typical of the polished unglazed tile surface and improve surface planarization.

  5. A prediction method for flow in the Shuttle tile strain isolation pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1987-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system uses a Strain Isolation Pad (SIP) between the tile and the Orbiter. This paper presents experimental measurements of the pressure drop and associated flow rate through a sample of the SIP material. Included are data for a range of air densities representative of Shuttle ascent and re-entry trajectories. Also presented are new theoretical and correlative methods which predict the experimental data. These methods will help in predicting venting characteristics of tile assemblies during ascent, and hot gas leak under the tiles during descent. The predictive philosophy developed is useful in the study of fibrous and porous media fluid mechanics.

  6. Gap heating with pressure gradients. [for Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.; Maraia, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The heating rate distribution and temperature response on the gap walls of insulating tiles is analyzed to determine significant phenomena and parameters in flows where there is an external surface pressure gradient. Convective heating due to gap flow, modeled as fully developed pipe flow, is coupled with a two-dimensional thermal model of the tiles that includes conduction and radiative heat transfer. To account for geometry and important environmental parameters, scale factors are obtained by curve-fitting measured temperatures to analytical solutions. These scale factors are then used to predict the time-dependent gap heat flux and temperature response of tile gaps on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry.

  7. Thermal insulation attaching means. [adhesive bonding of felt vibration insulators under ceramic tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved isolation system is provided for attaching ceramic tiles of insulating material to the surface of a structure to be protected against extreme temperatures of the nature expected to be encountered by the space shuttle orbiter. This system isolates the fragile ceramic tiles from thermally and mechanically induced vehicle structural strains. The insulating tiles are affixed to a felt isolation pad formed of closely arranged and randomly oriented fibers by means of a flexible adhesive and in turn the felt pad is affixed to the metallic vehicle structure by an additional layer of flexible adhesive.

  8. Efficiency and timing resolution of scintillator tiles read out with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooth, O.; Weingarten, S.; Weinstock, L.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are semiconductor photo sensors that have the potential to replace photomultiplier tubes (PMT) in various fields of application. We present detectors consisting of 30 × 30 × 0.5 cm3 fast plastic scintillator tiles read out with SiPMs. The detectors offer great electronic and mechanical advantages over the classical PMT-scintillator combination. SiPMs are very compact devices that run independent of magnetic fields at low voltages and no light guides between the scintillator and the SiPM are necessary in the presented layouts. Three prototypes, two of which with integrated wavelength shifting fibres, have been tested in a proton beam at the COSY accelerator at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The different layouts are compared in terms of most probable pulse height, detection efficiency and noise behaviour as well as timing resolution. The spatial distributions of these properties across the scintillator surface are presented. The best layout can be operated at a mean efficiency of bar epsilon=99.9 % while sustaining low noise rates in the order of 10 Hz with a timing resolution of less than 3 ns. Both efficiency and timing resolution show good spatial homogeneity.

  9. Hydrologic Impact Of Subsurface Drainage Of Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Johannsen, C. J.; Bowling, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Although subsurface drainage has benefited agricultural productions in many regions of the U.S., there are also concerns about the potential impacts of these systems on watershed hydrology and water quality. This study was focused on tile lines identification and hydrologic response of subsurface drainage systems for the Agronomy Center for Research and Education (ACRE), West Lafayette, Indiana and the Southeastern Purdue Agriculture Center (SEPAC) in southeastern, Indiana. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a remote sensing methodology for automatic detection of tile lines from aerial photographs and to evaluate the Distributed Hydrology Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to analyze the hydrologic response of tile drained fields. A step-wise approach was developed to first use different image enhancement techniques to increase the visual distinction of tile lines from other details in the image. A new classification model was developed to identify locations of subsurface tiles using a decision tree classifier which compares the multiple data sets such as enhanced image data, land use class, soil drainage class, hydrologic group and surface slope. Accuracy assessment of the predicted tile map was done by comparing the locations of tile drains with existing historic maps and ground-truth data. The overall performance of decision tree classifier model coupled with other pre- and post- classification methods shows that this model can be a very effective tool in identifying tile lines from aerial photographs over large areas of land. Once the tile map was created, the DHSVM was applied to ACRE and SEPAC respectively to see the hydrological impact of the subsurface drainage network. Observed data for 3-years (1998-2000) at ACRE and for 6-years (1993-1998) at SEPAC were used to calibrate and validate the model. The model was simulated for three scenarios: 1) baseline scenario (no tiles), 2) with known tile lines and 3) with tile lines created through

  10. Large-aperture deformable mirror correction of tiled-grating wavefront error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, B. E.; Jungquist, R.; Qiao, J.; Abbey, S.; Dean, S. E.; Maywar, D. N.; Moore, M. D.; Waxer, L. J.; Wilson, M. E.

    2006-06-01

    When tiling three gratings, with each individually exhibiting astigmatism and power due to holographic errors and coating stress, the resulting wavefront aberrations contain high-frequency components as well as the fundamental frequency, which is nearly three cycles across the aperture in the tiling direction. A deformable mirror (DM) that was designed to compensate for much slower errors (e.g., those arising from distortion in amplifier disks) is being used to compensate for this tiling-induced error. This investigation studies the effectiveness of compensating only the fundamental frequency of the tiled aberration, and shows that this provides a significant improvement that is adequate for a range of expected aberrations. Limitations of the DM correction technique are also studied.

  11. Study of outgassing and decomposition of space shuttle heat protection tiles, fillers and adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. L.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the chemicals desorbing from the space shuttle heat protection tiles. The original protocol for this project involved direct insertion probe mass spectrometry (DIPMS) analysis of the outgassing products from the tiles. However, this method proved unsatisfactory due to the large number of compounds desorbing from the tiles. A purge and trap technique was then employed to collect and separate the chemicals desorbing from the tiles. The maximum temperature in this analysis was 180 C which is the gas chromatograph fused silica capillary column's temperature limit. The desorption was also carried out at atmospheric pressure with helium as the purge gas. A description of the modified protocol is given. All compounds are tentatively identified.

  12. Recycling of stone cutting sludge in formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Zboon, Kamel; Tahat, Montasser; Abu-Hamatteh, Ziad S H; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad S

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the possibility for enhancing the use of stone cutting sludge waste in the production of building bricks and terrazzo tiles, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production costs. Stone cutting wastes in the form of sludge is currently generated at several factories in Jordan. At the Samara factory, incorporation of the sludge in the batch formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles was examined. The physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sludge were analyzed to identify the major components. Results indicated that the sludge generated from stone cutting could be used in producing concrete bricks. Mixtures of aggregates with added amounts of sludge were used successfully to produce non-load bearing bricks. Sludge was also used to produce terrazzo tiles and the results indicate that the transverse strength, water absorption and tile measurements, for all the taken samples, comply with Jordanian standards. The transverse strength decreased while water absorption increased as the sludge ratio increased. PMID:19837706

  13. 16. DETAIL OF 34TH STREET OVERPASS, SHOWING TRIM AND TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF 34TH STREET OVERPASS, SHOWING TRIM AND TILE WORK. - Connecting Railway, Schuylkill River Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, north of Girard Avenue Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Catalytic surface effects on contaminated space shuttle tile in a dissociated nitrogen stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, O. L.; Stewart, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Visual inspection revealed contamination on the surface of tiles removed from the lower section of the space shuttle orbiter after the second flight of Columbia (STS-2). Possible sources of this contamination and the effect on surface catalycity are presented.

  15. Aerodynamic heating in gaps of thermal protection system tile arrays in laminar and turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental heat-transfer investigation was conducted on two staggered arrays of metallic tiles in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. This investigation was conducted for two purposes. The impingement heating distribution where flow in a longitudinal gap intersects a transverse gap and impinges on a downstream blocking tile was defined. The influence of tile and gap geometries was analyzed to develop empirical relationships for impingement heating in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Tests were conducted in a high temperature structures tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 7, a nominal total temperature of 1800 K, and free-stream unit Reynolds numbers from 1.0 x 10 million to 4.8 x 10 million per meter. The test results were used to assess the impingement heating effects produced by parameters that include gap width, longitudinal gap length, slope of the tile forward-facing wall, boundary-layer displacement thickness, Reynolds number, and local surface pressure.

  16. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  17. Heat Transfer Measurement and Modeling in Rigid High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Cunnington, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer in rigid reusable surface insulations was investigated. Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements in a vacuum were used to determine the combined contribution of radiation and solid conduction components of heat transfer. Thermal conductivity measurements at higher pressures were then used to estimate the effective insulation characteristic length for gas conduction modeling. The thermal conductivity of the insulation can then be estimated at any temperature and pressure in any gaseous media. The methodology was validated by comparing estimated thermal conductivities with published data on a rigid high-temperature silica reusable surface insulation tile. The methodology was also applied to the alumina enhanced thermal barrier tiles. Thermal contact resistance for thermal conductivity measurements on rigid tiles was also investigated. A technique was developed to effectively eliminate thermal contact resistance on the rigid tile s cold-side surface for the thermal conductivity measurements.

  18. Construction of DNA nanotubes with controllable diameters and patterns using hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaolong; Wu, Xiaoxu; Song, Tao; Li, Xin

    2016-08-21

    The design of DNA nanotubes is a promising and hot research branch in structural DNA nanotechnology, which is rapidly developing as a versatile method for achieving subtle nanometer scale materials and molecular diagnostic/curative devices. Multifarious methods have been proposed to achieve varied DNA nanotubes, such as using square tiles and single-stranded tiles, but it is still a challenge to develop a bottom-up assembly way to build DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns using certain universal DNA nanostructures. This work addresses the challenge by assembling three types of spatial DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns from the so-called "basic bricks", i.e., hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. A high processing rate and throughput synthesis of DNA nanotubes are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Experimental observations and data analysis suggests the stability and controllability of DNA nanotubes assembled by hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. PMID:27444699

  19. A Route to Scale Up DNA Origami Using DNA Tiles as Folding Staples

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhao; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2010-01-26

    A new strategy is presented to scale up DNA origami using multi-helical DNA tiles as folding staples. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrate the two-dimensional structures formed by using this strategy.

  20. Construction of DNA nanotubes with controllable diameters and patterns using hierarchical DNA sub-tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Wu, Xiaoxu; Song, Tao; Li, Xin

    2016-08-01

    The design of DNA nanotubes is a promising and hot research branch in structural DNA nanotechnology, which is rapidly developing as a versatile method for achieving subtle nanometer scale materials and molecular diagnostic/curative devices. Multifarious methods have been proposed to achieve varied DNA nanotubes, such as using square tiles and single-stranded tiles, but it is still a challenge to develop a bottom-up assembly way to build DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns using certain universal DNA nanostructures. This work addresses the challenge by assembling three types of spatial DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns from the so-called ``basic bricks'', i.e., hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. A high processing rate and throughput synthesis of DNA nanotubes are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Experimental observations and data analysis suggests the stability and controllability of DNA nanotubes assembled by hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.

  1. Control of DNA origami inter-tile connection with vertical linkers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Risheng; Gorday, Kent; Nuckolls, Colin; Wind, Shalom J

    2016-01-28

    This communication describes a new method that enables high yield assembly along both of the two-dimensional edges of DNA origami tiles by controlling the Mg(2+) concentration; high Mg(2+) concentrations promote linkage connections between the vertical edges of the tiles. As a demonstration, DNA origami dimers assembled from two rectangular origami along the vertical edges are used as scaffolds for the double sided assembly of gold nanoparticles with different inter-particle spacings. PMID:26662034

  2. Tile drainage phosphorus loss with long-term consistent cropping systems and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Drury, C F

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage water may vary with agricultural practices, and the impacts are often hard to detect with short-term studies. We evaluated the effects of long-term (≥43 yr) cropping systems (continuous corn [CC], corn-oats-alfalfa-alfalfa rotation [CR], and continuous grass [CS]) and fertilization (fertilization [F] vs. no-fertilization [NF]) on P loss in tile drainage water from a clay loam soil over a 4-yr period. Compared with NF, long-term fertilization increased concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive P (DRP), dissolved unreactive P (DURP), and total P (TP) in tile drainage water, with the increments following the order: CS > CR > CC. Dissolved P (dissolved reactive P [DRP] and dissolved unreactive P [DURP]) was the dominant P form in drainage outflow, accounting for 72% of TP loss under F-CS, whereas particulate P (PP) was the major form of TP loss under F-CC (72%), F-CR (62%), NF-CS (66%), NF-CC (74%), and NF-CR (72%). Dissolved unreactive P played nearly equal roles as DRP in P losses in tile drainage water. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentration of P (DRP, DURP, and PP) in tile drainage flow, rather than event flow volume, was the most important factor contributing to P loss in tile drainage water, although event flow volume was more important in PP loss than in dissolved P loss. Continuous grass significantly increased P loss by increasing P concentration and flow volume of tile drainage water, especially under the fertilization treatment. Long-term grasslands may become a significant P source in tile-drained systems when they receive regular P addition. PMID:26023969

  3. Method and apparatus for an optical function generator for seamless tiled displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael (Inventor); Chen, Chung-Jen (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Producing seamless tiled images from multiple displays includes measuring a luminance profile of each of the displays, computing a desired luminance profile for each of the displays, and determining a spatial gradient profile of each of the displays based on the measured luminance profile and the computed desired luminance profile. The determined spatial gradient profile is applied to a spatial filter to be inserted into each of the displays to produce the seamless tiled display image.

  4. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available. PMID:26599984

  5. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available. PMID:26599984

  6. Effect of DNA hairpin loops on the twist of planar DNA origami tiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Lei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2012-01-31

    The development of scaffolded DNA origami, a technique in which a long single-stranded viral genome is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides, represents an important milestone in DNA nanotechnology. Recent findings have revealed that two-dimensional (2D) DNA origami structures based on the original design parameters adopt a global twist with respect to the tile plane, which may be because the conformation of the constituent DNA (10.67 bp/turn) deviates from the natural B-type helical twist (10.4 bp/turn). Here we aim to characterize the effects of DNA hairpin loops on the overall curvature of the tile and explore their ability to control, and ultimately eliminate any unwanted curvature. A series of dumbbell-shaped DNA loops were selectively displayed on the surface of DNA origami tiles with the expectation that repulsive interactions among the neighboring dumbbell loops and between the loops and the DNA origami tile would influence the structural features of the underlying tiles. A systematic, atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of how the number and position of the DNA loops influenced the global twist of the structure was performed, and several structural models to explain the results were proposed. The observations unambiguously revealed that the first generation of rectangular shaped origami tiles adopt a conformation in which the upper right (corner 2) and bottom left (corner 4) corners bend upward out of the plane, causing linear superstructures attached by these corners to form twisted ribbons. Our experimental observations are consistent with the twist model predicted by the DNA mechanical property simulation software CanDo. Through the systematic design and organization of various numbers of dumbbell loops on both surfaces of the tile, a nearly planar rectangular origami tile was achieved. PMID:22126326

  7. Modelling rapid flow response of a tile drained hillslope with explicit representation of preferential flow paths and consideration of equifinal model structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Rapid water flow along spatially connected - often biologically mediated - flow paths of minimum flow resistance is widely acknowledged to play a key role in runoff generation at the hillslope and small catchment scales but also in the transport of solutes like agro chemicals and nutrients in cohesive soils. Especially at tile drained fields site connected vertical flow structures such as worm burrows, roots or shrinkage cracks act as short cuts allowing water flow to bypass the soil matrix. In the present study we propose a spatially explicit approach to represent worm burrows as connected structures of high conductivity and low retention capacity in a 2D physically model. With this approach tile drain discharge and preferential flow patterns in soil observed during the irrigation of a tile drained hillslope in the Weiherbach catchment were modelled. The model parameters derived from measurements and are considered to be uncertain. Given this uncertainty of key factors that organise flow and transport at tile drained sites the main objectives of the present studies are to shed light on the following three questions: 1. Does a simplified approach that explicitly represents worm burrows as continuous flow paths of small flow resistance and low retention properties in a 2D physically model allow successful reproduction of event flow response at a tile drained field site in the Weiherbach catchment? 2. Does the above described uncertainty in key factors cause equifinality i.e. are there several model structural setups that reproduce event flow response in an acceptable manner without compromising our physical understanding of the system? 3. If so, what are the key factors that have to be known at high accuracy to reduce the equifinality of model structures? The issue of equifinality is usually discussed in catchment modelling to indicate that often a large set of conceptual model parameter sets allows acceptable reproduction of the behaviour of the system of interest

  8. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  9. Application of laser-based methods and finite element analysis to bond verfication of space shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.; Mueller, Steven A.; Davis, Richard M.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes a novel application of a laser-based vibration measuring system and finite element modeling to evaluate the bond condition of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tiles. This application is based on characterizing the vibrational response of tiles when excited by an audible acoustic energy. Finite element models for tile assemblies which are comprised of tiles, SIP, and RTV layers attached to the Orbiter aluminum skin are first developed. The mathematical model considered the actual orthotropic material properties, different geometrical configurations as well as different bond conditions. The tiles' natural frequencies and mode shapes are then determined and their frequency responses due to simulated sound pressure are computed. The computed frequency response of a tile having a disbond indicates a decrease in its natural frequencies. This can be used to quickly identify the disbonded tiles. However, the exact size and location of the disbond are determined from the computed rigid- body vibrational modes. The finite element results are compared with experimentally determined frequency responses of a 17-tile test panel, where a rapid scan laser system was employed. An excellent degree of correlation between the mathematical simulation and experimental results is realized. The paper also reports on laser-based modal and shearographic testing performed on tiles of Space Shuttle Columbia. Again, the results demonstrate that experimental modal analysis, when combined with finite element modeling, can be successfully used as a reliable nondestructive, non-contact technique for tile bond verification.

  10. Characterizing DNA Star-Tile-Based Nanostructures Using a Coarse-Grained Model.

    PubMed

    Schreck, John S; Romano, Flavio; Zimmer, Matthew H; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K

    2016-04-26

    We use oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA at the nucleotide level, to simulate large nanoprisms that are composed of multi-arm star tiles, in which the size of bulge loops that have been incorporated into the tile design is used to control the flexibility of the tiles. The oxDNA model predicts equilibrium structures for several different nanoprism designs that are in excellent agreement with the experimental structures as measured by cryoTEM. In particular we reproduce the chiral twisting of the top and bottom faces of the nanoprisms, as the bulge sizes in these structures are varied due to the greater flexibility of larger bulges. We are also able to follow how the properties of the star tiles evolve as the prisms are assembled. Individual star tiles are very flexible, but their structures become increasingly well-defined and rigid as they are incorporated into larger assemblies. oxDNA also finds that the experimentally observed prisms are more stable than their inverted counterparts, but interestingly this preference for the arms of the tiles to bend in a given direction only emerges after they are part of larger assemblies. These results show the potential for oxDNA to provide detailed structural insight as well as to predict the properties of DNA nanostructures and hence to aid rational design in DNA nanotechnology. PMID:27010928

  11. Fast optimal genome tiling with applications to microarray design and homology search.

    PubMed

    Berman, Piotr; Bertone, Paul; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Gerstein, Mark; Kao, Ming-Yang; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider several variations of the following basic tiling problem: given a sequence of real numbers with two size-bound parameters, we want to find a set of tiles of maximum total weight such that each tiles satisfies the size bounds. A solution to this problem is important to a number of computational biology applications such as selecting genomic DNA fragments for PCR-based amplicon microarrays and performing homology searches with long sequence queries. Our goal is to design efficient algorithms with linear or near-linear time and space in the normal range of parameter values for these problems. For this purpose, we first discuss the solution to a basic online interval maximum problem via a sliding-window approach and show how to use this solution in a nontrivial manner for many of the tiling problems introduced. We also discuss NP-hardness results and approximation algorithms for generalizing our basic tiling problem to higher dimensions. Finally, computational results from applying our tiling algorithms to genomic sequences of five model eukaryotes are reported. PMID:15579244

  12. Transport pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus in tile-drained cranberry farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. D.; Alversion, N.; Jeranyama, P.; DeMoranville, C.; Sandler, H.; Caruso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid, controlled drainage of cranberry farms is critical to optimizing production in Massachusetts, where approximately 1/3 of the industry's crop is produced. Relatively new to cranberry farming, tile drainage has been billed as a low-cost drainage management option for reducing crop disease and weed infestations. Despite its well documented agronomic benefits, tile drainage may exacerbate nutrient loss and promote eutrophication in nearby ponds receiving cranberry drainage waters. In this study, a monitoring program was established on a Massachusetts cranberry bed to quantify (1) mass loss of nitrogen and phosphorous via tile drainage to a perimeter ditch surrounding the cranberry bed, (2) the attenuation of N and P in the ditch prior to discharge from the cranberry bed, and (3) and the component contributions of preferential vs. matrix transport of N and P in tile drainage. A combination of compound weirs, acoustic-velocity meters, propeller-driven flow meters, and rain gauges were installed to quantify drainage management characteristics of the cranberry bed. Automatic samplers were also installed to collect water samples at each monitoring site (i.e., four tile drains, an irrigation pond, and a flume used to control ditch height) for analysis of N and P concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to estimate nutrient loss and transport pathways. These data will be used to develop a mechanistic synthesis of nutrient cycling in tile-drained cranberry beds.

  13. Estimation of Tile Drainage Contribution to Streamflow and Nutrient Export Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, K. E.; Arenas Amado, A.; Jones, C. S.; Weber, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a very common practice in the agricultural U.S. Midwest. It is typically installed in poorly drained soils in order to enhance crop yields. The presence of tile drains creates a route for agrichemicals to travel and therefore negatively impacts stream water quality. This study estimated through end-member analyses the contributions of tile drainage, groundwater, and surface runoff to streamflow at the watershed scale based on continuously monitored data. Especial attention was devoted to quantifying tile drainage impact on watershed streamflow and nutrient export loads. Data analyzed includes streamflow, rainfall, soil moisture, shallow groundwater levels, in-stream nitrate+nitrite concentrations and specific conductance. Data were collected at a HUC12 watershed located in Northeast Iowa, USA. Approximately 60% of the total watershed area is devoted to agricultural activities and forest and grassland are the other two predominant land uses. Results show that approximately 20% of total annual streamflow comes from tile drainage and during rainfall events tile drainage contribution can go up to 30%. Furthermore, for most of the analyzed rainfall events groundwater responded faster and in a more dramatic fashion than tile drainage. The State of Iowa is currently carrying out a plan to reduce nutrients in Iowa waters and the Gulf of Mexico (Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy). The outcome of this investigation has the potential to assist in Best Management Practice (BMP) scenario selection and therefore help the state achieve water quality goals.

  14. 2D capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer using novel tiling based on silicon frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngil; Cho, Kyungil; Kim, Baehyung; Lee, Seungheun; Jeon, Taeho; Song, Jongkeun

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we showed the new transducer and probe integration of 2D ultrasound probe using cMUT. cMUT ultrasound probe having 8192 elements is assembled with tiling frame. Flip chip bonded cMUT-ASIC tiles were arrayed along 2×8 directions to enlarge lateral aperture. Tiling gap between two tiles was under 100μm. RTV layer that has 1mm thick is used in 2-D probe system as a lens and protection layer. Thermal module is also analyzed by using the thermal network analysis, which is realized with the air fans and the fins. Designed PCB circuit for tiling module which is considered with cooling spread concept is 5cm × 5cm dimension. Uniformity and performance of tiled ultrasound transducer were tested under soybean oil at 3MHz frequency successfully. The measured 256 elements distribution has only 4.45% deviation. If we can remove the side edge error, the deviation will be under 3%. The performance after RTV lensing showed 35% attenuation in Tx and 35~45% attenuation in Rx.

  15. Impact of macroporosity on pesticide losses from tile-drained soils in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiktak, A.; Hendriks, R. F. A.; Boesten, J. J. T. I.

    2009-04-01

    Spatially-distributed pesticide leaching models are now commonly accepted in pesticide registration procedures and policy evaluations. For example, in the Netherlands the GeoPEARL model (Tiktak et al., 2002) is used to evaluate leaching to groundwater and surface waters. In surface waters, the peak concentration of pesticides is considered an important ecological endpoint. So far, the leaching models were less suitable to describe this endpoint, because procedures to fully parameterise fast transfer routes (amongst others by macropores) through the soil were not available at the national scale. For this reason, a macropore flow version of the pesticide leaching model GeoPEARL model has been developed. The model describes the transport of pesticides through the soil matrix and through two preferential flow domains, i.e. a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain (Kroes et al., 2008). Macropores can be either permanent or temporary (due to shrinking of soils). Exchange between the macropores and the soil matrix in the saturated zone is described by Darcy flow, infiltration from macropores into the unsaturated zone is described with Philip's sorptivity. The maximum depth of the macropores in both domains is related to the mean lowest groundwater depth. Experimental studies showed a good correspondence between macroporosity and the Coefficient of Linear Extensibility (COLE). The COLE is related to organic matter and clay content. Parameters of the shrinkage characteristics were related to organic matter, clay content and moisture content at saturation. Mean aggregate size (necessary in the description of exchange between the macropores and the matrix) is described by an equation published by Jarvis et al. (2007). Application of the model to a tile-drained field-site showed that the model could adequately describe the peak concentration and the later decline of the concentration for two different pesticides. Application of the model at the national scale shows

  16. Crystallization and tile separation in the multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Jacques Henri; Fanchon, Jean

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the self-organization of simple mobile agents confined in a two-dimension rectangular area. Each agent interacts with its neighbors inside an interaction disk and moves following various types of force-driven couplings (e.g. repulsion or attraction). The agents do not know their absolute position, do not exchange messages, have no memory, and no learning capabilities. We first study the self-organization appearing in systems made-up with one sole type of agents, initially generated at random in the terrain. By changing the agent-agent repulsive interaction, we observe five different population reorganizations, namely, grouping, diffusion (that is classical), but especially interesting, crystallization (i.e., the agents group together on the vertices a regular hexagonal lattice), alignment along straight lines, and vortex dynamics. Then, we consider reorganization in systems made-up from two to five types of agents, where each pair of agent types has specific interaction parameters. The main result of this work is to show that, by only changing the agent-agent repulsion rules, one can generate hexagonal or rectangular multi-agent crystals or on the contrary, induce complete separation in regular hexagonal tiles.

  17. Hitting Matrix and Domino Tiling with Diagonal Impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Fumihiko; Sadahiro, Taizo

    2013-06-01

    As a continuation to our previous work (Nakano and Sadahiro in Fundam. Inform. 117:249-264, 2012; Nakano and Sadahiro in J. Stat. Phys. 139(4):565-597, 2010), we consider the domino tiling problem with impurities. (1) If we have more than two impurities on the boundary, we can compute the number of corresponding perfect matchings by using the hitting matrix method (Fomin in Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 353(9):3563-3583, 2001). (2) We have an alternative proof of the main result in Nakano and Sadahiro (Fundam. Inform. 117:249-264, 2012) and result in (1) above using the formula by Kenyon and Wilson (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363(3):1325-1364, 2011; Electron. J. Comb. 16(1):112, 2009) of counting the number of groves on circular planar graphs. (3) We study the behavior of the probability of finding the impurity at a given site when the size of the graph tends to infinity, as well as the scaling limit of those.

  18. Single-Stranded Tile Stoppers for Interlocked DNA Architectures.

    PubMed

    Valero, Julián; Lohmann, Finn; Keppner, Daniel; Famulok, Michael

    2016-06-16

    Interlocked DNA architectures are useful for DNA nanotechnology because of their mechanically bonded components, which can move relative to one another without disassembling. We describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel single-stranded tile (SST) stoppers for the assembly of interlocked DNA architectures. SST stoppers are shown to self-assemble into a square-shaped rigid structure upon mixing 97 oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) strands. The structures are equipped with a sticky end that is designed for hybridization with the sticky ends of a dsDNA axle of a DNA rotaxane. Because the diameter of the macrocycle threaded onto the axle is 14 nm, the dimension of the square-shaped stopper was designed to be bulky enough to prevent the dethreading of the macrocycle. An asymmetric rotaxane with a SST- and a ring-shaped stopper featuring two stations for hybridization of the macrocycle to the axle was assembled. The macrocycle can be directed towards one or the other station upon triggering with fuel ODNs. PMID:26972112

  19. The TileCal Optical Multiplexer Board 9U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Alberto; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. The system contains roughly 10,000 channels of read-out electronics, whose signals are gathered and digitized in the front-end electronics and then transmitted to the counting room through two redundant optical links. Then, the data is received in the back-end system by the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB) 9U which performs a CRC check to the redundant data to avoid Single Event Upsets errors. A real-time decision is taken on the event-to-event basis to transmit single data to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) for processing. Due to the low dose level expected during the first years of operations in ATLAS it was decided not to use a redundant system and currently the front-end electronics is directly connected to the RODs. However, the increasing luminosity of the LHC will force to use the redundant read-out and the OMB system will be installed. Moreover, the OMB can be used as a ROD injector to emulate the front-end electronics for ROD software tests during detector maintenance periods taking advantage of its location in the data acquisition chain. First we will give a detailed description of the main components of the board and the different operation modes. Then, the production and qualification tests will be explained including a detailed description of the test-bench, software and validation protocols.

  20. Assembly models for Papovaviridae based on tiling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keef, T.; Taormina, A.; Twarock, R.

    2005-09-01

    A vital constituent of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence provides protection for the viral genome. Assembly models are developed for viral capsids built from protein building blocks that can assume different local bonding structures in the capsid. This situation occurs, for example, for viruses in the family of Papovaviridae, which are linked to cancer and are hence of particular interest for the health sector. More specifically, the viral capsids of the (pseudo-) T = 7 particles in this family consist of pentamers that exhibit two different types of bonding structures. While this scenario cannot be described mathematically in terms of Caspar-Klug theory (Caspar D L D and Klug A 1962 Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27 1), it can be modelled via tiling theory (Twarock R 2004 J. Theor. Biol. 226 477). The latter is used to encode the local bonding environment of the building blocks in a combinatorial structure, called the assembly tree, which is a basic ingredient in the derivation of assembly models for Papovaviridae along the lines of the equilibrium approach of Zlotnick (Zlotnick A 1994 J. Mol. Biol. 241 59). A phase space formalism is introduced to characterize the changes in the assembly pathways and intermediates triggered by the variations in the association energies characterizing the bonds between the building blocks in the capsid. Furthermore, the assembly pathways and concentrations of the statistically dominant assembly intermediates are determined. The example of Simian virus 40 is discussed in detail.

  1. Assembly models for Papovaviridae based on tiling theory.

    PubMed

    Keef, T; Taormina, A; Twarock, R

    2005-09-01

    A vital constituent of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence provides protection for the viral genome. Assembly models are developed for viral capsids built from protein building blocks that can assume different local bonding structures in the capsid. This situation occurs, for example, for viruses in the family of Papovaviridae, which are linked to cancer and are hence of particular interest for the health sector. More specifically, the viral capsids of the (pseudo-) T = 7 particles in this family consist of pentamers that exhibit two different types of bonding structures. While this scenario cannot be described mathematically in terms of Caspar-Klug theory (Caspar D L D and Klug A 1962 Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27 1), it can be modelled via tiling theory (Twarock R 2004 J. Theor. Biol. 226 477). The latter is used to encode the local bonding environment of the building blocks in a combinatorial structure, called the assembly tree, which is a basic ingredient in the derivation of assembly models for Papovaviridae along the lines of the equilibrium approach of Zlotnick (Zlotnick A 1994 J. Mol. Biol. 241 59). A phase space formalism is introduced to characterize the changes in the assembly pathways and intermediates triggered by the variations in the association energies characterizing the bonds between the building blocks in the capsid. Furthermore, the assembly pathways and concentrations of the statistically dominant assembly intermediates are determined. The example of Simian virus 40 is discussed in detail. PMID:16224123

  2. Superelement Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    Super-elements can greatly improve the computational efficiency of analyses of tile-reinforced structures such as the hull of the Composite Armored Vehicle. By taking advantage of the periodicity in this type of construction, super-elements can be used to simplify the task of modeling, to virtually eliminate the time required to assemble the stiffness matrices, and to reduce significantly the analysis solution time. Furthermore, super-elements are fully transferable between analyses and analysts, so that they provide a consistent method to share information and reduce duplication. This paper describes a methodology that was developed to model and analyze large upper hull components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The analyses are based on two types of superelement models. The first type is based on element-layering, which consists of modeling a laminate by using several layers of shell elements constrained together with compatibility equations. Element layering is used to ensure the proper transverse shear deformation in the laminate rubber layer. The second type of model uses three-dimensional elements. Since no graphical pre-processor currently supports super-elements, a special technique based on master-elements was developed. Master-elements are representations of super-elements that are used in conjunction with a custom translator to write the superelement connectivities as input decks for ABAQUS.

  3. Computational modeling of thin ceramic tiles backed by thin substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.; Anderson, C.E. Jr.; Cox, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Building on the work of Wilkins, Eulerian hydrocode calculations were performed with ceramic models to examine the behavior of thin ceramic tiles backed by a thin substrate. In order to match ballistic limit data it was necessary to include a pressure dependent flow stress for failed ceramic. Reasonable agreement is found between the modified model and ballistic limit data for a simulated armor piercing round impacting an AD-85 alumina/6061T6 aluminum laminate. Based upon this success, the modified model was used to examine the performance of a SiC/6061T6 aluminum laminate when impacted by an M80 ball round (7.62 mm) at muzzle velocity. The projectile undergoes large deformation, as does the aluminum backing sheet. The computational results indicate, for the M80 projectile impacting at muzzle velocity, that the ballistic limit thickness for the SiC/aluminum laminate should weigh 10% less than the ballistic limit thickness for steel. The talk will include a video tape of calculations.

  4. Modelling of the micrometric erosion pattern observed on the Tore Supra limiter tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellet, N.; Martin, C.; Pégourié, B.; Giacometti, G.; Gunn, J. P.; Cartry, G.; Languille, P.; Pardanaud, C.; Panayotis, S.; Amiard, G.; Marandet, Y.; Roubin, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the surface of carbon fibre composite tiles of the toroidal pump limiter of Tore Supra has been analysed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. In regions where fibres are perpendicular to the surface, a specific erosion pattern has been observed. It is constituted of a striation oriented with an angle oblique with respect to the magnetic field. The characteristic wavelength of this structure is micrometric, and similar to the fibre size. Modelling has been undertaken to reproduce this micrometric pattern. It is shown to originate from the carbon composite structure, for which it has been found by measurement using laboratory plasma that the erosion rate of the fibres is different from that of the surrounding matrix. Modelling emphasizes the effect of the impinging flux angle distributions of deuterium ions and carbon impurities that are preliminarily determined from computation of the magnetic sheath. In the case of deuterium the sheath is shown to have little effect on the particle trajectories for the simulation parameters considered here, although when impurities are included the sheath deflection is significant. Furthermore this study shows how the fibre organization in the composite influences the striation direction and points out the importance of the angular dependence of the sputtering yield.

  5. Fate of veterinary antibiotics in a macroporous tile drained clay soil.

    PubMed

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2004-05-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock through the application of organic fertilizers to land. For other groups of substances that are applied to agricultural land (e.g., pesticides), preferential flow in underdrained clay soils has been identified as an extremely important mechanism by which pollution of surface waters can occur. This study, therefore, was performed to investigate the fate of three antibiotics from the sulfonamide, tetracycline, and macrolide groups. Pig slurry was applied to a field in arable production in two consecutive years and the fate of the compounds was monitored in the soil and drainage water. Both sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline were detected in soil at concentrations up to 365 and 1691 microg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, peak concentrations of the two substances in drainflow were 613.2 and 36.1 microg/L, although mass losses to the receiving water were less than 0.5%. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. These findings could be explained by the persistence and sorption characteristics of the antibiotics, while preferential flow via desiccation cracks and worm channels to the tile drains was found to be the most important route for translocation of the chemicals. Thus, when the soil was disced prior to slurry application, losses were reduced significantly. It is evident that processes governing pesticide fate also apply to veterinary antibiotics. PMID:15180364

  6. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  7. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  8. Tethers as Debris: Simulating Impacts of Kevlar Tethers on Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper I examined the effects of impacts of polymer tethers on aluminum plates using the SPHC hydrodynamic code. In this paper I apply tether models to a new target - models of Space Shuttle tiles developed during the STS 107 accident investigation. In this three-dimensional simulation, a short tether fragment strikes a single tile supported on an aluminum backing plate. A tile of the LI-900 material is modeled. Penetration and damage to the tile and the backwall are characterized for three normal impact velocities. The tether is modeled as a bundle of eight 1-mm strands, with the bundle having dimensions 2-mm x 4-mm x 20-cm. The bulk material properties used are those of Kevlar(TradeMark) 49, for which a Mie-Gruneisen multiphase equation of state (eos) is used. In addition, the strength model is applied in a linear sense, such that tensile loads along the strand length are supported, but there is no strength in the lateral directions. Tile models include the various layers making up the tile structure. The outermost layer is a relatively dense borosilicate glass, known as RCG, 0.5-mm thick. The RCG layer is present on the top and four sides of the tile. Below this coating is the bulk of the tile, 1.8- in thick, made of LI-900, a product consisting of rigidized fiberous silica with a density of 9 lWft3. Below the main insulating layer is a bottom layer of the same material that has been treated to increase its density by approximately 69% to improve its strength. This densified layer is bonded to a Strain Isolation Pad (SIP), modeled as a refractory felt fabric. The SIP is bonded to an aluminum 2024 wall 0.1-in thick. The tile and backwall materials use a Me-Gruneisen multiphase eos, with the exception of the SIP felt, which uses a fabric equation of state. Fabrics must be crushed to the full bulk material density before bulk material properties and a Mie-Gruneisen eos are applied. Tether fragment impact speeds of 3,7, and 10 km/s are simulated, with

  9. Calibration and data quality systems of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run-I operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ženiš, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It consists of thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. The calibration scheme of the Tile Calorimeter comprises Cs radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. Each stage of the signal production of the calorimeter from scintillation light to digitization is monitored and equalized. Description of the different TileCal calibration systems as well as the results on their performance in terms of calibration factors, linearity and stability is given. The data quality procedures and efficiency of the Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run-1 data-taking period are presented as well.

  10. Heat transfer to surface and gaps of RSI tile arrays in turbulent flow at Mach 10.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Heat transfer to gap walls and surface of a simulated reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array are presented. The data were obtained in the thick, turbulent tunnel wall boundary layer of the Langley Continuous Flow Hypersonic Tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 10.3 and a freestream unit Reynolds number of one million. Pertinent test variables were: (1) tile array orientation (staggered and in-line), (2) gap width, (3) flow angularity, and (4) tile mismatch.

  11. Development of a nondestructive vibration technique for bond assessment of Space Shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1994-02-01

    This final report describes the achievements of the above titled project. The project is funded by NASA-KSC (Grant No. NAG 10-0117) for the period of 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1993. The purpose of this project was to develop a nondestructive, noncontact technique based on 'vibration signature' of tile systems to quantify the bond conditions of the thermal protection system) tiles of Space Shuttle orbiters. The technique uses a laser rapid scan system, modal measurements, and finite element modeling. Finite element models were developed for tiles bonded to both clamped and deformable integrated skin-stringer orbiter mid-fuselage. Results showed that the size and location of a disbonded tile can be determined from frequency and mode shape information. Moreover, a frequency response survey was used to quickly identify the disbonded tiles. The finite element results were compared with experimentally determined frequency responses of a 17-tile test panel, where a rapidscan laser system was employed. An excellent degree of correlation between the mathematical simulation and experimental results was realized. An inverse solution for single-tile assemblies was also derived and is being implemented into a computer program that can interact with the modal testing software. The output of the program displays the size and location of disbond. This program has been tested with simulated input (i.e., finite element data), and excellent agreement between predicted and simulated disbonds was shown. Finally, laser vibration imaging and acoustic emission techniques were shown to be well suited for detecting and monitoring the progressive damage in Graphite/Epoxy composite materials.

  12. Optimising the bioreceptivity of porous glass tiles based on colonization by the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Mas, V; Bond, T; Zhang, Z; Melchiorri, J; Cheeseman, C R

    2016-09-01

    Green façades on buildings can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. An option to obtain green facades is through the natural colonisation of construction materials. This can be achieved by engineering bioreceptive materials. Bioreceptivity is the susceptibility of a material to be colonised by living organisms. The aim of this research was to develop tiles made by sintering granular waste glass that were optimised for bioreceptivity of organisms capable of photosynthesis. Tiles were produced by pressing recycled soda-lime glass with a controlled particle size distribution and sintering compacted samples at temperatures between 680 and 740°C. The primary bioreceptivity of the tiles was evaluated by quantifying colonisation by the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), which was selected as a model photosynthetic micro-organism. Concentrations of C. vulgaris were measured using chlorophyll-a extraction. Relationships between bioreceptivity and the properties of the porous glass tile, including porosity, sorptivity, translucency and pH are reported. Capillary porosity and water sorptivity were the key factors influencing the bioreceptivity of porous glass. Maximum C. vulgaris growth and colonisation was obtained for tiles sintered at 700°C, with chlorophyll-a concentrations reaching up to 11.1±0.4μg/cm(2) of tile. Bioreceptivity was positively correlated with sorptivity and porosity and negatively correlated with light transmittance. The research demonstrates that the microstructure of porous glass, determined by the processing conditions, significantly influences bioreceptivity. Porous glass tiles with high bioreceptivity that are colonised by photosynthetic algae have the potential to form carbon-negative façades for buildings and green infrastructure. PMID:27135568

  13. Thermal certification tests of Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles coated with KSC coating slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milhoan, James D.; Pham, Vuong T.; Sherborne, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal tests of Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles, which were coated with borosilicate glass slurries fabricated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), were performed in the Radiant Heat Test Facility and the Atmospheric Reentry Materials & Structures Evaluation Facility at Johnson Space Center to verify tile coating integrity after exposure to multiple entry simulation cycles in both radiant and convective heating environments. Eight high temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) tiles and six low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were subjected to 25 cycles of radiant heat at peaked surface temperatures of 2300 F and 1200 F, respectively. For the LRSI tiles, an additional cycle at peaked surface temperature of 2100 F was performed. There was no coating crack on any of the HRSI specimens. However, there were eight small coating cracks (less than 2 inches long) on two of the six LRSI tiles on the 26th cycle. There was practically no change on the surface reflectivity, physical dimensions, or weight of any of the test specimens. There was no observable thermal-chemical degradation of the coating either. For the convective heat test, eight HRSI tiles were tested for five cycles at a surface temperature of 2300 F. There was no thermal-induced coating crack on any of the test specimens, almost no change on the surface reflectivity, and no observable thermal-chemical degradation with an exception of minor slumping of the coating under painted TPS identification numbers. The tests demonstrated that KSC's TPS slurries and coating processes meet the Orbiter's thermal specification requirements.

  14. Development of a nondestructive vibration technique for bond assessment of Space Shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1994-01-01

    This final report describes the achievements of the above titled project. The project is funded by NASA-KSC (Grant No. NAG 10-0117) for the period of 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1993. The purpose of this project was to develop a nondestructive, noncontact technique based on 'vibration signature' of tile systems to quantify the bond conditions of the thermal protection system) tiles of Space Shuttle orbiters. The technique uses a laser rapid scan system, modal measurements, and finite element modeling. Finite element models were developed for tiles bonded to both clamped and deformable integrated skin-stringer orbiter mid-fuselage. Results showed that the size and location of a disbonded tile can be determined from frequency and mode shape information. Moreover, a frequency response survey was used to quickly identify the disbonded tiles. The finite element results were compared with experimentally determined frequency responses of a 17-tile test panel, where a rapidscan laser system was employed. An excellent degree of correlation between the mathematical simulation and experimental results was realized. An inverse solution for single-tile assemblies was also derived and is being implemented into a computer program that can interact with the modal testing software. The output of the program displays the size and location of disbond. This program has been tested with simulated input (i.e., finite element data), and excellent agreement between predicted and simulated disbonds was shown. Finally, laser vibration imaging and acoustic emission techniques were shown to be well suited for detecting and monitoring the progressive damage in Graphite/Epoxy composite materials.

  15. Hetero-oligonucleotide nanoscale tiles capable of two-dimensional lattice formation as testbeds for a rapid, affordable purification methodology.

    PubMed

    Lukeman, Philip S

    2013-06-21

    New nanoscale hetero-oligonucleotide tiles are assembled from DNA, RNA and morpholino oligos and purified using size exclusion filtration. Homo-oligonucleotide tiles assembled from RP-cartridge processed DNA oligos are purified by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. These tiles' purity and homogeneity are demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and their incorporation into two-dimensional arrays visualized by AFM. This purification methodology increases throughput and decreases costs for researchers who wish to screen multiple tiles for utilization in structural or analytical studies. PMID:23676891

  16. THz imaging of majolica tiles and biological attached marble fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Devices exploiting waves in the frequency range from 0.1 THz to 10 THz (corresponding to a free-space wavelength ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm) deserve attention as diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage. THz waves are, indeed, non-ionizing radiations capable of penetrating into non-metallic materials, which are opaque to both visible and infrared waves, without implying long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Moreover, THz surveys involve low poewr probing waves, are performed without contact with the object and, thanks to the recent developments, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems, maybe performed in loco (i.e. in the place where the artworks are usually located). On the other hand, THz devices can be considered as the youngest among the sensing and imaging electromagnetic techniques and their actual potentialities in terms of characterization of artworks is an ongoing research activity. As a contribution within this context, we have performed time of flight THz imaging [1,2] on ceramic and marble objects. In particular, we surveyed majolica tiles produced by Neapolitan ceramists in the 18th and 19th centuries with the aim to gather information on their structure, constructive technique and conservation state. Moreover, we investigated a Marmo di Candoglia fragment in order to characterize the biological attach affecting it. All the surveys were carried out by using the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA). This system is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and with an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150 mm x 150 mm area under a reflection measurement configuration. Based on the obtained results we can state that the use of THz waves allows: - the reconstruction of the object topography; - the geometrical

  17. A Fluorescent Tile DNA Diagnocode System for In Situ Rapid and Selective Diagnosis of Cytosolic RNA Cancer Markers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Jang, Min Su; Shin, Woojung; Yang, Kisuk; Min, Junhong; Cho, Seung-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Bae, Jong Wook; Jung, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Accurate cancer diagnosis often requires extraction and purification of genetic materials from cells, and sophisticated instrumentations that follow. Otherwise in order to directly treat the diagnostic materials to cells, multiple steps to optimize dose concentration and treatment time are necessary due to diversity in cellular behaviors. These processes may offer high precision but hinder fast analysis of cancer, especially in clinical situations that need rapid detection and characterization of cancer. Here we present a novel fluorescent tile DNA nanostructure delivered to cancer cytosol by employing nanoparticle technology. Its structural anisotropicity offers easy manipulation for multifunctionalities, enabling the novel DNA nanostructure to detect intracellular cancer RNA markers with high specificity within 30 minutes post treatment, while the nanoparticle property bypasses the requirement of treatment optimization, effectively reducing the complexity of applying the system for cancer diagnosis. Altogether, the system offers a precise and rapid detection of cancer, suggesting the future use in the clinical fields. PMID:26678430

  18. A landsat data tiling and compositing approach optimized for change detection in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Kurtis; Steinwand, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Annual disturbance maps are produced by the LANDFIRE program across the conterminous United States (CONUS). Existing LANDFIRE disturbance data from 1999 to 2010 are available and current efforts will produce disturbance data through 2012. A tiling and compositing approach was developed to produce bi-annual images optimized for change detection. A tiled grid of 10,000 × 10,000 30 m pixels was defined for CONUS and adjusted to consolidate smaller tiles along national borders, resulting in 98 non-overlapping tiles. Data from Landsat-5,-7, and -8 were re-projected to the tile extents, masked to remove clouds, shadows, water, and snow/ice, then composited using a cosine similarity approach. The resultant images were used in a change detection algorithm to determine areas of vegetation change. This approach enabled more efficient processing compared to using single Landsat scenes, by taking advantage of overlap between adjacent paths, and allowed an automated system to be developed for the entire process.

  19. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A. A.; Chaudhuri, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.; Reddy, D. Chenna; Saxena, Y. C.

    2008-05-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles.

  20. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivolella, A.; Maidantchik, C.; Ferreira, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors. The read-out is performed by about 10,000 PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs). The signal of each PMT is digitized by an electronic channel. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports the data quality analysis of the electronic channels. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance. It can provide to the user the list of TileCal known problematic channels, that is stored in the ATLAS condition database (COOL DB). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator in identifying new problematic channels and is used in data reconstruction and the system allows to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS can generate summary results, such as eta-phi plots and comparative tables of the masked channels percentage. Regularly, during the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) shutdown a maintenance of the detector equipments is performed. When a channel is repaired, its calibration constants stored in the COOL database have to be updated. Additionally MCWS system manages the update of these calibration constants values in the COOL database. The MCWS has been used by the Tile community since 2008, during the commissioning phase, and was upgraded to comply with ATLAS operation specifications. Among its future developments, it is foreseen an integration of MCWS with the TileCal control Web system (DCS) in order to identify high voltage problems automatically.

  1. SolarTile: A rooftop integrated photovoltaic system. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-26

    AstroPower, Royal Group Technologies, and Solar Design Associates are jointly developing an integrated photovoltaic roofing system for residential and light commercial building applications. This family of products will rely heavily on the technological development of a roofing tile made from recycled plastic and innovative module fabrication and encapsulation processes in conjunction with an advanced Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell product. This solar power generating roofing product is presently being referred to as the SolarTile. A conceptual drawing of the solar roofing tile is shown. The SolarTile will be integrated with non-solar tiles in a single roof installation permitting ease of assembly and the ability to use conventional roofing techniques at ridges, valleys, and eaves. The Phase 1 effort included tasks aimed at the development of the proposed product concept; product manufacturing or fabrication, and installation cost estimates; business planning; and a market assessment of the proposed product, including target selling prices, target market sectors, size estimates for each market sector, and planned distribution mechanisms for market penetration. Technical goals as stated in the Phase 1 proposal and relevant progress are reported.

  2. Minimalist Approach to Complexity: Templating the Assembly of DNA Tile Structures with Sequentially Grown Input Strands.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kai Lin; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2016-07-26

    Given its highly predictable self-assembly properties, DNA has proven to be an excellent template toward the design of functional materials. Prominent examples include the remarkable complexity provided by DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) assemblies, which require hundreds of unique component strands. However, in many cases, the majority of the DNA assembly is purely structural, and only a small "working area" needs to be aperiodic. On the other hand, extended lattices formed by DNA tile motifs require only a few strands; but they suffer from lack of size control and limited periodic patterning. To overcome these limitations, we adopt a templation strategy, where an input strand of DNA dictates the size and patterning of resultant DNA tile structures. To prepare these templating input strands, a sequential growth technique developed in our lab is used, whereby extended DNA strands of defined sequence and length may be generated simply by controlling their order of addition. With these, we demonstrate the periodic patterning of size-controlled double-crossover (DX) and triple-crossover (TX) tile structures, as well as intentionally designed aperiodicity of a DX tile structure. As such, we are able to prepare size-controlled DNA structures featuring aperiodicity only where necessary with exceptional economy and efficiency. PMID:27303951

  3. Dual permeability modeling of tile drain management influences on hydrologic and nutrient transport characteristics in macroporous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Steven K.; Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Park, Young-Jin; Hussain, Syed I.; Gottschall, Natalie; Edwards, Mark; Lapen, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Tile drainage management is considered a beneficial management practice (BMP) for reducing nutrient loads in surface water. In this study, 2-dimensional dual permeability models were developed to simulate flow and transport following liquid swine manure and rhodamine WT (strongly sorbing) tracer application on macroporous clay loam soils under controlled (CD) and free drainage (FD) tile management. Dominant flow and transport characteristics were successfully replicated, including higher and more continuous tile discharge and lower peak rhodamine WT concentrations in FD tile effluent; in relation to CD, where discharge was intermittent, peak rhodamine concentrations higher, and mass exchange from macropores into the soil matrix greater. Explicit representation of preferential flow was essential, as macropores transmitted >98% of surface infiltration, tile flow, and tile solute loads for both FD and CD. Incorporating an active 3rd type lower boundary condition that facilitated groundwater interaction was imperative for simulating CD, as the higher (relative to FD) water table enhanced water and soluble nutrient movement from the soil profile into deeper groundwater. Scenario analysis revealed that in conditions where slight upwards hydraulic gradients exist beneath tiles, groundwater upwelling can influence the concentration of surface derived solutes in tile effluent under FD conditions; whereas the higher and flatter CD water table can restrict groundwater upwelling. Results show that while CD can reduce tile discharge, it can also lead to an increase in surface-application derived nutrient concentrations in tile effluent and hence surface water receptors, and it can promote NO3 loading into groundwater. This study demonstrates dual permeability modeling as a tool for increasing the conceptual understanding of tile drainage BMPs.

  4. Modal analysis and dynamic stresses for acoustically excited shuttle insulation tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Ogilvie, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements and extensions to the RESIST computer program developed for determining the normalized modal stress response of shuttle insulation tiles are described. The new version of RESIST can accommodate primary structure panels with closed-cell stringers, in addition to the capability for treating open-cell stringers. In addition, the present version of RESIST numerically solves vibration problems several times faster than its predecessor. A new digital computer program, titled ARREST (Acoustic Response of Reusable Shuttle Tiles) is also described. Starting with modal information contained on output tapes from RESIST computer runs, ARREST determines RMS stresses, deflections and accelerations of shuttle panels with reusable surface insulation tiles. Both programs are applicable to stringer stiffened structural panels with or without reusable surface insulation titles.

  5. Archimedean Tilings and Hierarchical Lamellar Morphology Formed by Semicrystalline Miktoarm Star Terpolymer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Aissou, Karim; Kwon, Wonsang; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Antoine, Ségolène; Maret, Mireille; Portale, Giuseppe; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-04-26

    3-Miktoarm star terpolymer architecture provides a window of opportunity in the design of complex "three-colored" patterns at the nanometer scale. Here, the directed self-assembly (DSA) of 3-miktoarm star terpolymer (poly(1,1-dimethyl silacyclobutane)-arm-polystyrene-arm-poly(d,l-lactide acid)) (PDMSB-arm-PS-arm-PLA, noted hereafter 3 μ-DSL) into a hierarchical lamellar morphology is described. Excellent orientational order has been achieved by templating the asymmetric hierarchical lamellar morphology with topographical substrates. Increasing the PLA volume fraction leads to the formation of a hexagonal [6.6.6] Archimedean tiling which coexists with a metastable square symmetry [4.8.8] tiling stabilized by the step between terraces. Stability of the [6.6.6] tiling over the [4.8.8] one is also demonstrated with GISAXS measurements. PMID:27023426

  6. The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2013-01-01

    Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.

  7. Mission load dynamic tests of two undensified Space shuttle thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Gowdey, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Two tests of undensified Space Shuttle thermal protection tiles under combined static and dynamic loads were conducted. The tiles had a density of approximately 144 Kg/cum (LI900 tiles) and were mounted on a strain isolation pad which was 0.41 cm (.160 inch) thick. A combined static and dynamic mission stress histogram representative of the W-3 area of the wing of the orbiter vehicle was applied. The stress histogram was provided by the space shuttle project. Results presented include: tabulation of measured peak and root-mean-square (RMS) accelerations in both compression and tension; peak SIP stress in compression and tension, peak and RMS amplitude response ratios; lateral to vertical response ratios; response time histories; peak stress distributions (histograms), and SIP extension measured both with and without static tension at various mission times.

  8. Use of an engineering data management system in the analysis of Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Vallas, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an engineering data management system to facilitate the extensive stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system. Descriptions are given of the approach and methods used (1) to gather, organize, and store the data, (2) to query data interactively, (3) to generate graphic displays of the data, and (4) to access, transform, and prepare the data for input to a stress analysis program. The relational information management system was found to be well suited to the tile analysis problem because information related to many separate tiles could be accessed individually from a data base having a natural organization from an engineering viewpoint. The flexible user features of the system facilitated changes in data content and organization which occurred during the development and refinement of the tile analysis procedure. Additionally, the query language supported retrieval of data to satisfy a variety of user-specified conditions.

  9. Switchable self-assembly of Prussian blue analogs nano-tiles triggered by salt stimulus.

    PubMed

    Dedovets, D; Bauduin, P; Causse, J; Girard, L; Diat, O

    2016-01-28

    Prussian blue analogs (PBAs) are materials well known for their bulk physical and (electro)-chemical properties, with an outstanding selectivity for caesium in ion exchange processes. Crystalline nano-tiles, made of copper based PBA, are produced and dispersed in water by tuning their electrostatic interactions. The shape and size of the nano-crystals are determined by combining scattering, microscopic and spectral techniques. We show here that Cu-PBA nano-tiles form planar superstructures by an edge to edge self-assembly process controlled by specific cation effect and ionic strength. Sedimentation and (re-)dispersion of the nano-tiles are found to be fully reversible. This switchable anisotropic self-assembly triggered by salt stimulus makes PBA nanocrystals potentially interesting for applications. PMID:26743449

  10. Integrating DNA strand-displacement circuitry with DNA tile self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, David Yu; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Choi, Harry M.T.; Winfree, Erik

    2013-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology has emerged as a reliable and programmable way of controlling matter at the nanoscale through the specificity of Watson–Crick base pairing, allowing both complex self-assembled structures with nanometer precision and complex reaction networks implementing digital and analog behaviors. Here we show how two well-developed frameworks, DNA tile self-assembly and DNA strand-displacement circuits, can be systematically integrated to provide programmable kinetic control of self-assembly. We demonstrate the triggered and catalytic isothermal self-assembly of DNA nanotubes over 10 μm long from precursor DNA double-crossover tiles activated by an upstream DNA catalyst network. Integrating more sophisticated control circuits and tile systems could enable precise spatial and temporal organization of dynamic molecular structures. PMID:23756381

  11. Master plate production for the tile calorimeter extended barrel modules.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.J.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Wood, K.

    1999-03-10

    Approximately 41,000 master plates (Fig. 1) are required for the Extended Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Early in the R&D program associated with the detector, it was recognized that the fabrication of these steel laminations was a significant issue, both in terms of the cost to produce these high precision formed plates, as well as the length of time required to produce all plates for the calorimeter. Two approaches were given serious consideration: laser cutting and die stamping. The Argonne group was a strong supporter of the latter approach and in late 1995 initiated an R&D program to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of die stamping these plates by constructing a die and stamping approximately 2000 plates for use in construction of three full size prototype modules. This was extremely successful and die stamping was selected by the group for production of these plates. When the prototype die was constructed it was matched to the calorimeter envelope at that time. This subsequently changed. However with some minor adjustments in the design envelope and a small compromise in terms of instrumented volume, it became possible to use this same die for the production of all master plates for the Tile Calorimeter. Following an extensive series of discussions and an evaluation of the performance of the stamping presses available to our collaborators in Europe, it was decided to ship the US die to CERN for use in stamping master plates for the barrel section of the calorimeter. This was done under the supervision of CERN and JINR, Dubna, and carried out at the TATRA truck plant at Koprivinice, Czech Republic. It was a great success. Approximately 41,000 plates were stamped and fully met specification. Moreover, the production time was significantly reduced by avoiding the need of constructing and then qualifying a second die for use in Europe. This also precluded small geometrical differences between the barrel and

  12. Surface analysis of 1984/1985 Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor limiter tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Wampler, W.R.; Mills, B.E.; Doyle, B.L.; Wright, A.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Fukuda, S.

    1986-05-01

    Bare POCO AXF-5Q graphite tiles were installed as the plasma-facing surface of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) movable limiter for a series of approx. 2700 high power discharges (600 with up to 6 MW neutral beams). During this operating phase, erosion and deposition processes modified the surface of the limiter. In the regions of the most intense plasma contact, which reached temperatures over 2400/sup 0/C, only small amounts of metallic impurities (<5 x 10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) are observed during subsequent beta backscattering and proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Also observed in these regions are several small areas of surface crazing, and scattered droplets of metals (approx. 1 mm diam) presumed to originate from melted internal hardware. In regions more removed from direct plasma contact, thicker metallic deposits are observed (approx. 2 x 10/sup 18/ atoms/cm/sup 2/). There are more of these deposits on the side facing the electron drift direction than on the ion drift side. The metallic deposits are composed of approx. 55% Ni, 25% Cr, and 20% Fe and several trace elements. Near-surface retained deuterium levels vary from 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 18//cm/sup 2/ along one ion-side/electron-side pair of tiles. Deuterium from TFTR operations in the bulk of a tile may have been as much as 5 ppm. Hydrogen in the tile was approx.1 at. %. Surface roughness measured outside the intense plasma contact region is much more than the original POCO AXF-5Q graphite, whereas within the plasma contact region, tile surfaces are somewhat smoother than they were initially. Two of the tiles in high heat flux regions broke during operation. The resulting geometry change led to areas of enhanced erosion and nearby redeposition of carbon.

  13. Overland flow and sediment transport in an agricultural lowland catchments: a focus on tile drain export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Manière, Louis; Salvador Blanes, Sébastien; Foucher, Anthony; Chapalain, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Rural landscapes have been extensively modified by human activities in Western Europe since the beginning of the 20th century in order to intensify agricultural production. Cultivated areas often expanded at the expense of grassland and wetlands located in lowland areas (de Groot et al., 2002). Therefore, large modifications were made to the agricultural landscapes: stream redesign, land consolidation, removal of hedges, and installation of tile drainage networks to drain the hydromorphic soils. These changes modified sediment processes and resulted in large morphological alterations (e.g. channel bed incision, deposition of fine sediment, channel bank erosion). Accordingly, these alterations threaten water quality and prevent to meet the requirements of the European directives. Improving water quality requires a clear understanding of the hydrosedimentary dynamics in these lowland cultivated catchments. However, few studies were conducted in drained environments. To fill this research gap, a pilot study was started in cultivated catchment of the Loire River basin, France, where tile drain densities are very high (> 1.5 km/km²). Six hydro-sedimentary monitoring stations were installed in the Louroux catchment (24 km²). One of them was specifically dedicated to measuring water/sediment fluxes from tile drains. Water level and turbidity were continuously monitored and sediments were sampled during floods and low stage periods. Samples were measured for particle size distribution, and sediment tracing studies are currently being developed to quantify the contribution of potential sources (e.g. surface vs subsurface, lithologies) to river sediment. Hydro-sedimentary fluxes were quantified and modelled for some selected events. The catchment hydrosedimentary fluxes and their properties were shown to be impacted by tile drain sediment transport, especially regarding particle size distribution, with the dominant export of very fine particles (< 2 μm) from tile drains

  14. Rapid breakthrough of pesticides via biopres into tile drains and shallow groundwater: a combined experimental and model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.; Palm, J.; Schroeder, B.

    2009-04-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported in surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport is an environ¬mental problem because the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To get a better insight in the process of pesticide transport in agricultural soils an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is aprox. 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and the shows runoff over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon and Flufenacet according to conventional agricultural practice. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) and had a total irrigation rate of 33.6 mm measured with ten precipitation samplers. During the first block a tracer solution of 1600 g Bromide and 2000 g Brilliant Blue was irrigated on the test site. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe to measure the water level. About 50 water samples were taken on the day of the experiment from the drainage outlet by hand, and in an eight hour interval for six days with an automatic sample procedure. Discharge at the drainage outlet showed two peaks in response irrigation. The breakthrough of the tracer into the brook is much faster then the reaction of the discharge on the precipitation impulse. To gain insight in the vertical transport behaviour three

  15. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  16. 75 FR 28316 - Notice of Buy America Waiver Request by Oregon Department of Transportation for Steel Roof Tiles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Transportation for Steel Roof Tiles To Be Used in Union Station Roof Rehabilitation AGENCY: Federal Railroad... purchase of metal roof tiles made of 40/45 KSI 2, 24 Gauge (0.0276'') Galvanized ``Non-Fluting'' Steel... to complete the rehabilitation of the historic Union Station roof in Portland, Oregon as...

  17. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... the manufacture of clay construction products and of silica refractory products are...

  18. Thermal Stress Analysis of RCG-Tempered TUFI Tile TPS for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results from linear and nonlinear finite-element thermal stress analyses of a new tile, Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) concept. A very thin coating of Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) is used to "temper" the surface of Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) tiles to improve resistance to thermal shock and thermal cycling effects. The coating also serves to reduce catalytic heating and may improve waterproofing. Calculations include trajectory-based aerothermal heating environments for X-34 wing leading edge TPS designs and arc jet environments for TPS test articles. The nonlinear analyses include the high temperature plasticity of RCG to demonstrate the reuseability of the material.

  19. Reusable Surface Insulation Tile Thermal Protection Materials: Past, Present and the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silica (LI-900) Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tile have been used on the majority of the Shuttle since its initial flight. Its overall performance with Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) coating applied will be reviewed. Improvements in insulations, Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI-12) and Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB-8) and coatings/surface treatments such as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) have been developed and successfully applied. The performance of these enhancements on the Shuttle Orbiters over the past few years along with the next version of tile materials, High Efficiency Tantalum-based Ceramic (HETC) with even broader applicability will also be discussed.

  20. Issues in the analysis of oligonucleotide tiling microarrays for transcript mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royce, Thomas E.; Rozowsky, Joel S.; Bertone, Paul; Samanta, Manoj; Stolc, Viktor; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Traditional microarrays use probes complementary to known genes to quantitate the differential gene expression between two or more conditions. Genomic tiling microarray experiments differ in that probes that span a genomic region at regular intervals are used to detect the presence or absence of transcription. This difference means the same sets of biases and the methods for addressing them are unlikely to be relevant to both types of experiment. We introduce the informatics challenges arising in the analysis of tiling microarray experiments as open problems to the scientific community and present initial approaches for the analysis of this nascent technology.

  1. Percolation conductivity of Penrose tiling by transfer-matrix Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babalievski, F. V.

    1991-09-01

    A generalization of Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo for calculations of percolation conductivity of Penrose Tiling was applied. The strips used were 10(exp 4) long and widths varied between 3 and 19. The results show that in spite of differences for strip widths 3-7 the percolative conductivity of Penrose tiling is very close to that of square lattice. The estimation of the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for 0-1 distribution of resistors.

  2. Percolation conductivity of Penrose tiling by the transfer-matrix Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babalievski, Filip V.

    1992-03-01

    A generalization of the Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo method has been applied to calculations of the percolation conductivity in a Penrose tiling. Strips with a length~10 4 and widths from 3 to 19 have been used. Disregarding the differences for smaller strip widths (up to 7), the results show that the percolative conductivity of a Penrose tiling has a value very close to that of a square lattice. The estimate for the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for the 0-1 distribution of resistors.

  3. Experience with silicon-carbide tiles in mass-fired refuse boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Strach, L. ); Wasyluk, D.T. )

    1993-12-01

    The conventional material used to protect furnace water walls in mass-burn refuse boilers has been silicon-carbide refractory lining and an associated anchoring mechanism. Without this kind of protection, water walls quickly deteriorate due to the corrosive products of combustion. Although this lining is successful in protecting the water walls, it is not without operational and maintenance problems. There is a range of silicon-carbide products and materials available to help minimize these problems. One approach that is gaining commercial acceptance is the use of preformed silicon-carbide tiles. This article presents design considerations for selecting the proper tile based on the authors' operational experiences.

  4. Trading spaces: building three-dimensional nets from two-dimensional tilings

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Evans, Myfanwy E.; Hyde, Stephen T.; Ramsden, Stuart; Robins, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    We construct some examples of finite and infinite crystalline three-dimensional nets derived from symmetric reticulations of homogeneous two-dimensional spaces: elliptic (S2), Euclidean (E2) and hyperbolic (H2) space. Those reticulations are edges and vertices of simple spherical, planar and hyperbolic tilings. We show that various projections of the simplest symmetric tilings of those spaces into three-dimensional Euclidean space lead to topologically and geometrically complex patterns, including multiple interwoven nets and tangled nets that are otherwise difficult to generate ab initio in three dimensions. PMID:24098839

  5. Optimization of superconducting tiling pattern for superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for reducing magnetic field inhomogeneities which produce rotational loss mechanisms in high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings. Magnetic field inhomogeneities are reduced by dividing high temperature superconducting structures into smaller structures, and arranging the smaller structures into tiers which stagger the magnetic field maximum locations of the smaller structures.

  6. Optimization of superconducting tiling pattern for superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1996-09-17

    An apparatus and method for reducing magnetic field inhomogeneities which produce rotational loss mechanisms in high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings are disclosed. Magnetic field inhomogeneities are reduced by dividing high temperature superconducting structures into smaller structures, and arranging the smaller structures into tiers which stagger the magnetic field maximum locations of the smaller structures. 20 figs.

  7. Self-Assembly of Complex DNA Tessellations by Using Low-Symmetry Multi-arm DNA Tiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Shuoxing; Li, Wei; Hunt, Ashley; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-07-25

    Modular DNA tile-based self-assembly is a versatile way to engineer basic tessellation patterns on the nanometer scale, but it remains challenging to achieve high levels of structural complexity. We introduce a set of general design principles to create intricate DNA tessellations by employing multi-arm DNA motifs with low symmetry. We achieved two novel Archimedean tiling patterns, (4.8.8) and (3.6.3.6), and one pattern with higher-order structures beyond the complexity observed in Archimedean tiling. Our success in assembling complicated DNA tessellations demonstrates the broad design space of DNA structural motifs, enriching the toolbox of DNA tile-based self-assembly and expanding the complexity boundaries of DNA tile-based tessellation. PMID:27276237

  8. A portable high-power diode laser-based single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J.; Schmidt, M. J. J.; Li, L.; Edwards, R. E.; Gale, A. W.

    2002-02-01

    By means of a 60 W high-power diode laser (HPDL) and a specially developed grout material the void between adjoining ceramic tiles has been successfully sealed. A single-stage process has been developed which uses a crushed ceramic tile mix to act as a tough, inexpensive bulk substrate and a glazed enamel surface to provide an impervious surface glaze. The single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process yielded seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions that displayed no discernible cracks and porosities. The single-stage grout is simple to formulate and easy to apply. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 200 kW/ mm2 and at rates of up to 600 mm/ min. Bonding of the enamel to the crushed ceramic tile mix was identified as being primarily due to van der Waals forces and, on a very small scale, some of the crushed ceramic tile mix material dissolving into the glaze. In terms of mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics, the single-stage ceramic tile grout was found to be far superior to the conventional epoxy tile grout and, in many instances, matched and occasionally surpassed that of the ceramic tiles themselves. What is more, the development of a hand-held HPDL beam delivery unit and the related procedures necessary to lead to the commercialisation of the single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process are presented. Further, an appraisal of the potential hazards associated with the use of the HPDL in an industrial environment and the solutions implemented to ensure that the system complies with the relevant safety standards are given.

  9. Nutrient content at the sediment-water interface of tile-fed agricultural drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive network of tile drains present in the Midwest USA accelerate losses of nutrients to receiving ditches, rivers and eventually to the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient inputs from agricultural watersheds and their role in affecting water quality have received increased attention recently; however, be...

  10. 17. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL ACOUSTIC TILE CEILING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL ACOUSTIC TILE CEILING LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  11. Using Qualitative Research to Assess Teaching and Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek; Saichaie, Kem; Jesse, Maggie; Florman, Jean C.; Ingram, Beth F.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the results of an assessment project whose purpose was to improve the faculty-development program for instructors who teach in technology-infused TILE (Transform, Interact, Learn, Engage) classrooms at the University of Iowa. Qualitative research methods were critical for (1) learning about how students and instructors…

  12. Evaluation of revised subsurface tile drainage algorithms in SWAT for a cold climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drains in agricultural systems of the Mid-west U.S. are a major contributor of nitrate loadings to the Mississippi River Basin and contribute to hypoxic conditions in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Development of strategies to reduce nitrate loadings from these agricultural systems req...

  13. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 1: SPRAY-BUFFING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to ealuate airborne asbestos concentrations during spray-uffing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing residient floor tile under three levels of floor conditions (poor, medium, and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by transmission e...

  14. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under preexisting and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. ow-speed spray-buffing...

  15. Deuterium trapping and release in JET ITER-like wall divertor tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likonen, J.; Heinola, K.; De Backer, A.; Koivuranta, S.; Hakola, A.; Ayres, C. F.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Coad, P.; Matthews, G. F.; Mayer, M.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    A selected set of samples from JET-ILW divertor tiles exposed in 2011-2012 has been analysed using thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The highest amount of deuterium was found on the regions with the thickest deposited layers, i.e. on the horizontal (apron) part and on the top part of Tile 1, which resides deep in the scrape-off layer. Outer divertor Tiles 6, 7 and 8 had nearly an order of magnitude less deuterium. The co-deposited layers on the JET tiles and the W coatings contain C, O and Ni impurities which may change the desorption properties. The D2 signals in the TDS spectra were convoluted and the positions of the peaks were compared with the Be and C amounts but no correlations between them were found. The remaining fractions of D in the analysed samples at ITER baking temperature 350 °C are rather high implying that co-deposited films may be difficult to be de-tritiated.

  16. Preload Analysis of Screw Bolt Joints on the First Wall Graphite Tiles in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei; Song, Yuntao

    2012-09-01

    The first wall in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) used graphite tiles to withstand high thermal energy. The graphite tiles are mounted on the heat sink using screw bolts which have been preloaded to produce a clamp force. The clamp force is very important to keep the graphite tiles tightly on the surface of the heat sink so that the heat flux crosses this contacting surface in a small thermal resistor. Without the clamp force, the small gap between the graphite tiles and the heat sink will make it impossible for thermal power to be carried away by cooling water. Some bolts may even fall off with the loss of clamp force. From the mathematical models, the loss process of the clamp force has been studied. Research results explain how the different thermal expansions of three members of the screw joint makes the clamp force decrease to zero under temperature rise and external force, and how the stiffness affects the relation between the clamp force and temperature. The research also gives the critical temperature at which the clamp force can remain above zero. Analysis results indicate that the current screw joints are almost destined to lose their clamp force during the running time of EAST, so the bolt joints should be redesigned in order to improve its reliability.

  17. Eighth Grade Students' Representations of Linear Equations Based on a Cups and Tiles Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Gunhan; Olive, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examines eighth grade students' use of a representational metaphor (cups and tiles) for writing and solving equations in one unknown. Within this study, we focused on the obstacles and difficulties that students experienced when using this metaphor, with particular emphasis on the operations that can be meaningfully represented through…

  18. Exploiting Parallelism in the TileCal Trigger System with GPGPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Marc

    2015-10-01

    After the 2022 upgrades, the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) detector at ATLAS will be generating raw data at a rate of approximately 41 TB/s. The TileCal triggering system contains a degree of parallelism in its processing algorithms and thus presents an opportunity to explore the use of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU). Currently, research into the viability of an sROD ARM-based co-processing unit (PU) is being conducted at Wits University with especial regard to increasing the I/O throughput of the detector. Integration of GPGPU into this PU could enhance its performance by relieving the ARMs of particularly parallel computations. In addition to the PU, use of GPGPU in the front-end trigger is being investigated on the basis of the used algorithms having a similarity to image processing algorithms - where GPU can be used optimally. The use of GPUs in assistance to or in place of FPGAs can be justified by GPUs’ relative ease of programming; C/C++ like languages as opposed to assembly-like Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This project will consider how GPUs can best be utilised as a subsystem of TileCal in terms of power and computing efficiency; and therefore cost.

  19. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Low-speed spray-buffin...

  20. Harold Goldstein (R) and Dan Leiser (L) discuss bone implant development in the the Shuttle Tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Harold Goldstein (R) and Dan Leiser (L) discuss bone implant development in the the Shuttle Tile Laboratory N-242. A spin-off of Ames research on both bone density in microgravity and on thermal protection foams is the bone-growth implant shown in 1993.

  1. Relevance of magnetic properties for the characterisation of burnt clays and archaeological tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatrice, C.; Coïsson, M.; Ferrara, E.; Olivetti, E. S.

    The archaeomagnetism of pottery, bricks and tiles is typically employed for dating inferences, yet the magnetic properties of ancient ceramics can also be convenient for their characterisation, to evaluate the technological conditions applied for their production (temperature, atmosphere, and duration of firing), as well as to distinguish groups of sherds having different provenance. In this work, the measurement of hysteresis loops has been applied and combined with colour survey to characterise the magnetic properties of burnt clays and archaeological tiles. Four calcareous and non-calcareous clays, along with seventeen tile fragments excavated from the sites of the ancient Roman towns of Pompeii and Gravina di Puglia, in Southern Italy, are examined. The ferrimagnetic character of the clays, in general, enhances with increasing firing temperatures until vitrification processes occur (900-1000 °C) dissolving iron oxides and dispersing the colour and magnetic properties they provide. High values of saturation magnetization are observed in clays with relevant calcareous content after firing above 900 °C, which results in the formation of Ca-silicates able to delay the onset of the vitrification processes. Magnetic properties of the tiles have been evaluated in terms of the high coercivity (i.e. mainly ferrimagnetic) or low coercivity behaviour (i.e. including relevant paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions). Enhanced ferrimagnetic character, mostly depending on the growth in number and volume of iron oxide particles, is associated with the development of an intense reddish hue.

  2. Modeling the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application and tile drain configuration on nitrate leaching using SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was revised to improve the partitioning of runoff and tile drainage in poorly drained soils by modifying the algorithm for computing the soil moisture retention parameter. In this study, the revised SWAT model was used to evaluate the sensitivity a...

  3. TEM OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following details a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Tulsa District) research project to determine potential release of asbestos during removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both containing asbestos. Tests were conducted in seven enclosed test areas constructed...

  4. Assessment of Commercially Marketed Filter Materials for Tile Drainage Outlets on Golf Courses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is essential in the construction and functionality of golf course greens. However, due to turf management, the waters conveyed by the drainage network contain potentially high levels of nutrients and pesticides. The objective of this research is to assess the subsurface hydr...

  5. An alternative method for the TileCal signal detection and amplitude estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    The Tile Barrel Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a key detector for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, taus and missing transverse energy and it assists the muon measurements due to a low signal-to-noise ratio. The energy deposited in each cell is read out by two electronic channels for redundancy and is estimated by reconstructing the amplitude of the digitized signal pulse sampled every 25 ns. This work presents an alternative approach for TileCal signal detection and amplitude estimation under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, exploring the applicability of a Matched Filter. The proposed method is compared to the Optimal Filter algorithm, that is currently being used at TileCal for energy reconstruction. The results for a simulated data set showed that for conditions where the signal pedestal could be considered stationary, the proposed method achieves a better SNR performance than the Optimal Filter technique.

  6. Structural tests on a tile/strain isolation pad thermal protection system. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The aluminum skin of the space shuttle is covered by a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of a low density ceramic tile bonded to a matted-felt material called strain insulation pad (SIP). The structural characteristics of the TPS were studied experimentally under selected extreme load conditions. Three basic types of loads were imposed: tension, eccentrically applied tension, and combined in-plane force and transverse pressure. For some tests, transverse pressure was applied rapidly to simulate a transient shock wave passing over the tile. The failure mode for all specimens involved separation of the tile from the SIP at the silicone rubber bond interface. An eccentrically applied tension load caused the tile to separate from the SIP at loads lower than experienced at failure for pure tension loading. Moderate in-plane as well as shock loading did not cause a measurable reduction in the TPS ultimate failure strength. A strong coupling, however, was exhibited between in-plane and transverse loads and displacements.

  7. Maintenance of Vinyl Asbestos and Asphalt Tile Floors in Institutional, Industrial and Commercial Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt and Vinyl Asbestos Tile Inst., New York, NY.

    The claim is made that proper planning and modest outlays of time, labor, and material costs can provide and maintain a high appearance level for floors in institutional, commercial, and industrial buildings. Instructions for four basic steps in maintaining the good looks of vinyl asbestos and asphalt tile floors are treated in the booklet--(1)…

  8. Applying SWAT for impact analysis of tile drainage on streamflow in a snow dominated watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid trend of adopting tile drainage practice to boost agricultural production has been observed in the Red River Valley watershed (RRVW) in North Dakota due to a wet weather pattern in the region since 1993. Increasing chances of snow-melt spring flooding have also been noted in recent years. In...

  9. Research on unreinforced hollow clay tile walls and developments of computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Flanagan, R.D. ); Bennett, R.M. )

    1991-09-19

    This paper discusses various aspects of an unreinforced hollow clay tile wall (HCTW) research program being conducted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the program is to assist in determining the response of infilled HCTW buildings to earthquake forces.

  10. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  11. Tile drainage simulation in SWAT2012: Parameterization and evaluation in an Indiana watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the poorly drained soils of the Midwestern United States, subsurface drainage is an important flow pathway in the agricultural landscape; it therefore needs to be included in modeling studies. The new tile drainage simulation method in the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), based on the Hooghoudt...

  12. Erosion and re-deposition processes in JET tiles studied with ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. C.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Mateus, R.; Carvalho, P.; Coad, J. P.; Widdowson, A. M.; Likonen, J.; Koivuranta, S.

    2010-06-01

    Plasma facing components in fusion reactor chambers will operate under extreme conditions. Among the processes with implications on the material lifetime are erosion and re-deposition due to plasma interactions. This work will address the behaviour of both JET divertor and outer poloidal limiters (OPL) under plasma irradiation. The limiters comprise about 50 pairs of tiles in a poloidal stack, each of which has a plasma facing surface about 25 mm (poloidal) by 350 mm (toroidal) and is about 50 mm thick. The divertor tiles are located at the bottom of the chamber and withstand high fluxes of radiation and heat. Standard carbon-fibre composite (CFC) tiles coated with a thin layer of W overlaid with a 10 μm layer of C were studied with RBS/PIXE to understand the erosion/re-deposition processes occurring in these regions of the reactor chamber. High resolution surface morphology was assessed through SEM with and without tilting of the sample. The retention of hydrogen isotopes in the tiles were studied combining NRA and ERDA techniques - this is mostly 2H from the fuelling gas, but 3H is also present as a result of 2H- 2H fusion reactions, and 1H coming from the atmospheric exposure.

  13. N uptake effects on N loss in tile drainage as estimated by RZWQM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dual goals of meeting food demand while protecting the environment from excess reactive nitrogen may be one of our greatest ecological challenges. Therefore we quantify the effect of N uptake by a corn-soybean rotation on N loss in tile drainage (and other N budget components) using the agricult...

  14. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Sense Making of Polynomial Multiplication and Factorization Modeled with Algebra Tiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2013-01-01

    This study is about prospective secondary mathematics teachers' understanding and sense making of representational quantities generated by algebra tiles, the quantitative units (linear vs. areal) inherent in the nature of these quantities, and the quantitative addition and multiplication operations--referent preserving versus referent…

  15. Thermal-Structural Analysis of PICA Tiles for Solar Tower Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Empey, Daniel M.; Squire, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal protection materials used in spacecraft heatshields are subjected to severe thermal and mechanical loading environments during re-entry into earth atmosphere. In order to investigate the reliability of PICA tiles in the presence of high thermal gradients as well as mechanical loads, the authors designed and conducted solar-tower tests. This paper presents the design and analysis work for this tests series. Coupled non-linear thermal-mechanical finite element analyses was conducted to estimate in-depth temperature distribution and stress contours for various cases. The first set of analyses performed on isolated PICA tile showed that stresses generated during the tests were below the PICA allowable limit and should not lead to any catastrophic failure during the test. The tests results were consistent with analytical predictions. The temperature distribution and magnitude of the measured strains were also consistent with predicted values. The second test series is designed to test the arrayed PICA tiles with various gap-filler materials. A nonlinear contact method is used to model the complex geometry with various tiles. The analyses for these coupons predict the stress contours in PICA and inside gap fillers. Suitable mechanical loads for this architecture will be predicted, which can be applied during the test to exceed the allowable limits and demonstrate failure modes. Thermocouple and strain-gauge data obtained from the solar tower tests will be used for subsequent analyses and validation of FEM models.

  16. Effectiveness of conservation practices within watersheds: Case study in tile-drained systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of conservation practices are governed in part by the spatial and temporal patterns of water flow as runoff and subsurface (tile) drainage. The variability in patterns of nitrate loss were examined using data from different sized catchments with four CEAP watersheds located in cent...

  17. Impact-acoustics-based health monitoring of tile-wall bonding integrity using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, F.; Tso, S. K.; Hung, M. Y. Y.

    2006-06-01

    The use of the acoustic features extracted from the impact sounds for bonding integrity assessment has been extensively investigated. Nonetheless, considering the practical implementation of tile-wall non-destructive evaluation (NDE), the traditional defects classification method based directly on frequency-domain features has been of limited application because of the overlapping feature patterns corresponding to different classes whenever there is physical surface irregularity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the clustering and classification ability of principal component analysis (PCA) as applied to the impact-acoustics signature in tile-wall inspection with a view to mitigating the adverse influence of surface non-uniformity. A clustering analysis with signature acquired on sample slabs shows that impact-acoustics signatures of different bonding quality and different surface roughness are well separated into different clusters when using the first two principal components obtained. By adopting as inputs the feature vectors extracted with PCA applied, a multilayer back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is developed for automatic health monitoring and defects classification of tile-walls. The inspection results obtained experimentally on the prepared sample slabs are presented and discussed, confirming the utility of the proposed method, particularly in dealing with tile surface irregularity.

  18. K-theory of the chair tiling via AF-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Antoine; Savinien, Jean

    2016-08-01

    We compute the K-theory groups of the groupoid C∗-algebra of the chair tiling, using a new method. We use exact sequences of Putnam to compute these groups from the K-theory groups of the AF-algebras of the substitution and the induced lower dimensional substitutions on edges and vertices.

  19. Hydrothermally prepared inorganic siliceous wastes: Hydrothermal reaction of calcareous and steatite ceramic tile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Maenami, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Takeyuki; Ishida, Hideki

    1996-12-31

    Possibility of solidification of various ceramic wastes by hydrothermal processing was investigated. The starting materials were feldspathic porcelain tile waste, steatite ceramic tile waste, and calcareous ceramic tile waste. These were mixed with CaO so as to obtain a Ca/Si molar ratio of 0.5. After forming, they were cured for 2 to 20 h under the saturated steam pressure at 200{degrees}C. Although the SiO{sub 2} content of these ceramic wastes was about 70 mass% and they contain various alkaline ions and alkaline earth ions, solidified specimens with flexural strength up to 35MPa were obtained. This is within the range of strengths when quartz or fused silica is used as pure SiO{sub 2} sources. Formation of tobermorite, which was detected in all systems after 2 h of curing, was considered to affect the increase of the strength. It was found that there is a possibility of aluminum and alkali ions being included in the structure of the formed tobermorite. In the case of using steatite ceramic tile waste containing Mg, magnesium silicate hydrates were also formed. The modal pore diameter shifted to 0.01 {mu} m with the formation of these hydrates and there was correlation between the flexural strength and the pore size distribution.

  20. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  1. Evaluation of angle dependence in spectral emissivity of ceramic tiles measured by FT-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, C.; Ogasawara, N.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic tiles are widely used for building walls. False detections are caused in inspections by infrared thermography because of the infrared reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. As the first problem, ceramic tile walls are influenced from backgrounds reflection. As the second problem, in inspection for tall buildings, the camera angles are changed against the height. Thus, to reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles is needed. However, there is very little data about it. It is impossible to decrease the false detection on ceramic tile walls without resolving these problems; background reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. In this study, the angle problem was investigated. The purpose is to establish a revision method in the angle dependence of the emissivity for infrared thermography. To reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles, the spectral emissivity of a ceramic tile at various angles was measured by FT-IR and infrared thermographic instrument. These two experimental results were compared with the emissivity-angle curves from the theoretical formula. In short wavelength range, the two experimental results showed similar behavior, but they did not agree with the theoretical curve. This will be the subject of further study. In long wavelength range, the both experimental results almost obeyed the theoretical curve. This means that it is possible to revise the angle dependence of spectral emissivity, for long wavelength range.

  2. Transcriptional analysis of highly syntenic regions between Medicago truncatula and Glycine max using tiling microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; He, Hang; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Bai, Sulan; Stolc, Viktor; Tongprasit, Waraporn; Young, Nevin D; Yu, Oliver; Deng, Xing-Wang

    2008-01-01

    Background Legumes are the third largest family of flowering plants and are unique among crop species in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. As a result of recent genome sequencing efforts, legumes are now one of a few plant families with extensive genomic and transcriptomic data available in multiple species. The unprecedented complexity and impending completeness of these data create opportunities for new approaches to discovery. Results We report here a transcriptional analysis in six different organ types of syntenic regions totaling approximately 1 Mb between the legume plants barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and soybean (Glycine max) using oligonucleotide tiling microarrays. This analysis detected transcription of over 80% of the predicted genes in both species. We also identified 499 and 660 transcriptionally active regions from barrel medic and soybean, respectively, over half of which locate outside of the predicted exons. We used the tiling array data to detect differential gene expression in the six examined organ types and found several genes that are preferentially expressed in the nodule. Further investigation revealed that some collinear genes exhibit different expression patterns between the two species. Conclusion These results demonstrate the utility of genome tiling microarrays in generating transcriptomic data to complement computational annotation of the newly available legume genome sequences. The tiling microarray data was further used to quantify gene expression levels in multiple organ types of two related legume species. Further development of this method should provide a new approach to comparative genomics aimed at elucidating genome organization and transcriptional regulation. PMID:18348734

  3. Local Tiled Deep Networks for Recognition of Vehicle Make and Model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongbin; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle analysis involves license-plate recognition (LPR), vehicle-type classification (VTC), and vehicle make and model recognition (MMR). Among these tasks, MMR plays an important complementary role in respect to LPR. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for MMR using local tiled deep networks. The frontal views of vehicle images are first extracted and fed into the local tiled deep networks for training and testing. A local tiled convolutional neural network (LTCNN) is proposed to alter the weight sharing scheme of CNN with local tiled structure. The LTCNN unties the weights of adjacent units and then ties the units k steps from each other within a local map. This architecture provides the translational, rotational, and scale invariance as well as locality. In addition, to further deal with the colour and illumination variation, we applied the histogram oriented gradient (HOG) to the frontal view of images prior to the LTCNN. The experimental results show that our LTCNN framework achieved a 98% accuracy rate in terms of vehicle MMR. PMID:26875983

  4. Local Tiled Deep Networks for Recognition of Vehicle Make and Model

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongbin; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle analysis involves license-plate recognition (LPR), vehicle-type classification (VTC), and vehicle make and model recognition (MMR). Among these tasks, MMR plays an important complementary role in respect to LPR. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for MMR using local tiled deep networks. The frontal views of vehicle images are first extracted and fed into the local tiled deep networks for training and testing. A local tiled convolutional neural network (LTCNN) is proposed to alter the weight sharing scheme of CNN with local tiled structure. The LTCNN unties the weights of adjacent units and then ties the units k steps from each other within a local map. This architecture provides the translational, rotational, and scale invariance as well as locality. In addition, to further deal with the colour and illumination variation, we applied the histogram oriented gradient (HOG) to the frontal view of images prior to the LTCNN. The experimental results show that our LTCNN framework achieved a 98% accuracy rate in terms of vehicle MMR. PMID:26875983

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Paired Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D.; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization. PMID:24727274

  6. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

    2009-11-20

    The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

  7. Design and characterization of an ultraresolution seamlessly tiled display for data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordes, Nicole; Bleha, William P.; Pailthorpe, Bernard

    2003-09-01

    The demand for more pixels in digital displays is beginning to be met as manufacturers increase the native resolution of projector chips. Tiling several projectors still offers one solution to augment the pixel capacity of a display. However problems of color and illumination uniformity across projectors need to be addressed as well as the computer software required to drive such devices. In this paper we present the results obtained on a desktop size tiled projector array of three D-ILA projectors sharing a common illumination source. The composite image on a 3 x 1 array, is 3840 by 1024 pixels with a resolution of about 80 dpi. The system preserves desktop resolution, is compact and can fit in a normal room or laboratory. A fiber optic beam splitting system and a single set of red, green and blue dichroic filters are the key to color and illumination uniformity. The D-ILA chips inside each projector can be adjusted individually to set or change characteristics such as contrast, brightness or gamma curves. The projectors were matched carefully and photometric variations were corrected, leading to a seamless tiled image. Photometric measurements were performed to characterize the display and losses through the optical paths, and are reported here. This system is driven by a small PC computer cluster fitted with graphics cards and is running Linux. The Chromium API can be used for tiling graphics tiles across the display and interfacing to users' software applications. There is potential for scaling the design to accommodate larger arrays, up to 4x5 projectors, increasing display system capacity to 50 Megapixels. Further increases, beyond 100 Megapixels can be anticipated with new generation D-ILA chips capable of projecting QXGA (2k x 1.5k), with ongoing evolution as QUXGA (4k x 2k) becomes available.

  8. Tritium retention measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and full combustion of W-coated and uncoated CFC tiles from the JET divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Bekris, N.; Kizane, G.; Enachescu, M.; Likonen, J.; Halitovs, M.; Petre, A.; contributors, JET

    2016-04-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and the full combustion method (FCM) followed by liquid scintillation counting were applied to quantitatively determine the tritium retention in the tungsten-coated carbon fibre composites (CFC), in comparison to uncoated CFC tiles from the JET divertor. The tiles were adjacent and exposed to plasma operations between 2007 and 2009. The tritium depth profiles are showing that the tritium retention on the W-coated tile was reduced by a factor of 13.5 in comparison to the uncoated tile whereas the bulk tritium concentration is approximately the same for both tiles.

  9. High-performance and anti-stain coating for porcelain stoneware tiles based on nanostructured zirconium compounds.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Moira; Santoni, Sergio; Giorgi, Rodorico; Fratini, Emiliano; Toccafondi, Nicola; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-10-15

    The technological characteristics of porcelain stoneware tiles make them suitable for a wide range of applications spanning far beyond traditional uses. Due to the high density, porcelain stoneware tiles show high bending strength, wear resistance, surface hardness, and high fracture toughness. Nevertheless, despite being usually claimed as stain resistant, the surface porosity renders porcelain stoneware tiles vulnerable to dirt penetration with the formation of stains that can be very difficult to remove. In the present work, we report an innovative and versatile method to realize stain resistant porcelain stoneware tiles. The tile surface is treated by mixtures of nanosized zirconium hydroxide and nano- and micron-sized glass frits that thanks to the low particle dimension are able to penetrate inside the surface pores. The firing step leads to the formation of a glass matrix that can partially or totally close the surface porosity. As a result, the fired tiles become permanently stain resistant still preserving the original esthetical qualities of the original material. Treated tiles also show a remarkably enhanced hardness due to the inclusion of zirconium compounds in the glass coating. PMID:25086385

  10. Drainage water management for reducing nitrate losses from tile drained fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nitrate in surface waters increases the costs of water treatment for domestic use and each summer drives the formation of a hypoxic or low oxygen zone in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Much of the nitrate in surface waters comes from artificially drained row crop land in the Midwest. There a...

  11. Diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow in a German lowland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The separation of flow components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Tracers are commonly used to identify and assess runoff-generating processes and to detect sources of stream flow components within a target catchment. Diatoms could be an ideal tracer due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats (van Dam et al. 1994, Pfister et al. 2009). As a part of a DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) project, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, and 5 river sites) weekly or biweekly from March to July 2013 in a German lowland catchment (the Kielstau catchment). First results showed that diatom species Achnanthes lanceolata, Fragilaria biceps and Navicula ingapirca dominated in tile drainage flow with relative abundances of 22.2%, 21.5% and 10.9%, respectively. For river sites, the most abundant species was Navicula cryptocephala (20.5%), followed by Fragilaria biceps (12.9%), Cyclotella meneghiniana (9.5%) and Achnanthes lanceolata (9.3%). Compared with river sites, tile drainage flow had lower diatom density, biomass, species richness and percentage of Aquatic/Riparian diatoms (AqRi%). However, the proportion of Riparian diatoms (RiZo%) increased at tile drainage flow. Indicator value method (IndVal) revealed that the two water types were characterized by different indicator species. Fifteen taxa (e.g. Cocconeis placentula, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Navicula cryptocephala and Fragilaria biceps) were significant indicators for river sites. Achnanthes lanceolata, Achnanthes minutissima and Navicula ingapirca were significant indicators for tile drainage flow. These results highlight the suitability of diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow. Spatial and temporal variations of diatom community should be considered in future surveys. Keywords: Diatoms, Flow components, Indicator value method, Tracer References: Pfister, L., J. J. McDonnell, S. Wrede, D. Hl

  12. Properties of plane discrete Poisson-Voronoi tessellations on triangular tiling formed by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami growth of triangular islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, A.

    2011-08-01

    Discrete uniform Poisson-Voronoi tessellations of two-dimensional triangular tilings resulting from the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) growth of triangular islands have been studied. This shape of tiles and islands, rarely considered in the field of random tessellations, is prompted by the birth-growth process of Ir(210) faceting. The growth mode determines a triangular metric different from the Euclidean metric. Kinetic characteristics of tessellations appear to be metric sensitive, in contrast to area distributions. The latter have been studied for the variant of nuclei growth to the first impingement in addition to the conventional case of complete growth. Kiang conjecture works in both cases. The averaged number of neighbors is six for all studied densities of random tessellations, but neighbors appear to be mainly different in triangular and Euclidean metrics. Also, the applicability of the obtained results for simulating birth-growth processes when the 2D nucleation and impingements are combined with the 3D growth in the particular case of similar shape and the same orientation of growing nuclei is briefly discussed.

  13. The nitrate and phosphorus response to dynamic control of tile drain levels in a Dutch lowland area with high agricultural pollution loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borren, W.; Rozemeijer, J.; Visser, A.; Broers, H.

    2011-12-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Previous studies (Rozemeijer et al. 2010a,b, vdVelde 2010) revealed that tile drains are a dominant transport route for nitrate in a Dutch lowland catchment. Overland flow is an important transport route for P. Local measures aimed at reducing the solute inputs from agriculture to surface water are studied, in addition to national management approaches. We designed a small scale (1 ha) field experiment to investigate whether nutrient outflow from tile drains can be reduced by dynamically controlling the outflow level of the drains. Our hypothesis was that higher water tables in spring and summer may increase denitrification rates in the soil and reduce N fluxes, but this could also increase overland flow and P transport by reducing storage capacity. Controlling the drain levels may also promote water storage in catchments, which may enhance agricultural productivity in dry summers. In our two-year experiment we adjusted the tile drain levels for periods of 2 months or longer. We measured precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes at the agricultural field and measured N and P concentrations continuously using auto-analyzers. This yielded continuous time series for all relevant hydrological and chemical parameters. Moreover, we measured monthly-averaged N and P concentrations using passive samplers, installed at the field experiment and in 20 drains distributed over the catchment. We concluded that raising drain outflow levels in early spring until end of summer has a positive effect on water storage in the catchment and effectively reduces nitrate outflow to the surface water by reducing the water fluxes. However, the eventual effects of reduction of nitrate fluxes and storage of water

  14. Elliptical tiling method to generate a 2-dimensional set of templates for gravitational wave search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Porter, Edward K.

    2003-05-01

    Searching for a signal depending on unknown parameters in a noisy background with matched filtering techniques always requires an analysis of the data with several templates in parallel in order to ensure a proper match between the filter and the real waveform. The key feature of such an implementation is the design of the filter bank which must be small to limit the computational cost while keeping the detection efficiency as high as possible. This paper presents a geometrical method that allows one to cover the corresponding physical parameter space by a set of ellipses, each of them being associated with a given template. After the description of the main characteristics of the algorithm, the method is applied in the field of gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, for the search of damped sine signals. Such waveforms are expected to be produced during the deexcitation phase of black holes—the so-called “ringdown” signals—and are also encountered in some numerically computed supernova signals. First, the number of templates N computed by the method is similar to its analytical estimation, despite the overlaps between neighbor templates and the border effects. Moreover, N is small enough to test for the first time the performances of the set of templates for different choices of the minimal match MM, the parameter used to define the maximal allowed loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the mismatch between real signals and templates. The main result of this analysis is that the fraction of SNR recovered is on average much higher than MM, which dramatically decreases the mean percentage of false dismissals. Indeed, it goes well below its estimated value of 1-MM3 used as input of the algorithm. Thus, as this feature should be common to any tiling algorithm, it seems possible to reduce the constraint on the value of MM—and indeed the number of templates and the computing power—without losing as many events as expected on

  15. Tritium Removal from Codeposits on Carbon Tiles by a Scanning Laser

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; A. Carpe; G. Guttadora; S. Langish; K.M. Young; W.M. Shu; and H. Nakamura

    2001-09-28

    A novel method for tritium release has been demonstrated on codeposited layers on graphite and carbon-fiber-composite tiles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A scanning continuous wave Nd laser beam heated the codeposits to a temperature of 1200-2300 degrees C for 10 to 200 milliseconds in an argon atmosphere. The temperature rise of the codeposit was significantly higher than that of the manufactured tile material (e.g., 1770 degrees C cf. 1080 degrees C). A major fraction of tritium was thermally desorbed with minimal change to the surface appearance at a laser intensity of 8 kW/cm(superscript ''2''), peak temperatures above 1230 degrees C and heating duration 10-20 milliseconds. In two experiments, 46% and 84% of the total tritium was released during the laser scan. The application of this method for tritium removal from a tokamak reactor appears promising and has significant advantages over oxidative techniques.

  16. Processing and Probability Analysis of Pulsed Terahertz NDE of Corrosion under Shuttle Tile Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Ely, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines data processing and probability analysis of pulsed terahertz NDE scans of corrosion defects under a Shuttle tile. Pulsed terahertz data collected from an aluminum plate with fabricated corrosion defects and covered with a Shuttle tile is presented. The corrosion defects imaged were fabricated by electrochemically etching areas of various diameter and depth in the plate. In this work, the aluminum plate echo signal is located in the terahertz time-of-flight data and a threshold is applied to produce a binary image of sample features. Feature location and area are examined and identified as corrosion through comparison with the known defect layout. The results are tabulated with hit, miss, or false call information for a probability of detection analysis that is used to identify an optimal processing threshold.

  17. Imaging multicellular specimens with real-time optimized tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qinyi; Martin, Benjamin L.; Matus, David Q.; Gao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the progress made in selective plane illumination microscopy, high-resolution 3D live imaging of multicellular specimens remains challenging. Tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy (TLS-SPIM) with real-time light-sheet optimization was developed to respond to the challenge. It improves the 3D imaging ability of SPIM in resolving complex structures and optimizes SPIM live imaging performance by using a real-time adjustable tiling light sheet and creating a flexible compromise between spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate the 3D live imaging ability of TLS-SPIM by imaging cellular and subcellular behaviours in live C. elegans and zebrafish embryos, and show how TLS-SPIM can facilitate cell biology research in multicellular specimens by studying left-right symmetry breaking behaviour of C. elegans embryos. PMID:27004937

  18. Use of an engineering data management system in the analysis of space shuttle orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Vallas, M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an engineering data management system to facilitate the extensive stress analyses of the space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system is demonstrated. The methods used to gather, organize, and store the data; to query data interactively; to generate graphic displays of the data; and to access, transform, and prepare the data for input to a stress analysis program are described. Information related to many separate tiles can be accessed individually from the data base which has a natural organization from an engineering viewpoint. The flexible user features of the system facilitate changes in data content and organization which occur during the development and refinement of the tile analysis procedure. Additionally, the query language supports retrieval of data to satisfy a variety of user-specified conditions.

  19. Integrating multiple HD video services over tiled display for advanced multi-party collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sangwoo; Kim, Jaeyoun; Choi, Kiho; Kim, JongWon

    2006-10-01

    Multi-party collaborative environments based on AG (Access Grid) are extensively utilized for distance learning, e-science, and other distributed global collaboration events. In such environments, A/V media services play an important role in providing QoE (quality of experience) to participants in collaboration sessions. In this paper, in order to support high-quality user experience in the aspect of video services, we design an integration architecture to combine high-quality video services and a high-resolution tiled display service. In detail, the proposed architecture incorporates video services for DV (digital video) and HDV (high-definition digital video) streaming with a display service to provide methods for decomposable decoding/display for a tiled display system. By implementing the proposed architecture on top of AG, we verify that high-quality collaboration among a couple of collaboration sites can be realized over a multicast-enabled network testbed with improved media quality experience.

  20. Densely-tiled metal-insulator-metal metamaterial resonators with quasi- monochromatic thermal emission.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kota; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-06-13

    Metal-insulator-metal metamaterial thermal emitters strongly radiate at multiple resonant wavelengths. The fundamental mode, whose wavelength is the longest among resonances, is generally utilized for selective emission. In this paper, we show that parasitic modes at shorter wavelengths are suppressed by newly employed densely-tiled resonators, and that the suppression enables quasi-monochromatic thermal emission. The second-order harmonics, which is excited at half the fundamental wavelength in conventional emitters, shifts toward shorter wavelength. The blue-shift reduces the amplitude of the second-order emission by taking a distance from the Wien wavelength. Other parasitic modes are eliminated by the small spacing between resonators. The densely-tiled resonators are fabricated, and the measured emission spectra agree well with numerical simulations. The methodology presented here for the suppression of parasitic modes adds flexibility to metamaterial thermal emitters. PMID:27410299